WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin ne spain

  1. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    The endorheic Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the centre of the Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, but strongly to individual events, with reaction times from hours to months after rainfall. Individual extreme event intensities as well as magnitudes affect lake level through both groundwater and surface runoff. In this study, the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed to assess the role of past, current and future rainfall characteristics for the lake level and its fluctuations. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the rainfall recharge of groundwater appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall and surface runoff has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by researchers involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other endorheic basins with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal

  2. Factors controlling the sedimentary evolution of the Kimmeridgian ramp in the north Iberian Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bádenas, B.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge reached by the authors on the carbonate ramp which developed in the iberian basin during Kimmeridgian times. Our results were obtained from a combined field analysis and computer modelling carried out in the north Iberian Chain (NE Spain. Extensive field analysis in the Ricia area (Zaragoza, NE Spain, resulted in a detailed mapping of the transition from inner to outerramp facies on this carbonate rampo Three facies belts may be distinguished in this rampo The outer ramp facies consists of marls and mudstones rhythmic facies. The inner ramp facies, located aboye fair-weather wave base, are dominated by coral patch reef growing. The middle ramp facies are represented by marls and micrites bearing skeletal and oolitic tempestite levels which sharply grade into high-amplitude o'olitic sandwave. Factors such as resedimentation by storms, carbonate production and relative variation of sea level acting in the Kimmeridgian ramp are also quantiphied and discussed. Most of the mud accumulated in outer-ramp areas was produced in the coral «carbonate factory» located in inner areas. Off-shore resedimentation by storm was the main agent of basinward transport of this mudo The deduced accommodation curve consists of three elements: a linear rise which satisfactorily matches the normal subsidence figures observed in intracratonic basins; a third-order cycle, that may have a regional cause and higher order cycles in the Milanckovich band, that may be eustatic in origin.La sedimentación en la cuenca ibérica septentrional durante el Kimmeridgiense tuvo lugar en una extensa rampa carbonatada de bajo ángulo. Las facies de rampa externa, acumuladas por debajo del nivel de base del oleaje debido a tormentas (i.e., C. 50 to 80 m de profundidad, están formadas por una ritmita de margas y calizas (i.e., Fm Loriguilla. Las facies de rampa interna, localizadas por encima del nivel de base del oleaje de

  3. Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The Santa Tecla flood may be considered the most catastrophic rainfall event in the modern history of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), and one of the most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. This event took place during the night between 22nd and 23rd September 1874, in which torrential convective rainfalls generated significant flash floods in most of the small streams in the southern half of Catalonia (i.e. Ondara, Corb, Francolí and Siurana catchments). More than 570 people died, 150 of which in the town of Tàrrega, by the Ondara River. Despite being one of the last huge floods of the pre-instrumental era and, consequently, without any precipitation or flow data, the event was reconstructed both hydraulically and hydrologically for the Ondara River at Tàrrega (150 km2). Thus, the maximum water level and the temporal evolution of the flood were obtained, respectively, from several epigraphic limnimarks found in Tàrrega and from the event description recorded in historical documents. Additionally, the information from local archaeological sites allowed the reconstruction of the fluvial section at Tàrrega at the end of the 19th century. Finally, some old cellars flooded during the event provided information about sediment concentration at the peak flow. The methodology put into practice for the event reconstruction had two stages. The first stage was the hydraulic modelling, which estimated the peak flow. The input data used were the maximum water level given by the limnimetric marks, a digital terrain model of the river bed shape, and the stream and floodplain roughness and channel slope (which were considered similar to the present ones, according to archaeological data). The hydraulic model used was the unidimensional HEC-RAS (USACE), applied in several cross sections of the Ondara River at Tàrrega. The second stage was the hydrological modelling. The objective of this stage was to derive the event hyetograph from the above calculated peak flow

  4. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg μL-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg μL-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target

  5. Model quantification of the CO2 storage in the Los Páramos site (Duero basin, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Albert; Grandia, Fidel; Abarca, Elena; Motis, Kilian; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The Duero basin in NW Spain is one the most promising basin for CO2 storage in the Iberian Peninsula due to the existence of favourable deep aquifers close to large CO2 emission point sources. A number of projects are presently active either for scientific research (e.g., the Hontomín site, OXI-CFB300 EPRR project) or commercial purposes (e.g., Sahagún and Los Páramos projects). The project called Los Páramos intends to assess the injection of CO2 in a group of dome-shaped structures with an estimated total capacity of 200 Mt (ranked 2nd in the Iberian Peninsula, IGME 2010). These domes were studied in the past for hydrocarbon exploration and a large body of information is available from seismic profiles (over 170 km) and 3 deep wells. The Los Páramos site is emplaced in the San Pedro Folded Band (SPFB) that consists mainly of thick-skinned thrusts of Mesozoic rocks (Triassic and Upper Cretaceous) sealed by a thick (1200-1500 m), undeformed cover of Tertiary claystones. Dome-like structures are related to thrusts leading to favourable reservoirs. The target horizon for CO2 storage is the Utrillas Fm sandstone with high porosity (13-20%) and thickness (225-250 m). In three of the domes, the Utrillas Fm is below -800m, allowing thus the storage of CO2(sc). This sandstone hosts an aquifer containing saline water, up to 50 g·L-1, according to the data from drill wells. The presence of saline groundwater is explained by water interaction with Triassic evaporite layers just underlying the Utrillas Fm sandstones. The CO2 storage at Los Paramos site is planned via injection of supercritical CO2 (CO2(sc)) in the Utrillas Fm. In general, the next four trapping mechanisms are expected, which are of increasing importance through time (1) structural, (2) residual saturation, (3) dissolution, and (4) mineral. The prediction of the mass of CO2 stored through time in any storage systems is an essential parameter in the pre-injection assessment of a geological storage. For

  6. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, C., E-mail: cbmqam@cid.csic.e [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fabregat, M.C. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cotin, J.; Huertas, D. [Department de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sole, M. [Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Quiros, L. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X. [Department de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  7. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  8. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H. (Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain))

    1999-01-01

    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  10. Groundwater development effects on different scale hydrogeological systems using head, hydrochemical and isotopic data and implications for water resources management: The Selva basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Menció, A.; Puig, R.; Soler, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryHydrogeological resources in regional, large-scale groundwater systems are conditioned by their specific geological setting, which defines their capacity to supply human demand and their potential to recover from human-induced stress factors such as water withdrawal. In this paper, the hydrogeology of a range-and-basin hydrogeological system is described, based on potentiometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, in order to fulfill a twofold objective: to characterize the alteration brought about in the hydrogeological system by intensive groundwater withdrawal, where tectonic elements such as fault zones play a significant role in the flow behaviour, and to define groundwater hydrodynamics under current human pressures as a necessary step to achieve appropriate groundwater management. Hydraulic head data indicate the relationships between geological formations in the range areas and the sedimentary infill of the basin. In this set-up, fault zones and a fracture network have a direct effect on the recharge, and allow upward vertical flow from the basement to the sedimentary aquifers. Hydrochemical and isotopic data support this observation. The use of fluoride and nitrate as tracers for the contribution of deep and shallow flow systems provides a detailed portrait of the effects of pumping on the flow path distribution. Isotopic data depict seasonal trends in the water captured by wells. In this connection, we can differentiate between two distinct flow systems: a regional, large-scale, longer residence time system, originating in the surrounding ranges, and a local flow system constituted by infiltration in the lower areas of the basin. The two systems, with specific water qualities, contribute differently to the resources that are withdrawn, and their specific contributions, in the frame of the basin water budget, determine the potential for present sustainable water exploitation.

  11. Assessing the sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and erosivity – application to the Upper Llobregat Basin, NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Catari, G.; Latron, J.; Gallart, F.

    2011-01-01

    The diverse sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and rainfall erosivity, calculated from precipitation data, were investigated at a range of temporal and spatial scales in a mountainous river basin (504 km2) in the south-eastern Pyrenees. The sources of uncertainty analysed included both methodological and local sources of uncertainty and were (i) tipping-bucket rainfall gauge instrumental errors, (ii) the efficiency of the c...

  12. Assessing the sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and the erosivity R factor. Application to the Upper Llobregat Basin, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Latron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and rainfall erosivity were investigated when the USLE R factor was operationally calculated for a mountainous river basin (504 km2 in the Southeastern Pyrenees. Rainfall kinetic energy was first obtained at the scale of the rainfall event by means of sub-hourly precipitation tipping-bucket rain gauge records and updates of the Kinnell (1981 equation. Annual erosivity values for the nearby pluviometric stations were then derived from the linear regressions between daily rainfall erosivity and daily precipitation, obtained for two different seasons. Finally, maps for rainfall erosivity estimates were obtained from the station values with Thiessen polygons. The sources of uncertainty analysed were i the tipping-bucket instrumental errors, ii the efficiency of the Kinnell (1981 equation, iii the efficiency of the regressions between daily precipitation and kinetic energy, iv the temporal variability of annual rainfall erosivity values, and the spatial variability of v annual rainfall erosivity values and vi long-term R factor values. The results showed that the uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy from rainfall intensity at the event and station scales is highly relevant and must be taken into account for experimental or modelling purposes; for longer temporal scales, the relevance of this source of uncertainty remains high if there is a low variability of the types of rain. Temporal variability of precipitation at wider spatial scales is the main source of uncertainty when rainfall erosivity is to be calculated on an annual basis, whereas the uncertainty associated with the long-term R factor is rather low and less important than the uncertainty associated with the other RUSLE factors when operationally used for long-term soil erosion modelling.

  13. Assessing the sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and erosivity – application to the Upper Llobregat Basin, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Catari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and rainfall erosivity, calculated from precipitation data, were investigated at a range of temporal and spatial scales in a mountainous river basin (504 km2 in the south-eastern Pyrenees. The sources of uncertainty analysed included both methodological and local sources of uncertainty and were (i tipping-bucket rainfall gauge instrumental errors, (ii the efficiency of the customary equation used to derive rainfall kinetic energy from intensity, (iii the efficiency of the regressions obtained between daily precipitation and rainfall erosivity, (iv the temporal variability of annual rainfall erosivity values, and the spatial variability of (v annual rainfall erosivity values and (vi long-term erosivity values. The differentiation between systematic (accuracy and random (precision errors was taken into account in diverse steps of the analysis. The results showed that the uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy from rainfall intensity at the event and station scales was as high as 30%, because of insufficient information on rainfall drop size distribution. This methodological limitation must be taken into account for experimental or modelling purposes when rainfall kinetic energy is derived solely from rainfall intensity data. For longer temporal scales, the relevance of this source of uncertainty remained high if low variability in the types of rain was supposed. Temporal variability of precipitation at wider spatial scales was the main source of uncertainty when rainfall erosivity was calculated on an annual basis, whereas the uncertainty associated with long-term erosivity was rather low and less important than the uncertainty associated with other model factors such as those in the RUSLE, when operationally used for long-term soil erosion modelling.

  14. Erosion processes acting in semi-arid climate zone of the Ebro Basin (Bardenas Reales, NE of Spain); Procesos de erosion actuantes en una zona de clima semiarido de la Depresion del Ebro (Bardenas Reales, NE de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.

    2009-07-01

    Bardenas Reales is an erosive depression located in the central-western part of the Ebro Depression. May different erosion processes act on this zone: gullying, piping, mud slides and armoured mud balls among others that contribute to export great quantity of material outside the basin. Depending on lithology and physico-chemical properties erosion acting processes differ. The knowledge of that processes help us to understand the great amount of soil loss that take place on the studied zone, bigger than those recommended. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  16. Assessing the sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and the erosivity R factor. Application to the Upper Llobregat Basin, NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Latron, J.; Gallart, F.; Catari, G.

    2010-01-01

    The sources of uncertainty associated with the calculation of rainfall kinetic energy and rainfall erosivity were investigated when the USLE R factor was operationally calculated for a mountainous river basin (504 km2) in the Southeastern Pyrenees. Rainfall kinetic energy was first obtained at the scale of the rainfall event by means of sub-hourly precipitation tipping-bucket rain gauge records and updates of the Kinnell (1981) equation. Annual erosivity values for the nearby pluviome...

  17. Hydrogeochemical characterization of an evaporite karst area affected by sinkholes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Acero, P.; F. Gutiérrez; Galve, J.P.; Auqué, L.F.; Carbonel, D.; Gimeno, M. J.; Gómez, J. B.; Asta, M.P.; Yechieli, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The main processes controlling the hydrochemistry of an alluvium-covered evaporite karst area with high sinkhole risk (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) are examined by means of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis), ion correlations and geochemical speciation-solubility calculations. The hydrogeochemistry of the studied system seems to be governed by the interaction between the groundwater from the salt-bearing evaporitic karst aquifer and from the overl...

  18. Measuring and modelling transpiration of pine and oak forest stands in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Poyatos López, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    [eng] This doctoral dissertation contains five applied reseaches about these subjectes: 1. "Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain." Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forest located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). Over...

  19. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g−1) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg−1) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L−1). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L−1 was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the different tropic levels

  2. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    -29703-C02-01 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02 References Campo, J., Pérez, F., Masiá, A., Picó, Y., Farré, M., Barceló, D., 2014. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain). Science of the Total Environment DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.094. Masiá, A., Campo J., Vázquez-Roig, P., Blasco, C., Picó Y., 2013. Screening of currently used pesticides in water, sediments and biota of the Guadalquivir River Basin (Spain). J. Hazard. Mater. 263P, 95-104.

  3. Hydrothermal plumes in the NE Lau basin: A regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for mineral resources and the presence of an extensive plume of excess 3He centered at 1750 m water depth in the Samoa-Tonga-Fiji region (Lupton, 2004) have motivated exploration for active hydrothermal vent sites in the NE Lau basin during the past decade. The region is tectonically complex with back-arc spreading centers, rift zones, and volcanic centers, all of which potentially host active venting and/or active volcanism. To date, 400 km of the three back-arc spreading centers in the NE Lau basin (FRSC, Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center; MTJ, Mangatolu Triple Junction; and NELSC, Northeastern Lau Spreading Center) plus several volcanic centers have been systematically surveyed for hydrothermal plumes using towed CTD or MAPR arrays that include both optical backscatter and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) sensors. The FRSC, where spreading rates range from 47 mm/a in the south to 85 mm/a in the north, has 5 active sites (plume depths ranging from 1300-2200 m) distributed one every ~40 km over its 200 km length. There is evidence for 4 active sites (plume depths range from 1950-2380 m) along the 150 km combined length of the MTJ segments, however plumes were optically weak (dNTU ORP anomalies were detected. Plumes were observed off-axis to the MTJ at a bathymetric high adjacent to the northeastern limb (1700 m) as well as over the summit of a cratered volcanic edifice east of the central junction (1200-1300 m). The southern segment of the NELSC was the site of an active eruption in 2008 which injected event plumes throughout the water column (900-1600 m depth range) in addition to the chronic plume from the Maka massive sulfide vent site (1500 m). There is evidence for at least two additional active areas along the northern segments of the NELSC (1800-1900 m). Several volcanoes in the region are hydrothermally active ranging from the northernmost volcano on the Tonga arc (Niua) with plumes centered at 600-1000 m, to the series of North Mata

  4. Fault-related fold kinematics recorded by terrestrial growth strata, Sant Llorenç de Morunys, Pyrenees Mountains, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, James H.; Anastasio, David J.; Kodama, Kenneth P.; Parés, Josep M.

    2016-10-01

    Foreland basin growth strata are ideal recorders of deformation rates and kinematics in tectonically active regions. This study develops a high-resolution chronostratigraphic age model to determine folding rates in the Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial growth strata of the Berga Conglomerate Group, NE Spain. The Berga Conglomerate Group was sampled for rock magnetic, magnetostratigraphic, and magnetic susceptibility (χ) cyclostratigraphy analyses. Analysis of rock magnetic measurements indicate a mixed mineral assemblage with both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals. A new magnetic reversal stratigraphy constrains the time frame of folding and is in agreement with previous interpretations. Time series analysis of χ variations show statistically significant power at expected orbital frequencies and provides precession-scale (20 kyr) temporal resolution. Strain measurements including anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics and bedding plane strain worm burrow distortion are consistent with fixed hinge, flexural folding kinematics. Fault-related folding was modeled using χ cyclostratigraphy timing and strain measurement kinematic constraints. The onset of folding was at 33.85 Ma and the end of deformation is less constrained but is younger than 31.06 Ma. Deformation and sediment accumulation rates are unsteady at 20 kyr time scales but appear artificially steady at polarity chron time scales.

  5. Continuité ou discontinuité de sémentation marine mio-pliocène en Méditerranée occidentale. L'example du bassin de vera (Espagne méridionale Continuity Or Discontinuity of Io-Pliocene Marine Sedimentation in the Western Mediterranean. Example of the Vera Basin (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenat C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude du bassin néogène de Vera apporte des données fort instructives pour l'interprétation du a phénomène Mio-Pliocène » en Méditerranée occidentale. a Au point de vue biostratigraphique La coupe de Cuevas del Almanzora permet d'observer, pour la première fois en Méditerranée, une succession continue de foraminifères planctoniques du Messinien au Pliocène inférieur. Les biozones à G. acostaensis, G. humerosa-G. duterérei, G. mediterranea-G. conomiozea et G. margaritae se succèdent sans hiatus évolutif. b Au point de vue géodynamique Le bassin de Vera montre une grande variété dans les modalités du passage Miocène-Pliocène, depuis des discordances à la périphérie du bassin jusqu'à une sédimentation vaseuse continue en son centre. L'étude des profils sismiques offshore montre de nombreux exemples comparables, en relation avec le comportement structural du substratum fragmenté en horst et graben mobiles. Des mouvements tectoniques distensifs ont eu lieu à la limite Miocène-Pliocène. Ils ont eu pour résultat un approfondissement relatif des bassins méditerranéens mais ceci ne représente qu'un épisode parmi d'autres d'un processus de distension inauguré au Miocène supérieur et qui s'est prolongé jusqu'au début du Quaternaire. II semble prudent en tous cas, de ne pas exagérer cet approfondissement de la mer au Pliocène. c Au point de vue paléogéographique L'exemple du bassin de Vera prouve la pérennité des conditions marines durant le Messinien du moins dans certaines parties de la Méditerranée. Ceci implique naturellement des liaisons continues avec l'Atlantique, et exclut un dessèchement général du bassin méditerranéen durant les temps messiniens. La paléogéographie de la zone bétique durant le Miocène supérieur est caractérisée par une extrême compartimentation du domaine marin constitué de bassins subsidents, communiquant par des seuils. Cette compartimentation s

  6. Factors influencing the breeding density of Bearded Vultures, Egyptian Vultures and Eurasian Griffon Vultures in Catalonia (NE Spain): management implications

    OpenAIRE

    Margalida, A.; García, D.; Cortés-Avizanda, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using multivariate analyses we examined differences in breeding density of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus, the Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus and the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in NE Spain (Catalonia) in relation to trophic, orographic-landscape and anthropic variables. Sampling units used were regional divisions (comarques). High density of Bearded Vulture was principally linked to areas with scant vegetation and low human population density. In contrast, high densit...

  7. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drough...

  8. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (north-east Spain, for the period 1996–2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E=0.85 for phosphorus and E=0.86 for nitrogen, the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful in estimating nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94% for 1996–2002, and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31% for 1996–2002. Despite hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used by water managers for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios for the purpose of managing river basins. As an example of scenario modelling, an analysis of the changes in nutrient emissions through two different future scenarios allowed the identification of a set of relevant measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  9. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, for the period 1996-2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E = 0.85 for phosphorus, and E = 0.86 for nitrogen, the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful to estimate nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention (mainly affected by variability in precipitation was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94 % for 1996–2002, and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31 % for 1996–2002. Despite potential hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios that may help catchment managers and planners to develop effective policy and management measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  10. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  11. Management of agricultural soils for greenhouse gas mitigation: Learning from a case study in NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Iglesias, A; McVittie, A; Álvaro-Fuentes, J; Ingram, J; Mills, J; Lesschen, J P; Kuikman, P J

    2016-04-01

    A portfolio of agricultural practices is now available that can contribute to reaching European mitigation targets. Among them, the management of agricultural soils has a large potential for reducing GHG emissions or sequestering carbon. Many of the practices are based on well tested agronomic and technical know-how, with proven benefits for farmers and the environment. A suite of practices has to be used since none of the practices can provide a unique solution. However, there are limitations in the process of policy development: (a) agricultural activities are based on biological processes and thus, these practices are location specific and climate, soils and crops determine their agronomic potential; (b) since agriculture sustains rural communities, the costs and potential for implementation have also to be regionally evaluated and (c) the aggregated regional potential of the combination of practices has to be defined in order to inform abatement targets. We believe that, when implementing mitigation practices, three questions are important: Are they cost-effective for farmers? Do they reduce GHG emissions? What policies favour their implementation? This study addressed these questions in three sequential steps. First, mapping the use of representative soil management practices in the European regions to provide a spatial context to upscale the local results. Second, using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) in a Mediterranean case study (NE Spain) for ranking soil management practices in terms of their cost-effectiveness. Finally, using a wedge approach of the practices as a complementary tool to link science to mitigation policy. A set of soil management practices was found to be financially attractive for Mediterranean farmers, which in turn could achieve significant abatements (e.g., 1.34 MtCO2e in the case study region). The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of potential farming and policy choices to shape realistic mitigation policy at

  12. The climate of Zaragoza (NE of Spain) in the context of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Cuadrat, José; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC 2013 (AR5) emphasizes that the impact of an increase in temperature will be compounded in large cities by the effect of the urban heat island. Therefore, it suggests the need to study the urban climate in urban planning to anticipate changes and define adaptation strategies. The aim of this work is to analyze recent trends in temperature in the city of Zaragoza (NE of Spain, 750,000 inhabitants) and the extreme values from climate indices defined by the WMO. Daily temperature data recorded at 10 observatories located in Zaragoza was homogenized and quality-controlled using 'HOMER, R-Package', developing a single daily series since 1892 to present. Temperature records show a clear positive trend since the early 80s of 20th century. The first decade of the 21th century is the warmest since the beginning of the instrumental records. There is an increase of +0.07 °C per decade. Furthermore, the temperature rise in this period has been +1.6 ° C. The frequency of tropical nights has also been increased. The number of nights when the minimum temperature was not lower than 20 °C has moved from 89 in the period 1900-1930 to 386 in 1991-2010. Days when the maximum daily exceeds 35°C are also more frequent. Regarding the cold events, there is a decrease in the number of days with temperatures below 0 °C. These results reinforce the idea of the IPCC that the challenges of climate change should be recognized as fundamental elements for urban planning in order to reduce risks and promote the welfare of citizens, as well as an instrument to minimize vulnerability and identify ways to maximize opportunities.

  13. Basin Modelling of the Laptev Sea Rift, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Gaedicke, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Laptev Sea Rift in the northeastern Arctic shelf area of Russia is a standard example for an oceanic rift system that propagates into a continent and plays an important role in the geodynamic models for the opening of the Eurasia Basin. To better understand the evolution of this rift, a basin modelling study was carried out with the software PetroMod®. The software simulates and analyses the burial history and temperature evolution of a sedimentary basin. It is a dynamic forward simulation based on the finite element method. The modelled section used in this study is based on a depth converted seismic section, acquired by the BGR. The section covers the Anisin Basin and is characterized by listric normal faults. The numerical simulation was supported by tectonic and sedimentological field data sets that were collected in outcrops during the CASE 13 expedition in 2011. Normal faults in outcrops were analysed using fault-slip inversion techniques to derive the paleo-extension direction. The presence of normal faults in relatively unconsolidated Paleogene sediments and in Neogene to Quaternary volcanic rocks, indicate very young extension in the area of the New Siberian Islands. The conceptual model for the simulation was built on the basis of the seismic data and the properties of the rocks and sediments observed in the outcrops. Initial results show that the present-day temperature field in the area of the Anisin Basin is characterized by seafloor-parallel isotherms. In the central part of the graben structure, the isotherms are slightly bent down and the heat-flow is reduced, probably due to blanketing effects. An extracted geohistory curve is almost linear and implies that subsidence controlled by faults is the dominating mechanism. From the simulation, sedimentation rates are derived that were highest in the early Paleocene phase of graben development and decreased in the late Eocene.

  14. Palaeomagnetic chronology of the evaporitic sedimentation in the Neogene Fortuna Basin (SE Spain): early restriction preceding the 'Messinian Salinity Crisis'

    OpenAIRE

    Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Ortí, Federico; Playà, Elisabet; Rosell, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphic study of the evaporitic Río Chicamo section (240 m) in the Neogene Fortuna Basin (Murcia, southeast Spain) has identified the record of five magnetozones. The most probable correlations with the standard geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) imply that the marine evaporitic sedimentation of this basin was not coeval with the Messinian evaporites of the Sorbas Basin (Almeria, southeast Spain) and the Caltanissetta Basin (central Sicily) (assigned to the reverse Chron ...

  15. Trends in adverse weather patterns and large wildland fires in Aragón (NE Spain) from 1978 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cardil; D. M. Molina; Ramirez, J.; Vega-García, C.

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes the effects of high temperature days on large wildland fires during 1978–2010 in Aragón (NE Spain). A high temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the low troposphere state, and some of the problems that affect surface reanalysis do not occur. High temperature days were analyzed from April to October in the study period, and the number of these extreme days...

  16. Ecohydrological separation in a Mediterranean mountain environment (Vallcebre research catchments, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Pilar; Cayuela, Carles; Sánchez-Costa, Elisenda; Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Until very recently, a general paradigm in hydrology was that water is well mixed in the soil, and therefore groundwater, stream water and plant transpiration are all sourced by this well mixed pool. However, recent works (Brooks et al., 2010; Goldsmith et al., 2012) have shown the existence of different water pools in the soil, where tightly bound water, potentially used by plants, does not mix with mobile water that potentially contributes to groundwater and streamflow. This new "two water worlds hypothesis" of ecohydrological separation of water between streams and trees should however be verified in areas with different climates and land covers (McDonnell, 2014). With this objective, we examine this hypothesis in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) using the dual isotope-based approach combined with meteorological and hydrometric monitoring. Since May 2015, stable water-isotopes have been monitored in rainfall (2 locations), in throughfall and stemflow below Scots pines as well as in stream water at the Can Vila (0.56 km2) catchment outlet. Moreover, three spatially distributed sampling campaigns in different antecedent soil moisture conditions have been performed (May, August and November 2015) within the catchment. During the sampling campaigns soil samples (10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm) and xylem samples (3 Scots pines) were collected at 8 locations, with different topographic indices. Water in soil and xylem samples was extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation. This information was complemented with mobile soil water sampled in 3 lysimetric profiles (20, 50 and 100 cm) and in 13 piezometers (150-300 cm deep) distributed within the catchment. These campaigns were combined with a similar regular sampling, every 15 days (From May to December 2015) at one of the 8 locations. All the isotopic information, obtained by infrared spectroscopy, has been combined with continuous measurement of meteorological, soil moisture and potential

  17. Astrochronology for the Messinian Sorbas basin (SE Spain) and orbital (precessional) forcing for evaporite cyclicity

    OpenAIRE

    Krijgsman, W.; Fortuin, A. R.; F. J. Hilgen; F. J. Sierro

    2002-01-01

    The Sorbas basin of SE Spain contains one of the most complete sedimentary successions of the Mediterranean reflecting the increasing salinity during the Messinian salinity crisis. A detailed cyclostratigraphic study of these successions allows a correlation of the sedimentary cycle patterns to astronomical target curves. Here, we present an astrochronological framework for the Messinian of the central part of the Sorbas basin. This framework will form a solid basis for high-resolution correl...

  18. Population structure and effective/census population size ratio in threatened three-spined stickleback populations from an isolated river basin in northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Figueroa, A; Fernández, C; Amaro, R; Hermida, M; San Miguel, E

    2015-08-01

    Variability at 20 microsatellite loci was examined to assess the population genetic structure, gene flow, and effective population size (N(e)) in three populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the upper basin of the Miño River in Galicia, NW Spain, where this species is threatened. The three populations showed similar levels of genetic diversity. There is a significant genetic differentiation between the three populations, but also significant gene flow. N(e) estimates based on linkage disequilibrium yielded values of 355 for the Miño River population and 241 and 311 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively, although we expect that these are overestimates. N(e) estimates based on temporal methods, considering gene flow or not, for the tributaries yielded values of 30-56 and 47-56 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively. Estimated census size (N(c)) for the Rato River was 880 individuals. This yielded a N(e)/N(c) estimate of 3-6 % for temporal estimation of N(e), which is within the empirical range observed in freshwater fishes. We suggest that the three populations analyzed have a sufficient level of genetic diversity with some genetic structure. Additionally, the absence of physical barriers suggests that conservation efforts and monitoring should focus in the whole basin as a unit.

  19. Astrochronology for the Messinian Sorbas basin (SE Spain) and orbital (precessional) forcing for evaporite cyclicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Fortuin, A.R.; Hilgen, F.J.; Sierro, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Sorbas basin of SE Spain contains one of the most complete sedimentary successions of the Mediterranean reflecting the increasing salinity during the Messinian salinity crisis. A detailed cyclostratigraphic study of these successions allows a correlation of the sedimentary cycle patterns to astr

  20. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The socio-economic changes that occurred in the last decades have contributed to an increase in forest fires (Shakesby, 2011). There was found a change in the fire regimes in terms of frequency, size, seasonality, recurrence as well as fire intensity and severity (Keeley, 2009), which resulted in severe effects on soils, water and vegetation (Guénon et al., 2013). Fire affects soil properties directly by the heat impact (Aznar et al., 2013), and the ash cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and the reduction of the plant cover (Neary et al., 1999). The lack of vegetation and the heating promotes changes in the soil organic matter content (González-Pérez et al., 2004), on the structural stability (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), on the hydrophobic response (Bodí et al., 2012), and on the infiltration capacity (Cerdà, 1998a). This is why the vegetation cover and the litter are key factors on soil erosion after forest fires (Prats et al., 2013). Besides, the ash plays an important paper in the soil protection after the forest fire and after the first storms and winds (León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this experiment is to asses the vegetation response after a forest fire and the impact of vegetation recovery on soil erosion. The experiment consisted in a sampling of a linear transect of 10 m with samples each 2 m, under different slope position and aspect. To measure the soil erosion rates we used rainfall simulation experiments (León et al., 2013). The experiments were carried in Castejón (UTM 30T, X671106, Y4644584) in a forest burned in 2008, in the Zuera Mountains, both located in the north of Zaragoza province (NE Spain). The soils on limestone parent material are Rendzic Phaeozem (IUSS, 2007) and the texture of Ah horizons of soils developed on limestone is sandy-loam (Badía et al., 2013). The result shows fast and successful vegetation regeneration in the north

  1. Trends in adverse weather patterns and large wildland fires in Aragón (NE Spain from 1978 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cardil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the effects of high temperature days on large wildland fires during 1978–2010 in Aragón (NE Spain. A high temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the low troposphere state, and some of the problems that affect surface reanalysis do not occur. High temperature days were analyzed from April to October in the study period, and the number of these extreme days increased significantly. This temporal trend implied more frequent adverse weather conditions in later years that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. The effects of those high temperatures days in large wildland fire patterns have been increasingly important in the last years of the series.

  2. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.

    2012-04-01

    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  3. A database about the tornadic activity in Catalonia (NE Spain) since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M. E.; Arús, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Castán, S.

    2009-09-01

    Although tornadic activity is not the most important hazard in Spain, the damages that tornadoes and downburst generate are considerable in urban areas, giving place in some occasions to casualties. In Spain, the oldest systematic works collecting data about tornadoes, refer to the Balearic Islands, although some series about tornadoes in Spain have also been collected and analysed (Gayà, 2005). These series shows a positive increase that is probably more related to a change in the perception level of the population than to climatic change. In some occasions it is difficult to separate the damages produced by the tornado itself from those produced by other associated hazards like heavy rains, hail or a wind storms. It was the case of the September 2006 event, in which flash floods and tornadoes were recorded. In the same sense in some occasions, damages produced by a downsburt are confused with those that produced by a tornado. Having in mind all these facts, having a good systematic data base about tornadoes is necessary, before to obtain some conclusions not enough justified. This kind of database is not easy to obtain, because of it requires to have detailed information about damages, meteorological observations and testimonies that has to be filtered by a good quality control. After a general presentation about tornadoes and downsbursts in Mediterranean Region, this contribution presents the database that have affected Catalonia during the period 1994-2009, starting with the tornado recorded on the Espluga de Francolí the 31 August 1994.This database has been built in basis to the AEMET information, the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros (the insurance company of Spain for natural disasters), the newspapers and field visits to the affected places.

  4. Messinian paleoenvironmental evolution in the lower Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain) based on benthic foraminifera.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Asensio, J.N.; Aguirre, J.; Schmiedl, G.; Civis Llovera, J.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages of a drill core from the lower Guadalquivir Basin (northern Gulf of Cádiz, SW Spain) have been analyzed in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution in the vicinity of the Betic seaways during the Messinian. The core consists of marine sediments ranging from the latest Tortonian to the early Pliocene. Changes in the abundance of certain marker species, planktonic/benthic ratio (P/B ratio), paleodepth estimated with a transfer function, content of ...

  5. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forest located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought...

  6. Extensive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N. J.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Kenner-Chavis, P.; Martinez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of PM levels and composition in a complex summer atmospheric scenario in Barcelona (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Pérez, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    Summer atmospheric coastal dynamics exert a significant influence on the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Summer atmospheric scenarios in this region present a high degree of complexity as they are characterised by the absence of synoptic-scale air mass advections, the development of breeze circulations, enhanced photochemistry, local mineral dust re-suspension and the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. Three sampling sites were selected in Barcelona (NE Spain), an urban coastal site surrounded by complex topography. Regional dust modelling (DREAM) and high resolution meteorological modelling (MM5) were used to interpret PM levels and composition at the three sites. The results outline the effect of breeze dynamics and thermal internal boundary layer formation as the main meteorological drivers of the hourly evolution of PM levels. Levels of crustal components, secondary inorganic and carbon species are higher during the night, and only the marine aerosol content is higher during the day. Nitrate levels are higher during the night due to the thermal stability on NH 4NO 3. Sulphate levels are higher during the night as a consequence of the drainage flows. Lidar measurements and model results signalled the occurrence of two African dust episodes during the study period which mainly affected the free troposphere over Barcelona.

  8. Seasonal variations in terpene emission factors of dominant species in four ecosystems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep; Guenther, Alex; Rapparini, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    We studied the daily patterns in the rates of foliar terpene emissions by four typical species from the Mediterranean region in two days of early spring and two days of summer in 4 localities of increasing biomass cover in Northern Spain. The species studied were Thymelaea tinctoria (in Monegros), Quercus coccifera (in Garraf), Quercus ilex (in Prades) and Fagus sylvatica (in Montseny). Of the total 43 VOCs detected, 23 were monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 15 were not terpenes. Sesquiterpenes were the main terpenes emitted from T. tinctoria. Total VOC emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring. The maximum rates of emission were recorded around midday. Emissions nearly stopped in the dark. No significant differences were found for nocturnal total terpene emission rates between places and seasons. The seasonal variations in the rate of terpene emissions and in their chemical composition can be explained mainly by dramatic changes in emission factors (emission capacity) associated in some cases, such as for beech trees, with very different foliar ontogenical characteristics between spring and summer. The results show that temperature and light-standardised emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring, which, corroborating other works, calls to attention when applying the same emission factor in modelling throughout the different seasons of the year.

  9. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere–ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013–2037 (2025) and 2038–2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface–subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall–runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights:

  10. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  11. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  12. Regression Models for Aquifer Vulnerability to Nitrate Pollution in Osona (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy Roura, M.; Nolan, B. T.; Menció Domingo, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2012-12-01

    Regression models were developed at a local scale in the Osona region (1,260 square kilometers) to predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Osona is a semi-arid region in northeast Spain, where livestock and agricultural activities are very intensive, and therefore, it is vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources (European Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC)). Nitrate concentrations in groundwater are commonly above 50 mg/L as nitrate, reaching up to 500 mg/L in some of the sampled wells. Regression models were based on explanatory variables such as geology, land use, and nitrogen inputs, which control the fate, transport and attenuation of nitrate in groundwater. Regression has been widely used to determine aquifer vulnerability to nitrate in groundwater at large spatial scales. We developed models with and without site-specific groundwater chemistry data to see the extent to which the latter improved the models. Although chemistry data could explain additional variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, such data were available only at the well locations and therefore were less amenable for spatial extrapolation. The data set consisted of nitrate data from 63 sampled wells and the following explanatory variables: 1) soils data consisting of texture and other physical properties; 2) geology indicating presence or absence of aquifers in the region, and their type (unconfined, leaky or confined); 3) land use (agricultural, urban, forested); 4) nitrogen input as manure; 5) occurrence of irrigated crops; 6) estimates of nitrogen uptake developed for 10 different crops; 7) slope; 8) population density, and 9) groundwater chemistry data comprising major ions and trace elements. Variables 1 and 2 were compiled as point data because their polygons were much larger than the well buffers which represented contributing areas to the sampled wells. Variables 3 to 8 were compiled within a 500-meter radius buffer around wells using a GIS-based weighted

  13. Sedimentary and diagenetic markers of the restriction in a marine basin: the Lorca Basin (SE Spain) during the Messinian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchy, J. M.; Taberner, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Sprovieri, R.; Russell, M.; Pierre, C.; Di Stefano, E.; Pueyo, J. J.; Caruso, A.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Gomis-Coll, E.; Wolff, G. A.; Cespuglio, G.; Ditchfield, P.; Pestrea, S.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Santisteban, C.; Grimalt, J. O.

    1998-10-01

    The Lorca Basin (southeastern Spain) is part of a chain of small marginal Neogene basins located in the structurally active Betic area. The Upper Miocene (Messinian) sequence is composed of a thick diatomite-bearing series (Tripoli Unit) overlain by the Main Evaporites, analogous to the classical succession that records the main events during the Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean region. The shallow restricted conditions of this region amplified the sedimentary responses to local and global forcings. An integrated approach using sedimentology, micropalaeontology, stable isotope geochemistry and organic geochemistry has been applied to the Tortonian/Messinian succession of the Lorca Basin, in order to obtain a continuous record of the environmental changes. The sediments record two major events which affected the whole Mediterranean: (1) high levels of productivity that led to the formation of the diatomite-bearing deposits in the early Messinian (Tripoli); and (2) the Messinian Salinity Crisis with its two major stages, represented by the Halite and Gypsum Units, both mainly precipitated from marine-derived brines. The rapid reflooding of the Mediterranean by normal marine waters at the base of the Pliocene did not reach the Lorca Basin, nor other basins of this part of the Betic area. Instead, continental sediments were deposited as a consequence of the regional uplift of SE Iberia, which started close to the Messinian/Pliocene boundary. The most prominent feature of this basin concerns the record of its restriction by the time of the deposition of the Tripoli Unit, which led to intercalations of precursor evaporitic layers, consisting of Ca-sulphate deposited in sub-aqueous and sabkha conditions, interbedded with diatomites. This alternation of evaporites and diatomites proves that the Lorca Basin was periodically restricted and reflooded by marine waters, a possible cause for this being relative sea-level fluctuations in the Mediterranean. This strengthens

  14. Factors influencing the breeding density of Bearded Vultures, Egyptian Vultures and Eurasian Griffon Vultures in Catalonia (NE Spain: management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margalida, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using multivariate analyses we examined differences in breeding density of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus, the Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus and the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in NE Spain (Catalonia in relation to trophic, orographic-landscape and anthropic variables. Sampling units used were regional divisions (comarques. High density of Bearded Vulture was principally linked to areas with scant vegetation and low human population density. In contrast, high densities of both the Egyptian and Eurasian Griffon Vultures were associated with availability of trophic resources (sheep and goats. Positive effects were detected in relation to low density of inhabitants (Egyptian Vulture and altitudes between 1,000-2,000 m and landscape with low tree cover (Eurasian Griffon Vulture. The Bearded Vulture seemed to be the most selective species in relation to environmental characteristics while the Eurasian Griffon and the Egyptian Vultures displayed a higher degree of ecological plasticity. Future conservation actions should bear these results in mind in order to optimise management. Food resources from extensive livestock farming, in particular, seem fundamental for the conservation of scavenger species. Preference monitoring and conservation efforts are needed in the regions with highest vulture densities (Alta Ribagorça, Pallars Jussà and Alt Urgell, while regions with low vulture populations should be managed in order to favour the geographical expansion and recolonisation of zones currently not occupied by these species. Conservation priorities should be based on favouring extensive livestock practices, and as an alternative to muladares (traditional animal carcass disposal sites farmers should be encouraged to leave animal carcasses in the field, while ensuring compliance with health regulations.

  15. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  16. Hydrothermal Activity and its Chemical Characteristics in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Lilley, M. D.; Baker, E. T.; Lupton, J. E.; Embley, R. W.; Buck, N.; Walker, S. L.; Olson, E. J.; Dziak, R. P.; Baumberger, T.

    2010-12-01

    The NE Lau Basin is a magmatically robust area with an abundance of hydrothermal activity. We conducted exploratory research to the NE Lau Basin during three cruises to the area in November 2008, May 2009, and May 2010. We have found an unusual density of hydrothermal activity in the area bounded by the NE Lau Spreading Center (NELSC) and the Tongan Magmatic arc. Aside from the magmatic activity at the NELSC and the Tonga Arc, this area includes a area of crustal extension, where nine elongate volcanoes (The Matas) lie in a 25km arc extending into the Tonga trench with the summits from ˜1200m to ˜ 2700m depth and a large volcanic feature (Volcano “O”) which is characterized by a caldera >10km diameter with an emergent dome in its SE quadrant. Finally, the basin bounded by the Matas, the NELSC, and Volcano “O” contain many large lava flows with elevated acoustic backscatter suggesting a relatively young age. During the cruise in 2008, two ongoing eruptions were encountered in the region, one at the NELSC and another at W Mata volcano. These eruptions were later confirmed using the Jason II submersible in 2009. W Mata has been continuously erupting over the course of our observations. In addition to the eruption on the NELSC, hydrothermal activity was also observed at Maka and Tafu volcanoes, which are south and north of the eruptive area respectively. Observations of hydrothermal activity at two sites were made within the caldera at Volcano “O” and on the volcanic arc at two depths on Niua Volcano. The cruise in May 2010, revealed dense hydrothermal activity along the Mata chain where eight of the nine Mata volcanoes were hydrothermally active, including W Mata. Hydrothermal activity in this region is very sulfur rich as documented by large amounts of elemental sulfur at “O”, Niua, and seven of the Matas (elemental sulfur is inferred from light scatter and particulate matter color; analyses are pending), by acidic magmatic volatiles at”O” and

  17. Lavas from Active Boninite and Very Recent Basalt Eruptions at Two Submarine NE Lau Basin Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Clague, D. A.; Resing, J. A.; Michael, P. J.; Keller, N. S.; Baker, E. T.

    2009-12-01

    Very young submarine lava flows were discovered at two sites in the NE Lau Basin during a May 2009 NSF-NOAA expedition. The multidisciplinary rapid response expedition was organized to investigate these sites based on chemical and physical water column signatures observed during a NOAA-led regional study in Nov. 2008. An active eruption was discovered and observed for 5 days in May 2009 at W. Mata volcano, just behind the northernmost segment of the Tofua arc. The ongoing eruption produced extrusive and pyroclastic deposits from multiple vents near the 1200m depth summit of the volcano. Lavas were sampled from the summit and volcano flanks using the ROV Jason II. The samples indicate that W. Mata is currently erupting orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-olivine porphyritic boninite magmas, which is also the predominant rock composition elsewhere on the seamount. The youngest lavas are very fresh, highly vesicular (up to ~30%) and occur as predominantly pillow and lobate forms, sometimes mantled by very young pyroclastic deposits and/or thin chemical coatings of presumed microbial and/or inorganic origin. The coatings and pyroclast apron make it difficult to map the extent of the youngest deposits by visual indicators alone, so we are currently dating 7 well-distributed samples from the W. Mata summit by 210Po-210Pb chronology. Very preliminary age results indicate that samples collected near the active vents are ridge axis, transitional to pillows in distal locations. Very preliminary 210Po-210Pb data on 5 NELSC lavas suggest the eruption occurred over at least a few months, with significant chemical heterogeneity (e.g., ~1 wt% MgO variation), and with highly enriched compositions (e.g., Th=3.3 ppm, Th/U >3.8). 210Po activity in 3 samples suggest a Nov 2008 eruption, consistent with interpretations from water column physical and chemical characteristics measured in Nov. 2008. 210Po in 2 other lavas suggest early 2009 and mid 2008 eruptions, respectively. Some young lavas

  18. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  19. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Spain for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  20. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  1. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  2. The stratigraphic record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the northern margin of the Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Mingorance, Jesús Miguel; Caracuel Martín, Jesús Esteban; Yébenes Simón, Alfonso; Fernández Martínez, Juan (1945-); Viseras Alarcón, César

    2005-01-01

    The Bajo Segura Basin is a marginal basin of the Western Mediterranean located on the eastern end of the Betic Cordillera (southeastern Spain). Its Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphic record is divided into four allostratigraphic units, with bounding unconformities represented by erosional surfaces corresponding to palaeogeographic changes. The Messinian Unit I (MI) is composed of three depositional systems (fluvial, coastal lagoon, and shelf) which lateral facies changes, deposited...

  3. Eruptive modes and hiatus of volcanism at West Mata seamount, NE Lau basin: 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, Robert W.; Merle, Susan G.; Baker, Edward T.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Lupton, John E.; Resing, Joseph A.; Dziak, Robert P.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Chadwick, William W.; Shank, T.; Greene, Ron; Walker, Sharon L.; Haxel, Joseph; Olson, Eric; Baumberger, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    present multiple lines of evidence for years to decade-long changes in the location and character of volcanic activity at West Mata seamount in the NE Lau basin over a 16 year period, and a hiatus in summit eruptions from early 2011 to at least September 2012. Boninite lava and pyroclasts were observed erupting from its summit in 2009, and hydroacoustic data from a succession of hydrophones moored nearby show near-continuous eruptive activity from January 2009 to early 2011. Successive differencing of seven multibeam bathymetric surveys of the volcano made in the 1996-2012 period reveals a pattern of extended constructional volcanism on the summit and northwest flank punctuated by eruptions along the volcano's WSW rift zone (WSWRZ). Away from the summit, the volumetrically largest eruption during the observational period occurred between May 2010 and November 2011 at ˜2920 m depth near the base of the WSWRZ. The (nearly) equally long ENE rift zone did not experience any volcanic activity during the 1996-2012 period. The cessation of summit volcanism recorded on the moored hydrophone was accompanied or followed by the formation of a small summit crater and a landslide on the eastern flank. Water column sensors, analysis of gas samples in the overlying hydrothermal plume and dives with a remotely operated vehicle in September 2012 confirmed that the summit eruption had ceased. Based on the historical eruption rates calculated using the bathymetric differencing technique, the volcano could be as young as several thousand years.

  4. Depositional history and clay minerals of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, P.J.C.

    1972-01-01

    An ordered sequence of well-defined sedimentary environments reflects the deepening and shallowing stages in the depositional history of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain. The sequence, which has a Santonian age at its base, starts with a calcarenite barrier system on w

  5. Palaeomagnetic chronology of the evaporitic sedimentation in the Neogene Fortuna Basin (SE Spain): early restriction preceding the 'Messinian Salinity Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Ortí, Federico; Playà, Elisabet; Rosell, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphic study of the evaporitic Río Chicamo section (240 m) in the Neogene Fortuna Basin (Murcia, southeast Spain) has identified the record of five magnetozones. The most probable correlations with the standard geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) imply that the marine evaporitic

  6. Carbonate replacement of lacustrine gypsum deposits in two Neogene continental basins, eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, P.; Rosell, L.; Talbot, M. R.

    1992-07-01

    Bedded nonmarine gypsum deposits in the Miocene Teruel and Cabriel basins, eastern Spain, are partly replaced by carbonate. The Libros gypsum (Teruel Graben) is associated with fossiliferous carbonate wackestones and finely laminated, organic matter-rich mudstones which accumulated under anoxic conditions in a meromictic, permanent lake. The gypsum is locally pseudomorphed by aragonite or, less commonly, replaced by calcite. Low δ 13C values indicate that sulphate replacement resulted from bacterial sulphate reduction processes that were favoured by anacrobic conditions and abundant labile organic matter in the sediments. Petrographic evidence and oxygen isotopic composition suggest that gypsum replacement by aragonite occurred soon after deposition. A subsequent return to oxidising conditions caused some aragonite to be replaced by diagenetic gypsum. Native sulphur is associated with some of these secondary gypsum occurrences. The Los Ruices sulphate deposits (Cabriel Basin) contain beds of clastic and selenitic gypsum which are associated with limestones and red beds indicating accumulation in a shallow lake. Calcite is the principal replacement mineral. Bacterial sulphate reduction was insignificant in this basin because of a scarcity of organic matter. Stable isotope composition of diagenetic carbonate indicates that gypsum replacement occurred at shallow burial depths due to contact with dilute groundwaters of meteoric origin. Depositional environment evidently has a major influence upon the diagenetic history of primary sulphate deposits. The quantity of preserved organic matter degradable by sulphate-reducing bacteria is of particular importance and, along with groundwater composition, is the main factor controlling the mechanism of gypsum replacement by carbonate.

  7. Campylobacter shared between free-ranging cattle and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Porrero, M C; Zamora, L; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission.

  8. Depositional sequences in a foreland basin (north-western domain of the continental Duero basin, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Antonio; Alonso-Gavilán, Gaspar; Colmenero, Juan Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The Cenozoic record of the north-western domain of the Duero basin is articulated at the surface through a set of continental depositional sequences called, from base to top, the Vegaquemada sequence, the Candanedo sequence, and the Barrillos sequence. These depositional sequences were deposited in continental sedimentary environments. The deposition of the first sequence occurred through a fluvial system with floodplains cut by low-sinuosity channels. The Vegaquemada sequence was developed between the Middle Eocene and the Early Agenian. The second sequence was formed by a set of highly efficient transport alluvial fans that evolved laterally towards fluvial systems with low-sinuosity fluvial channels and an extensive floodplain, where several types of palaeosols were formed. This sequence developed between the Early Agenian and the Late Vallesian. The third unit-the Barrillos sequence (between the Late Vallesian and the Turolian/Ruscinian transition), was generated by a set of highly efficient transport alluvial fans dominated by low-sinuosity fluvial channels. In subsurface geology, seismic and well data are used to rebuild the stratigraphic architecture. The two basal depositional sequences can be identified with two seismic units: the Palaeogene Seismic Unit (PgSU) and the Neogene Seismic Unit (NgSU), respectively. In the present work, we obtained the isovelocity, isochron, and isobath maps for the top and base of the two Cenozoic units. The Palaeozoic (PzSU) and Mesozoic (MzSU) seismic units are found under these two units. Through study of the logs of the various boreholes, it was only possible to analyse the upper 700 m of the Candanedo Sequence (NgSU), without encompassing the total thickness of the unit. Several middle-order sequences were differentiated, in general showing a sequential fining-upwards evolutionary character. Additionally, for the boreholes analysed two main types of electrofacies were identified, both representing fluvial channels and

  9. Solar forcing, climate dynamics and human activities in Mediterranean Mountains during the last millennium: the Lake Estanya record (Southern Pyrenees, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellon, Mario; Corella, Pablo; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Engstrom, Daniel R.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; López-Vicente, Manuel; Mata, Pilar; Moreno, Ana; Navas, Ana; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Rico, Mayte; Rieradevall, Maria; Romero, Óscar; Rubio, Esther; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The multi-proxy study of short sediment cores recovered in small, karstic Lake Estanya (42°02' N, 0°32' E, 670 m.a.s.l.) in the Southern Pre-Pyrenean Ranges (NE Spain) provides a detailed record of the complex climatic and anthropogenic interactions occurring in Mediterranean areas since medieval times. The integration of sedimentary facies, elemental and isotopic geochemistry (δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite and δ13Corg) and biological proxies (diatoms, chironomids and pollen), together with a robust chronological control, provided by AMS radiocarbon dating and 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques, enabled precise reconstruction of the main phases of environmental change during the last millennium, associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the Industrial Era. Shallow lake levels and saline conditions with poor development of littoral environments prevailed during medieval times (1150-1300 AD). Generally higher water levels and more dilute waters occurred during the LIA (1300-1850 AD), although this period shows a complex internal palaeohydrological structure and is contemporaneous with a gradual increase of farming activity. Maximum lake levels and flooding of the littoral shelf occurred during the nineteenth century, coinciding with the maximum expansion of agriculture in the area and prior to the last cold phase of the LIA. Finally, declining lake levels during the twentieth century, coinciding with a decrease in human pressure, are associated with warmer climate conditions reconstructed by instrumental records. A strong link with solar irradiance is suggested by the chronology of the main hydrological phases reconstructed in Estanya. Lower lake levels dominated during periods of enhanced solar activity (MCA and post—ca. 1850 AD) and higher lake levels during periods of diminished solar activity (LIA). Changes in winter precipitation, dominance of NAO negative phases and a strengthening of the westerlies would be

  10. Stressed aquifers in the Lower Segura basin and the Vinalopó basin in Easter Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Sahuquillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbonate aquifers of the Lower Segura Basin and the Vinalopó basin, along with some other granular aquifers are being exploited well above its average recharge for almost half a century. That causes a continuous decline of groundwater levels in most of the region, up to 5m/year in some cases and more than 300m from their initial situation in some areas, thus increasing the cost of groundwater pumping. The drop in levels produced the drying of springs and wetlands and increased salinity in some areas caused by the presence of saline formations. Against these problems is the increase in wealth created by the availability of water since the beginning of the intense exploitation of aquifers. The Water Framework Directive requires that aquifers being by 2015 in good quantitative and qualitative conditions, which is not possible, and neither would be delaying this date several decades. Simple analyses indicate that even eliminating pumping; groundwater would take between 100 and 1000years to recover. Several methods have been used for determining groundwater recharge and mathematical models that reproduce aquifer’s behaviour and could be used as valid tools for its management. The role that aquifers can play in the water resource management is discussed.

  11. Chronology of the late Turolian deposits of the Fortuna basin (SE Spain): implications for the Messinian evolution of the eastern Betics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcés, Miguel; Krijgsman, W.; Agustí, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the mammal-bearing alluvial fan-fan delta sequences of the Fortuna basin (SE Spain) has yielded an accurate chronology for the late Turolian (Messinian) basin infill. From early to late Messinian (at least between 6.8 and 5.7 Ma), the Fortuna basin records the sedimentatio

  12. Testing fine sediment connectivity hypotheses using fallout radionuclide tracers in a small catchment with badlands. Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain), results obtained during over 20 years showed that badlands are the primary sources of sediments to the drainage network. Parent lutitic rocks are weathered during winter producing regoliths, which are eroded from badland surfaces mainly during summer intense rainstorms. Even if the produced sediments are mainly fine, due to the ephemeral nature of summer runoff events most of them are deposited on the stream beds, where they may remain during some time (months to years). Within the MEDhyCON project, a fallout radionuclides (FRNs) tracing experiment (i.e., excess lead 210 (Pbx-210) and beryllium 7 (Be-7)) is being carried out in order to investigate sediment connectivity. A simplified Pbx-210 balance model on badland surfaces suggested a seasonal sawtooth-like activity pattern: FRN being accumulated in regoliths from October to June and depleted in summer. Early summer erosion events would produce the sediments with the highest activity whereas late summer events would produce sediments with the lowest activity coming from the deeper regolith horizons. These findings lead us to launch two sediment transfer connectivity hypotheses analysing respectively the temporal and spatial variability of the Pb-210 activities within the fine sediments at the small catchment scale: (1) The temporal variability of suspended sediment activities at the gauging stations is a measure of sediment transfer immediacy, ergo connectivity. Hence, a high variability in suspended sediment activities, mimicking regolith activity temporal pattern would indicate high connectivity, whereas a low variability, meaning that sediments are mostly pooled in a large and slowly moving stock, would indicate low connectivity. (2) In a drainage system where fine sediments temporarily remain on the dry stream bed, the ratio between fine sediment activities at the sources and fine in-stream sediment activities downstream is a measure of sediment connectivity

  13. Fault development and stress evolution of the post-Hercynian Asturian Basin (Asturias and Cantabria, northwestern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepvrier, C.; Martínez-García, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asturian Basin, an emerged part of the North Iberian continental margin, has been investigated in terms of fault development and stress evolution. The Mesozoic history of this domain is mainly linked to the extensional faulting processes which preceded the opening of the Bay of Biscay. Preserved Jurassic faulted blocks and associated half-graben structures, bounded by WNW-ESE to NW-SE faults, are related to a Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian?) rifting stage. This fault system seems to have played a major role during the Mesozoic structuring of the basin, suggesting an extension oriented approximately NE-SW. The Cenozoic evolution is related to the Iberia-Eurasia convergence and collision, leading to compressional and subsequent extensional structures. The direction of compression, documented in various sites, was NNW-SSE during an initial early-middle Eocene stage, reoriented probably in the Oligocene to NE-SW. This succession of stress regimes was applied to the same three major fault systems, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W, which were inherited from the Variscan Orogeny, some of them having already been involved in the latest Stephanian — Early Permian rifting episode. During the Tertiary compressional phase, the NW-SE trend, which is believed to have controlled the late Jurassic tectonic development, was rejuvenated into dextral strike-slip faults, whereas the NE-SW system moved in a sinistral sense. The E-W system was reactivated as reverse faults, giving rise to a partial inversion of the basin.

  14. Diagenetic evolution of Tortonian temperate carbonates close to evaporites in the Granada Basin (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Quirós, A.; Barbier, M.; Martín, J. M.; Puga-Bernabéu, Á.; Guichet, X.

    2016-04-01

    The Granada Basin (SE Spain) is a small basin located in the central part of the Betic Cordillera, structured as such in the late Tortonian and initially connected to the Atlantic Ocean and to the Mediterranean Sea. During the late Tortonian, normal marine conditions prevailed, leading to the deposition of skeletal carbonate sediments on platforms around structural highs. The marine connections were later interrupted, first to the Atlantic Ocean and then to the Mediterranean Sea, and a thick evaporite sequence, marking the transition from marine to continental conditions, was deposited during the latest Tortonian. In this work, the diagenetic evolution of the Tortonian temperate carbonates (TTC), underlying and close to the evaporite bodies, is revealed and discussed. The diagenetic study includes petrographic analyses (conventional petrography, cathodoluminescence, and fluorescence), geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace elements, and δ13C and δ18O stable isotopes), and microthermometry of fluid inclusions. In the TTC, marine diagenetic processes such as micritization and fibrous calcite-cement precipitation and mechanical compaction took place during or just after deposition (Eogenesis). An initial burial event (Mesogenesis 1) is characterized by: 1) stabilization of the temperate-water carbonates by freshwater, and 2) porosity occlusion via precipitation of low-Mg bladed and syntaxial/mosaic calcite cements. The TTC were then subaerially exposed (or got close to the surface) during evaporite deposition and underwent pedogenesis, Mg-smectite infiltration, and pyrite formation (Telogenesis 1). Subsequent brine-related diagenetic alterations, such as dolomitization and silica, halite, and sylvite replacements of carbonate grains occurred during a second burial episode (Mesogenesis 2) concomitant with the Messinian lacustrine deposition, this being followed by chemical compaction (stylolite formation). Finally, the area was uplifted and the TTC exhumed

  15. Towards quantifying long-term erosion rates in the Campine Basin, NE Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanacker, Veerle

    2016-04-01

    The Campine Basin, NE Belgium, is situated between the uplifting Ardennes Massif and rapidly subsiding Roer Valley Graben. It contains a thick series of marine, estuarine and continental Neogene and Quaternary sediments, locally more than 300 m. As a result of relief inversion during the Quaternary, the Campine Plateau is nowadays a distinct morphological feature in this basin. Its surface elevation dips from 100 m in the south to 30 m in the north over a distance of about 60 km, which is the result of differential uplift. The Campine Plateau is covered by Early and Middle Pleistocene erosion-resistant fluvial sediments from the Rhine and Meuse and can thus be regarded as a fluvial terrace. The age of deposition and time of abandonment of the terrace have not yet been resolved by direct numerical dating. In this study, we apply the cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) profiling technique that, in ideal circumstances, allows one to constrain the exposure age, burial age and amount of post-depositional erosion of the landform. Samples were taken from a 3.5 m deep cross-section in coarse river sands that were deposited by the river Rhine, and now situated at an altitude of about 50 m (a.s.l.). Nine of them were prepared for CRN measurements according to state-of-the-art techniques. The in-situ 10Be concentration of the samples was determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (ETH, Zurich). The in-situ 10Be concentrations are 1.5x10e5 atoms/g for the uppermost sample (at 0.3 m depth) and 0.9x10e5 at/g for the lowermost sample (at 3.1 m depth), yielding an estimated 0.6x10e5 at/g of radionuclide accumulation following sediment deposition. Using forward modelling, we solved for the exposure duration and erosion rate that best fit the measured in-situ 10Be depth profile data, nuclide inheritance and their associated analytical uncertainties. Model optimisation is here based on the sum of chi-squared between the measured and modelled 10Be concentrations. When taking previous

  16. Chronology of the late Turolian deposits of the Fortuna basin (SE Spain): implications for the Messinian evolution of the eastern Betics

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Miguel; Krijgsman, W.; Agustí, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the mammal-bearing alluvial fan-fan delta sequences of the Fortuna basin (SE Spain) has yielded an accurate chronology for the late Turolian (Messinian) basin infill. From early to late Messinian (at least between 6.8 and 5.7 Ma), the Fortuna basin records the sedimentation of alluvial-palustrine deposits over a confined shallow basin. Changing environmental conditions in the latest Messinian are illustrated by the retreat of palustrine facies. A rapid progradation ...

  17. The Cretaceous Songliao Basin: Volcanogenic Succession,Sedimentary Sequence and Tectonic Evolution, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Songliao basin (SB) is a superposed basin with two different kinds of basin fills. The lower one is characterized by a fault-bounded volcanogenic succession comprising of intercalated volcanic, pyroclastic and epiclastic rocks. The volcanic rocks, dating from 110 Ma to 130 Ma, are of geochemically active continental margin type. Fast northward migration of the SB block occurred during the major episodes of the volcanism inferred from their paleomagnetic information. The upper one of the basin fill is dominated by non-marine sag-style sedimentary sequence of siliciclastics and minor carbonates. The basin center shifted westwards from the early to late Cretaceous revealed by the GGT seismic velocity structure suggesting dynamic change in the basin evolution. Thus, a superposed basin model is proposed. Evolution of the SB involves three periods including (1) Alptian and preAptian: a retroarc basin and range system of Andes type related to Mongolia-Okhotsk collisional belt (MOCB); (2) Albian to Companian: a sag-like strike-slip basin under transtension related to oblique subduction of the Pacific plate along the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate; (3) since Maastrichtian:a tectonic inverse basin under compression related to normal subduction of the Pacific plate under the Eurasian plate, characterized by overthrust, westward migration of the depocenter and eastward uplifting of the basin margin.

  18. Radiometric dating and geochemistry of a tuff horizon from a mammal-bearing lacustrine sequence, Miocene Bicorp Basin, eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Anadon, P.; Mitjavila, J.M.; Utrilla, R.; Vázquez, A. (Antonio); López Martínez, Nieves

    1995-01-01

    The basin-fill sequence from the Bicorp Basin (Eastern Spain) comprises a lower alluvial unit and an upper lacustrine unit. The lower part of the lacustrine sequence includes a tuff bed, interbedded between two marnmal-bearing horizons which have yielded fossil rodents characteristic of the MN 10 standard mammal unit (Late Vallesian, Late Miocene). K-Ar age determinations on the tuff have provided a radiometric age averaging 9.6 ± 0.2 Ma (weighted average of two samples) for this ash fall dep...

  19. Hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Ebro River Basin (Spain): a view through Li-B-Sr isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Millot, Romain; Guerrot, Catherine; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle; Brenot, Agnès; Négrel, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we report hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron and strontium isotope measurements (d2H, d18O, d7Li, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr) together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain. The Ebro River Basin is mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006. And secondly, the ...

  20. Palaeoceanographic controls on reef deposition: the Messinian Cariatiz reef (Sorbas Basin, Almería, SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Almazo, I. M.; Departamento de Estratigrafı´a y Paleontologı´a, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18002, Granada; Braga, J. C.; Departamento de Estratigrafı´a y Paleontologı´a, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18002, Granada; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Martín, J. M.; Departamento de Estratigrafı´a y Paleontologı´a, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18002, Granada; Spiro, B.; Department of Mineralogy, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK

    2007-01-01

    The Cariatiz section lies at the toe of the palaeoslope of the Messinian Cariatiz fringing reef, at the northern margin of the Neogene Sorbas Basin in SE Spain. Distal-slope reef deposits in the upper part of the section can be traced laterally to the reef core of the last episodes of reef progradation. The underlying deposits are alternating diatomitic marl, marl and silty marl that intercalate with sandstone beds. Combined lithological changes, variations in proportions of...

  1. Paleoenvironmental changes during the late Miocene (Messinian)–Pliocene transition (Bajo Segura Basin, southeastern Spain): sedimentological and ichnological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Caracuel Martín, Jesús Esteban; Corbí, Hugo; Giannetti, Alice; Monaco, Paolo; Soria Mingorance, Jesús Miguel; Tent-Manclus, Jose Enrique; Yébenes Simón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    A detailed sedimentological and paleontological analysis of the uppermost Miocene (Messinian)–Pliocene boundary at the northern border of the Bajo Segura Basin, southeastern Spain, was carried out in order to describe the evolution of the regional paleocoastline during the Pliocene reflooding of the Mediterranean immediately after the sea-level fall related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Multiple trace fossils typical of firm- and hardgrounds were recognized, allowing identification of Glo...

  2. Crocodilian and Paleobotanical findinds from tertiary lignites of the As Pontes Basin (Galicia, N.W. Spain) (Crocodylia, Plantae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Jung, W.; Kirchner, M.; Sáez, Alberto; Schleich, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    From the Tertiary As Pontes basin (Galicia, Spain) the first reptilian remains (Crocodylia, Diplocy nodon s.\\.) are described. Together with these findings palaeobotanical data (pollen, fructífications)result from the same sediment sampled. They are used for stratigraphical and palaecological interpretations. Due to these palaeontological informations one might interprete the lower As Pontes lignites as belonging to the Paleogene, most probably Oligocene. Nevertheless complementary data are n...

  3. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution

  4. The influence of subaquatic springs in lacustrine sedimentation: Origin and paleoenvironmental significance of homogenites in karstic Lake Banyoles (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Ariztegui, Daniel; Sáez, Alberto; Mata, M. Pilar; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Rico Herrero, Maria Teresa; Moreno Caballud, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Banyoles (42°08'N, 2°45'E) is the largest and deepest lake of karstic-tectonic origin in the Iberian Peninsula. The lake comprises two basins and six sub-circularly shaped sub-basins fed by subaquatic springs. Periods of intense groundwater inflow in the deepest sub-basins lead to the fluidization and re-suspension of previously deposited sediments and subsequent settling forming homogenite deposits on the southern basin intermediate platforms. The multiproxy analysis of sediment cores combin...

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in land cover and its relation to the wildfire risk in Montes de Zuera (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Remón, E.; Badía-Villas, D.; Ibarra-Benlloch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Land cover changes in a territory can be as result of the diverse human activities, and also, by the dynamic natural ecosystem. The analysis of these changes constitutes a fundamental indicator in improving the knowledge towards a potential sustainable development (OSE, 2006). This paper analyzes the evolution of the land cover at detailed scale 1:5000, along the years 1957, 1984, and 2005, in the Montes de Zuera (UTM: 665000-680000 East /4640000-4650000 North), nearby Zaragoza city (NE-Spain). Despite they are located in the midst of the semiarid Central Ebro Basin, the area have an uncommon, extensive and dense forest cover. For these reasons, Montes de Zuera form part of the "Natura 2000 Network" of Aragon. Because this region has a high incidence of wildfires and, as a measure to prevent them, land cover changes have been analyzed in this study. To get this objective, a methodology is developed based on GIS and Remote Sensing tools, and this makes it possible to establish the relationship between the dynamic land cover and "fire hazard". According to FAO (1986), fire hazard is the measure of risk of wildfire, which is explained by the presence of combustible materials available to burn (Chuvieco et al, 2004). It is understood that the areas with major fire hazard present a high vulnerability to suffer vast wildfires. To develop this work, the type of vegetation, its distribution and the state of maturity of the forest masses are analyzed. Moreover, the wildfires that occurred during the last five decades have been located, and the forest masses and the processes (anthropic and natural) associated to them have been characterized in the regions affected by vast wildfires. Moreover, the cartography of fire hazard is obtained, and this is useful tool to fre prevention and to promote the sustainable management of the forest masses. Two regions with high rate of fire hazards are differentiated (region 1 and region 2). The Aleppo pine cover occupies the majority of

  6. Analysing the role of abandoned agricultural terraces on flood generation in a set of small Mediterranean mountain research catchments (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The Vallcebre research catchments are located in NE Spain, in a middle mountain area with a Mediterranean sub-humid climate. Most of the bedrock consists of continental red lutites that are easily weathered into loamy soils. This area was intensely used for agriculture in the past when most of the sunny gentle hillslopes were terraced. The land was progressively abandoned since the mid-20th Century and most of the fields were converted to meadows or were spontaneously forested. Early studies carried out in the terraced Cal Parisa catchment demonstrated the occurrence of two types of frequently saturated areas, ones situated in downslope locations with high topographic index values, and the others located in the inner parts of many terraces, where the shallow water table usually outcrops due to the topographical modifications linked to terrace construction. Both the increased extent of saturated areas and the role of a man-made elementary drainage system designed for depleting water from the terraces suggested that terraced areas would induce an enhanced hydrological response during rainfall events when compared with non-terraced hillslopes. The response of 3 sub-catchments, of increasing area and decreasing percentage of terraced area, during a set of major events collected during over 15 years has been analysed. The results show that storm runoff depths were roughly proportional to precipitations above 30 mm although the smallest catchment (Cal Parisa), with the highest percentage of terraces, was able to completely buffer rainfall events of 60 mm in one hour without any runoff when antecedent conditions were dry. Runoff coefficients depended on antecedent conditions and peak discharges were weakly linked to rainfall intensities. Peak lag times, peak runoff rates and recession coefficients were similar in the 3 catchments; the first variable values were in the range between Hortonian and saturation overland flow and the two last ones were in the range of

  7. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  8. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  9. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  10. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  11. Outer ramp cycles in the Upper Muschelkalk of the Catalan Basin, northeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Francesc; Tucker, Maurice E.

    1988-06-01

    The Upper Muschelkalk (Triassic) of the Catalan Basin, eastern Spain, was deposited upon a carbonate ramp of homoclinal type located in an intracratonic setting. The Rasquera Unit in the Upper Muschelkalk mostly consists of outer ramp carbonates arranged in upward shallowing cycles. Five cycles from 1.5 to 12 m thick are recognised. Each cycle shows an upward coarsening of grain-size, an upward increase in bed thickness, and an upward change in fossil content, reflecting an upward shallowing of the environment. In the complete cycle, marlstone and shale pass up into marlstone with thin-bedded line mudstones containing pelagic bivalves. The succeeding thin-bedded and nodular limestones with shaley partings contain a more varied fauna and are bioturbated; they pass up into thick-bedded skeletal wackestones. Packstone-coquinas locally cap the cycles and have a diverse benthic fauna, as well as the alga Tubiphytes occurring as bioclasts, encrustations around skeletal grains and forming microbuildups. Although some of the thin beds were deposited during weak storms, there is little evidence of intense storm activity. Petrological, sedimentological and palaeontological criteria, and the geological setting, allow the recognition of distal, intermediate and proximal facies on a relatively deepwater carbonate ramp.

  12. Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bromley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

  13. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a

  14. Deep Processes of Basin Evolution:A Case Study of the Southern Songliao Basin and Adjacent Area,NE China in Mesozoic-Cenozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rihui Cheng; Dongpo Wang; Linfu Xue

    2003-01-01

    In south of the Songliao Basin and adjacent area of NE China, there are several high conductive layers in crust and upper mantle. Those layers are interpreted as detachment and rheology, which represent some features of lithosphere, asthenosphere and Moho, and related to the crust-mantle structure of the continent in the study area. The differences of the crust-mantle structures in different places in the study area reflect the differences in the movement and evolution of asthenosphere, lithosphere and crust. The differences can be summarized as follows. (1) Along the south profile of MT, the buried depth of the surface of Moho is 31 ~34 km beneath the Liaohe Basin and 35~37 km beneath the west Liaoning area. Along the north profile of MT, the buried depth of Moho is 32~33 km beneath Changtu area and 36~37 km beneath Kailu area in southern Songliao Basin. The buried depth beneath the central of the Songliao Basin is 29 km.(2) The difference of thickness of lithosphere exists in the south area and the north area of Chifeng-Kaiyuan fault. The thickness of lithosphere is about 65~120 km in the south of the fault, thickening from east to west. The top surface of asthenosphere is highly uplifted in the Liaohe Basin and the highest point is about 65 km in buried depth. The thickness of lithosphere in the north of the fault is about 60~65 km, thinner about 25 km than that in the south of the fault (West Liaoning). Deep processes such as upwelling of mantle thermal flow, extension of lithosphere, underplating, and thinning and subsidence of crust, evidenced from the crust-mantle structures were the direct forces of the basin formation in the study area during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic.

  15. Near and Far Field Particle Plumes Around an Erupting Volcano - W Mata, NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.; Lupton, J. E.; Resing, J.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Greene, R.; Buck, N.

    2009-12-01

    Particle-rich plumes carry emissions from actively erupting submarine volcanoes to the ocean environment. Characterizing and mapping the distribution of these plumes can help identify the nature of the eruption, define its impact on ocean chemistry, and suggest mechanisms for the transport of fine ash to distal sediments. Unusually intense particle plumes encountered over W Mata volcano (NE Lau basin) during November 2008 were confirmed in May 2009 to be the product of an ongoing submarine volcanic eruption with more than one active vent near the summit at water depths of 1175-1207 m. The particle plume over the summit in November 2008 was unusually intense in many respects. Light scattering anomalies of dNTU>1.0 were present in the bottom 150 m of the water column (below 1030 m), and exceeded the maximum detection limit of the sensor (dNTU=5.0) for more than 10 minutes while the CTD was within this depth range. The bottom 50 m of the water column had an average temperature anomaly of 0.8°C, spiking to 2.0°C near the seafloor. The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) plunged dramatically within the particle plume, reaching a maximum anomaly of more than 750 mV near the seafloor. Two CTD tows suggest the plume was being dispersed to the south and west of the summit in November 2008 within a narrow depth range centered at 1050-1100 m. CTD casts conducted in May 2009 showed the particle plume above the summit of W Mata was still optically intense (dNTU>2.0) but occurred as an above-bottom plume at a depth range of 1070-1150 m water depth. The ORP anomaly was 340 mV. Temperature anomalies within the particle plume were less intense than in November. Additional particle profiles acquired on a separate cruise in May 2009 found the W Mata plume was being advected to the north and west of the volcano to a distance of at least 10 km from the summit. In addition to these summit plumes, particle layers were also found at deeper depths. At other erupting volcanoes, down

  16. Late Aptian-Albian of the Vocontian Basin (SE-France) and Albian of NE-Texas: Biostratigraphic and paleoceanographic implications by planktic foraminifera faunas

    OpenAIRE

    Reichelt, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    Planktic foraminifera fauna and carbon isotopes of the bulk rock have been investigated to compile a high resolution biostratigraphy for the Late Aptian to Late Albian in the Vocontian Basin (SE-France) and for the Middle and Late Albian in NE-Texas. A high resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy (CIS) has been established for the Albian of the Vocontian Basin, and partially correlated with sections in the eastern (ODP 547, Mazagan Plateau) and western (ODP 1052; Blake Nose Plateau) Atlantic a...

  17. Palaeoclimatic oscillations in the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) of the Asturian Basin (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan J.; Comas-Rengifo, María J.; Goy, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    One of the main controversial themes in palaeoclimatology involves elucidating whether climate during the Jurassic was warmer than the present day and if it was the same over Pangaea, with no major latitudinal gradients. There has been an abundance of evidence of oscillations in seawater temperature throughout the Jurassic. The Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) constitutes a distinctive time interval for which several seawater temperature oscillations, including an exceptional cooling event, have been documented. To constrain the timing and magnitude of these climate changes, the Rodiles section of the Asturian Basin (Northern Spain), a well exposed succession of the uppermost Sinemurian, Pliensbachian and Lower Toarcian deposits, has been studied. A total of 562 beds were measured and sampled for ammonites, for biochronostratigraphical purposes, and for belemnites, to determine the palaeoclimatic evolution through stable isotope studies. Comparison of the recorded latest Sinemurian, Pliensbachian and Early Toarcian changes in seawater palaeotemperature with other European sections allows characterization of several climatic changes that are likely of a global extent. A warming interval partly coinciding with a δ13Cbel negative excursion was recorded at the Late Sinemurian. After a "normal" temperature interval, with temperatures close to average values of the Late Sinemurian-Early Toarcian period, a new warming interval containing a short-lived positive δ13Cbel peak, developed during the Early-Late Pliensbachian transition. The Late Pliensbachian represents an outstanding cooling interval containing a δ13Cbel positive excursion interrupted by a small negative δ13Cbel peak. Finally, the Early Toarcian represented an exceptional warming period, which has been pointed out as being responsible for the prominent Early Toarcian mass extinction.

  18. Potential siliceous sources during Prehistory: Results of prospecting in the East margin of the Ebro Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of prospecting in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, with the aim of identifying the  siliceous sources potentially used by the populations that occupied the marginal basins of the Ebro depression during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.We intend to define the main characteristics of the cherts in the region studied, taking into account the palaeoenvironment in which silicifications are mainly formed, and the premise that siliceous rocks acquire the attributes of enclosing rocks.The cherts studied are the products of early diagenesis by replacement of carbonate and evaporite sediments. Petrological analyses show that they are made up of microquartz, with high proportion of fibrous forms silica, carbonates, ferric oxides and evaporite relicts. In the future, these characteristics will be useful for ascribing archaeological materials in both geological and geographical terms.

  19. Neotectonic aspects of the northern margin of the Adana–Cilicia submarine basin, NE Mediterranean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Ozel; A Ulug; B Pekcetinoz

    2007-04-01

    The sedimentary basins that dominate the north-eastern Mediterranean (Adana–Cilicia basins in the west and Iskenderun basin in the east) are located on the flanks of a partly submerged positive structure (a part of the Africa–Eurasia convergence zone) along which strike-slip faults are evident. This study summarizes the findings of two seismic surveys carried out in the Alanya– Mersin offshore region. Some 850 km of geophysical survey lines were compiled on these cruises. Based on the results determined from these surveys, the north and central part of Adana–Cilicia basin can be subdivided into eastern, central and western structural sub-basins separated by the Ecemiş fault complex in the east and the Anamur–Kormakiti structural high in the west at the same time. Results of this study also indicate that Ecemiş and Anamur–Kormakiti faults are active. Late Miocene regional compression was responsible for the compartmentation of this complex into the present arrangement and has initiated the rotational regime which has governed subsequent tectonic developments, notably the extensional behaviour of the NE–SW trending Ecemiş and Anamur–Kormakiti faults and the transpressive behaviour of the NNE–SSW trending border fault complex.

  20. Magma Emplacement and the 3D Geometry of Igneous Bodies in Rift Basins: Insights from the Bornu Basin, Onshore NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Adamu; Jackson, Christopher; Magee, Craig; Fraser, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of regional unconformities in the circum-South Atlantic tectonic plates have linked unconformity age to the timing of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones, caused by plate interactions during opening of the South Atlantic. This observation is significant, proposing that a plate boundary geodynamic processes are transmitted into and expressed in plate interiors. However, it is not yet clear if and how other geologic events, such as intra-plate magmatism, may be linked to changes in the oceanic fracture azimuthal geometry. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection, geochemical, borehole datasets and outcrop observations from the Bornu Basin, one of several intra-continental rift basins located in NE Nigeria to constrain the 3D geometry of igneous bodies and magmatic emplacement processes. This allows us to link South Atlantic plate boundary geodynamics and magmatism in the surrounding continental rift basins. Seismic attributes, reflection intensity, relative acoustic impedance, were used to identify and map igneous intrusions. Saucer-shaped sills are the most common type of intrusion, although en-echelon sills, up to 1.4 km in length, were also identified. The 3D geometry of the sills reveals the detailed structural components like inner sill, inclined sheets and outer sill. A mapped bifurcating network of the sills suggests magma emplacement process through upward and outward propagation. Seismic-stratigraphic observations indicate that igneous activity occurred in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous and Paleogene corresponding to the timing of major azimuth changes observed in the Kane Oceanic fracture zone in the South Atlantic Ocean. Overall, our study, suggests a possible influence of plate boundary geodynamics on intra-plate magmatism as reflected in the link between the time of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones and magmatic emplacement observed in the tectono-stratigraphy of the intra-continental rift basins.

  1. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  2. Zircon U-Pb ages of the basement rocks beneath the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The basement of the Songliao Basin is mainly composed of slightly-metamorphosed or unmetamorphosed Paleozoic strata, granites and gneiss. Petrographical studies indicate that the gneiss was originally the granitic intrusions which were deformed in the later stage. One undeformed granitic rock sample gives a U-Pb age of (305±2) Ma, and the mylonitic granite yields a U-Pb age of (165±3) Ma. Both of the two samples contain no inherited zircon, which suggests that there is no large-scale Precambrian crystalline basement beneath the Songliao Basin.

  3. Single-grain and multi-grain OSL dating of river terrace sediments in the Tabernas Basin, SE Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geach, M.R.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2015-01-01

    River terraces represent important records of landscape response to e.g. base-level change and tectonic movement. Both these driving forces are important in the southern Iberian Peninsula. In this study, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to date two principal river terraces...... in the Tabernas Basin, SE Spain. A total of 23 samples was collected from the fluvial terraces for dating using quartz OSL. Sixteen of the samples could not be dated because of low saturation levels (e.g. typical 2xD0

  4. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  5. A combined archeomagnetic and mycrostratographic study of Neolithic anthropogenic burnt sediments from the Can Sadurni cave (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Beamud, Elisabet; Bergada, Mercè; Martínez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the variation of the Eart&hacute;s magnetic field in the past is an important topic in Earth Sciences today. New archeomagnetic data are crucial to expand the regional and global geomagnetic field models. However, very few archeomagnetic data are available in Europe before the third millenium BC. Recent archeomagnetic studies demonstrated that burnt anthropogenic cave sediments (fumiers) can provide a unique record of past geomagnetic field directions. In this study we present a combined archeomagnetic and microstratigraphic analysis of Neolithic anthropogenic sediments from the Can Sadurní cave (Begues, Baix Llobregat, northeastern Spain). Can Sadurní archaeological site is a cave located at the Garraf mountains, 450 m above sea level and about 25 km west of Barcelona (northeastern Spain). Excavations started in 1978 and are still in progress. Twenty-eight different levels have been identified, ranging from Epipalaeolithic (10 840-10 410 cal. BCE) to the Roman period. The samples studied here were sampled in a fumier corresponding to the E.XIV level and dated between 5650 and 5700 BP by archeological and radiocarbon results. Alternating field demagnetization experiments allow us to obtain a well-defined archeomagnetic direction for this period. Together with additional rock-magnetic analysis , the results indicate that the magnetisation is carried by low-coercivity ferromagnetic minerals. The new archeomagentic direction is compared with previous archeomagnetic data and models. The microstratigraphic analysis allows us to document some animal stabling practices in which two units can be distingished: a) mineralized residues (ash) with charcoal fragments and, b) charred dung.

  6. The influence of subaquatic springs in lacustrine sedimentation: Origin and paleoenvironmental significance of homogenites in karstic Lake Banyoles (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Giralt, Santiago; Ariztegui, Daniel; Sáez, Alberto; Mata, M. Pilar; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Rico, Mayte; Moreno, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Banyoles (42°08‧N, 2°45‧E) is the largest and deepest lake of karstic-tectonic origin in the Iberian Peninsula. The lake comprises two basins and six sub-circularly shaped sub-basins fed by subaquatic springs. Periods of intense groundwater inflow in the deepest sub-basins lead to the fluidization and re-suspension of previously deposited sediments and subsequent settling forming homogenite deposits on the southern basin intermediate platforms. The multiproxy analysis of sediment cores combined with high resolution seismic stratigraphy (3.5 kHz pinger and multi-frequency Chirp surveys) allows a precise reconstruction of depositional environments and related hydrological variability and groundwater inflow during the last ca. 7.6 cal kyr BP. According to the age model based on 137Cs, 210Pb and AMS 14C dating, homogenite deposition occurred between 7.2 and 5.5 cal kyr BP, stopped during the middle Holocene (5.5-2.8 cal kyr BP) and greatly increased during the last two millennia with a total of 17 homogenite layers individually up to 75 cm-thick. The onset of this unique sedimentation mode at ca. 3 cal kyr BP coincides with an increase in lake level, evidenced by the onlapping of fine-grained, distal sediments over coarser massive, carbonate-rich, littoral deposits. A detailed, multidisciplinary study of the homogenites (sedimentology, physical properties, high-resolution elemental geochemistry, mineral composition, grain-size, organic matter content and SEM) combined with seismic stratigraphy demonstrates that the fluidization events triggering the formation of the homogenites were caused by higher and more intense local groundwater inflow, related to increased rainfall during the Late Holocene and likely intensified by land use changes during the last millennium.

  7. Climate controls on rainfall isotopes and their effects on cave drip water and speleothem growth: the case of Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Estrela, Mª José; Corell, David; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Cacho, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The interpretation of stable isotopes in speleothems in terms of past temperature variability or precipitation rates requires a comprehensive understanding of the climatic factors and processes that influence the δ18O signal in the way through the atmosphere to the cave, where carbonate precipitates acquiring its final isotopic composition. This study presents for the first time in the Iberia Peninsula an integrated analysis of the isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18Op) during 2010-2012 years and, through a detailed monitoring survey, the transference of the primary isotopic signal throughout the soil and epikarst into the Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain). Both air temperature and amount of precipitation have an important effect on δ18Op values, clearly imprinting a seasonal variability modulated by an amount effect when rainfall events are more frequent or intense. Air mass history and atmospheric circulation influences are considered through the study of weather types, synoptic-scale climate patterns and large-scale atmospheric circulation indexes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Western Mediterranean Oscillation) revealing a dominant source effect on δ18Op values in this region where tropical North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean are the two moisture source regions. A delay of 2-3 months occurs between the dripwater oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Od) respect to δ18Op values as a consequence of large residence time in the epikarst. Limited calcite precipitates are found from winter to spring when δ18Od values are less negative and dripwater rates are constant. This study suggests that NE Iberian δ18Ocalcite proxy records are best interpreted as reflecting a combination of parameters, not just paleotemperature or paleorainfall and, if extending present-day situation towards the recent past, a biased signal towards winter values should be expected in Molinos speleothem records.

  8. Palaeoenvironmental and chronological constraints on the Early Pleistocene mammal fauna from loess deposits in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Maodu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The Longdan mammal fauna from the central part of Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau, is the first Early Pleistocene fauna in China in which the fossils are derived loess deposits, and it provides an excellent opportunity to document mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia. However, the precise age and palaeoenvironmental setting of the fauna are controversial due to the poor exposure of the outcrop section. In the present study, a 105-m-long drill core was obtained from Longdan village and used for detailed magnetostratigraphic dating. The results demonstrate that the late Pliocene- Pleistocene loess deposits in the Longdan section deposited since ca. 3 Ma and that the Longdan fauna has an age range of 2.5-2.2 Ma. In addition, the results of lithological and rock magnetic analyses demonstrate that paleosols are weakly developed throughout the whole core and that in the lower and middle parts the core the magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are relatively low and uniform. These observations, combined with the ecological characteristics of the Longdan fauna, indicate that during the Early Pleistocene the climate in the Longdan area, and even in the Linxia Basin, was sub-humid and that the aeolian dust was frequently subjected to post-depositional reworking by water.

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Ebro River Basin (Spain): a view through Li-B-Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Guerrot, C.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.; Negrel, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we report hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron and strontium isotope measurements (δ2H, δ18O, δ7Li, δ11B and 87Sr/86Sr) together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain. The Ebro River Basin is mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006. And secondly, the Ebro river along its main course and its main tributaries were sampled during one field campaign in April 2006. The main objective of the present work is to characterize the hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters within the Ebro River Basin and to constrain the behavior of Li and B and their isotopes during water/rock interactions at the scale of a large river basin having various lithologies with a specific aim to investigate spatio-temporal variations for both Li and B isotopes signatures within the Ebro River Basin. The main goal of this study is thus to determine the sources contributing to Li and B in the river waters of the Ebro Basin, as well as to characterize the controlling factors that can determine the distribution of Li and B and their isotopes in the river waters of the Ebro Basin. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) show that all the river waters have a purely local origin from precipitation, without significant evaporation or water/rock interaction, as all points plot close to the general meteoric-water line. In the river waters, Li isotopic signatures (δ7Li) are comprised between +12.9 and +20.9‰, δ11B values are ranging from +9.9 to +25.0‰ and 87Sr/86Sr are between 0.70786 and 0.70897.

  10. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Salmoral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading both water quality indicators are exports from upland areas and agricultural intensification. Water quality conditions have improved in regions where there has been abandonment and/or deintensification. The decoupling process has reduced the concentration of nitrates and suspended solids in a number of subbasins. Although agricultural production and water efficiency in the basin have improved, high erosion rates have not yet been addressed. 

  11. Formation Water Geochemistry and Its Controlling Factors: Case Study on Shiwu Rifted Sub-basin of Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A common way to trace fluid flow and hydrocarbon accumulation is by studying the geochemistry of formation water. This paper focuses on the spacial distribution of the geochemical features of the formation water in the Shiwu Rifted Basin and its indication of the water-rock interaction processes. The hydrodynamic field controls the spacial distribution of formation water. Due to the penetration of meteoric water, the salinity is below 4,500mg/L at the basin margin and the severely faulted central ridge and increases basin ward to 7,000-10,000mg/L. The vertical change of formation water can be divided into 3 zones, which correspond respectively to the free replacement zone (<1,250m), the obstructed replacement zone (1,250m-1,650m) and thelagged zone (>1,650m) in hydrodynamics. In the free replacement zone, the formation water is NaHCO3-type with its salinity increased to 10,000mg/L. The formation water in the obstructed replacement zone is Na2SO4-type with its salinity decreased to 5,000mg/L-7,000mg/L because of the dehydration of mud rocks. The formation water in the lagged zone is CaCl2-type, but its salinity decreases sharply at a depth of 1,650m and then increases vertically downward to 10,000mg/L. This phenomenon can be best explained by the osmosis effect rather than the dehydration of mud rocks. The relationships between Cl--HCO3- and Na++K+-Ca2+ show that the initial water-rock interaction is the dissolution of NaCl and calcium-bearing carbonate, causing an increase of Na+-K+-Ca2+-Cl- and salinity. The succeeding water-rock interaction is albitization, which leads to a decrease of Na+ and an increase of Ca2+ simultaneously, and generates CaCl2-type fluid. The above analysis shows that the geochemical evolution of formation water is governed by the water-rock interactions, while its spacial distribution is controlled by the hydrological conditions. The water-rock interaction processes are supported by other geological observations, suggesting that

  12. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Sanjiang Basin in NE China: Provenance record of an abrupt tectonic switch in the mode and nature of the NE Asian continental margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Batt, Geoffrey E.; Dilek, Yildirim; A, Min-Na; Sun, Ming-Dao; Yang, Shu-Feng; Meng, Qi-An; Zhao, Xue-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The age spectra obtained from 505 spots of detrital zircon U-Pb ages of five representative sandstone samples from the Sanjiang Basin in NE China point to a significant change in its provenance during the Coniacian-Santonian. The predominant detrital source for the Sanjiang Basin during the early Cretaceous was the Zhangguangcai Range magmatic belt and Jiamusi Block along its western and southern periphery, whereas it changed in the late Cretaceous to its eastern periphery. The timing of these inferred changes in the detrital source regions and drainage patterns nearly coincide with the age of a regional unconformity in and across the basin. The time interval of non-deposition and unconformity development was coeval with a transitional period between an extensional tectonic regime in the early Cretaceous and a contractional deformation episode in the late Cretaceous. The Sanjiang Basin evolved during this time window from a backarc to a foreland basin. The migration of the coastal orogenic belt and the fold and thrust belt development farther inland during the late Cretaceous marked the onset of regional-scale shortening and surface uplift in the upper plate of a flat (or very shallow-dipping) subduction zone. The stratigraphic record, the detrital source and geochronology of the basinal strata, and the internal structure of the Sanjiang Basin present, therefore, an important record of a tectonic switch in the nature of continental margin evolution of Northeast Asia during the late Mesozoic.

  13. Origin and Distribution of Groundwater Chemical Fields of the Oilfield in the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are many factors affecting the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the forming process of groundwater chemical fields, such as freshening due to meteoric water leaching downwards, freshening due to mudstone compaction and water release, concentration due to infiltration and freshening due to dehydration of clay minerals. As a result, the groundwater chemical fields are characterized by lengthwise stages and planar selectivity. The former arouses vertical chemical zonality of groundwater. Five units could be identified downwards in the Songliao basin: (1) freshening zone due to downward-leaching meteoric water, (2) concentration zone due to evaporation near the ground surface, (3)freshening zone due to mudstone compaction and water release, and concentration zone due to compaction and infiltration,(4) freshening zone due to dehydration of clay minerals, and (5) filtration-concentration zone; whereas the latter determines the planar division of groundwater chemical fields: (1) the freshening area due to meteoric water, asymmetrically on the margin of the basin, (2) the freshening area due to mudstone compaction and water release in the central part of the basin, (3)the leaky area, which is a transitional zone, and (4) leakage-evaporation area, which is a concentration zone. In the direction of centrifugal flows caused by mudstone compaction in the depression area, the mineralization degree, concentrations of Na+ and CI-, and salinity coefficient (SC) increase, while concentrations of (CO32-+HCO3-) and SO42-, metamorphism coefficient (MC) and desulfuration coefficient (DSC) decrease. However, all these parameters increase in the direction of gravity-induced centripetal flows.

  14. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  15. Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry at a site of strategic importance: the Pareja Limno-reservoir drainage basin (Guadalajara, central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Vicente, Rosa; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    A small calcareous basin in central Spain was studied to establish the role of groundwater in the Pareja Limno-reservoir. Limno-reservoirs aim to preserve a constant water level in the riverine zone of large reservoirs to mitigate the impacts arising from their construction. Groundwater flow contribution (mean 60 %) was derived by recharge estimation. In situ measurements (spring discharge, electrical conductivity and sulfate) were undertaken and spring discharge was compared with a drought index. Twenty-eight springs were monitored and three hydrogeological units (HGUs) were defined: a carbonate plateau (HGU1), the underlying aquitard (HGU2), and the gypsum-enriched HGU3. HGU1 is the main aquifer and may play a role in the preservation of the limno-reservoir water level. Hydrogeochemical sampling was conducted and the code PHREEQC used to describe the main geochemical processes. Weathering and dissolution of calcite and gypsum seem to control the hydrogeochemical processes in the basin. Water progresses from Ca2+-HCO3 - in the upper basin to Ca2+-SO4 2- in the lower basin, where HGU3 outcrops. A clear temporal pattern was observed in the limno-reservoir, with salinity decreasing in winter and increasing in summer. This variation was wider at the river outlet, but the mixing of the river discharge with limno-reservoir water buffered it.

  16. Cyclicity recorded in the provenance sandstones in the sedimentary in fill of the Cameros basin (N. Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Acebron, L.; Arribas, J.; Omodeo-Sale, S.; Arribas, E.; Le Pera, E.; Mas, R.; Lopez-Elorza, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, P. R.

    2013-06-01

    The intra plate Cameros rift basin in the north of Spain was formed came into being between the Tithonian and the Early Albian and contains 9 000 m of mostly continental sediments. This basin is a good example of cyclicity of different depositional sequences (DSs) in sedimentary environments, which show clear repetition in their sandstone composition (petrofacies) and diagenetic patterns. The DSs are arranged in two mega sequences (MSs) separated by a tectonic unconformity. A similar vertical sandstone compositional evolution, subdivided into two stages that repeat cyclically, has been recognised in both MSs: the first comprises quartzo-sedimentolithic petrofacies and the second is made up of several quartzo-feldspathic petrofacies. This was caused by a progression from the recycling of the pre-rift sedimentary cover to the erosion of the mainly plutonic and metamorphic crystalline basement. These changes in the erosion of the different source areas were conditioned by the tectonics of the basin. Furthermore, the original sandstone framework composition conditioned the diagenetic pattern of the two stages: quartzo-sedimentolithic sandstones containing large amounts of very pervasive carbonate cement that reduce their original porosity considerably, and quartzo-feldspathic petrofacies with a rigid framework that maintained the original pores during burial diagenesis. This compositional and diagenetic pattern is probably applicable to other non-volcanic rifted basins, depending upon the original amount of carbonate rock fragments present. (Author)

  17. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3-1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO42- concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5-4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; (c) pore water or fluid was Fe/Mg-rich in 7.3-6.0 Ma, Mg-rich in 6.0-4.5 Ma, and K-rich in 4.1-1.6 Ma and (d) evaporation rates were high, but weaker than today’s.

  18. Reservoir Volcanic Rocks: Geology and Geochemistry, the Mesozoic Non-Marine Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pujun Wang; Quanlin Li; Nuan Wen; Zhiqiang Feng; Frank Mattern; Xuanlong Shan; Wanzhu Liu; Rihui Cheng; Chunguang Qiu; Huafeng Tang; Yan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The reservoir volcanic rocks in Songliao Basin include the Lower Cretaceous (Klyc Form., 114~135 Ma,acidic rocks) and the Upper Jurassic (J3hs Form., 145~158 Ma, intermediate rocks). Vesicles coupled with faults make the volcanic reservoir spaces which do not as badly getting worse with buried depth as those of sediments generally doing. The flood rhyolites of the Lower Cretaceous cover ca. 100 000 km2 with relict thickness from 100 m to more than 1000 m. They are high-silica, rich in aluminum and potassium, high REE contents with large negative Eu anomalies,thus believed also be formed by the large-scale sialic crust partial-melting. The andesitic rocks of the Upper Jurassic are rich in Al and K, but with lower REE contents and minor negative Eu anomalies, as well as dispersal patterns of HREE.They are believed to be produced by progressively shallower partial-melting where the fractionation of garnet and/or zircon may be involved. The most probable heat sources provided for the long-lasting volcanisms in the Songliao Basin is the subduction of the Okhotsk plate.

  19. The Messinian–early Pliocene stratigraphic record in the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain): Implications for the Mediterranean salinity crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Soria, J. M.; Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03080 Alicante; Caracuel, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Corbí, H.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Lancis, C.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Tent-Manclús, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Viseras, C.; Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain; Yébenes, A.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apto. 99, 03080 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphy of the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain) has revealed three highstand sedimentary phases (Messinian I, Messinian II, and Pliocene) bounded by two lowstand erosional surfaces (intra-Messinian and end-Messinian unconformities). The Messinian I highstand phase is characterized by the progradation of coastal and shallow marine sandstones (La Virgen Fm) over slope and pelagic-basin marls (Torremendo Fm). After this first ph...

  20. Facies-controlled volcanic reservoirs of northern Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the late Mesozoic are very important reservoirs for the commercial natural gases including hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide and rare gases in the northern Songliao Basin. The reservoir volcanic rocks include rhyolite,andesite, trachyte, basalt and tuff. Facies of the volcanic rocks can be classified into 5 categories and 15 special types.Porosity and permeability of the volcanic reservoirs are facies-controlled. Commercial reservoirs were commonly found among the following volcanic subfacies: volcanic neck (Ⅰ1), underground-explosive breccia (Ⅰ3), pyroclastic-bearing lava flow (Ⅱ3), upper effusive (Ⅲ3) and inner extrusive ones (Ⅳ1). The best volcanic reservoirs are generally evolved in the interbedded explosive and effusive volcanics. Rhyolites show in general better reservoir features than other types of rocks do.

  1. A comparison of the Iberian and Ebro Basins during the Permian and Triassic, eastern Spain: A quantitative subsidence modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Henar; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; López-Gómez, José; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd; de La Horra, Raúl; Arche, Alfredo

    2009-09-01

    The Permian-Triassic sediments of the Iberian Plate are a well studied case of classical Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk-Keuper facies, with good sedimentological interpretations and precise datings based on pollen and spore assemblages, ammonoids and foraminifera. Synrift-postrift cycles are recorded in these facies, but there are only a few studies of quantitative subsidence analysis (backstripping method) and only a previous one using forward modelling for the quantification of synrift-postrift phases of this period. Here we present the results obtained by the quantitative analysis of fourteen field sections and oil-well electric log records in the Iberian and Ebro Basins, Spain. Backstripping analysis showed five synrift phases of 1 to 3 million years duration followed by postrift periods for the Permian-Triassic interval. The duration, however, shows lateral variations and some of them are absent in the Ebro Basin. The forward modelling analysis, assuming local isostatic compensation, has been applied to each observation point using one-layer and two-layer lithospheric configurations. The second one shows a better fit between observation and model prediction in a systematic way, so a two layer configuration is assumed for the sedimentary basin filling analysis. Lithospheric stretching factors β and δ obtained in the forward modelling analysis are never higher than 1.2, but sometimes β 1 in the same section. If surficial extension is compensated by deep compression either at the roots of the rift basins or in far-away zones is not yet clear, but this anomaly can be explained using a simple shear extensional model for the Iberian and Ebro basins.

  2. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004-2014: a multi-exponential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemi; Reche, Cristina; Castro, Iria; Shatalov, Victor; Querol, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background), located in the northeast (NE) of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004-2014) were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann-Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10) showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN) and Montseny (MSY) during 2004-2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V-Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic) and from the industrial (metallurgy mainly) source at BCN

  3. New records of Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in Ebro River Basin (N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscoz, J., Tomás, P., Durán, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This note represents a contribution to the knowledge of the presence of the fish leech Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in the Ebro River Basin. This species was collected in two rivers in the Ebro River Basin. Although this species has been reported from the Iberian Peninsula, these records are scarce and, to the author’s best knowledge, this study presents the first record of Piscicola geometra in the Ebro River Basin.

  4. Inverse modeling of groundwater flow in the semiarid evaporitic closed basin of Los Monegros, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Calvete, F. J.; García-Vera, M. A.

    Only minor attention has been given in the past to the study of closed-basin hydrogeology in evaporitic environments, because these basins usually contain poor-quality groundwater. The motivation for hydrogeological research in the Los Monegros area in northeastern Spain was the approval in 1986 of a large irrigation project in the Ebre River basin. The irrigation of 60,000 ha is planned, partly in an evaporitic closed basin containing playa lakes. The project has given rise to environmental concerns. The evaluation of the hydrologic impacts of irrigation requires quantifying properly the hydrogeology of the area. With the available information, a conceptual hydrogeological model was formulated that identifies two main aquifers connected through a leaky aquitard. On the basis of the conceptual model, a numerical model was calibrated under steady-state conditions using the method of maximum-likelihood automatic parameter estimation (Carrera and Neuman, 1986a). The calibrated model reproduces the measured hydraulic heads fairly well and is consistent with independent information on groundwater discharge. By the solution of the inverse problem, reliable parameter estimates were obtained. It is concluded that anisotropy plays a major role in some parts of the lower aquifer. The geometric average of model conductivity is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the average conductivity derived from small-scale field tests. This scale effect in hydraulic conductivity is consistent with the findings of Neuman (1994) and Sánchez-Vila et al. (1996). Résumé Dans le passé, on s'est peu intéresséà l'hydrogéologie des bassins fermés en milieu évaporitique, parce que ces bassins possèdent en général de l'eau souterraine de qualité médiocre. L'intérêt porté aux recherches hydrogéologiques dans la région de Los Monegros, dans le nord-est de l'Espagne est dûà l'approbation en 1986 d'un vaste projet d'irrigation dans le bassin de l'Ebre. L'irrigation de 60000

  5. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar, E-mail: janjua945@hotmail.com; Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Rahman, M. Nasir B. A., E-mail: nasirr@petronas.com.my [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I –Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well – log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  6. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar; Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Rahman, M. Nasir B. A.

    2016-02-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I -Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well - log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  7. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I –Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well – log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively

  8. Calculated Porosity of Volcanic Reservoir in Wangjiatun of the Northern Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanlong Shan; Chuanbiao Wa; Rihui Cheng; Wanzhu Liu

    2003-01-01

    In Wangjiatun area of the Northern Songliao Basin, reservoir space can be divided into three types: primary pore, secondary pore and fissure according to their origins,which can be subdivided into eight subtypes: macro-vesicule,shrank primary vesicule, alteration pore, groundmass corrosive pore, normal structural crack, corrosive structural crack,filled structural crack and groundmass shrank crack according to texture and origin of the pore space. It has characteristic of double pore medium. Volcanic porosities of small diameter samples (with diameter of ca. 2.5 cm) and large diameter samples (with diameter of ca. 21.5 cm) were tested in accordance with the characteristic of volcanic reservoir space. Volcanic porosities for small diameter samples correspond with matrix porosities and those of large diameter samples correspond with total porosities including matrix and fractured porosities. Models of the calculated porosity by acoustic wave or density of volcanic reservoir are established in view of those measured data. Comparison of calculated and measuredporosities shows that precision of calculated porosities is lower for rhyolite and tuffites, and higher for basaltand andesite.Relative errors of calculated porosities by model of large diameter samples are lower than those of small diameter samples, i. e. precision of the former is higher than that of the later.

  9. Environmental isotopes (N, S, C, O, D) to determine natural attenuation processes in nitrate contaminated waters: Example of Osona (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoria, Laura [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lvitoria@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Otero, Neus [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Nitrate-contaminated groundwater from an aquifer in the Osona region (NE Spain) was chemically and isotopically ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO{sub 4}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}}, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) characterized. Diffuse- NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination reached values of 366 mg/L. Nearly 75% of the 37 sampled sites had higher concentrations than the 50 mg/L in NO{sub 3}{sup -} limit for drinking water. To identify the source of pollution {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} were used with results, for most samples, in the range of pig manure NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of the {delta}{sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and water. Isotopic data suggested that natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taking place. This process was confirmed using the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} coupled with the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio, avoiding the influence of continuous NO{sub 3}{sup -} inputs. A further insight on denitrification processes was obtained by analyzing the ions involved in denitrification reactions. Although the role of organic matter oxidation could neither be confirmed nor discarded, this approach showed a link between denitrification and pyrite oxidation. Therefore, in areas with no adequate infrastructure (e.g. multipiezometers), such as the one studied, this approach could be useful for implementing better water management.

  10. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion.

  11. Review of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy in Western Cameros basin, Northern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Maria del Pilar Clemente

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Cameros basin has been reviewed. In Western Cameros the stratigraphic sections are condensed but they have a parallel development with the basin depocentre and the same groups have been identified. The Tera Group consists of two formations: ...

  12. Re-evaluation of the petroleum potential of the Kufra Basin (SE Libya, NE Chad): does the source rock barrier fall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Sebastian [Wales Univ., Inst. of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Craig, Jonathan [LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Fitches, Bill [Robertson Research International, Llandudno (United Kingdom); Mayouf, Juma; Busrewil, Ahmed; El Dieb, Mufta; Gammudi, Amar [Petroleum Research Centre, Tripoli (Libya); Loydell, David [Portsmouth Univ., School of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); McIlroy, Duncan [Liverpool Univ., STRAT Group, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    The Kufra Basin is a large, underexplored, Palaeozoic intracratonic sag basin in SE Libya and NE Chad with extensions into NW Sudan and SW Egypt. The basin fill consists of shallow marine to fluvial deposits ranging in age from infracambrian to Cretaceous. Geologically, the basin is very similar to the Murzuq Basin in SW Libya which recently presented Libya with its largest oil discovery for over a decade. Most of the hydrocarbon play elements known from the Murzuq Basin also occur in the Kufra Basin: thick, porous Cambro-Ordovician sandstones are present and would form good reservoirs, lower Silurian shales may act as effective seals, and there are potential structural traps in seismically defined fault blocks. However, the source rock availability in the Kufra Basin is currently unclear. One of the two main source rock candidates in the basin is a lower Silurian shale unit (Tanezzuft Formation). The Tanezzuft shales have been described as being up to 130 m thick in outcrops at the basin margins, but the shales were found to be replaced by siltstones and sandstones in two dry exploration wells drilled in the northern part of the basin by AGIP between 1978 and 1981. Hot shales developed at the base of this widespread Silurian shale unit form important source rocks in many areas of North Africa and Arabia. These hot shales are interpreted to have been deposited in palaeodepressions, such as incised valleys of the preceding lowstand, or intrashelf basins, during the initial transgression after the melting of the late Ordovician ice cap. The areal distribution of the organic-rich unit is, therefore, discontinuous. Fieldwork in the Kufra Basin has shown that the basal Tanezzuft horizon is not exposed on the northern and eastern margins of the basin. Deep infracambrian rift grabens have been interpreted on seismic lines from the Kufra Basin and, in analogy to Oman and Algeria, could contain organic-rich infracambrian deposits. The infracambrian succession in the Kufra

  13. Syntectonic fluid flow and fluid compartmentalization in a compressive basin: Example of the Jaca basin (Southwest Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Brice; Travé, Anna; Buatier, Martine; Labaume, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    During compressive events, deformation in sedimentary basins is mainly accommodated by thrust faults emplacement and related fold growth. In such a structure, thrust faults are generally rooted in the basement and may act as conduits or barriers for crustal fluid flow. However, most of recent studies suggest that fluid flow through such discontinuities is not so evident and depends on the structural levels of the thrust inside the fold-and-thrust belt. In order to constrain the paleofluid flow through the Jaca thrust-sheet-top basin (Paleogene southwest-Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt) we focus our study on different thrust faults located at different structural levels. The microstructures observed in the different studied fault zones are similar and consist of pervasive cleavage, calcite shear and extension veins and late dilatation veins. In order to constrain the nature and the source of fluids involved in fluid-rock interactions in fault zones, a geochemical approach, based on oxygen and carbon stable isotopes and trace elements on calcite, was adopted on the different vein generations and host rocks. The results suggest a high complexity in the paleo-hydrological behaviors of thrust faults evidencing a fluid-flow compartmentalization of the basin. North of the Jaca basin, previous studies in the southern part of the Axial Zones showed the contribution of deep metamorphic water, probably derived from the Paleozoic basement, along along fault zones related the major Gavarnie thrust. Contrarily, in the northern part of the Jaca basin, we evidence the contribution of formation water during the Monte Perdido thrust fault activity. These data suggest a closed hydrological fluid system where distance of fluid flow did not exceeded 70 m. On the other hand, the Jaca and Cotiella thrust faults, both located more to the south in the basin, are characterized by a composite fluid flow system. Indeed, stable isotopes and trace elements compositions of the first generation of

  14. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, María J.; Rovira, Albert; García-Contreras, Darío; Contreras, Eva; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Losada, Miguel A.

    2016-05-01

    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930-2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  15. 3D modeling of the Sorbas Basin (Spain): new constraints on the Messinian Erosional Surface morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Do Couto, Damien; GUMIAUX, Charles; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Lebret, Noëmie; Folcher, Nicolas; Jouannic, Gwenaël; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Gorini, Christian

    2015-01-01

    International audience The scenario of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) remains one of the most debated topics in the Mediterranean realm and especially in the Sorbas Basin, which is one of the type-localities of MSC-related deposits. After a recently improved chronostratigraphic framework of the Miocene and Pliocene deposits in the basin, it appears important to image the morphology of the Messinian Erosional Surface (MES) at depth. We built a 3D model at the basin-scale of the Miocene...

  16. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi in the Ebro river Basin (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocete Rubio, Rafael; Arroyo García, R.; Morales, M. L.; Cantos, Manuel; Gallardo Cano, A.; Pérez Izquierdo, Mª Á.; Gómez Parrales, Isidoro; López Martínez, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    A wild grapevine population of 76 vines of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi was found along the Iregua river valley (Northeastern Spain), located in the Ibérica mountain-range. The characterization of this phytogenetic resource was based on an ampelographic description of the male and female individuals and an evaluation of their sanitary state. This shows that the imported North American downy and powdery mildews are the main pathogens, but no symptoms caused by phylloxe...

  17. Tectonic?palaeoenvironmental forcing of clay-mineral assemblages in nonmarine settings: the Oligocene?Miocene As Pontes Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, A.; Inglès, M.; Cabrera, L.; de las Heras, A.

    2003-07-01

    Two small, alluvial-lacustrine subbasins developed during the early restraining overstep stages of the Oligocene-Miocene As Pontes strike-slip Basin (NW Spain). Later, the basin evolved into a restraining bend stage and an alluvial-swamp-dominated depositional framework developed. The palaeobiological record demonstrates that the Oligocene-Miocene palaeoclimate in NW Spain was subtropical, warm and humid to subhumid. The metamorphic and igneous basin catchment yielded clay assemblages made up by kaolinite, illite and Al-smectite. Illite occurred as an original mineral in the source rock area, whereas kaolinite and Al-smectite resulted mainly from weathering of feldspar and clinochlore, respectively. This detrital primary clay assemblage remained preserved in the colluvial, alluvial fan and shallow lacustrine facies, whose early diagenesis was influenced by diluted, poorly evolved pore waters with neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The original clay assemblage was mildly to strongly transformed under early diagenetic conditions in the lacustrine and swampy environments where significant hydrochemical and Eh-pH changes took place. A fibrous magnesium-rich clay mineral-dominated assemblage (palygorskite and sepiolite) formed in shallow, saline lakes and palustrine zones under the influence of magnesium-rich, alkaline waters. Moreover, kaolinite-enriched assemblages formed in deep lacustrine, swamp and swamp-related alluvial zones under the influence of slightly to highly acidic pore waters. Pore water acidic conditions, characterising environments with organic matter accumulation, led to early diagenetic transformation of Al-smectite into kaolinite. This process was relatively limited in some environments such as organic matter-rich bottoms in meromictic lacustrine zones, whereas it was pervasive in peat-forming swamp zones. The stratigraphic relationships between the diverse clay mineral assemblages in the As Pontes Basin fill demonstrate the coeval development of

  18. The Tortonian salinity crisis in the Fortuna Basin (southeastern Spain): Stratigraphic record, tectonic scenario and chronostratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Tent-Manclús, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Soria, J. M.; Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03080 Alicante; Estévez, A.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apto. 99, 03080 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain; Lancis, C.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Caracuel, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Yébenes, A.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apto. 99, 03080 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain

    2008-01-01

    The Neogene Fortuna and Bajo Segura basins are located on the northeastern end of the Trans-Alborán Shear Zone (TASZ), on the eastern Betic cordillera. The stratigraphic study of the infilling of these basins has shown two major sedimentary discontinuities. The first one, represented by an erosive surface separating open marine marls from an overlying coastal conglomeratic unit, is linked to the onset of the activity along the TASZ, which in this area indicates the beginning of the Abanilla T...

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of the impact of residual heavy metals on soil nematodes in the Guadiamar River Basin (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Sara; Camargo, Julio A; Navas, Alfonso

    2006-05-01

    On 25 April 1998, as a consequence of the breaking of a dam containing the tailings of a pyrite mine, a land strip of approximately 43 km in length was covered with a layer of black sludge, containing high levels of heavy metals, along the Guadiamar River Basin (southern Spain). In this investigation we carried out an ecotoxicological assessment (field and laboratory studies) of the impact of residual heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni) on soil nematodes in the impacted riparian zone, two years after the huge mine spillage. Concentrations of residual heavy metals were significantly (Pimpacted sampling sectors (S-2, S-3, S-4, S-5) than at the unpolluted (reference) sampling sector (S-1). Nickel however exhibited the lowest increases at the impacted sectors. As a consequence, correlation coefficients between concentrations of heavy metals and values of ecological indices were not significant for Ni. In contrast, copper, lead and zinc exhibited significant (Pimpacted riparian zone of the Guadiamar River Basin. Cu, Pb and, to a lesser extent, Zn would be major responsible for the observed impact. PMID:16779593

  20. Astronomical forcing in continental sediments. An integrated stratigraphic study of Miocene deposits from the Calatayud and Teruel basins, NE Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    During the last decades, there is an increasing concern about global climate change as a consequence of anthropogenic influences. Recently, a report presented by the working group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that there is convincing evidence that most of the war

  1. The Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain): implications for the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean margins

    OpenAIRE

    Soria, J. M.; Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03080 Alicante; Caracuel, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Corbí, H.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Lancis, C.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Tent-Manclús, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Yébenes, A.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apto. 99, 03080 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphy of the Bajo Segura Basin (a marginal basin of the western Mediterranean) has revealed three synthems deposited in a high sea-level context: T-MI (late Tortonian-Messinian), MII (Messinian), and P (early Pliocene), bounded by two lowstand erosional surfaces (intra-Messinian and end-Messinian unconformities). With respect to the salinity crisis, we propose the following series of events: 1) pre-evaporitic or pre-crisis phase (T-MI synthem)...

  2. Diagenetic paths in the margin of a Triassic Basin: NW zone of the Iberian Chain, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ochoa; Arribas Mocoroa, José

    2005-01-01

    Buntsandstein deposits generated in a slowly subsiding basin on the western margin of the Iberian Chain are represented by a stratigraphic succession of fluvial deposits less than 100 m thick (conglomerates, sandstones, and shales). Diagenetic processes in sandstones can be grouped as eodiagenetic, mesodiagenetic, and telodiagenetic. Eodiagenesis can be associated with Muschelkalk, Keuper, and probably early Jurassic times. Mesodiagenesis is probably related to Jura...

  3. Tectonic analysis of Lechada and Curavacas synclines, Yuso basin, León, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, J.F.

    1967-01-01

    The structures along the southern boundary of the flysch-filled Yuso Basin bear witness to continuous epeirogenic activity during the Upper Carboniferous. The Carda\\u0148o Line foems the boundary proper but other structures, somewhat similar to this fundamental feature e.g. the Pe\\u0148a Prieta line

  4. Diagenetic and oil migration history of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation, Maestrat Basin, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, C.; Marfil, R.; Pena, J.A. de la; Caja, M.A. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Petrologia y Geoquimica; Goldstein, R.H. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Salas, R.; Permanyer, A. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Geoquimica; Benito, M.I. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Estratigrafia

    2001-03-01

    The marine limestones of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation in the Maestrat Basin reached more than 3500 m in burial depth during the Cretaceous era. Despite containing organic-rich intervals, mature in parts of the basin, its potential as oil source-rock has been either overlooked or questioned. A petrographic, geochemical and fluid-inclusion (Fl) study of the cements of the Ascla was performed in order to unravel its diagenetic and thermal evolution. We particularly sought evidence of oil migration and its timing. Three sequences of cement were distinguished. Sequence 1 fills the primary porosity and began with Fe-poor calcites with geochemistry and FIs consistent with precipitation from marine-derived waters during shallow burial. These calcites were followed by burial cements, including ferroan calcite, dolomite, and minor celestite and barite. Sequence 2 consists of Mg-rich, fracture-filling calcite cement zones. The earlier ones are ferroan and contain primary aqueous and oil FIs with homogenization temperatures suggesting precipitation at temperatures as high as 117{sup o}C. Sequence 3 is dominated by fracture-filling calcites with geochemistry and FIs indicating precipitation at low temperatures (less than {approx} 50{sup o}C) from meteoric waters. Cross-cutting relationships with compressional microstructures indicate that Sequence 3 formed after the Eocene Oligocene tectonic inversion of the basin. Oil FIs in Sequence 2 provide evidence that light oils migrated through the Ascla Formation via fractures and microfractures. These oils were likely generated in the organic-rich marls of the basal part of the Ascla. The paragenetic sequence and burial history are consistent with oil generation when the Ascla was at or close to maximum burial depth, but before the Eocene Alpine tectonism, which likely formed the structural traps in the basin. Oil generation and migration occurred long before this event. Therefore, it is probable that early traps were breached by

  5. Patterns of landscape form in the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps, predominantly show lithologic controls despite multiple glaciations and variations in rock uplift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, L. A.; Costa, A.; Schlunegger, F.

    2015-10-01

    The development of topography is mainly dependent on the interplay of uplift and erosion, which are in term controlled by various factors including climate, glaciers, lithology, seismic activity and short-term variables such as anthropogenic impact. While most studies have focused on the role of tectonics and climate on the landscape form and underlying processes, less attention has been paid on exploring the controls of lithology on erosion. The Central European Alps are characterized by a large spatial variability in exposed lithologies and as such offer an ideal laboratory to investigate the lithological controls on erosion and landscape form. Here, we focus on the ca. 5400 km2-large upper Rhône basin situated in the Central Swiss Alps to explore how the lithological architecture of the bedrock conditions the Alpine landscape. To this extent, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins, whose catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state as testified by mainly convex or concave-convex longitudinal stream channel profiles with several knickpoints of either tectonic or glacial origin. In addition, although the entire Rhône basin shows a strong glacial inheritance (and is still partly glaciated) and some of the highest uplift rates recently measured in the Alps, the river network has responded differently to those perturbations as revealed by the morphometric data. In particular, tributary basins in the Helvetic nappes are the most equilibrated (concave river profiles, overall lower elevations, less steep slope gradients and lowest hypsometric integrals), while the tributaries located in the External massifs are least equilibrated

  6. Long-term persistence of Mediterranean pine forests in the Duero Basin (central Spain) during the Holocene: The case of Pinus pinaster Aiton

    OpenAIRE

    Morales del Molino, Cesar; Postigo Mijarra, Jose Maria; Morla Juaristi, Carlos; Garcia Anton, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    In the southern Duero Basin of central Spain, there are vast areas of aeolian sand sheets and dune fields. A comprehensive survey of the sand quarries in this area identified a number of palaeosols in sedimentary sequences. The identification and AMS radiocarbon dating of soil charcoal fragments collected in these palaeosols indicate the persistence of Pinus pinaster in this area throughout most of the Holocene. Although potential natural vegetation models have usually considered the Pinus pi...

  7. Experimental studies of supercritical bedforms applied to coarse-grained turbidite deposits of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, George; Kleverlaan, Kick

    2014-05-01

    Modern submarine canyon floors are often covered with bedform patterns linked to supercritical turbidity currents, while recognition of sedimentary structures associated with such bedforms in outcrops are rare. On the basis of experimental work on bed morphodynamics and flow structure of high-density turbidity currents, a 3-dimensional bedform stability diagram and related sedimentary facies diagram have been constructed. To allow scaling of this diagram to natural flows, four non-dimensional parameters are used: 1) densimetric Froude number, 2) modified mobility parameter, 3) dimensionless grain size and 4) basal sediment concentration. Each bedform and basal sediment concentration is then linked to a characteristic facies type. Numerical and theoretical models from the literature and observations from modern turbidite depositional systems are used to estimate characteristic sizes of the bedforms for different flow types. The model is applied to the turbidite fan systems of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene) and discussed along existing classical models of high density turbidity current deposits. It is concluded that the vertical sequence of supercritical bedforms have been described in these models, yet to date have never been recognized as bedforms in outcrop, presumably because of their large size that easily exceeds the dimensions of commonly available outcrop. On the basis both experimental work and outcrop studies in the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain) a conceptual three-dimensional bedform diagram for recognition of cyclic steps in outcrop is constructed. Experimental data indicates that depositional processes on the stoss-side of a cyclic step are controlled by hydraulic jump, which temporarily stalls the flow and by subsequent waxing of the flow up to supercritical again. The hydraulic jump produces large scours with soft sediment deformation (flames) preserved in Bouma Ta, while near horizontal, massive to stratified top-cut-out turbidite beds are

  8. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge;

    as this it will lead to better estimate of the groundwater recharge and hereby of the groundwater availability in the delta region.   The hydrological behaviour of the Andarax river basin is simulated by the MIKE SHE code, which is a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. In the first...... scenario we only use traditional meteorological data and standard values for the vegetation characteristics. The traditional meteorological data are rather sparse for the Andarax river basin and to improve the estimation of evapotranspiration we use an energy-based two-layer SVAT model and apply remote...... sensing derived variables as input data. Specifically surface temperature, global radiation, albedo and leaf area index (LAI) are derived from remote sensing images. We compare the two model simulations and focus in particular on the temporal and spatial distribution of evapotranspiration and recharge...

  9. New insights on the Sorbas Basin (SE Spain): the onshore reference of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Clauzon, Georges; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Do Couto, Damien; Jouannic, Gwénaël; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela Carmen; Jolivet, Laurent; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Lebret, Noëmie; Mocochain, Ludovic; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Martinell, Jordi; Doménech, Rosa; Rubino, Jean-Loup; GUMIAUX, Charles; Warny, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Sorbas Basin is the land reference of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) that affected the Mediterranean Sea in the latest Miocene. Its stratigraphy has been re-visited using calcareous nannofossils and planktonic foraminifers, which provide a reliable biostratigraphic frame and lead to particularly specify the relationships between the Sorbas and Zorreras members with Yesares evaporites.The evaporites overlie a shallowing upward sequence ending with the deposit...

  10. Evidence for Late Messinian seismites, Nijar Basin, south-east Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, A. R.; Cristino J. Dabrio

    2008-01-01

    The Feos Formation of the Nijar Basin comprises sediments deposited during the final stage of the Messinian salinity crisis when the Mediterranean was almost totally isolated. Levels of soft-sediment deformation structures occur in both conglomeratic alluvial sediments deposited close to faults and the hyposaline Lago Mare facies, a laminated and thin-bedded succession of whitish chalky marls and intercalated sands alternating with non-marine coastal plain deposits. Deformat...

  11. Characterization of asphaltic oil occurrences from the southeastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, P.; Márquez, G.; Gallego, J. R.; Permanyer, A.

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical investigation has been undertaken on biodegraded hydrocarbons in outcropping reservoirs of the south-eastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Álava sector). The aims of the study were the characterization of the geochemical features and biodegradation level of these hydrocarbons, and the evaluation of their resemblance to oils from the Ayoluengo onshore oil field by means of isotopic analyses and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Most of the samples lack n-a...

  12. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean landscapes are man-made. Its human ecosystems are characterized by a high population density, a long history of human settlement and an intense exchange of goods and people (Cerdà et al., 2010). This was possible due to a dense road network, most of it created during the Roman Empire. Modern roads and railways increased drastically during the last 30 years in the Mediterranean. Spain is a clear example of the acceleration of the road and railway infrastructures (Bel, 2005), especially during the 1960s as the tourism started to become a big issue in this part of the World. The increase in road and railways during the last 30 years resulted in a new transport system in Spain, which is based on high-speed railways and motorways. The characteristic of these infrastructures is that they were built by means of embankments, and little is now about the erosional response of those embankments to rainfall. The objective of this research is to assess the soil losses measured in road and railway embankments. The Canyoles River watershed was selected as an example of a region with a dense and recently developed modern network of roads, motorways and railway. The Canyoles river watershed is the natural path between the Mediterranean coast and Central Spain, the capital of the country and the touristic regions. Two motorways and two railways were built or re-built during the last two years and this paper assesses their impact on soil and water losses. As soil erosion rates are dependent on the high intensity - low frequency rainfall events, rainfall simulation experiments (40 experiments) were conducted (1 m2 plots; 60 minutes duration; 78 mm h-1 intensity) were carried out over plots on 2 railway (n=10 + 10) and motorway (n=10 + 10) research sites in August 2011, under very dry conditions. Soil moisture was below 5 % in the top 2 cm soil layer. The vegetation cover was very low in the two road and two railway embankments as the average cover was 4.2 % ranging from

  13. Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Larrasoaña

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than has been previously reported, their significance for paleomagetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain. Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization and that we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization (BDRM. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions that appear to be delayed by 60-70 kyr. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization (BGRM that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes broadly coincides with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC, an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our study highlights the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and

  14. Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, Juan C; Liu, Qingsong; Hu, Pengxiang; Roberts, Andrew P; Mata, Pilar; Civis, Jorge; Sierro, Francisco J; Pérez-Asensio, José N

    2014-01-01

    Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than have been previously reported, their significance for paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization, which we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions with an apparent 60-70 kyr recording delay. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes coincides broadly with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our results highlight the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental signals even in

  15. Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic contraction in an intraplate setting (Maestrat basin, Iberian Chain, E Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Miralles, M.; Guimerà Roso, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Iberian Chain, located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula, is a fold-and-thrust belt developed during the Cenozoic, because of the contractional inversion of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift System. The extension in the Iberian Chain took place in two major rifting cycles (late Permian to late Triassic and late Oxfordian to late Albian) followed by episodes of lower rifting activity (early and middle Jurassic, and late Albian to Maastrichtian). The Maestrat basin (containing up to 6.5 km of Mesozoic sediments) is one of the most subsident basins during the late Oxfordian to late Albian cycle. A system of listric extensional faults, which involve the basement, bounded the basin, and also divided it into minor sub-basins, containing different thicknesses of the Mesozoic sedimentary fill. An E-W-trending, N-verging, fold-and-thrust belt developed in the northern boundary of the basin, as the result of the Cenozoic inversion. This belt involved the Mesozoic cover in the northern -foreland- areas, with a detachment level located within the Triassic: in the Middle Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) and Keuper (Upper Triassic), both formed by lutites and evaporites. Southwards, the thrust-system also involved the Variscan basement. A study of the region containing the transition between the thin-skinned and the thick-skinned areas is presented, based on seismic profiles, oil-exploration wells and field data. A progressive northward thickening of Jurassic and lower Cretaceous units, related to a S-dipping listric extensional fault located to the N, can be observed both in the field and the seismic profiles. In the Triassic rocks, depositional thickness variations in the Middle Muschelkalk unit are observed, related to sub-vertical faults active during the Triassic rifting. Salt anticlines, pillows and welds are also observed in the Middle Muschelkalk. These halocynetic structures developed during the Keuper, as it is deduced from the onlap geometries of the Keuper seismic reflectors

  16. Sedimentary cyclicity in early Pleistocene, evaporitic, playa-lake lacustrine deposits in the Guadix-Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guadix-Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) contains in its eastern sector an early Pleistocene (Gelasian and lowermost Calabrian) sedimentary unit that was deposited in a shallow lacustrine environment. Given that the chronological limits of this unit lie between 2.5 and 1.6 Ma BP, the thickness of its preserved sediments (400 m) and high sedimentation rate (44.4 cm/ka) are remarkable. Numerous sedimentary cycles marked by an alternation of marls and sands are commonly found in the marginal sectors and marls and gypsum in the central sector, which would owe their origins to permanent flooding and evaporation/ re-flooding phases due to global climatic changes. Spectral analyses carried out using Fourier transform have revealed the existence of temporary frequencies associated with sedimentary cycles of between 0.2 and 5.2 ka. The origin of these cycles may be associated with variations in solar radiation and oscillations in the Moons orbital position, which would induce global climatic changes resulting in the rise and fall of the water table of the lake. Autocorrelation analyses conducted separately on the marly and evaporitic levels support this conclusion, as they indicate the existence of significant direct correlations between about 4 to 12 sedimentary cycles, which would correspond to repetitions of the stratigraphic series over a time span of 1.3 to 4 ka. (Author)

  17. Diagenetic paths in the margin of a Triassic Basin: NW zone of the Iberian Chain, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Maria; Arribas, José

    2005-04-01

    Buntsandstein deposits generated in a slowly subsiding basin on the western margin of the Iberian Chain are represented by a stratigraphic succession of fluvial deposits less than 100 m thick (conglomerates, sandstones, and shales). Diagenetic processes in sandstones can be grouped as eodiagenetic, mesodiagenetic, and telodiagenetic. Eodiagenesis can be associated with Muschelkalk, Keuper, and probably early Jurassic times. Mesodiagenesis is probably related to Jurassic times. Diagenetic chemical reactions suggest a maximum burial less than 1.5 km and low temperatures (<120°C). Patterns of porosity reduction by compaction and cementation suggest four diagenetic stages: (1) Loss of primary porosity by early mechanical compaction; (2) early cementation (K-feldspar and dolomite); (3) dissolution of cements; and (4) framework collapse by re-compaction. These stages are manifested by the presence of two types of sandstone. Type I sandstones present high intergranular volume (mean, 30%). Type II sandstones are characterized by high compactional porosity loss and exhibit low values of intergranular volume (mean, 16.9%). Type II sandstones are associated with the dissolution of cement and later re-compaction of type I sandstones. An intermediate telodiagenetic phase is deduced and related to the sharp unconformity between Lower Cretaceous sediments and the underlying sediments. This suggests that a mechanically unstable framework collapsed during the Cretaceous, generating type II sandstones. The analyzed diagenetic paths have a wide applicability on similar marginal areas of rift basins.

  18. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  19. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  20. Drainage architecture and sediment routing in erosive catchments within the Ebro Eiver sedimentary basin (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Xavier; Colombo, Ferran; Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The Ebro Basin (EB) is the result of filling a foreland basin located between active mountain ranges during the Paleogene compressive phases, and later affected by phases of distension in the Neogene. The arrangement of filler material is monocline in the eastern margin and in the contact with the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR). This has repercussions on the model of emptying the erosive basins and in the drainage that took place in the margins of the original sedimentary basin. One can speak of a drainage architecture and sediment routing associated to a monocline erosive basin model. The monocline topography in the original margin of EB encouraged the formation of a string of erosive basins around the contact with CCR, which are the result of headward erosion towards the center of the EB of the rivers draining the CCR towards the Valencia Trough. At the time, the transition from the EB in its initial condition of endorheic to exorheic was through one of these monocline erosive basins. The erosive basins emptied by means of two vectors. On the one hand, growth in surface of the basin by deepening anaclinal streams through resistant beds of monocline stratigraphic succession that empty and link small depressions that increase laterally on the less resistant lithologic member. Moreover, the new drainage system entrenches as the exit point of the basin does, thanks to gradients created by distensional movements of the Neogene Valencia Trough. Growth and entrenchment model of river basins, as well as, sedimentary deposits and landforms generated by these processes are described and analyzed.

  1. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  2. Record of Carcharocles megalodon in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Miocene, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reolid, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortonian diatomites of the San Felix Quarry (Porcuna, in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin, have given isolated marine vertebrate remains that include a large shark tooth (123.96 mm from apex to the baseline of the root. The large size of the crown height (92.2 mm, the triangular shape, the broad serrated crown, the convex lingual face and flat labial face, and the robust, thick angled root determine that this specimen corresponds to Carcharocles megalodon. The symmetry with low slant shows it to be an upper anterior tooth. The total length estimated from the tooth crown height is calculated by means of different methods, and comparison is made with Carcharodon carcharias. The final inferred total length of around 11 m classifies this specimen in the upper size range of the known C. megalodon specimens. The palaeogeography of the Guadalquivir Basin close to the North Betic Strait, which connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, favoured the interaction of the cold nutrient-rich Atlantic waters with warmer Mediterranean waters. The presence of diatomites indicates potential upwelling currents in this context, as well as high productivity favouring the presence of large vertebrates such as mysticetid whales, pinnipeds and small sharks (Isurus. These large vertebrates recorded in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin were potential prey of C. megalodon.Las diatomitas tortonienses de la antigua Cantera de San Félix (Porcuna, Jaén, en el sector oriental de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir, han proporcionado restos aislados de vertebrados marinos entre los que destaca un gran diente de tiburón (123.96 mm desde el ápice hasta la línea basal de la raiz. La altura de la corona (92.2 mm, su forma triangular con bordes aserrados, la presencia de una cara lingual convexa y una labial plana, conjuntamente con la raíz angulosa y robusta, permiten determinar que este diente perteneció a un ejemplar de Carcharocles megalodon. La alta simetría de la pieza

  3. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC farm residues. The highest NO3 concentrations (mean of 113 mg/L) and annual N loads (mean of 38 kg/ha) were found in Valcuerna, the most intense corn sprinkler-irrigated catchment. The lowest NO3 concentrations (21 mg/L; 5 times lower than Valcuerna) were measured in the Alcanadre flood-irrigated catchment. In contrast, Alcanadre N loads (21 kg/ha) were only about two times lower than in Valcuerna, due to the higher IRF volumes in Alcanadre (353 mm versus 132 mm in Valcuerna). Irrigation modernization in Violada decreased N loads from 20 to 5 kg N/ha (four times lower) due to the sharp reduction of IRF while maintaining NO3 concentration around 20 mg/L. The only significant contribution of ammonium (17% to the total N load of 13 hg/ha) was found in Clamor, the catchment with highest agro-industrial development. Overall, IRF salt and nitrate concentrations tended to increase and salt

  4. Natural attenuation processes of nitrate in a saline lake-aquifer system: Pétrola Basin (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Nicolas; Menchen, Alfonso; Jirsa, Franz; Hein, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gomez-Alday, Juan Jose

    2016-04-01

    Saline wetlands associated with intense agricultural activities in semi-arid to arid climates are among the most vulnerable environments to NO3- pollution. The endorheic Pétrola Basin (High Segura River Basin, Central Spain) was declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution by the Regional Government of Castilla-La Mancha in 1998. The hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified waterbody, due to the inputs of pollutants from agricultural sources and urban waste waters, the latest are discharged directly into the lake without proper treatment. Previous studies showed that the aquifer system has two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas into the lake, and a density-driven flow from the lake to the underlying aquifer. The NO3- inputs derived from agriculture originate from nitrification of synthetic ammonium fertilizers, and afterwards, NO3- is expected to be attenuated by denitrification (up to 60%) in the saltwater-freshwater interface around the lake. However, the spatial and temporal pattern of nitrate reduction in lake sediments is not known. In this study, an isotope pairing technique was used in order to clarify the main pathways for the NO3- attenuation linked to the sediment-water interface. For that purpose mesocosm experiments were performed: organic-rich lake sediment (up to 23% organic carbon content) was incubated for 96 hours with the addition of 15N nitrate tracer. During the experiments two factors were modified: light and oxic conditions. Analyzing inorganic N-species (n=20) over time (72 hours) showed that NO3- attenuation was coupled with an increment in the NH4+ concentration (from 0.8 mg/L up to 5.3 mg/L) and a decrease in redox values (from 135.1 mV up to -422 mV) in the water column. The main outcome of this study was to elucidate the importance of different microbial pathways denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), in controlling the fate

  5. Sédimentation et tectonique dans le bassin marin Eocène supérieur-Oligocène des Alpes du Sud Sedimentation and Tectonics in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene Marine Basin in the Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riche P.

    2006-11-01

    'exprime nettement moins que précédemment. Le toit des grès est marqué par une surface de discontinuité fortement érosive correspondant à des canyons sous-marins de direction NE-SO. Cette surface peut être mise en relation avec l'écoulement des olistostromes qui termine le remplissage du bassin. La mise en place de ces olistostromes et des olistolithes qui les accompagnent n'est pas paléontologiquement datée : elle débute avec la fin de la sédimentation gréseuse. L'ensemble est encore affecté par une distension E-O ce qui tend à montrer que cette mise en place est antérieure à la phase de serrage miocène. La confrontation entre les observations de terrain, les expériences de sédimentation en canal et l'interprétation sismique de bassins offshore argumente les interprétations proposées. This paper is based on local field surveys performed recently by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM in the western part of the southern Alps nummulitic basin, to help interpret seismic data. It underlines the role of extensional tectonics during sedimentation. It questions the geodynamic interpretation of the basin as a foredeep basin in the Alpine orogenic belt. On a Mesozoic basement folded by the Pyreneo-Provençale orogeny, as early as the Lutetian the nummulitic transgression flooded the eastern area, which was subsequently obscured by the Pennine main fault during Mio-Pliocene times. It spread westward during the Upper Eocene. In the meantime, an E-W extension, shown clearly along the Var River faults and along the edge of the Pelvoux range, fragmented the fringes of the basin with blocks tilted during sedimentation. The result is fast changes of facies within the basal carbonates, which pass from platform types to slope types and to thin gravitational sediments farther into the basin. The overlying marls correspond to slope facies wrapping the inherited topography. The Gres d'Annot s. l

  6. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  7. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  8. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater

  9. Twenty-year advanced DInSAR analysis of severe land subsidence: The Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera García, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Béjar Pizarro, Marta; Zucca, Francesco; González, Pablo J.; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás Jover, Roberto; Fernández Torres, José; Fernández-Merodo, José Antonio; Mulas de la Peña, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Mora, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    A twenty-year period of severe land subsidence evolution in the Alto Guadalentín Basin (southeast Spain) is monitored using multi-sensor SAR images, processed by advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) techniques. The SAR images used in this study consist of four datasets acquired by ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, ALOS and COSMO-SkyMed satellites between 1992 and 2012. The integration of ground surface displacement maps retrieved for different time periods allows us to quan...

  10. A reassessment of the evidence for hydrothermal activity in the Neogene-Quaternary lacustrine environments of the Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) and its paleoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aguilar, José Manuel; Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Palmqvist, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In a recent paper, García-Aguilar et al. (2014) reported on lithological, mineralogical and geochemical evidence of intense, tectonically-induced hydrothermal activity during the continental sedimentary infilling of the Baza basin, a postorogenic, intramontane area developed on the boundary between the Internal and External Zones of the Betic Cordillera, Southeast Spain (Fig. 1). This evidence includes the finding of sulfur contents, magnesium clays, fluorspar and celestine deposits, thermogene stromatolites and travertine growths in the latest Miocene (Turolian) to Middle Pleistocene lacustrine sediments and is particularly concentrated at certain stages and places (e.g. at Calabrian times in the Orce area).

  11. Sedimentology and hydrocarbon habitat of the submarine-fan deposits of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (NE Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotak, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Pereszlenyi, M. [VVNP Research Oil Company for Exploration and Production, Bratislava (Slovakia); Marschalko, R.; Starek, D. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Milicka, J. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Geochemistry

    2001-01-01

    The Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin accommodates a subsiding area of the destructive plate-margin. The basin history comprises marginal faulting and alluvial fan accumulation (E{sub 2}); transgressive onlap by shoreface sediments and carbonate platform deposits (E{sub 2}); glacio-eustatic regression induced by cooling (Terminal Eocene Event); forced regression, tectonic subsidence and growth-fault accumulation of basin-floor and slope fans (E{sub 3}); decelerating subsidence, aggradation and sea-level rising during the mud-rich deposition (O{sub 1}); high-magnitude drop in sea-level (Mid-Oligocene Event), retroarc backstep of depocenters and lowstand accumulation of sand-rich fans and suprafans (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}); subduction-related shortening and basin inversion along the northern margins affected by backthrusting and transpressional deformation (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}). The basin-fill sequence has poor (TOC {<=} 0.5%) to fair (TOC < 1.0%) quality of source rocks. Maturity of OM ranges from initial to relic stage of HC generation. Paleogene rock-extracts display a good correlation with scarce trapped oils. 'The presence of solid bitumens and HC-rich fluid inclusions indicates overpressure conditions during HC generation and migration. Potential HC reservoirs can be expected in porous lithologies (scarp breccias), in basement highs and traps related to backthrusting, fault-propagation folding and strike-slip tectonics. (author)

  12. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tarriño

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  13. Diagenesis and Geochemistry of Upper Muschelkalk (Triassic) Buildups and Associated Facies in Catalonia (NE Spain): a paper dedicated to Francesc Calvet

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, M.; Marshall, J

    2004-01-01

    Carbonate buildups are well developed in the Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of eastern Spain in the La Riba Unit, but they are completely dolomitised. These mud-mounds with reefal caps have well-developed fibrous and botryoidal marine cements which were probably high-Mg calcite and aragonite originally. The dolomite is fabric retentive indicating an early origin, but the d18O values are quite negative (average -3.‰), interpreted as indicating recrystallisation during shallow burial, but without f...

  14. Late Miocene extension partitioning in the eastern Betics: from W- to E-directed extension between the Sorbas and Vera basins (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Jose Miguel; Azañon, Jose Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Late Miocene westward-directed extension in the Betics produced elongated core-complexes like Sierra Nevada and the Sierra de Filabres, tilted-block domains and associated basins. This extension represents the superficial manifestation of the rupture of the Tethyan slab and associated edge delamination along a lithospheric transform fault beneath the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc orogenic system. However, crustal thinning at the eastern Betics occurs progressively towards the east suggesting an eastward-directed extension, probably related to the late Miocene opening of the Algero-Balearic basin. In order to define the kinematics and timing of such a heterogeneous extension at the eastern Betics we have carefully mapped a key area at the transition between the Sorbas and Vera basins. Field data indicate that extension in the area started at the southern margin of the Vera basin during the Serravallian (13.8 Ma) and continued until the Tortonian (approximately 8 Ma). This extension was characterized by a set of NE- to E-directed normal faults to the east, in the Vera basin, and a set of SW-directed normal faults to the west, towards the Sorbas basin. This opposite-directed extension is segmented by E-W to WNW-ESE strike-slip faults like the North Cabrera dextral transfer fault that accommodates NE- to E-directed extension to the north and SW-directed extension to the south. This structure resulted in westward tilted blocks that lead to Serravallian-Tortonian depocenters deepening towards the east at the Vera basin along the northern side of Sierra Cabrera. Meanwhile, at the western termination of Sierra Cabrera, westward-directed extension migrated SW-ward forming the Sorbas basin during the Tortonian (approximately 9-7.24 Ma). This extension was characterized by a listric fan of SW-directed normal faults highly segmented by E-W to NE-SW transfer. This extensional system produced tiled-blocks defining a Tortonian depocenter at the eastern margin of the Sorbas

  15. A Prediction Model of Oil Cracked Gas Resources and Its Application in the Gas Pools of Feixianguan Formation in NE Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongshan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of oil cracked gas resources is necessary and urgent in the gas exploration of these basins at high to over stage in China. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system in our study. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid, and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid, and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracked gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this model were discussed. Finally the model was extrapolated to the prediction of oil cracked gas resources of Feixianguan formation in NE Sichuan basin, SW China. The prediction value of oil cracked resources is about 6.84×1012 m3, and generation intensity of oil cracked gas is about 97.5×108 m3/km2, and the paleo-oil reserves is about 97×108 t. The verifying value for this prediction is approximately equal to 1, indicating the model is reliable in the resource estimation of oil cracked gas.

  16. Geology and geochemistry of the Reocín zinc-lead deposit, Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Francisco; Herrero, Jose Miguel; Yusta, Inaki; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Seebold, Ignacio; Leach, David

    2003-01-01

    The Reoci??n Zn-Pb deposit, 30 km southwest of Santander, Spain, occurs within Lower Cretaceous dolomitized Urgonian limestones on the southern flank of the Santillana syncline. The Reoci??n deposit is one of the largest known strata-bound, carbonate-hosted, zinc-lead deposits in Europe. The total metal endowment of the deposit, including past production and remaining reserves, is 62 Mt of ore grading 8.7 percent Zn and 1.0 percent Pb. The epigenetic mineralization consists of sphalerite and galena, with lesser marcasite and trace pyrite with dolomite as gangue. Microprobe analyses of different generations of dolomite revealed nonstoichiometric compositions with various amounts of iron (up to 14 mol % of FeCO3). Replacement of host dolomite, open-space filling of fractures, and cementation of breccias derived from dissolution collapse are the principal types of ore occurrence. Detailed cross-section mapping indicates a stratigraphic and structural control on the deposit. A stratiform morphology is present in the western part of the orebody (Capa Sur), whereas mineralization in the eastern part is highly discordant but strata bound (Barrendera). Stratigraphic studies demonstrate that synsedimentary tectonic activity, related to the rifting of the North Atlantic (Bay of Biscay), was responsible for variation in sedimentation, presence of unconformities (including paleokarsts), local platform emergence and dolomitization along the N60 fault trend. In the Reoci??n area, two stages of dolomitization are recognized. The first stage is a pervasive dolomitization of the limestone country rocks that was controlled by faulting and locally affected the upper part of the Aptian and the complete Albian sequence. The second dolomitization event occurred after erosion and was controlled by karstic cavities. This later dolomitization was accompanied by ore deposition and, locally, filling of dolomite sands and clastic sediments in karstic cavities. The circulation of hydrothermal

  17. Geomorphological response of a landscape to long-term tectonic and glacial processes: the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhône River in the Central Swiss Alps drains a 5380 km2 large basin that shows a high spatial variability of bedrock lithology, exhumation rate, glacial conditioning and climate. All of these factors were recently discussed to control erosion rates in orogenic settings in general, and particularly in the Alps (e.g. Wittmann et al. 2007, Vernon et al. 2008, Norton et al. 2010a). Thanks to various and densely distributed data, the upper Rhône basin located between the Aar massif and Lake Geneva is a suitable natural laboratory to analyze the landscape's geomorphological state and controlling factors at a basin-scale. In this study, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins of various sizes that contribute to the sediment budget of the Rhône River either through sediment supply by torrents or debris flows. Their catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External Massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles from DEMs and slope/area relationships show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state that is expressed by mainly convex or concave-convex channel shapes with several knickpoints of either tectonic-lithological or glacial origin. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of elevations (hypsometry) along the river channel allows identifying glacially inherited morphologies and the recent erosional front. The combination of those different geomorphological data yields to a categorization of the tributary rivers into three endmember groups: (1) streams with highly convex profiles, testifying to a strong glacial inheritance, (2) concave-convex channels with several knickzones and inherited morphologies of past glaciations, (3) predominantly concave, relatively steep rivers with minor knickpoints and inner gorges. Assuming that

  18. Estimation of areal precipitation based on rainfall data and X-band radar images in the Venero-Claro Basin (Ávila, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; River-Honegger, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Agut, Robert Monjo i.; Díez-Herrero, Andrés; María Bodoque, José; José Tapiador, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the spatial-temporal rainfall during precipitation events with hydrological response in Venero-Claro Basin (Avila, Spain). In this small mountainous basin of 15km2, flood events of different magnitudes have been often registered. Therefore, rainfall estimation is essential to calibrate and validate hydrological models, and hence implies an improvement in the objectivity of risk studies and its predictive and preventive capacity. The geostatistical merging method of ordinary kriging of the errors (OKRE) has been applied. This technique has been already used by several authors to merge C-band radar and dense rain gauge networks. Here it is adapted to estimate hourly rainfall accumulations over the area with observations from one of the 5 existing X-band radar in Spain and 7 rain gauges located in the zone. Verification of the results has been performed through cross-validation comparing the estimation error of the OKRE with the one obtained adjusting the Marshall-Palmer relation. Analyzed errors are bias, the Hanseen-Kuiper coefficient and the relative mean root transformed error. Results have an average error of 15%, distinguishing quite well between dry and wet periods.

  19. Marine Ingressive Events Recorded in Epicontinental Sequences:Example from the Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China in Comparison with the Triassic Central Europe Basin of SW Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pujun; LIU Wanzhu; YIN Xiuzhen; SCHNEIDER Werner; MATTERN Frank

    2002-01-01

    Songliao Basin is filled predominantly with continental facies sediments including alluvial fan, fluvial plain, fan delta, lacustrine delta, shore - shallow lacustrine, beach salty flat, semi - deep to deep lacustrine, subaqueous gravity flow,lacustrine swamp and pyroclastic sediments. However, some event units were formed during lake - marine linking periods of the Mid - Cretaceous in the basin, which include black shales with high values for salinity (Sr/Ba) , alkalinity ( Ca + Mg)/(Si + Al) , reducibility (Ni + Zn)/Ga and sulfide sulfur as well as heavy isotopes. The Breitenholz -section to be represented for facies comparison with the Cretaceous evaporitic series in Northeast China is localized in Southwest Germany. Stratigraphically it belongs to the Crabfeld Formation of Keuper of the Germanic Triassic corresponding to Ladinian - Carnian of the international reference scale, and is generally called Lower Gipskeuper. The Germanic Triassic was deposited in the epicontinental (cratonic) central Europe Basin. It covered the area in between Great Britain, North Sea, Poland and Southern Germany. It is composed of cyclic deposits of multicolored mudstones, gypsum/anhydrite, and dolomite beds. The two cases of marine ingression - influenced sequences share some common features.

  20. Paleoclimatic implications of micromorphic features of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros Desert (NE-Spain Implicaciones paleoclimáticas de los rasgos micromorfológicos de un suelo policíclico en el Desierto de Monegros (NE-España Implicações paleoclimáticas das características micromorfológicas de um solo policíclico no Deserto de Monegros (NE-Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Badía

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedofeatures can be repositories of information about soil forming factors such as climate. The aim of this work is to provide a model of interpretation of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros desert (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain and its relationship to environmental changes during the Quaternary. To achieve this goal, the physical, chemical, mineralogical and especially the micromorphic pedofeatures of this profile were studied. Carbonate accumulations extend into all of the horizons of the profile. The paleosol has a thick petrocalcic horizon at the top, with a massive-laminar structure comprising layers of micrite and sparite that sometimes form pendants. Towards its base, the petrocalcic horizon contains a spaced framework of orthic micrite nodules packed between relatively pure micritic laminar bands. Below the petrocalcic horizon, coatings and infillings of microcrystalline calcite occur in old channels, and soft concretions (some of them geodic indicate an in situ accumulation process (Bkc, calcic horizon. Another calcic horizon with orthic nodules of calcite, impregnative and diffuse (Ckc, is present at the bottom part of the profile. Between the two nodular calcic horizons, two recarbonated argic horizons are found (Btkc and Btk with coarse orthic nodules of dense micrite superimposed on textural pedofeatures. These textural micromorphic pedofeatures are: (1 interbedded microlaminated clay pockets not associated with current or past pores and (2 microlaminated clay and silt (dusty clay present as weakly oriented coatings on channel walls. Reduction pedofeatures are associated with textural ones: (1 coatings of manganese oxides around pore channels and cracks, and (2 nodules of manganese and iron oxides within the peds. The presence of calcic horizons alternating with argic horizons, all positioned below the petrocalcic horizon, confirm fluctuations in paleohydrological conditions in the Pleistocene. Its presence indicates that the oldest soil

  1. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  2. Assessing Nonstationary Spatial Patterns of Extreme Droughts from Long-Term High-Resolution Observational Dataset on a Semiarid Basin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Garcia Galiano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In basins of South-eastern Spain; such as the semiarid Segura River Basin (SRB, a strong decrease in runoff from the end of the 1970s has been observed. However, in the SRB the decreasing trend is not only related with climate variability and change, also with intensive reforestation aimed at halting desertification and erosion, whichever the reason is, the default assumption of stationarity in water resources systems cannot be guaranteed. Therefore there is an important need for improvement in the ability of monitoring and predicting the impacts associated with the change of hydrologic regimes. It is thus necessary to apply non-stationary probabilistic models, which are able to reproduce probability density functions whose parameters vary with time. From a high-resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset of more than five decades (1950−2007, the spatial distribution of lengths of maximum dry spells for several thresholds are assessed, applying Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS models at the grid site. Results reveal an intensification of extreme drought events in some headbasins of the SRB important for water supply. The identification of spatial patterns of drought hazards at basin scale, associated with return periods; contribute to designing strategies of drought contingency preparedness and recovery operations, which are the leading edge of adaptation strategies.

  3. Geophysical Research in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain), as a Natural Analogue of CO2 Storage and Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the depth, morphology and extent of the CO2-enriched deep saline aquifer in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (Murcia, Spain), it was necessary reprocessing the vertical electrical soundings performed by IGME-ADARO in the eighties and to perform several geophysical campaigns by means of electrical tomography, time domain electromagnetic surveys and gravimetry. Densities of the outcropping lithologies in the studied basin were also determined in order to refine the model obtained from gravimetric data. The geophysical results, particularly from gravimetric data, seem to indicate that the CO2-enriched deep saline aquifer, located in the contact or within the carbonate materials of the Nevado-Filabride Complex, could reach a depth greater than 800 m. For this reason, the possibility that this CO2 is in supercritical state in certain areas of the aquifer, is not discardable. Thus, the studied basin would be an excellent natural analogue of a CO2-deep geological storage in a deep saline aquifer in volcanic and/or carbonate rocks, anthropogenically perturbed by geothermal exploration wells (La Ermita de El Saladillo and El Alto de El Reventon) and hydrogeological wells for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  4. Methane-rich fluid inclusions and their hosting volcanic reservoir rocks of the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pu-Jun; HOU Qi-jun; CHENG Ri-hui; LI Quan-lin; GUO Zhen-hua; HUANG Yu-long

    2004-01-01

    Methane-rich fluids were recognized to be hosted in the reservoir volcanic rocks as primary inclusions.Samples were collected from core-drillings of volcanic gas reservoirs with reversed δ12C of alkane in the Xujiaweizi depression of the Songliao Basin. The volcanic rocks are rhyolite dominant being enriched in the more incompatible elements like Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Th with relative high LREE, depleted HREE and negative anomalies of Ti and Nb,suggesting a melt involving both in mantle source and crustal assimilation. Primary fluids hosted in the volcanic rocks should have the same provenance with the magma. The authors concluded that the enclosed CH4 in the volcanics are mantle/magma-derived alkane and the reversed δ13C of alkane in the corresponding gas reservoirs is partly resulted from mixture between biogenic and abiogenic gases.

  5. Option contracts for allocating water in inter-basin transfers: the case of the Tagus-Segura Transfer in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Dolores; Garrido, Alberto; Calatraba, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Users in the Mediterranean region face significant water supply risks. Water markets mechanisms can provide flexibility to water systems run in tight situations. The largest water infrastructure in the Iberian Peninsula connects the Segura and Tagus Basins. Stakeholders and politicians in the Tagus Basin have asked that water transfers between the two basins be eventually phased out. The need to increase the statutory minimum environmental flow in the middle Tagus and to meet new urban demands is going to result in a redefinition of the Transfer's management rules, leading to a reduction in the transferable volumes. To minimise the consequences of such restrictions to irrigators in the Segura Basin who depend on the transferred volumes, we propose the establishment of water option contracts between both basins that represents an institutional innovation with respect to previous inter-basin spot market experiences. Based on the draft of the new Tagus Basin Plan, we propose both a modification of the Transfer's management rule and an innovative inter-basin option contract. The main goal of the paper is to define this contract and evaluate it with respect to non-market scenarios. We also assess the resulting impact on environmental flows in the Tagus River and water availability for users in the Segura Basin, together with the economic impacts of such contract on both basins. Our results show that the proposed option contract would reduce the impact of a change in the transfer's management rule, and reduce the supply risks of the recipient area. Keywords: environmental flow, inter-basin transfer, option contracts, Tagus-Segura, water markets, water supply reliability.

  6. Unravelling Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape dynamics: The Upper Guadalentín Basin, SE Spain 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, J.E.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.; Wallinga, J.; Cammeraat, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Landscapes in SE Spain have developed in response to tectonics, climate fluctuations and, more recently, human activity. Fluvial and colluvial sediments such as river terraces and slope deposits found in the valleys reflect a complex interplay between landscape forming processes. Investigating these

  7. Hydro-economic modeling of water scarcity under global change: an application to the Gállego river basin (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveline, N.; Majone, B.; Duinen, van H.; Ansink, E.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches are needed to assess the effects of global changes on the future state of water resources at regional scales. We develop a hydro-economic model of the Gállego catchment, Spain, to assess how global change and policy options affect the catchment’s water scarcity and the economic

  8. The Middle Aragonian (Middle Miocene) Micromammals from La Retama (Intermediate Depression, Tagus Basin) Province of Cuenca, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez Sierra, M.A.; García Paredes, I.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Meulen, van der A.J.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Sevilla, P.

    2006-01-01

    The micromammal fauna from the Middle Miocene (Middle Aragonian) of La Retama, eastern central Spain, is described. It is a relatively poor rodent fauna composed by ten species only, associated to a highly diverse bat fauna, which includes five genera. The insectivores are represented by two species

  9. Fast Deposition of Small River Particles on the NE South China Sea Slope Basin Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Hsieh, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    Huge quantities of small rivers derived suspended particles are exporting to the ocean from oceanic islands at the present time. Depending on location and proportion of shelf/slope area, a major fraction of small river particles may by-pass the shelf region, transport and deposit on the deep ocean basin. Major mechanisms driving those huge quantities of small river derived particles to the ocean are quantity of precipitation from monsoon and those from short period of tropical cyclone. Although data demonstrate that deeper part of the South China Sea, SCS, is the major final burial location of the river derived particles from the island of Taiwan, it is not sure if this was the same during the glaciation when monsoon and climatic conditions were drastic different from the present time. The purpose of this study is to understand history of small river derived sediment export and deposition during climatic change. A long piston core with length of ~35 meter was taken on r/v Marion DuFresne on a slope basin offshore SW Taiwan. We have measured density, magnetic susceptibility with multi-sensor core logger, MSCL, and organic, inorganic carbon, C/N ratio, biogenic silica as well as grain sizes. Foraminifera (Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globigerinoides conglobatus) were picked and measured carbon 14 for age determination. Two different types of processes control sediment deposition in our study site, steady state and event driven sedimentation. Our results demonstrated that sedimentation rates were consistent during each major periods, the Holocene (present to 10k year) and the transition (10-20 k year) period, but, difference existed in between the two. Sedimentation rate was about twice faster during the transition period (20-10k year) than that at the Holocene (10-present time) at our study site. A number of spikes existed in our study site, probably a result of turbidite overflow from the adjacent canyon. Frequency and total thickness of event

  10. Chronology and tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Upper Pliocene to Quaternary deposits of the lower Guadalquivir foreland basin, SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvany, Josep Maria; Larrasoaña, Juan Cruz; Mediavilla, Carlos; Rebollo, Ana

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents new litho, chrono and magnetostratigraphic data from cores of 23 exploratory boreholes drilled in the Abalario and marshlands areas of the lower Guadalquivir basin (the western sector of the Guadalquivir foreland basin, SW of Spain). The lithologic logs of these boreholes identify four main sedimentary formations, namely: Almonte Sand and Gravel, Lebrija Clay and Gravel, Marismas Clay and Abalario Sand, respectively interpreted as proximal-alluvial, distal-alluvial, alluvial-estuarine and aeolian. From radiocarbon and magnetostratigraphic data, these formations were dated as Upper Pliocene to Holocene. In the marshlands area, three main sedimentary sequences are present: an Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene sequence of the Almonte and Lebrija (lower unit) formations, a Pleistocene sequence of the Lebrija (upper unit) and the lower Marismas formations, and a latest Pleistocene to present-day sequence of the upper Marismas Formation. The three sequences began as a rapid alluvial progradation on a previously eroded surface, and a subsequent alluvial retrogradation. In the third sequence, estuarine and marsh sediments accumulated on top of the alluvial sediments. The aeolian sands of the Abalario topographic high developed coeval to alluvial and estuarine sedimentation after the first alluvial progradation, and continuously until the present. Correlation with the surrounding areas show that the sequences are the result of the forebulge uplift of the northern margin of the basin (Sierra Morena) and the adjacent Neogene oldest sediments of their northern fringe, both form the main source area of the study formations. This uplift occurred simultaneous to the flexural subsidence (SSE tilting) of the southern part of the basin, where sedimentary aggradation dominated.

  11. Using Geochemical Method to Distinguish Lateral Migration and Vertical Migration in Rifted Basin: A Case Study from Eastern Lujiapu Depression in the Kailu Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shuqing; HUANG Haiping; LIU Yuming

    2008-01-01

    Migration fractionation diagnosis is complicated in rifted basins where migration distance is generally short and lateral migration in sandy beds and vertical migration along faults are co-existed. Quantitative data from GC-MS analysis makes it possible to distinguish lateral and vertical migration effects. Oils discovered from the Jiaolige oilfield, eastern Lujiapu Depression are derived from single source rock with similar maturity, which is an ideal case to study the migration fractionation effects. Compositional differences among oils are largely caused by the migration fractionation either laterally in sand beds or vertically along the faults. Subtle maturity differences are assessed by the classic saturated hydrocarbon parameters which have certain influence on nitrogen compounds. In a certain maturity range, the ratios of shield and semi-shield isomers to the exposed isomers of alkylcarbazoles change with maturity in an opposite direction with migration fractionation, which may conceal the migration influence. However, migration and maturation have the same effects on absolute concentrations of aikylated carbazoles and benzocarhazole [a]/([a]+[c]) ratios, which provides an ideal tool for migration direction assessment. Continuous variations among different samples reflect increased migration distance in sandy beds, while abrupt changes may indicate the change of migration conduit systems. Integrated both geochemical interpretation and geological constrains, not only migration direction can be determined, but also the conduit systems through the sandy beds or the. faults can be recognized.

  12. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Jurassic siliciclastics in the eastern Kopet-Dagh Basin, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand-Moghadam, Hamed; Moussavi-Harami, Reza; Mahboubi, Asadollah; Aghaei, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) Mozduran Formation is the most important gas reservoirs of the northeast Iran. Siliciclastic facies of this formation in eastern most parts of the basin have not been studied yet. Therefore, four stratigraphic sections of Mozduran Formation have been selected in the Kole-Malekabad, Kale-Karab, Deraz-Ab and Karizak to interpret depositional history and analyze depositional sequences. Based on texture and sedimentary structures, 14 slilciclastic lithofacies were identified and classified into four categories, including conglomerate (Gms, Gp, Gt), sandstone (Sh, Sp, St, Sr, Sl, Sm, Se), mud rock (Fl) and intermediate sandstone-mud rock (Sr (Fl), Sr/Fl, Fl (Sr)). Identified lithofacies formed four architectural elements CH, SB, LA and FF. Lithofacies characteristics and architectural elements with mostly bimodal pattern of paleocurrents show that the majority of Mozduran lithofacies deposited in the coastal environment (tidal influence). Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that the Kole-Malekabad section consists of two depositional sequences while other sections are characterized by three depositional sequences. The lower and upper sequence boundaries of the Mozduran Formation in all stratigraphic sections are SB1 that are distinguished by paleosol and sometime conglomerate horizons. Most of depositional sequences in studied sections are composed only of TST and HST. The TST deposits consist mostly of quartzarenite and litharenite petrofacies that have been deposited in the tidal zone. HST packages are mostly including mud rocks with interdeds of sandstone lithofacies that are deposited in supratidal setting. The LST facies is recognized only in the DS3 (equivalent to the second depositional sequences of the Kole-Malekabad), which consist of conglomerate facies. Instead, the Kole-Malekabad section is often composed of supratidal gypsiferrous shales, indicating sea level fall in the study area.

  13. Hydrology in a Mediterranean mountain environment, the Vallcebre Research basins (North Eastern Spain). IV. Testing hydrological and erosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Martinez-Carreras, N.

    2009-07-01

    Three modelling exercises were carried out in the Vallcebre research basins in order to both improve the understanding of the hydrological processes and test the adequate of some models in such Mediterranean mountain conditions. These exercises consisted of i) the analysis of the hydrological role of the agricultural terraces using the TOPMODEL topographic index, ii) the parametrisation of TOPMODEL using internal basin information, and iii) a test of the erosion model KINEROS2 for simulating badlands erosion. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. The problems of overexploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: the Murcia Region and the Segura Basin (South-east Spain case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rodríguez-Estrella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the problems arising from aquifer exploitation in semi-arid areas such as the Autonomous Region of Murcia, which belongs to the Segura Basin is presented, with particular reference to the Ascoy-Sopalmo aquifer, which is the most overexploited aquifer in Spain. It has suffered intense overabstraction over the last forty years, given renewable water resources of 2 Mm3 yr−1 and abstractions amounting to as much as 55 Mm3 yr−1. This has resulted in the drying of springs, continuous drawdown of water levels (5 m yr−1; piezometric drops (over 30 m in one year, as a consequence of it being a karstic aquifer; increase in pumping costs (elevating water from more than 320 m depth; abandoning of wells (45 reduced to 20, diminishing groundwater reserves, and deteriorating water quality (progressing from a mixed sodium bicarbonate-chloride facies to a sodium chloride one. This is a prime example of poor management with disastrous consequences. In this sense, a series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the overexploitation of this aquifer and of the Segura Basin, with the aim of contributing to a sustainable future.

  15. Mitilanotherium inexpectatum (Giraffidae, Mammalia from Huélago (Lower Pleistocene; Guadix-Baza basin, Granada, Spain - observations on a peculiar biogegraphic pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Giraffid fossils from the lowermost Pleistocene (MN17 locality Huélago (Guadix-Baza Basin, Granada, Spain are described and assigned to Mitilanotherium inexpectatum Samson & Radulesco (1966. The remains are compared to giraffid material from the Pliocene and younger. The known geographic distribution of this giraffid is disjunct; it is found in Spain and in an area stretching from Rumania and Greece to Tadzhikistan, but not in central Europe. The oldest record is from the Upper Pliocene (MN16 of Turkey and the youngest is from the Lower Pleistocene of Greece (with an estimated age of about 1.2 Ma. Shortly after 2.6 Ma it may have dispersed to Spain, where it may have lived as much as half a million years. The dispersal did not leave a fossil record in the area between SE Europe and Spain. The same occured with dispersals of other mammals in the Early, Middle and Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene. These species that show this pattern are interpreted to be adapted to open or arid environments. Their dispersals across Europe to Spain may have occurred during short periods of atypical environmental conditions and thus did not leave an easily detectable fossil record.Los fósiles de jirafas del Pleistoceno basal (MN 17 de la localidad de Huélago (Cuenca de Guadix- Baza, Granada, Spain son descritos y asignados a Mitilanotherium inexpectatum Samson & Radulesco (1966. Los restos fósiles son comparados con jiráfidos del Plioceno, y formas más recientes. La distribución geográfica conocida muestra que es disyunta; encontrándose en España y en un área que se extiende de Rumania y Grecia a Tadzhikistan, pero no en Europa central. El registro más antiguo procede del Plioceno Superior (MN 16 de Turquía y el más reciente del Pleistoceno inferior de Grecia (con una edad estimada de ca. 1, 2 Ma. Poco después de los 2,6 Ma la especie pudo haberse dispersado a España, donde como mucho pudo haber durado medio millón de años. Esta dispersion

  16. Integrated biostratigraphy and stage boundaries of the Abderaz Formation, east of the Kopeh-Dagh sedimentary basin, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidinia, Mohammad; Youssef, Mohamed; Shafiee Ardestani, Meysam; Sadeghi, Abbas; Dochev, Docho

    2014-02-01

    The foraminiferal content of the well-known, foraminifera-rich Abderaz Formation of the Kopeh-Dagh basin in northeastern Iran was analyzed to determine biostratigraphy, age dating, chronostratigraphy and evolutionary trends. The Abderaz Formation was sampled at the following four sections: the Qarehso section, the Abderaz village section, the Muzduran section and the Shorab section. The Qarehso section is approximately 540 m thick and consists of 77 planktonic foraminifera species belonging to 18 genera in 5 biozones, 10 echinoid species belonging to 4 genera and 8 inoceramid species belonging to 5 genera. Based on this fossil content, the Qarehso section was dated to the lowermost Turonian to the upper Santonian. Based on the first occurrence datums of Cremnoceramus walterdorfensis walterdorfensis and Cremnoceramus deformis deformis and on the FODs of Micraster cortestudinarium and Dicarinella concavata, the Turonian-Conician boundary was detected in this section. In addition, based on the FODs of Echinocorys gr. scutata forma vulgaris, Echinocorys gr. scutata forma vulgaris-planodama and Di. Asymetrica, the base of the Santonian stage was also detected in the Qarehso section. The Abderaz village section is 556.5 m thick and contains 17 genera and 68 species of planktonic foraminifera that have been identified in 9 biozones and 7 genera and 15 species of invertebrates. The lowermost Turonian to the lowermost Campanian ages have been established in the Abderaz Formation. In the Abderaz village section, 3 boundaries were identified. Based on the FODs of Cremnoceramus walterdorfensis walterdorfensis, C. deformis deformis and C. crassus crassus and on the FODs of Contusotruncana fornicata and C. pateliformis, the base of the Coniacian stage was identified. Based on the FODs of Di. asymetrica and Macroglobigerinelloides alvarezi, the Coniacian-Santonian boundary was identified. Additionally, based on the extinction of the Marginotruncanid group and on the LOD of

  17. Long-term effect of no-tillage on soil organic matter fractions in rainfed Aragon (NE Spain Efecto a largo plazo del no laboreo sobre fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo en agrosistemas de secano en Aragón (NE España Efeito a longo prazo do plantio direto em frações de matéria orgânica do solo no sequeiro de Aragon (NE Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Blanco-Moure

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper assesses the long-term effect of no-tillage (NT on soil organic carbon (OC content and its distribution among different organic matter fractions in rainfed agrosystems of Aragón (NE Spain. Adjacent fields of NT, conventional tillage (CT and natural soils (NAT were compared in three different cereal production areas. In the soil surface, the higher OC content found in the NAT soils was due to the particulate organic matter. In the case of agricultural soils, in general, the fractions responsible for the OC increase under NT were the fine particulate organic matter and the mineral-associated organic matter occluded within stable microaggregates.

    En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto a largo plazo del no laboreo (NT en el contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo (OC y su distribución en diferentes fracciones de materia orgánica en agrosistemas de secano en Aragón (NE España. En tres diferentes zonas cerealistas se compararon campos adyacentes de NT, laboreo tradicional (CT y suelo natural (NAT. En la superficie del suelo, el mayor contenido en CO encontrado en los suelos NAT se debió a la materia orgánica particulada. En el caso de los suelos agrícolas las fracciones responsables del incremento de OC en NL fueron, en general, la materia orgánica particulada fina y la fracción organo-mineral de los microagregados estables.

    Este trabalho avalia o efeito a longo prazo do plantio direto (NT no conteúdo de carbono orgânico no solo (OC e a sua distribuição em diferentes frações da matéria orgânica em sistemas agrícolas de sequeiro em Aragon (NE Espanha. Campos adjacentes do NT, plantio convencional (CT e solos naturais (NAT foram comparados em três diferentes áreas de produção de cereais. Na superfície do solo, o maior teor de OC encontrado nos solos NAT deveu-se à matéria orgânica particulada. No caso dos solos agr

  18. Assessment of brown trout habitat suitability in the Jucar River Basin (SPAIN): comparison of data-driven approaches with fuzzy-logic models and univariate suitability curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Schneider, Matthias; Mouton, Ans M

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive implies the determination of an environmental flow (E-flow) in each running water body. In Spain, many of the minimum flow assessments were determined with the physical habitat simulation system based on univariate habitat suitability curves. Multivariate habitat suitability models, widely applied in habitat assessment, are potentially more accurate than univariate suitability models. This article analyses the microhabitat selection by medium-sized (10-20 cm) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in three streams of the Jucar River Basin District (eastern Iberian Peninsula). The data were collected with an equal effort sampling approach. Univariate habitat suitability curves were built with a data-driven process for depth, mean velocity and substrate classes; three types of data-driven fuzzy models were generated with the FISH software: two models of presence-absence and a model of abundance. FISH applies a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the fuzzy rules. A hydraulic model was calibrated with the tool River-2D in a segment of the Cabriel River (Jucar River Basin). The fuzzy-logic models and three methods to produce a suitability index from the three univariate curves were applied to evaluate the river habitat in the tool CASiMiR©. The comparison of results was based on the spatial arrangement of habitat suitability and the curves of weighted usable area versus discharge. The differences were relevant in different aspects, e.g. in the estimated minimum environmental flow according to the Spanish legal norm for hydrological planning. This work demonstrates the impact of the model's selection on the habitat suitability modelling and the assessment of environmental flows, based on an objective data-driven procedure; the conclusions are important for the water management in the Jucar River Basin and other river systems in Europe, where the environmental flows are a keystone for the achievement of the goals established

  19. The sedimentological significance of a clastic wedge in the western basin margin of the Triassic Tethys (Iberian Range, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gil, Soledad

    1991-01-01

    [EN] The Middle Triassic in the NW of the Iberian Basin consists of both carbonate and terrigenous sediments. A new sedimentary model is proposed for the clastic wedge of the Cuesta del Castillo Saudstones and Siltstones (CCSS) Formation (García-Gil, 1990), and its relationship with the Upper Muschelkalk carbonate Formations. The model will take account of the following characteristics: 1. Low depositional gradient being integrated in a homoclinal carbonate ramp. 2. Co...

  20. Early Pliocene transgressive coastal lags (Bajo Segura Basin, Spain) : a marker of the flooding after the Messinian salinity crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Caracuel Martín, Jesús Esteban; Soria Mingorance, Jesús Miguel; Yébenes Simón, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis is recorded on the northern margin of the Bajo Segura Basin by lacustrine and fluvial deposits coeval to the evaporites that precipitated in the basin’s central areas. These syn-evaporitic Messinian deposits are bounded at the top by an erosional surface caused by a fall in base level (end-Messinian unconformity) on which an early Pliocene sequence is located. The latter begins with a coastal lag, consisting of oncoliths and carbonate clasts intensely bo...

  1. Trace fossils associated to the end-Messinian unconformity in the northern border of the Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Caracuel, Jesús Esteban; Corbí, Hugo; Estévez, Antonio; Giannetti, Alice; Monaco, Paolo; Pina, José Antonio; Soria, Jesús M.; Tent Manclús, José Enrique; Yébenes, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Upper Messinian-Lower Pliocene at the northern border of the Bajo Segura Basin (BSB) has been carried out. Trace fossils of firm- and rockground were collected, aiding in the recognition of three ichnofacies: Glossifungites (types A and B), Entobia and Gnathichnus. The ichnological data provide evidence that the Pliocene flooding of the BSB, after the Messinian Salinity Crisis, was developed in two pulses. In the first one, the ingression penetrated only along the p...

  2. Overlapping of pedogenesis and meteoric diagenesis in distal alluvial and shallow lacustrine deposits in the Madrid Miocene Basin, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bustillo, María Ángeles; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2007-01-01

    The Miocene distal alluvial fan and palustrine deposits of the Madrid Basin (Paracuellos de Jarama area) were examined to establish the sequence of its pedogenic–diagenetic processes and the main factors controlling them. In this area the diagenetic processes operated not only on carbonates, as commonly studied, but also in high magnesium clays and opaline cherts. This paper provides a dynamic model for saline–alkaline lake margins that complements the existing freshwater palustrine ...

  3. Forecasting coal resources and reserves in heterogeneous coal zones using 3D facies models (As Pontes Basin, NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Falivene, O.; Cabrera, Lluís; Sáez, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting coal resources and reserves is critical for coal mine development. Thickness maps are commonly used for assessing coal resources and reserves; however they are limited for capturing coal splitting effects in thick and heterogeneous coal zones. As an alternative, three-dimensional geostatistical methods are used to populate facies distributionwithin a densely drilled heterogeneous coal zone in the As Pontes Basin (NWSpain). Coal distribution in this zone is mainly characterized by ...

  4. Cañada: a new micromammal succession from the lower Vallesian and Turolian of the Daroca area (Calatayud- Montalbán basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Guerrero, P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new section including nine stratigraphically superposed microvertebrate fossil localities from the Calatayud-Montalbán basin (Spain is presented. The Cañada localities and the small mammal assemblages are described, allowing a biostratigraphical correlation with the lower Vallesian from the nearby section of Nombrevilla. The results of this work are important because they help to improve the time resolution of the lower Vallesian faunal record from the Daroca area and to precise their relative biostratigraphical position. In addition, the upper part of the Cañada section includes two Turolian faunas, increasing the poor record from this age in the Calatayud-Montalbán basin.

    Se da a conocer una nueva sección que incluye nueve yacimientos de microvertebrados en superposición estratigráfica en la Cuenca de Calatayud-Montalbán (España. Se describen las localidades de la sección de la Cañada y sus faunas de micromamíferos, lo que posibilita su correlación con el Vallesiense inferior de la cercana sección de Nombrevilla. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo son importantes debido a que ayudan a mejorar la resolución temporal del registro faunístico del Vallesiense inferior del área de Daroca, y a precisar su posición bioestratigráfica relativa. Por otra parte, el tramo superior de la sección de la Cañada incluye dos faunas del Turoliense que incrementan el escaso conocimiento del registro de esta edad en la Cuenca de Calatayud-Montalbán.

  5. Application of organic-geochemistry, coal-petrology and isotope-geochemistry to facies-analysis and hydrocarbon exploration in the NE-Paris Basin (Trias-Lias Luxemburg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triassic and Liassic sediments of NE-Paris Basin (Luxemburg) were investigated by organic-geochemical, coal petrographical and isotope-geochemical methods. The objective was to characterize the stratigraphic stages and to investigate the facies relations between them with a view to possible hydrocarbon exploration. The sediments contain an average of 3.1% organic carbon, 413 ug/g extractable organic matter (bitumen) and 0.65% insoluble, isolatable organic particles which constitute part of the kerogen. The non-isolatable kerogen is 2.4% of the whole rock. (orig./BR)

  6. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO3, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO3, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process slightly enhanced

  7. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchán, D., E-mail: d.merchan@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); Auqué, L.F.; Acero, P.; Gimeno, M.J. [University of Zaragoza — Department of Earth Sciences (Geochemical Modelling Group), C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Causapé, J. [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO{sub 3}, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO{sub 3}, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process

  8. Thermal models and clay diagenesis in the Tertiary-Cretaceous sediments of the Alava block (Basque-Cantabrian basin, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Aróstegui, J.; Sangüesa, F. J.; Nieto, F.; Uriarte, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Diagenesis in the Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Alava Block (Basque-Cantabrian basin) has been studied using the clay mineralogy (X-ray diffraction) of cuttings from three representative wells of a N–S cross-section. More than 5500 m of various lithologies (marls, mudstones and sandstones) have been drilled in the northern part of the domain, and 2100 m in the southern zone. The illitization of smectite and the disappearance of kaolinite, due to diagenesis, are the most characteris...

  9. The Middle Aragonian (Middle Miocene Micromammals from La Retama (Intermediate Depression, Tagus Basin Province of Cuenca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilla, P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromammal fauna from the Middle Miocene (Middle Aragonian of La Retama, eastern central Spain, is described. It is a relatively poor rodent fauna composed by ten species only, associated to a highly diverse bat fauna, which includes five genera. The insectivores are represented by two species. This fossil assemblage has been correlated to zone Db (MN 5. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on micromammals indicates open and dry conditions for this locality.Se describen los micromamíferos del Mioceno medio (Aragoniense medio de La Retama, sector centro-oriental español. La fauna de roedores es relativamente pobre y está compuesta únicamente por diez especies. Sin embargo, cabe destacar la elevada diversidad de los quirópteros, representados por cinco géneros. Se describe también dos taxa de insectívoros. Esta asociación fósil ha sido correlacionada con la zona Db (MN5. La reconstrucción paleoambiental de La Retama inferida a partir de la fauna de micromamíferos corresponde a un ambiente abierto y seco.

  10. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors.

  11. Modelling native fish richness to evaluate the effects of hydromorphological changes and river restoration (Júcar River Basin, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Marín, Esther Julia; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui Manuel Soares; Alcaraz-Hernández, Juan Diego

    2012-12-01

    The richness of native fish is considered to be an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and improving richness is a key goal in the management of river ecosystems. An artificial neural network (ANN) model based on field data from 90 sample sites distributed throughout the Júcar River Basin District was developed to predict the native fish species richness (NFSR). The Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used for model training. When constructing the model, we tried different numbers of neurons (hidden layers), compared different transfer functions, and tried different k values (from 3 to 10) in the k-fold cross-validation method. This process and the final selection of key variables with relevant ecological meaning support the reliability and robustness of the final ANN model. The partial derivatives method was applied to determine the relative importance of input environmental variables. The final ANN model combined variables describing riparian quality, water quality, and physical habitat and helped identify the primary drivers of the NFSR patterns in Mediterranean rivers. In the second part of the study, the model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of two restoration actions in the Júcar River: the removal of two abandoned weirs and the progressive increase in the proportion of riffles. The model indicated that the combination of these actions produced a rise in NFSR, which ultimately reached the maximum values observed in the reference site of that river ecotype (sensu the European Water Framework Directive). The results demonstrate the importance of longitudinal connectivity and riffle proportion for improving NFSR and the power of ANNs to help decisions in the management and ecological restoration of Mediterranean rivers. Furthermore, this model at the basin scale is the first step for further research on the effects of water scarcity and global change on Mediterranean fish communities. PMID:23031292

  12. The use of a Weight-of-Evidence approach to address sediment quality in the Odiel River basin (SW, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; DelValls, T Ángel

    2016-11-01

    The fluvial systems of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Iberian Peninsula) are affected by acid mine drainage (a lixiviate residue product of mining activities derived from sulfide oxidation). The high acidity and high concentrations of sulfates and metal(loid)s are the main causes of the environmental degradation of the Odiel River basin. The use of weight of evidence approach in areas of the Odiel River basin implies the integration of different lines of evidence (chemistry, toxicity and bioaccumulation) using the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea as target species. The integration of the results from the application of the different lines of evidence showed that the index of pollution was higher downvalley (Ptriad=12,312), moderate after mining effluent discharges (Ptriad=13.9) and very low where the Odiel River sources (Ptriad=6.31). The multivariate analysis indicated that variables and chemicals were associated with geochemical matrix and background levels (% of fines and toxic metal(loid) concentrations), toxic effects, and metal(loid) bioaccumulation reflecting the geographical distribution of the contamination towards the estuary. Metal(loid) thresholds were calculated for the study area as site-specific values of interim freshwater sediment quality values: As≥171; Cd≥0.48; Co≥8.82; Cr≥38.4; Cu≥451; Ni≥18.4; Pb≥377; Sb≥17.7; Zn≥221mg/kg of freshwater fluvial dry sediment. These results revealed the possibility of using the TEL values proposed by the USEPA and the NOAA for sediments from this site, and proposed lower PEL values for the Iberian Pyrite Belt as result of toxicity effects found in the Asian clam due to the combination of extreme acidity and high metal(loid) concentrations. PMID:27472029

  13. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater contamination beneath an urban environment: the Besòs river basin (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Montserrat

    2007-10-01

    The urban groundwater of the central Besòs river basin (the La Llagosta aquifer) has become contaminated due to the infiltration of wastewater from septic tanks and sewage networks, and by industrial activities located in urban areas. The groundwater hydrogeochemistry of the La Llagosta aquifer was characterized using isoconcentration maps, hydrogeochemical diagrams (Piper, Schoeller-Berkaloff) and by analyzing hydrogeochemical changes along a flow-path that crosses an urban and peripheral industrial area in the main alluvial aquifer (the La Llagosta unit). The evolution of cations, anions and heavy metals along the flow path and the use of the PHREEQC numerical code indicate a complex set of geochemical processes, which result from the interaction between the sources of pollution, the groundwater flow and the mineral composition of the aquifer materials. The contaminated groundwater below the urban areas shows high contents of NO(3)(-) (90-100 mg/L) and an increase in the concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) which coincides with a decrease in pH. The Eh shows greater variation than the pH along the flow line studied, with values ranging between 56 mV in the industrial area and 370 mV in the urban area. The area with the lowest Eh value coincides with the highest concentrations of dissolved Fe (4.7 mg/L) and Mn (0.22 mg/L). PMID:17223248

  15. Biomarker characterization of the record of the OAE1a (early Aptian) in Betic and Cantabrian basins (Spain)-Sedimentary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, María. Luisa; Castro, José Manuel; Pancost, Richard D.; de Gea, Ginés. A.; Najarro, María.; Aguado, Roque; Rosales, Idoia; Martín-Chivelet, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Molecular analyses of sedimentary organic matter are powerful tools in assessing the origin of organic matter and its thermal maturity as well as constraining ancient environmental conditions, such as as marine productivity, anoxia in bottom waters or the photic zone and sea surface temperatures. This communication presents the study of four sections recording the OAE1a (early Aptian) in Spain, which are located in two broad basins respectively located in the South and the North of Iberia: the Southern Iberian Palaeomargin (Carbonero - CAB, La Frontera - XF and Cau - CAU sections) and the Cantabrian Basin (Puente Nansa - PN section). These sections represent depositional settings ranging from platform (CAU, PN) to pelagic environments (CAB, XF). C-isotope profiles and biostratigraphic data are used to define the interval corresponding to the OAE 1a. Here we focus on the biomarker composition of the organic-rich facies, and the integration of these data with the sedimentology, stratigraphy and paleogeography. The study has been based mainly upon the analysis of samples with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Four main groups of compounds are present in all sections: n-alkanes, isoprenoids, hopanes and steranes. n-Alkanes and isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) are dominant in most samples. To facilitate interpretation of these distributions, we have calculated the TAR (terrestrial aquatic ratio derived from the ratio of long to short chain compounds) and also the OEP (odd over even predominance of n-alkanes). The ratio of pristane to phytane and various isoprenoid/n-alkanes ratios have also been calculated. The hopanes are represented by a range of C27 to C35 components, with the specific isomers varying amongst the sections due to differences in thermal maturity. Steranes occur as a range of C27, C28 and C29 isomers, whereas diasteranes only occur in the most thermally mature section (CAB). Other compounds of interest include gammacerane and dinosterane

  16. Monitoring water quality alteration in River Tagus (Spain) after implementing temporal and spatial flow regulations at the head basin during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascó, Antonio; de la Fuente, Javier; Hermosilla, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    Water resources quality is a wide concept accepting different meanings, from the composition and properties of the water dissolution to the diversity of priority uses (e.g. human consumption, ecological or urban-industrial); and it may anyhow be affected by both natural and artificial causes. Particularly, natural water flows may be artificially regulated in time (reservoirs) and space (transfers) in order to raise water availability; so flow regulations may also affect natural water properties. Even though regulation by reservoirs may even produce a better water quality because ombrogenic water (winter rain) is greatly predominant over pedogenic (drainage through soil) and lithogenic (spring forth aquifers) ones in the flow configuration; regulation by transfers is expected to mainly affect water quality in the middle river basin via a greater mineralization of the water flowing through the course. Particularly, Entrepeñas (803 hm3) and Buendía (1639 hm3) reservoirs, closed in 1956 and 1957 at the head of River Tagus' basin, respectively, plus Bolarque dam (31 hm3), built in 1910, make up the temporal regulation system that makes possible the transfer from River Tagus to River Segura, which has been designed for a flow of 33 m3•s-1, and a future maximum transfer forecast of 1000 hm3•year-1 (600 granted). In short, this assessment essay shows how these temporal and spatial regulations at the head of River Tagus have affected water quality downstream. In order to achieve this scope assessing water quality figures, a sampling point located upstream Aranjuez (Madrid, Spain) was chosen from those belonging to River Tagus' water quality integral network; so water quality would neither be affected by wastewater from big cities such as Madrid, Alcalá de Henares, and Guadalajara. Available data for three timely considered time periods were considered: (1) before temporal regulation through reservoirs was performed (1942); (2) after temporal regulation was fully

  17. Factors selection in landslide susceptibility modelling on large scale following the gis matrix method: application to the river Beiro basin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costanzo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to select the controlling factors connected to the slope instability has been defined. It allowed us to assess the landslide susceptibility in the Rio Beiro basin (about 10 km2 over the northeastern area of the city of Granada (Spain. Field and remote (Google EarthTM recognition techniques allowed us to generate a landslide inventory consisting in 127 phenomena. To discriminate between stable and unstable conditions, a diagnostic area had been chosen as the one limited to the crown and the toe of the scarp of the landslide. 15 controlling or determining factors have been defined considering topographic, geologic, geomorphologic and pedologic available data. Univariate tests, using both association coefficients and validation results of single-variable susceptibility models, allowed us to select the best predictors, which were combined for the unique conditions analysis. For each of the five recognised landslide typologies, susceptibility maps for the best models were prepared. In order to verify both the goodness of fit and the prediction skill of the susceptibility models, two different validation procedures were applied and compared. Both procedures are based on a random partition of the landslide archive for producing a test and a training subset. The first method is based on the analysis of the shape of the success and prediction rate curves, which are quantitatively analysed exploiting two morphometric indexes. The second method is based on the analysis of the degree of fit, by considering the relative error between the intersected target landslides by each of the different susceptibility classes in which the study area was partitioned. Both the validation procedures confirmed a very good predictive performance of the susceptibility models and of the actual procedure followed to select the controlling factors.

  18. Hydrothermal activity and its paleoecological implications in the latest Miocene to Middle Pleistocene lacustrine environments of the Baza Basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aguilar, José Manuel; Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Palmqvist, Paul; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2014-07-01

    The continental sedimentary record of the Baza Basin (Guadix-Baza Depression, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) shows six sedimentary units of lacustrine origin deposited from the latest Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene. Depending on the interval considered, the lacustrine deposits are mainly composed of marls, carbonates or gypsiferous evaporites, showing lithological, mineralogical and geochemical features (i.e., magnesium, strontium and sulfur contents, celestine deposits and travertine growths) that are evidence of intense, tectonically-induced hydrothermal activity. According to the high concentrations of strontium and sulfur as well as the abundance of travertines and magnesium clays, the supply of hot waters was greater during the Zanclean, the Gelasian and the Calabrian, as a result of tectonic activity. Hydrothermal activity has continued until the present time and is responsible of the hot springs that are nowadays active in the Guadix-Baza Depression. The paleoenvironmental consequences of these sublacustrine hot springs were that during some intervals the lakes maintained a relatively permanent water table, not subject to periodic desiccations in the dry season, and warmer temperatures throughout the year. This resulted in a high level of organic productivity, especially for the Calabrian, which allowed the development of a rich and well diversified mammalian community, similar to those of modern African savannas with tree patches. In this mild environment, the permanent water sheet favored the presence of drought intolerant megaherbivores such as the giant extinct hippo Hippopotamus antiquus. The high standing crop biomass of ungulates resulted in the availability of abundant carcasses for scavengers such as hyenas and hominins, which explains the very high densities of skeletal remains preserved in the sediments distributed along the lake surroundings.

  19. Determining the sources of suspended sediment in a Mediterranean groundwater-dominated river: the Na Borges basin (Mallorca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany, Joan; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2013-04-01

    Tracers have been acknowledged as a useful tool to identify sediment sources, based upon a variety of techniques and chemical and physical sediment properties. Sediment fingerprinting supports the notion that changes in sedimentation rates are not just related to increased/reduced erosion and transport in the same areas, but also to the establishment of different pathways increasing sediment connectivity. The Na Borges is a Mediterranean lowland agricultural river basin (319 km2) where traditional soil and water conservation practices have been applied over millennia to provide effective protection of cultivated land. During the twentieth century, industrialisation and pressure from tourism activities have increased urbanised surfaces, which have impacts on the processes that control streamflow. Within this context, source material sampling was focused in Na Borges on obtaining representative samples from potential sediment sources (comprised topsoil; i.e., 0-2 cm) susceptible to mobilisation by water and subsequent routing to the river channel network, while those representing channel bank sources were collected from actively eroding channel margins and ditches. Samples of road dust and of solids from sewage treatment plants were also collected. During two hydrological years (2004-2006), representative suspended sediment samples for use in source fingerprinting studies were collected at four flow gauging stations and at eight secondary sampling points using time-integrating sampling samplers. Likewise, representative bed-channel sediment samples were obtained using the resuspension approach at eight sampling points in the main stem of the Na Borges River. These deposits represent the fine sediment temporarily stored in the bed-channel and were also used for tracing source contributions. A total of 102 individual time-integrated sediment samples, 40 bulk samples and 48 bed-sediment samples were collected. Upon return to the laboratory, source material samples were

  20. Late Permian to Middle Triassic correlations and palaeogeographical reconstructions in south-western European basins: New sedimentological data from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linol, Bastien; Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Diez, José Bienvenido; López-Gómez, José; Broutin, Jean; Durand, Marc; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2009-09-01

    -lake or ponded environments where fluvial systems generally flowed southward, except in south-eastern France (oriented to the NE). Within these SW European basins, such as Minorca, the Late Permian succession shows a major retrogradational (evolution from fluvial or alluvial fan deposits to extensive lake, playa or floodplain deposits) and a progradational trend (fluvial or alluvial fan deposits). The Permian-Triassic transition corresponds to an unconformity overlain by braided river deposits with arid climate indicators (aeolian deposits: ventifacts and aeolian dune sedimentation). At the scale of western Europe, this arid episode is dated as Smithian and the Induan age sedimentation deposits seem to be preserved only in the central part of the Germanic Basin. As with all other Peri-Tethyan basins, environment DE 2 of Minorca (above the major erosional surface) is attributed to the Smithian. In the upper part of the studied succession, braided river deposits indicative of less arid climatic conditions are preserved. This succession contains the earliest Mesozoic palaeosols, dated as Anisian by palynomorphs, and expresses a vertical evolution from fluvial to open marine depositional environments attributed to the Muschelkalk transgression.

  1. Magnetic properties contribution to the identification and provenance of marine sediments: distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal IRDs occurring during the Last Glacial Period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB). Six Heinrich layers (HL1-6) have been identified in the area in base to the detection of distinct populations of exotic magnetic mineral assemblages alien to the local/regional sedimentation environment. Their extension has been determined by Ca/Sr and Si/Sr ratios and their provenance by 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios and FORCs. The sedimentary expression of HL is characterized by the presence of distal Ice Rafted Detritus (IRD). Distal IRD magnetic signatures in the GIB consist of (i) an increase of one order of magnitude in the peak amplitude of magnetic susceptibility from background values, (ii) a general coarsening of the magnetic grain size in a mineral assemblage dominated by titano-magnetites, (iii) FORC distributions pushing towards the coarse MD or PSD component, and (iv) thermomagnetic curves depicting the occurrence of several magnetite phases. These four features are very different from the fine-grained biogenic magnetic assemblages characterized by the combination of lower MS and higher coercivity values that dominate the predominant mixtures of the non-interacting SSD and PSD components in the non-IRD influenced background sedimentation. Our results show that the last 70.000 yr of sedimentation in the GIB were controlled by the relative contribution of local detrital material derived from the Iberian Variscan Chain and IRD alien material from the iceberg melting during the Heinrich Events. They also show two main IRD provenance fields: Europe and Canada. And that the later is more important for for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. FORCs analysis complemented the isotopic information and provided a very unique information, indicating that glacial flour may not always have the same provenance as IRD and that

  2. Approach to the Lower Pliocene marine-continental correlation from southern Spain. The micrommamal site of Alhaurín el Grande-1 (Málaga Basin, Betic Cordillera, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra-Merchán, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new micromammal site at Alhaurín el Grande (Málaga, southern Spain located above early Pliocene marine deposits allows an approach to the marine-continental correlation for this age. The early Pliocene marine filling throughout the Málaga Basin is developed in three transgressive-regressive sequences (Pl-1, Pl-2, and Pl-3 units bounded by discontinuities. At the top of the intermediate sequence Pl-2, peaty sediments have yielded fossils of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora, and Crocodylia. The presence of Cricetus barrieri Mein & Michaux, 1970 in combination with murids, both of primitive morphology, such as Apodemus gudrunae Van de Weerd, 1976, something clearer (i.e. Occitanomys brailloni Michaux, 1969 and Stephanomys donnezani cordii Ruiz Bustos, 1986, points to an early Ruscinian age(MN14 biozone. Based on the planktonic foraminifers, the biostratigraphic data indicate that marine sediments just below the micromammal beds belong to the the MPl-2 biozone of the early Zanclean. Available paleomagnetic data from the marine sediments show that the micromammal bed must be located between the normal geomagnetic subchron C3n3n (4.89-4.80 Ma and the subchron C3n2n (4.63-4.49 Ma, limiting the age of this site to the late part of the early Zanclean.Un nuevo yacimiento de micromamíferos en Alhaurín el Grande (Málaga, Sur de España situado sobre depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior permite una aproximación a la correlación marino-continental para esa época. El relleno sedimentario marino del Plioceno inferior en el conjunto de la cuenca de Málaga comprende tres secuencias transgresivas-regresivas (unidades Pl-1, Pl-2 y Pl-3 limitadas por discordancias. A techo de la secuencia intermedia Pl-2, sedimentos turbosos han liberado restos de Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora y Crocodylia. La presencia de Cricetus barrieri Mein & Michaux, 1970 en asociación con dos múridos, uno con morfología primitiva (Apodemus gudrunae Van de Weerd, 1976 y

  3. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  4. Multi-scale factors controlling the pattern of floodplain width at a network scale: The case of the Rhône basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Piégay, Hervé

    2013-10-01

    In this study the floodplain width (FW) was assessed for the entire Rhône catchment river network (32,160 km long) to highlight controlling factors. The FW data, which is measured every kilometre on a digital elevation model (DTM), is aggregated into spatial homogenous segments using a Pettitt break detection test, resulting in aggregated geographical objects (AGO). Based on these AGOs, an analysis of the variability of the floodplain width was performed. The general pattern for the Rhône network shows a downstream increase in FW related to the concept of river continuum. This general pattern explains ca. 30% of the variation in FW. Deviations from this general trend are, however, large. Values for floodplain widths are normalized for catchment scale to study deviations that do not depend on scale effects. Based on a conceptual model, the main environmental parameters influencing FW were identified. These parameters include lithology and different parameters that influence the river profile, such as base level changes and tectonics, sediment load and discharge. An analysis of catchment-wide patterns shows that the main variations on the scaling effect are caused by lithology. Superposed on this general scaling pattern, disturbed by lithological variations, are the variations in floodplain width caused by disturbances in the geomorphic system, which influence floodplain slope, sediment, and water discharge and which include inherited landscapes. Although large data sets become increasingly available and the applied methodology reduces data noise, data availability and quality still hampers studies at a larger scale. Nevertheless, such information sources are becoming crucial because they are more and more accessible and diverse, and the analysis is now easier with the increasing capacities of GIS technologies. As a result, they are becoming very complementary to field studies to understand geomorphic processes at wider spatial and longer temporal scales. In a

  5. Advanced interpretation of ground motion using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Zucca, Francesco; Bejar, Marta; González, Pablo; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás, Roberto; Fernandez, José; Fernández-Merodo, José; Mulas, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Mora, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence related to fluid withdrawal has occurred in numerous regions of the world. The phenomena is an important hazard closely related to the development of urban areas. The analysis of the deformations requires an extensive and continuous spatial and temporal monitoring to prevent the negative effects of such risks on structures and infrastructures. Deformation measurements are fundamental in order to identify the affected area extension, to evaluate the temporal evolution of deformation velocities and to identify the main control mechanisms. Differential SAR interferometry represents an advanced remote sensing tool, which can map displacements at very high spatial resolution. The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique is a class of SAR interferometry that uses point-wise radar targets (PS) on the ground whose phase is not interested by temporal and geometrical decorrelation. This technique generates starting from a set of images two main products: the displacement rate along line of sight (LOS) of single PS; and the LOS displacement time series of individual PS. In this work SAR data with different spatio-temporal resolution were used to study the displacements that occur from 1992 to 2012 in the Alto Guadalentin Basin (southern Spain), where is located the city of Lorca The area is affected by the highest rate of subsidence measured in Europe (>10 cm/yr-1) related to long-term exploitation of the aquifer (González et al. 2011). The objectives of the work were 1) to analyse land subsidence evolution over a 20-year period with PSI technique; 2) to compare the spatial and temporal resolution of SAR data acquired by different sensors, 3) to investigate the causes that could explain this land motion. The SAR data have been obtained with ERS-1/2 & ENVISAT (1992-2007), ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) images, processed with the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique. The PSI data obtained from different satellite from 1992 to 2012

  6. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence bou

  7. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the middle Miocene climate change in the continental deposits of the Aragonian type area in the Calatayud-Teruel basin (Central Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C.G.; Daams, R.; Meulen, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    The exceptionally dense mammalian faunal record of the Aragonian type area in Central Spain shows that an important climate change towards a cooler and more humid climate is recorded during the Neogene Mammal Zone MN 5 [1]. The magnetostratigraphic results from mammal-bearing middle Miocene continen

  8. Modelling the coupled fluid and heat transport in a geothermal site: First results from Groß Schönebeck, NE-German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Y.; Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2010-05-01

    Predicting the temperature distribution in the subsurface becomes increasingly important in the course of recently intensified exploration for geothermal energy. Numerical models considering both the physical processes controlling heat transfer as well as the structural setting of the subsurface are an important option to assess variations in the temperature distribution. The geothermal in-situ laboratory "Groß Schönebeck" located 40 km north of Berlin is one of the key sites of geothermal exploration studies in the North German Basin. 3D numerical simulations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer processes are carried out to investigate the geothermal field. The Goal of the study is to quantify the impact of variable rock parameters and geological structures on the resulting thermal distribution. The Zechstein salt as a prominent feature in the North German Basin is of particular interest in this context because it locally modifies the geothermal field. Our first attempts to model coupled fluid flow and heat transfer processes confirm the strong impact of the Upper Permian Zechstein salt. Furthermore, our results indicate that conduction is an important heat transfer mechanism below the Middle Triassic layers. Conversely, the more than 3000 m thick and permeable sediments above the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk unit favour the formation of convection cells. Here, especially high degrees of coupling result in remarkable convective heat transport. We assess the sensitivity of these results, and discuss implications for temperature predictions.

  9. On the ecological context of the earliest human settlements in Europe: Resource availability and competition intensity in the carnivore guild of Barranco León-D and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Palmqvist, Paul; Rodríguez, Jesús; Mateos, Ana; Martín-González, Jesús A.; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2016-07-01

    With an age of ∼1.4 Ma, the Early Pleistocene archaeopaleontological sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain) provide the oldest evidence on human presence in Western Europe, including the finding of a deciduous tooth of Homo sp., huge lithic assemblages of Oldowan tradition and abundant cut-marks on large mammal bones. Here we use a mathematical approach based on Leslie matrices to quantify for the large mammal species preserved at the sites the biomass of primary consumers available, the distribution of meat resources among the secondary consumers and the competition intensity within the carnivore guild. The results obtained show a community of large mammals with a high diversity of secondary consumers that would satisfy slightly less than half of their dietary requirements under optimal ecological conditions. In the case of Homo sp., and considering that flesh resources were obtained through the scavenging of ungulate carcasses, the model indicates that the ecosystems of the basin could hold 10-14 individuals per 100 km2 during a year, a value that is close to the mean population density of recent hunter-gatherers. These density estimates decrease slightly when a mixed hunting-scavenging strategy is considered and even more in the case of a strict hunting behavior. In addition, the value of the species competition index obtained for Homo sp. is among the lowest of the carnivore guild. These results suggest that the hominin populations that inhabited Southeast Spain during the Early Pleistocene behaved more as opportunistic scavengers than as active predators.

  10. Variation of olivine composition in the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: lithosphere control on the origin of the K-rich intraplate mafic lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.-Y.; Prelević, D.; Li, N.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Buhre, S.

    2016-10-01

    Lithospheric thickness and the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere are two major parameters that play a role in determining the final composition of the mafic melts and their minerals. The Songliao basin in northeast China represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the effect of these two parameters on early Pliocene to Holocene K-rich mafic lavas (K2O > 4 wt.%; K2O/Na2O > 1). A series of Cenozoic volcanic edifices (Erkeshan, Wudalianchi, Keluo and Xiaogulihe) are tentatively divided into three groups (Group 1 - thin, Group 2 - middle, and Group 3 - thick) according to the lithosphere thickness. They are located in the northern region of the Songliao basin extending in a near north-south direction along a broad zone where the lithosphere thickness increases gradually. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical study on olivine macrocrysts in combination with new geochemical data on their host lavas, including major and trace element abundances as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic signatures. Our ultimate aim is to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the role of lithospheric mantle thickness (named as "lid effect") and composition in the variation of mafic lavas and olivine composition. When corrected to Mg# = 0.72, a number of major elements in the lavas correlate with increasing lithospheric thickness (L): Si72 and Al72 decrease, whereas Mg72, Fe72, Ti72 and P72 increase. Sm/Yb ratios in the lavas increase, implying that lithospheric thickness exerts an important control. Group 3 mafic lavas are ultrapotassic (showing lamproite affinity) with K2O/Na2O > 4: their La/Sm and Pb isotope ratios deviate from the above correlations, indicating that the lavas from the thickest part of the basin exhibit the highest extent of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source. Several parameters (e.g. [Ni], Ni/Mg, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Mn/Fe and Ca/Fe) in melt-related olivine from Group 1 and Group 2 lavas are controlled by variable lithosphere thickness. Olivine

  11. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing

    2016-05-01

    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  12. The Pliocene Mediterranean infilling of the Messinian Erosional Surface : new biostratigraphic data based on calcareous nannofossils (Bajo Segura Basin, SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Lancis, C.; Tent Manclús, José Enrique; J. A. Flores; Soria, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Bajo Segura Basin (eastern Betic Cordillera) is a Mediterranean marginal basin where the Messinian Erosional Surface (MES), formed during the Messinian Salinity Crisis sea-level fall, is well developed. Overlying this major discontinuity the lower Pliocene transgressive sediments record the reflooding of the Mediterranean and the return to an open marine environment, the continental shelf being rebuilt after the Messinian erosion. The stratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of six sectio...

  13. Decadal to Multi-centennial SST Reconstructions From the Anthropocene Into the Last 2 Millennia: Planktonic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca Evidence From San Lazaro Basin (NE Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortyn, P. G.; Martínez-Botí, M. À.; Herguera, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    On inter-annual time scales, the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon is the largest driver of change in the ocean-atmosphere system. Significant impacts also arise from longer-term phenomena at decadal to centennial timescales, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). It is a primary interest to understand how modern global warming has impacted such drivers of significant climatic impacts, and how the marine sedimentary archive records this linkage in the southern California Current (CC). This would allow detailed comparison against other high-resolution archives, such as corals, and an improved ability to interpret past events as potential analogs for the future of ENSO and PDO. Furthermore, such reconstructions in recent millennia are crucial, since they record pre-anthropogenic climates under interglacial (warm) boundary conditions that allow us to characterize the nature of modern influence on this system. Here we present sub-decadal reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST), derived from the Mg/Ca ratio of the shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber. The samples come from San Lázaro Basin in the southern Baja California continental margin (25°N; 112°W), situated beneath the dynamic boundary of the cool eastern Pacific boundary CC of northern origin, and the warm subtropical water masses of southern origin. The bottom of this coastal basin (maximum depth of 540m) is bathed by oxygen-depleted waters that flow over a shallow sill at 370m. High levels of primary production and export of biogenic particles to depth ensue from strong seasonal upwelling processes during spring to early summer. This combination of high sediment production and preservation in an area very sensitive to ENSO and PDO impacts allows for a high-resolution reconstruction of inter-annual climatic phenomena in this unique eastern boundary current setting. For our highest temporal detail, we examine 2 cores at interannual resolution

  14. n-alkane distribution coupled with organic carbon isotope composition in the shell bar section, Qarhan paleolake, Qaidam basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang PU; Hucai ZHANG; Guoliang LEI; Fengqin CHANG; Mingsheng YANG; Xianyu HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Lipids extracted from lacustrine deposits in the paleolake Qarhan of the Qaidam basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau were determined by conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several series of biomarkers were identified, mainly including n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanoic acids, branched alkanes, triter-penoids and steroids, indicative of various biogenic contributions. On the basis of cluster analysis, the n-C15, n-C17, n-C19 alkanes were proposed to be derived from algae and/or photosynthetic bacteria, the n-C21 n-C23, n-C25 homologues from aquatic plants, and the n-C29, n-C31 homologues from vascular plants. In contrast, the n-C27 alkane is not categorized in the n-C29 and n-C31 group of alkanes, probably due to more complex origins including both aquatic and vascular plants, and/or differential biodegradation. Stratigraphically, layers-2, 4 and 5 were found to show a close relationship in n-alkane distribution, associated with a positive shift in carbon isotope composition of bulk organic matter (δ13Corg), inferring a cold/dry period. Layers-1 and 6 were clustered together in association with a negative δ13Corg excursion, probably indicating a relatively warm/humid climate. The potential coupling between the n-alkane distributions and δ13Corg, suggests a consequence of vegetation change in response to climate change, with the late MIS3 being shown to be unstable, thought to be the climatic optimum in the Tibetan Plateau. Our results suggest that the cluster analysis used in this study probably provides an effective and authentic method to investigate the n-alkane distribution in paleolake sediments.

  15. Building a New Water Culture in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Mora Zapata, Nuria; Roca, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    For over 100 years, water policy and man­ agement in Spain have been instruments of economic and social transformation. Sig­ nificant public and private investments in water supply infrastructures have equipped Spain with over 1,200 major dams, 20 major desalination plants ? with more under construction ? and several inter­basin water transfers. The system has been apparently very successful, with an increase in overall water availability, strong associated eco­ nomic development and few urba...

  16. Comparative performance of carbon isotope discrimination and canopy temperature depression as predictors of genotype differences in durum wheat yield in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ ) in mature kernels, canopy temperature depression (CTD) during anthesis and grain filling, 1000-kernel weight (TKW), total carbon content of mature kernels, and yield were studied in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) grown in Spain (western Mediterranean basin). Twenty-five durum wheat genotypes were grown in 2 regions (NE and SE Spain) and under 2 water regimes (rainfed versus support irrigation) from 1997 to 1999, in a total of 12 trials. Principal component analysis placed yield and Δ on the same axis. Pearson's correlation and stepwise analysis confirmed that Δ was the trait that best assessed genotype differences in yield within trials, and was followed, at a considerable distance, by TKW. Our results also demonstrated the extremely poor performance of CTD throughout the wide range of growing conditions in this study. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Publishing

  17. Assessment of hydrochemical trends in the highly anthropised Guadalhorce River basin (southern Spain) in terms of compliance with the European groundwater directive for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña; Gavilán, Pablo Jiménez; Pérez, Iñaki Vadillo; Cantos, Francisco Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    One of the key aspects introduced by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) and developed by Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC was the need to analyse pollution trends in groundwater bodies in order to meet the environmental objectives set in Article 4 WFD. According to this Directive, the main goal of "good status" should be achieved by the year 2015, and having reached this horizon, now is a suitable time to assess the changes that have taken place with the progressive implementation of the WFD. An extensive database is available for the Guadalhorce River basin, and this was used not only to identify in groundwater but also to draw real conclusions with respect to the degree of success in meeting the targets established for this main deadline (2015) The geographic and climate context of the Guadalhorce basin has facilitated the development of a variety of economic activities, but the one affecting the largest surface area is agriculture (which is practised on over 50 % of the river basin). The main environmental impacts identified in the basin aquifers arise from the widespread use of fertilisers and manures, together with the input of sewage from population centres. In consequence, some of the groundwater bodies located in the basin have historically had very high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding 200 mg/L. In addition, return flows, the use of fertilisers and other pressures promote the entry of other pollutants into the groundwater, as well as the salinisation of the main aquifers in the basin. In order to assess the hydrochemical changes that have taken place since the entry into force of the WFD, we performed a detailed trends analysis, based on data from the official sampling networks. In some cases, over 35 years of water quality data are available, but these statistics also present significant limitations, due to some deficiencies in the design or management; thus, data are missing for many years, the results are subject to

  18. Plain Language in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the communicative style Spain inherited from the dictatorship, Spain???s conception of plain language, the goals it set for the four most widely used languages, and the results achieved.

  19. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): The role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO3− pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO3− through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (δ15N, δ34S, δ13C, δ18O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 suggest that NO3− from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO3− can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater–saltwater interface (down to 12–16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO3− attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO3− in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. - Highlights: • Denitrification comes about in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system. • Nitrate in the basin is derived from synthetic fertilizers slightly volatilized. • Organic carbon oxidation is likely to be the main electron donor in denitrification. • Density driven flow transports organic carbon to deeper zones of the aquifer

  20. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in semiarid and karstic environments: A field study in the Granada Basin (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohfahl, Claus [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kohfahl@zedat.fu-berlin.de; Sprenger, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Herrera, Jose Benavente [Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada, Ramon y Cajal, 4, 18071 Granada (Spain); Meyer, Hanno [Isotope Laboratory of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Chacon, Franzisca Fernandez [Dpto. Hidrogeologia y Aguas Subterraneas, Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Oficina de Proyectos, Urb. Alcazar del Genil 4, Edificio Zulema bajo, 18006 Granada (Spain); Pekdeger, Asaf [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this study is to refine the understanding of recharge processes in watersheds representative for karstic semiarid areas by means of stable isotope analysis and hydrogeochemistry. The study focuses on the Granada aquifer system which is located in an intramontane basin bounded by high mountain ranges providing elevation differences of almost 2900 m. These altitude gradients lead to important temperature and precipitation gradients and provide excellent conditions for the application of stable isotopes of water whose composition depends mainly on temperature. Samples of rain, snow, surface water and groundwater were collected at 154 locations for stable isotope studies ({delta}{sup 18}O, D) and, in the case of ground- and surface waters, also for major and minor ion analysis. Thirty-seven springs were sampled between 2 and 5 times from October 2004 to March 2005 along an altitudinal gradient from 552 masl in the Granada basin to 2156 masl in Sierra Nevada. Nine groundwater samples were taken from the discharge of operating wells in the Granada basin which are all located between 540 and 728 masl. The two main rivers were monitored every 2-3 weeks at three different altitudes. Rainfall being scarce during the sampling period, precipitation could only be sampled during four rainfall events. Calculated recharge altitudes of springs showed that source areas of mainly snowmelt recharge are generally located between 1600 and 2000 masl. The isotope compositions of spring water indicate water sources from the western Mediterranean as well as from the Atlantic without indicating a seasonal trend. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different sources of recharge which occur mainly by bankfiltration of the main rivers. Isotopic signatures in the southeastern part of the aquifer indicate a considerable recharge contribution by subsurface flow discharged from the adjacent carbonate aquifer. No evaporation effects due

  1. Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain); Facetas triangulares de ladera en la region de Tudela (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.

    2009-07-01

    Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588{+-}2,488 yr. BP, 35,355{+-}2,446 yr. BP and 40.185{+-}2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.

  2. Determinación de sistemas de flujo regionales y locales en las depresiones tectónicas del Baix Empordà y La Selva (NE de España) en base a datos hidroquímicos e isotópicos

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova, Ester; Mas-Pla, Josep; Menció i Domingo, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The Baix Empordà-Selva-Gavarres aquifer system is related to the fault set that created the tectonic basins of Empordà and Selva areas (NE Spain) during the Neogene. In this work, we describe groundwater hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopical (3H, δD, δ18O, and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio) characteristics of this system in order to illustrate the relevance of fault zones in groundwater flow-paths and the recharge. In that way, we identify two flow systems, with distinct hydrochemistry and isot...

  3. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): The role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Alday, J.J., E-mail: JuanJose.Gomez@uclm.es [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: raulcarrey@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Valiente, N., E-mail: Nicolas.Valiente@uclm.es [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Otero, N., E-mail: notero@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsolergil@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, C., E-mail: cayora1@gmail.com [Grup d' Hidrologia Subterrània (GHS), Institut de Diagnóstic Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, D. [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); and others

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO{sub 3}{sup −} pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 34}S, δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, δ{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} suggest that NO{sub 3}{sup −} from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup −} can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater–saltwater interface (down to 12–16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO{sub 3}{sup −} attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. - Highlights: • Denitrification comes about in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system. • Nitrate in the basin is derived from synthetic fertilizers slightly volatilized. • Organic carbon oxidation is likely to be the main electron donor in denitrification. • Density driven flow transports organic carbon to deeper zones of the aquifer.

  4. Characterization of the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a in the Eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, E Spain) by Means of Ammonite Biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Company, M.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Delanoy, G.; Martinez, R.; Grauges, A.; Salas, R.

    2008-05-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) is now generally recognized to correlate with the lower part of the Leupoldina cabri planktonic foraminifer Zone. Unfortunately, the calibration of this zone against the standard ammonite scale has remained uncertain. Our recent high-resolution geochemical study (Carbon-isotope) of Lower Aptian sequences in the Iberian Chain of eastern Spain (Moreno-Bedmar et al., in prep) was used as proxy to further characterize OAE 1a. The sequence provides additional ammonite biostratigraphic data that permit correlation of the ammonite zonation with the isotopic signature of OAE1a. That interval includes specimens we identified with affinity for species of Roloboceras and Megatyloceras in the same beds that contain species of Deshayesites forbesi Casey, and Deshayesites gr. euglyphus/spathi, which are characteristic of the Deshayesites weissi Zone. Our results also indicate that D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny), the nominate taxon which marks the base of the superjacent Zone, first occurs a few meters above the geochemical signature corresponding to OAE 1a. Our isotopic data correlated with the ammonite occurrences are in further agreement with Roloboceras beds in England (Casey, 1961a, b; Casey et al., 1998) that are correlational with the Boreal Deshayesites forbesi Zone, which is coeval with the Mediterranean Deshayesites weissi Zone. Similarly, in the Cassis-La Bédoule area (SE France) the OAE 1a interval also corresponds to the Roloboceras beds, but they have been assigned to the Deshayesites deshayesi biozone (Ropolo et al., 2000; 2006). Here we argue that specimens attributed to D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny) and D. dechyi (Papp) from the Roloboceras levels (Ropolo et al., 2006) can be reinterpreted as belonging to D. forbesi, characteristic species of Deshayesites weissi Zone. Stratigraphic data from Roloboceras beds in le Teil region (Ardech patform, SE France) also reveal the presence of Deshayesites consobrinus (d'Orbigny) and Deshayesites gr

  5. Shallow burial dolomitisation of Middle-Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M. Isabel; De la Horra, Raúl; López-Gómez, José; Barrenechea, José F.; Luque, Javier; Arche, Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    This work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of the Middle-Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian-Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much closer to the basin boundary fault than the other two sections. The mineralogy and texture of the carbonate precursor of paleosols in the three studied sections are not preserved because original carbonate is replaced by coarse crystals of dolomite and/or magnesite. Dolomite crystals are typically euhedral, displaying rhombohedral shapes and reddish luminescence, although in the Henarejos section dolomite displays non-planar boundaries and frequently saddle habit. Micas are deformed and adapted to dolomite crystals, which, in turn, are affected by stylolites, suggesting that dolomite precipitated before mechanical and chemical compaction. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of dolomite from the three sections show different values (δ 13C VPDB mean values = - 6.7‰, - 5.5‰ and - 7.5‰; δ 18O VPDB mean values = - 4.0‰; -5.6‰ and - 8.2‰, at Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos sections, respectively). The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are similar in the three sections yielding values between 0.71391 and 0.72213. The petrographic and geochemical features of dolomite in the three studied sections suggest precipitation from similar fluids and during shallow burial diagenesis. Assuming that the minimum temperature for dolomite precipitation in the Henarejos section was 60 °C (as suggested by the presence of non-planar saddle habit), and that the dolomitizing fluid had similar δ 18O values at the three localities, then dolomite in the Talayuelas and Landete sections precipitated at temperatures

  6. Impact of climate change on Precipitation and temperature under the RCP 8.5 and A1B scenarios in an Alpine Cathment (Alto-Genil Basin,southeast Spain). A comparison of statistical downscaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Fernandez-Chacon, Francisca

    2016-04-01

    In order to design adaptive strategies to global change we need to assess the future impact of climate change on water resources, which depends on precipitation and temperature series in the systems. The objective of this work is to generate future climate series in the "Alto Genil" Basin (southeast Spain) for the period 2071-2100 by perturbing the historical series using different statistical methods. For this targeted we use information coming from regionals climate model simulations (RCMs) available in two European projects, CORDEX (2013), with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, and ENSEMBLES (2009), with a spatial resolution of 25 km. The historical climate series used for the period 1971-2000 have been obtained from Spain02 project (2012) which has the same spatial resolution that CORDEX project (both use the EURO-CORDEX grid). Two emission scenarios have been considered: the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario, which is the most unfavorable scenario considered in the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the A1B emission scenario of fourth Assessment Report (AR4). We use the RCM simulations to create an ensemble of predictions weighting their information according to their ability to reproduce the main statistic of the historical climatology. A multi-objective analysis has been performed to identify which models are better in terms of goodness of fit to the cited statistic of the historical series. The ensemble of the CORDEX and the ENSEMBLES projects has been finally created with nine and four models respectively. These ensemble series have been used to assess the anomalies in mean and standard deviation (differences between the control and future RCM series). A "delta-change" method (Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2011) has been applied to define future series by modifying the historical climate series in accordance with the cited anomalies in mean and standard deviation. A

  7. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  8. Evidence of a large deep conductive body within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland Basin (Betic Cordillera, S-Spain) from tipper vector modelling: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, L.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Junge, A.; Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Löwer, A.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Pedrera, A.; López-Garrido, A. C.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruano, P.; Martínez-Martos, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and the westward motion of the Alboran Domain. Long Period Magnetotelluric observations at 26 sites in its westernmost part provide induction arrows that have been compared with 3D forward models including bathymetry and major geological bodies. The results highlight the presence of a major conductive body (0.05 Ω m) unknown to date and located within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland basin. Aeromagnetic and field magnetic measurements further support the occurrence of magnetic anomalies related to the top of this anomalous body. This major structure is interpreted as an intermediate or basic igneous rock, with a high proportion of metallic mineralization. Its origin is discussed in the framework of the regional geological setting, possibly produced in the southern Iberian Variscan Massif by a huge concentration of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) in the prolongation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt during Devonian-early Carboniferous times. Another possibility is that the conductive anomaly is due to magmatic intrusions associated with the Mesozoic fragmentation of Southern Iberia and the opening of the Tethys.

  9. Reply to comment by J.L. Díaz-Hernández and R. Julià on “Quaternary landscape evolution and erosion rates for an intramontane Neogene basin (Guadix-Baza basin, SE Spain)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Azor, Antonio; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel María; Tuccimei, Paola; Della Seta, Marta; Soligo, Michele

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate that the age of 43 ka obtained for the topmost calcrete layer in the Guadix-Baza remains the only reliable numerical dating of the flat geomorphic surface that marks the end of the sedimentation in the basin. Consequently, the late Pleistocene to Holocene erosion rates derived from the incision of the present-day drainage network into the flat geomorphic surface remain valid. The calcrete radiometric ages reported by Díaz-Hernández and Julià (2012) in their comment are untenable due to the contamination with detrital 230Th (not corrected with the applied U/Th technique) and the possible mix of textural elements with different ages (older inherited grains and newly formed grains). Díaz-Hernández and Julià also quote U/Th ages for travertine terraces formed later than the calcrete layer. These ages lack internal consistency probably due to systematic contamination and/or weathering of the samples. The archaeological ages reported by Díaz-Hernández and Julià are subjected to great uncertainties, but independently of the age assumed as most realistic, they are completely compatible with the age of 43 ka that we obtained for the topmost calcrete layer in the Guadix-Baza basin.

  10. Current Travertines Precipitation from CO2-rich Groundwaters as an alert of CO2 Leakages from a Natural CO2 Storage at Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon capture and storage technologies represent the most suitable solutions related to the high anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. As a consequence, monitoring of the possible CO2 leakages from an artificial deep geological CO2 storage is indispensable to guarantee its safety. Fast surficial travertine precipitation related to these CO2 leakages can be used as an alert for these escapes. Since few studies exist focusing on the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO2 DGS, natural CO2 storage affected by natural or artificial escapes must be studied as natural analogues for predicting the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO2 storage. In this context, a natural CO2 reservoir affected by artificial CO2 escapes has been studied in this work. This study has mainly focused on the current travertines precipitation associated with the upwelling CO2-rich waters from several hydrogeological wells drilled in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (SE Spain), and consists of a comprehensive characterisation of parent-waters and their associated carbonates, including elemental and isotopic geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography. Geochemical characterisation of groundwaters has led to recognise 4 hydrofacies from 3 different aquifers. These groundwaters have very high salinity and electrical conductivity; are slightly acid; present high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO2; are oversaturated in both aragonite and calcite; and dissolve, mobilize and transport low quantities of heavy and/or toxic elements. Isotopic values indicate that: i) the origin of parent-waters is related to rainfalls from clouds originated in the Mediterranean Sea or continental areas; ii) the origin of C is mainly inorganic; and iii) sulphate anions come mainly from the dissolution of the Messinian gypsum from the Tertiary Basin sediments. Current travertines precipitation seems to be controlled by a combination of several factors, such as: i) a fast decrease of the hydrostatic

  11. Refining upon the climatic background of the Early Pleistocene hominid settlement in western Europe: Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Agustí, Jordi; Bailon, Salvador; Menéndez Granda, Leticia; Espígares Ortiz, Maria Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergios; Jiménez Arenas, Juan Manuel; Toro-Moyano, Isidro; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Sala, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain) have yielded thousands of Mode 1 or Oldowan lithic artifacts (both sites) and one tooth (in layer D, formerly 5 of Barranco León), today considered to be some of the earliest evidence of humans in western Europe at ca. 1.2-1.5 Ma. Previous quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions based on herpetile assemblages indicated that, during the formation of these two sites, the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were higher than they are now in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, with lower continentality. Here, we propose new climatic reconstructions where the mean monthly temperature and precipitation and the difference between the four driest months and the four rainiest months are estimated. Climatograms are built in order to specify the distribution and variation of temperature and precipitation during the year, and the Aridity Indices of Gaussen, Lautensach-Mayer, Dantin-Revenga and De Martonne are used to characterize ombroclimatic differences. According to these new climatic parameters, rainfall distribution through the year shows considerably higher precipitation in every season except summer and early autumn, which remain drier and thus consistent with a Mediterranean climate pattern. No change is observed in the duration of the aridity period, which remains four months long. However, the value of the Aridity Index of De Martonne is higher than 20 (subhumid climate) in Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3, whereas today it is lower than 20 (semi-arid climate), suggesting major changes in the ombroclimatic type. These results yield a more precise scenario for the paleoclimatic conditions that prevailed during the late Early Pleistocene in the Guadix-Baza Basin and permit us to contrast the ages obtained from numerical dating and biochronology. The very warm and humid climate reconstructed for both Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 suggests that, in

  12. Coupled measurements of δ18O and δD of hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions in gypsum from the Messinian Yesares Member, Sorbas Basin (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Gázquez, Fernando; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-11-01

    We studied one cycle (Cycle 6) of gypsum-marl deposition from the Messinian Yesares Member in Sorbas Basin, Spain. The objective was to reconstruct the changing environment of deposition and its relation to astronomically-forced climate change. The δ18O and δD of gypsum hydration water (CaSO4 • 2H2O) and salinity of fluid inclusions were measured in the same samples to test if they record the composition of the mother fluid from which gypsum was precipitated. Water isotopes are highly correlated with fluid inclusion salinity suggesting the hydration water has not exchanged after formation. The relatively low water isotope values and fluid inclusion salinities indicate a significant influence of meteoric water, whereas δ34S, δ18OSO4 and 87Sr/86Sr support a dominant marine origin for the gypsum deposits. The discrepancy between water and elemental isotope signatures can be reconciled if meteoric water dissolved previously deposited marine sulfates supplying calcium and sulfate ions to the basin which maintained gypsum saturation. This recycling process accounts for the marine δ34S, δ18OSO4 and 87Sr/86Sr signatures, whereas the low δ18O and δD values of gypsum hydration water and fluid inclusion salinities reflect the influence of freshwater. The cyclic deposition of gypsum and marl in the Yesares Member has previously been interpreted to reflect changing climate related to Earth's precession cycle. We demonstrate that the δ18O, δD and salinity of the parent brine increased from low values at the base of the cycle to a maximum in the massive gypsum palisade, and decreased again to lower values in the supercones at the top of the cycle. This pattern, together with changes in mineralogy (calcite-dolomite-gypsum), is consistent with a precession-driven change in climate with wettest conditions (summer insolation maxima) associated with the base of the calcium carbonate marls and driest conditions (summer insolation minima) during formation of the gypsum

  13. Current Travertines Precipitation from CO{sub 2}-rich Groundwaters as an alert of CO{sub 2} Leakages from a Natural CO{sub 2} Storage at Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Delgado, A.; Herrero, M. J.; Granados, A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS) represent the most suitable solutions related to the high anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. As a consequence, monitoring of the possible CO{sub 2} leakages from an artificial deep geological CO{sub 2} storage (DGS) is indispensable to guarantee its safety. Fast surficial travertine precipitation related to these CO{sub 2} leakages can be used as an alert for these escapes. Since few studies exist focusing on the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} DGS, natural CO{sub 2} storage affected by natural or artificial escapes must be studied as natural analogues for predicting the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} storage. In this context, a natural CO{sub 2} reservoir affected by artificial CO{sub 2} escapes has been studied in this work. This study has mainly focused on the current travertines precipitation associated with the upwelling CO{sub 2}-rich waters from several hydrogeological wells drilled in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (SE Spain), and consists of a comprehensive characterisation of parent-waters and their associated carbonates, including elemental and isotopic geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography. Geochemical characterisation of groundwaters has led to recognise 4 hydrofacies from 3 different aquifers. These groundwaters have very high salinity and electrical conductivity; are slightly acid; present high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO{sub 2}; are oversaturated in both aragonite and calcite; and dissolve, mobilize and transport low quantities of heavy and/or toxic elements. Isotopic values indicate that: i) the origin of parent-waters is related to rainfalls from clouds originated in the Mediterranean Sea or continental areas; ii) the origin of C is mainly inorganic; and iii) sulphate anions come mainly from the dissolution of the Messinian gypsum from the Tertiary Basin sediments. Current travertines precipitation seems to be controlled by a

  14. Geochemical correlation of oil from the Ayoluengo field to Liassic black shale units in the southwestern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Santiago; Robles, Sergio [University of the Basque Country, Stratigraphy and Paleontology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Dorronsoro, Carmen [University of the Basque Country, Geology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Chaler, Roser; Grimalt, Joan O. [C.I.D.-C.S.I.C., Environmental Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A study of the Liassic sequence in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin has shown the presence of organic-rich (TOC, HI and S{sub 2} up to 8.7%, 760 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively) Pliensbachian-early Toarcian black shales that constitute the only feasible source rock for Ayoluengo oil. The stratigraphical and sedimentological data show that these black shales developed into a major transgressive sequence of hemipelagic Lotharingian-Toarcian facies, which suggests the presence of anoxic or near anoxic bottom water conditions in troughs during their deposition. The {delta}{sup 13}C composition, and a detailed study of the linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid and hopanoid aliphatic hydrocarbons in these shales, marls and the Ayoluengo oil confirms this hypothesis. Specifically, the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the total solvent extract of the thicker shale (No. 2) and the oil are -29.93 and -29.88``per mille``, respectively; also a close similarity in the relative compositions of steranes and hopanes is observed between these samples. The distributions of these compounds exhibit several distinct features. The steranes in this shale and crude oil are characterized by a depletion of C{sub 28} vs C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} homologues (24 vs 32 and 44%, respectively), which is consistent with the carbon number sterane distributions generally observed among Upper Paleozoic to Liassic rock-sourced oils. Furthermore, hopanes and steranes are characterized by their high relative content of rearranged molecules. Diasteranes (13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H)- and 13{alpha}(H),17{beta}(H)- series) are the dominant compounds among the steranes and significant amounts of 18{alpha}(H)-17{alpha}methyl-28-norhopanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} homologues) and 17{alpha}(H)-15{alpha}-methyl- 27 norhopanes (C{sub 30} homologue) are found in the hopanoid hydrocarbons. Conversely, the proportion of these rearranged molecules in other sediment samples from the same formation decrease with increasing

  15. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.

    2004-09-01

    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  16. MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.

    2007-03-01

    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  17. Comment on “Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain” by S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual [Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. H.; Mayoral, E.

    2010-07-01

    Comments are provided on a published paper on "Lower Permian" strata in SW Spain [S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual, Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain, Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29], which failed to take into account up-to-date information on this most southerly occurrence in western Europe. This generally lacustrine basin commenced with valley fill deposits in a deeply incised palaeotopography and contains mainly red beds with two basaltic intervals and a major acidic volcanic episode linked to a nearby volcanic centre to the Northeast. The stratigraphic succession shows southeasterly onlap. Although a syn-sedimentary fault has been postulated on the NE basin margin, the field evidence disproves this notion as well as the assumption that this "Early Permian" basin would have been controlled by a rejuvenated Ossa-Morena/South Portuguese boundary fault. In fact, this basin lies within the (former) area of Ossa-Morena.

  18. Simulation de la sédimentation dans un bassin évaporitique à niveau d'eau sous influence eustatique. Application au bassin paléogène de Mulhouse (Alsace, France Simulation of Sedimentation in an Evaporitic Basin At Water Level under Eustatic Influence. Application to the Paleogene Mulhouse Basin (Alsace, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le programme SIMSALT permet, à partir de fonctions sinusoïdales simulant des variations climatiques et eustatiques, de modéliser la sédimentation dans une maille élémentaire d'un bassin évaporitique en communication restreinte permanente avec l'océan, les arrivées d'eau marine se faisant par l'intermédiaire d'un seuil topographique. En fonction des salinités calculées, le programme détermine s'il y a précipitation de sels ainsi que les épaisseurs sédimentées. Les principaux résultats fournis sont représentés par des colonnes lithologiques en fonction des épaisseurs cumulées et en fonction du temps. Ce programme renferme également un module permettant de tester des fonctions simulant la production-dégradation de la matière organique. Ce modèle a été appliqué à une partie de la série évaporitique d'âge Eocène supérieur - Oligocène inférieur du bassin de Mulhouse. L'application du modèle aux cyclothèmes carottés du sondage Max montre que la sédimentation évaporitique et organique peut être contrôlée principalement par des variations climatiques résultant de la somme de trois sinusoïdes, respectivement de période de l'ordre de 13000, 500 et 100 ans, associées à des variations eustatiques de période 13000 ans déphasées par rapport aux variations climatiques de même période. Avec le modèle SIMSALT, il est donc possible de reconnaitre les influences respectives de l'eustatisme et du climat sur la sédimenation évaporitique et organique dans un bassin en communication restreinte avec le domaine marin. The SIMSALT program takes sinusoidal functions simulating climatic and eustatic variations and uses them to model sedimentation in an elementary mesh of an evaporitic basin in permanent restricted communication with the ocean, with arrivals of seawater being determined via a topographic threshold (Fig. 1. For this, the mesh is assumed to be made up of several superposed elements (Fig. 2, i. e. a

  19. Geophysical Research in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain), as a Natural Analogue of CO{sub 2} Storage and Leakage; Estudio Geofisico del Analogo Natural de Almacenamiento y Escape de CO{sub 2} de la Cuenca Terciaria de Ganuelas-Mazarron (Murcia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Aracil, E.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-07-01

    In order to determine the depth, morphology and extent of the CO{sub 2}-enriched deep saline aquifer in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (Murcia, Spain), it was necessary reprocessing the vertical electrical soundings performed by IGME-ADARO in the eighties and to perform several geophysical campaigns by means of electrical tomography, time domain electromagnetic surveys and gravimetry. Densities of the outcropping lithologies in the studied basin were also determined in order to refine the model obtained from gravimetric data. The geophysical results, particularly from gravimetric data, seem to indicate that the CO{sub 2}-enriched deep saline aquifer, located in the contact or within the carbonate materials of the Nevado-Filabride Complex, could reach a depth greater than 800 m. For this reason, the possibility that this CO{sub 2} is in supercritical state in certain areas of the aquifer, is not discardable. Thus, the studied basin would be an excellent natural analogue of a CO{sub 2}-deep geological storage in a deep saline aquifer in volcanic and/or carbonate rocks, anthropogenically perturbed by geothermal exploration wells (La Ermita de El Saladillo and El Alto de El Reventon) and hydrogeological wells for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  20. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  1. Classification of Volcanic Edifices and Its Characteristics of Gas Pool in Faulted Sequence of the Songliao Basin, NE China%松辽盆地断陷层火山机构类型及其气藏特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华风; 王璞珺; 李瑞磊; 黄晨; 白冰

    2012-01-01

    松辽盆地断陷层(火石岭组和营城组)火山机构类型见3类6型.营城组以酸性火山机构为主,其中:盆地北部酸性熔岩火山机构占33%,南部占38%,北部的中基性火山机构比例小于南部.火山岩气藏类型主要为构造-岩性气藏,气水界面是一个起伏变化的界面.气藏内部特征受火山机构类型控制:酸性碎屑岩火山机构的气层厚度变化较小,其形态为板状或席状;酸性复合和熔岩火山机构气藏的气层厚度变化小,其形态为丘状和席状;中基性熔岩火山机构的厚度变化较大,其形态为丘状或楔状.松辽盆地火山岩气藏成藏主控因素为有效烃源岩、通源断层和储层物性.从松辽盆地发现的火山岩工业气藏来看:火山岩气藏主要集中在酸性熔岩火山机构中,北部贡献率为50%,南部贡献率为38%;盆地北部中基性火山机构的成藏效率高于南部.火山岩勘探方向应该聚焦在具有烃源岩和通源断层的区带,首先针对酸性火山机构,其次是中基性火山机构.%Volcanic edifices of the Yingcheng Formation and the Huoshiling Formation in the Songliao basin are classified into 3 types. They are pyroclastic, composite and lava volcanic edifices. According to chemical composition of rocks, each type is subdivided into acid subtype or intermediate-basic subtype. Most of volcanic edifices of the Yingcheng Formation are acid subtype. The percentage of acid lava volcanic edifice is 33% in northern basin and 38% in southern basin. The proportion of intermediate-basic volcanic edifices in northern basin is more than that in southern basin. The volcanic gas pool of Songliao basin isstructural-lithological type. The depth of gas-water interface changes greatly. Internal characteristics of gas pools are controlled by volcanic edifices type. The shape of gas layer within acid pyroclastic volcanic edifice is sill or tabular, and the thickness changes little. The shape of gas

  2. Tectónica neógena en el extremo sur de la Cordillera Patagónica Septentrional: Cuenca de los lagos la Plata y Fontana (45°S Neogene tectonics in the southernmost extreme of the Northern Patagonian Cordillera: La Plata-Fontana lakes basin (45°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Folguera

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuevos datos acerca de la anisotropía del manto, debajo de los Andes entre los 45° y los 46°S han revelado un rasgo sorprendente: un eje de polarización con orientación NO coincide con la segmentación estructural, derivada de la geometría de la cuenca cretácica inferior a estas latitudes. La geometría de la litosfera inferior induciría flujo astenosférico, en forma no paralela al tren andino. Adicionalmente se relaciona este mismo, con el desarrollo de una serie de pequeños depocentros extensionales en el retroarco de edad neógena a cuaternaria, los cuales se encuentran alineados con la estructura extensional cretácica. ¿Fue la reactivación transtensional de estructuras de basamento, durante el Neógeno, la que modificó la geometría de la litosfera inferior, a través de la actividad de un antiguo detachment, induciendo corrientes convectivas en el manto superior? ¿O simplemente la actividad de este detachment se relacionó con los efectos de arrastre que produjera la apertura de una ventana astenosférica, en la litosfera inferior, provocando la ruptura de la corteza a través de discontinuidades fósiles?New anisotropic seismic data below the Andes at 45°- 46°S have revealed a striking feature: a fast polarization NW axis coinciding with the Lower Cretaceous segmentation derived from basin geometry. The geometry of the lower lithosphere would induce astenospheric flux which is not parallel to the Andean trend. Moreover, a series of Quaternary-Neogene small basins in the retro-arc are aligned with the Cretaceous extensional structure. Did transtensional reactivation of basement structures during the Neogene modify lower lithosphere geometry through activity of ancient detachments, inducing convective cells in the upper mantle? Or would the activity of the ancient detachment be linked to the opening of a slab astenospheric window and to its drag in the lower lithosphere, making the crust yield through fossilized

  3. Andalucian (Spain, sw)

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    We present the main types of vernacular architecture in Andalucia (Spain): city houses, mountain village houses and those of the villages on the plains. Also the flat roof houses in the Alpujarras and the caves are studied.

  4. Drainage and reclamation of salt-affected soils in the bardenas area, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Beltran, J.

    1978-01-01

    Chapter 1The Ebro basin is situated in north-eastern Spain and forms a geographic unit bounded by high mountains. The Bardenas area lies in the Ebro basin and forms part of the Bardenas Alto - Aragón irrigation scheme, which was designed to make use of the surface water resources from the Pyrenees.C

  5. ENSO- and PDO-modulated SST Reconstructions From the Anthropocene Into the Last 2 Millennia: Planktonic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca Evidence at Inter-annual Resolution From San Lázaro Basin (NE Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortyn, P.; Martinez-Boti, M. A.; Herguera, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    On inter-annual time scales, the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon is the largest driver of change in the ocean-atmosphere system. As such, it is a primary interest to understand how modern global warming has impacted ENSO, and how the marine sedimentary archive records this linkage in the southern California Current (CC). This would allow detailed comparison against other high-resolution archives, such as corals, and an improved ability to interpret past events as potential analogs for the future of ENSO. Furthermore, such reconstructions in recent millennia are crucial, since they record pre- anthropogenic climates under interglacial (warm) boundary conditions that allow us to characterize the nature of modern influence on this system. Here we present sub-decadal reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST), derived from the Mg/Ca ratio of the shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber. The samples come from San Lázaro Basin in the southern Baja California continental margin (25° N; 112° W), situated beneath the dynamic boundary of the cool eastern Pacific boundary CC of northern origin, and the warm subtropical water masses of southern origin. The bottom of this coastal basin (maximum depth of 540m) is bathed by oxygen-depleted waters that flow over a shallow sill at 370m. High levels of primary production and export of biogenic particles to depth ensue from strong seasonal upwelling processes during spring to early summer. This combination of high sediment production and preservation in an area very sensitive to ENSO impact allows for a high-resolution reconstruction of inter-annual climatic phenomena in this unique eastern boundary current setting. For our highest temporal detail, we examine 2 cores at interannual resolution for the past ~90 years, which we use to validate our proxy against instrumental SSTs. This variability is effectively traced by Mg/Ca in G. ruber, which has an affinity for warmer waters

  6. 13C-contents of bacterial lipids in a shallow sulfidic monomictic lake (Lake Ciso, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Sliekers, O.; Grimalt, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis was performed on sedimentary biomarkers of a shallow sulfide-rich monomictic lake, Lake Cisó (NE Spain). Specific biomarkers derived from phototrophic sulfur bacteria in Lake Cisó were considerably depleted in 13C, most likely due to the depleted 13C-content of the di

  7. Detrital zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic composition from foreland sediments of the Assam Basin, NE India: Constraints on sediment provenance and tectonics of the Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, Ravikant; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Synorogenic Palaeogene-Neogene sediments of the Assam foreland basin, were derived by erosion of adjacent crustal and orogenic sources following the Greater India-Eurasia collision since ∼55 Ma. To constrain source sediment influx, and its relation to Himalayan tectonics, from pre- to post-collision time, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and their Hf isotopic compositions were carried out. The varying detrital zircon spectral patterns analyzed from the Paleogene Jaintia, Barail and Neogene Surma and Tipam Groups, with sediment petrography, track source sediment derived from cratonic India, Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths and the eastern Himalaya. These sources are tested against Cenozoic paleopositions proposed for the northeastward motion of the Indian plate. Precollisional cratonic detritus to Middle to Late Eocene Sylhet Formation shifted to Tethyan Himalaya and arc sources of the Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths to Late Eocene Kopili and Barail Formations, consistent with the proposed paleoposition proximal to the Indus-Yarlung suture. This Sylhet-Kopili Formation transition, within the Jaintia Group, reflects one of the earliest Himalayan hinterland exhumation stages during the Late Eocene. Major shift in provenance to Higher Himalayan Crystalline and arc detritus is recorded from the Surma Group, constraining Mid Miocene Himalayan tectonic exhumation from the eastern Himalaya. Late Miocene Tipam Group preserves sediment of Higher Himalayan Crystalline detritus, ophiolite and likely Lesser Himalayan rocks.

  8. Lakes, groundwater and palaeohydrology in the Sahel of NE Nigeria : evidence from hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. Edmunds; Fellman, E.; Goni, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters from rain, soil, the unsaturated zone, shallow aquifers, lakes and the stratified aquifer system of the Chad Basin sediments has been investigated to interpret modern hydrological processes and to reconstruct the palaeohydrology of NE Nigeria, a type region of the southern Sahel. Recharge to the confined Middle and Lower aquifers, recorded in NE Nigeria, occurred between 24 and 18.6 ka BP, prior to the last glacial maximum. The mean annual temperature at thi...

  9. Definition of the ecological status of Estanco River Basin (Antas de Ulla, Lugo, Spain) with Water Framework Directive; Definicion del estado ecologico de la cuenca del rio Estanco (Antas de Ulla, Lugo) segun la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muno Fafian, D.; Cuesta Garcia, T. S.; Cancela Barrio, J. J.; Marin Lopez, A.; Carballo, R.; Marin Lopez, A.; Neira Seijo, X. X.

    2007-07-01

    The Water Framework Directiva (WFD) extends the scope of protection to all water uses. The WDF defines the ecological status of water bodies by characterizing each water body type and establishing reference conditions for the quality elements. This paper identifies indicators for defining the ecological status of Estanco river Basin (Antas de Ulla, Lugo) by using the methodology proposed in the WFD. In additions, this study highlights the obstacles for a correct application of the WFD in the study river basin. this study presents conclusions about the usefulness of the WFD in the development of specific programmes for improving the ecological status of rivers. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. 2 D seismic sections interpretation for the Xareu field in the Mundau sub-basin (Ceara basin, Northeastern Brazil); Interpretacao de secoes sismicas 2D para o Campo de Xareu na sub-bacia de Mundau (Bacia do Ceara, NE do Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alex Francisco [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: alex@geologia.ufrn.br; Jardim de Sa, Emanuel Ferraz [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Matos, Renato Marcos Darros de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Keller Filho, Odilon [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE; Lima Neto, Francisco Fontes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a reinterpretation of seismic sections of the Xareu Oil Field, located in the central portion of the Mundau Sub-basin (Ceara Basin, Northeast Brazil). These seismic sections were acquired during the 80's and the 90's. Their reinterpretation show that the field is structured by a main arrangement of N W-trending listric normal faults, with associated roll-over structures affecting the rocks of the rift (Mundau Formation) and transitional (Paracuru Formation) sections of the basin. Some of these faults also affect the basal and intermediate layers of the drift section (Ubarana Formation), what denotes their reactivation (or even the formation of new faults). the new interpretation allows a better understanding of the frequency, geometry, orientation, style and kinematic of the faults, important factors in the structural characterization of the Xareu Oil Field. (author)

  11. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10-6 to 76.5×10-6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of the

  12. 2d Post-rift Flexural Backstripping Modelling of The NE Rockall Basin: What Is The Meaning of The Observed Spaleo-depth Discrepanciess? A~é´

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramicola, S.; de Santis, L.; Stoker, M.; Shannon, P.; van Weering, T.; Praeg, D.; Roberts, A.; Camerlenghi, A.

    2D post-rift flexural backstripping and thermal reverse modelling have been used to re- store paleobathymetries along two depth-converted interpreted seismic sections across the northeastern margin of the Rockall Basin. Section DGH95-10 extends from the Hebridean shelf to the flanks of the Darwin Seamount, and section BGS 84/06-53 crosses the southern Hebridean shelf and slope. The results indicate an important dis- crepancy between the theoretical paleo-depth values obtained from the restorations and the direct information from drill site stratigraphy. The discrepancy is of the or- der of hundreds of metres, up to 1.4 km in some model runs. Sensitivity tests were performed, assuming different input parameters across the modelled sections (i.e. sed- iment properties, rift age and amount of stretching), consistent with the tectonic and stratigraphic framework of the study area. The objective was to determine how much of the observed discrepancy may be due to model parameters (e.g. under- or over- estimation of the sediment load effect) and how much is due to departures from the assumed McKenzie model of post-rift thermal subsidence (e.g. mantle plume effects or intra-plate stress variations). The modelling in Rockall Trough presented here is being carried out within the framework of the EU-STRATAGEM (Stratigraphical De- velopment of the Glaciated European Margin) Project. The principal objectives of STRATAGEM are to address problems related to the mid-Cenozoic to Recent de- velopment of the glaciated north European continental margin http://www.stratagem- europe.org

  13. Camili (Macahel Havzasının (Artvin, KD Türkiye Heyelan Duyarlılık Analizi Landslide Susceptibility Analysis of Camili (Macahel Basin (Artvin, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ÖZŞAHİN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common natural disasters in Turkey and in theworld is landslides. Investigation of Turkey’s profile of the last 50 yearsshows that the landslides are the most commonly occurring naturaldisasters with a ratio of 45%.The current study investigated the landslide susceptibility analysisof Camili (Macahel which is one of the unique places on earth with itsspecific fauna and flora and which is the first Biosphere Reserve Area ofTurkey. The landslides which are among the most common naturaldisaster risks in the basin with international recognizance present crucialthreats both in terms of settlement and planning. In this context, thestudy examined the factors that cause landslides in the basin area, theirimpact levels, ratios of potential landslide zones and their geographicaldistributions.The study employed factor maps of various scales obtained fromdifferent resources. 17 parameter factors obtained with the help of thesemaps were evaluated separately and in connection with conditiondependent overlay method to identify landslide risk zones. The studybased on a topography plate with scaled 1/25.000 made use of maps ofvarious scales about different parameters as well as Landsat satelliteimages. Mapping and analysis phases of the study were based onGeographical Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RStechnology. In this context, ArcGIS/ArcMap 10 GIS and ERDAS 2012 RSsoftware was utilized.It was identified at the end of the landslide susceptibility study ofthe basin that medium level susceptible zones display the highestdistribution with 56 % ratio (14284 ha followed by high (6972 ha - 28 %and very high (611 ha – 2 % level susceptible zones with 30 % and low3288 ha – 13 % and very low (67 ha – 1 % level susceptible zones with14 %. It was determined that potential risk zones are concentratedaround slopes overlooking north where relief and precipitation values arehigh, mountain and slope morphology is dominant and vegetation

  14. Evidence for hydrothermal activity in the Andaman Backarc Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.; Nair, R.R.

    Multibeam bathymetric, magnetic, gravity and seismic surveys revealed a complex morphotectonic fabric of the Andaman Backare Basin with a spreading ridge, several seamounts and faults. The ridge trending SW-NE direction is segmented and shows...

  15. Contourites and their Neogene Development along the NE Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weering, T. C. E.; de Haas, H.; Shannon, P.; Praeg, D.; Stoker, M.; Holmes, R.

    2003-04-01

    During the EU funded STRATAGEM* program a new and unified Neogene stratigraphy of the NE Atlantic Margin from Ireland to north Norway was defined on the basis of analysis of a large suite of single and multi-channel profiles collected over the last decade by the STRATAGEM partners, complemented with partially confidential industry seismic and borehole data. Key reflectors were defined and by means of construction of stratigraphic range charts, constrained and tested by existing borehole and well data. These show that especially in the Rockall Trough and Faeroe Shetland Channel, and to a lesser extent off the Norwegian margin, contourite deposits form an important element of the Neogene succession. Onset of contourite development in the Rockall Trough and Porcupine Basin was in the early Oligocene, forced by rapid differential subsidence and seaward tilting of the basins. The contourites are predominantly developed along the basin margins and show in areas of upslope accretion, migration from the deep basin onto the slope with both onlapping and downlapping reflector terminations. The distribution and characteristics of the Neogene contourite development along the NE Atlantic margin will be defined in detail, in relation to tectonic and oceanographic conditions and their variability. *STRATAGEM www.stratagem-europe.org

  16. Worst in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotarelo, P. [Ecologistas en Accion (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    The As Pontes coal-fired power plant in northwest Spain is the largest single emitter of sulphur dioxide in the 'old' EU15. The plant is also among the largest emitters of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the region, according to the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register). But Spain has also several other large emitters of air pollutants. The Andorra which is located in the province of Teruel is one of them. The Andorra power plant emitted 209,148 tones of SO{sub 2} in 2002 which makes it the second largest single emitter of SO{sub 2} in the EU15. It also emitts large quantities of NOx. Also in the northwest of Spain, the Composilla and La Robla power plants are the SO{sub 2} and NOx emitters.

  17. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  18. The demosponge Leptomitus cf. L. lineatus, first occurence from the Middle Cambrian of Spain (Murero Formation, Western Iberian Chain)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bellido, Diego

    2003-01-01

    The Middle Cambrian Murero Formation in the Iberian Chain (NE Spain) has yielded a small collection of softbodied fossils (palaeoscolecid worms, onychophorans, algae), a host of fossils from organisms with mineralized skeletons such as trilobites and brachiopods, and some trace fossils. This paper deals with the description of the only specimen of the demosponge Leptomitus known so far from Spain and its association with the brachiopod Micromitra, showing a probable case of commensalism by th...

  19. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  20. Structural Characteristics and Evolution of Jurassic Basins in the East of Middle Qilian Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑孟林; 李明杰; 曹春潮; 张勇军; 徐世陆

    2003-01-01

    Structural characteristics of the Jurassic basins of Xining, Minhe, and Xiji in the east of middle Qilian were researched based on the data obtained by gravitational, magnetic, and seismic methods. The result shows that each of these three basins is an independent structural unit with a NW strike and being separated by upheavals. Two groups of faults with NW and NE directions are developed in the basin, which controls the formation and evolution of the (Jurassic basins). The NW faults are the main ones while the NE faults are the secondary for controlling the sedimentation. Of the three basins, the Minhe basin is the favorable prospecting area.

  1. Networking in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Miguel .; Keefer, Alice C.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a country whose development level falls in the middle ränge within the European Community; in fact, when measured for certain industry and infrastructure indicators, it resembles the industrialized countries of the north more than other southern-tier countries. All analyses coincide in showing that Spain has experienced strong growth in the last decade and this also holds true in the area of library Services. However, libraries are not at a comparative level with the rest of Europe i...

  2. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds, mission orgon 2, 1975 (Bassin de Cariaco et cône de l'Amazone Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Orgon 2 Mission, 1975 (Cariaco Basin and Amazon Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Trois articles distincts traitent, le premier des généralités sur la mission ORLON, les deux autres des résultats obtenus à la mer dans les domaines de la microbiologie et de la biochimie des eaux. En microbiologie, une opposition existe entre le bassin de Cariaco d'une part, milieu anoxique riche en microflore et spécialement en bactéries sulfato-réductrices, et d'autre part la plaine du Demerara et le cône de l'Amazone, où les eaux ont des teneurs médiocres en microflore et les sédiments des teneurs si faibles qu'elles sont inférieures aux teneurs des eaux (phénomène qui n'existe jamais dans les milieux côtiers ou peu profonds. On met en évidence une relation directe entre teneurs en microflore et vitesse de sédimentation, qui permet d'avoir une vision cohérente des résultats obtenus tant à ORLON I qu'à ORLON 2. Dans le domaine de la biochimie des eaux, on a étudié outre l'eau sus-jacente au sédiment, les eaux interstitielles de 95 niveaux sédimentaires des carottes. L'utilisation d'un dispositif spécial de découpage des carottes prélevées à l'aide du carottier Reineck court a permis une étude fine des paramètres physiques (pH, Eh et des constituants chimiques (O, dissous, S-- dissous, PO---, NH4 et alcalinité des eaux interstitielles. L'influence des conditions régnant dans la Cariaco Trench sur la minéralisation de la matière organique a été étudiée au cours de l'enfouissement. Les mesures effectuées dans la mer du Demerara et sur le cône fossile de l'Amazone soulignent l'influence des conditions ambiantes et la pauvreté en matériel organique des régions océaniques profondes. Les dépôts côtiers de l'Amazone et du Para ont également été étudiés. Three separate articles are given. The first deals with general comments on the ORLON cruise, and the other two give the findings obtained on board ship in the fields of microbiology and biochemisiry of water. In microbiology, there is an

  3. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  4. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  5. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.;

    2014-01-01

    in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worldwide, and renowned international chefs and many restaurants and companies committed to the collaboration...

  6. Sedimentary cyclicity in early Pleistocene, evaporitic, playa-lake lacustrine deposits in the Guadix-Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain); Ciclicidad sedimentaria en depositos lacustres evaporiticos tipo playa-lake del Pleistoceno inferior en la cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Cordillera Betica, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Aguilar, J. M.; Guera-Menchan, A.; Serrano, F.; Palmqvist, P.

    2013-06-01

    The Guadix-Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) contains in its eastern sector an early Pleistocene (Gelasian and lowermost Calabrian) sedimentary unit that was deposited in a shallow lacustrine environment. Given that the chronological limits of this unit lie between 2.5 and 1.6 Ma BP, the thickness of its preserved sediments (400 m) and high sedimentation rate (44.4 cm/ka) are remarkable. Numerous sedimentary cycles marked by an alternation of marls and sands are commonly found in the marginal sectors and marls and gypsum in the central sector, which would owe their origins to permanent flooding and evaporation/ re-flooding phases due to global climatic changes. Spectral analyses carried out using Fourier transform have revealed the existence of temporary frequencies associated with sedimentary cycles of between 0.2 and 5.2 ka. The origin of these cycles may be associated with variations in solar radiation and oscillations in the Moons orbital position, which would induce global climatic changes resulting in the rise and fall of the water table of the lake. Autocorrelation analyses conducted separately on the marly and evaporitic levels support this conclusion, as they indicate the existence of significant direct correlations between about 4 to 12 sedimentary cycles, which would correspond to repetitions of the stratigraphic series over a time span of 1.3 to 4 ka. (Author)

  7. Approach to assessment of the land use changes in the Rambla of Moreras basin (SE Spain); Aproximacion a la evaluacion de cambios de uso de suelo en la cuenca de la Rmablad e las Moreras (SE de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones Rubio, J. M.; Reverte Jimenez, F.; Ortiz Silla, R.

    2009-07-01

    The changes in the use of soil are not a current phenomenon, but in the three last decades important changes have occurred around the mediterranean arc. This work analyzes the evaluation of the soil uses changes that have occurred in the basin of the Rambla de las Moreras, sited in the meridional sector of Murcia, between 1956 and 2003 this integrated photo interpretation in geographical information system (Chuvieco, 2002, Lopez, et al., 2002) is constituted as a methodology with a grand capacity of spatial an lysis establishing a classification of the most representative land uses in each epoch. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Mineral resources of the Tertiary deposits of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García del Cura, M. Ángeles; Cristino J. Dabrio; Ordóñez Delgado, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    Spain is the most self-sufficient country for minerals in the EsU. A major proportion of these Spanish mineral resources has been oblained from Tertiary material-. The main material exploited in Tertiary basins have been: brown coal and lignites, potassium salts, sodium salts (sulphates and chlorides), diátomite, sepiolite and other absorbent days, bentonites, celestine. pumíce and also dimension (building) stones and ceramícs, portland cement and plaster raw materials. Pb-...

  9. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these evaporites have often been correlated to the well-known Mediterranean evaporites of the Messinian salinity crisis, although this correlation was never substantiated by reliable chronological data. In this p...

  10. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  11. Application of stable isotopes (δ{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4}, δ{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4,} δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}, δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}) to determine natural background and contamination sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña, E-mail: b.urresti@uma.es [Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Vadillo-Pérez, Iñaki; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo [Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Soler, Albert [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Fac. Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Sánchez-García, Damián; Carrasco-Cantos, Francisco [Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    The integrated use of isotopes (δ{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4}, δ{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4,} δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}, δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}), taking into account existing hydrogeological knowledge of the study area (mainly hydrochemical), was applied in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain) to characterise SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} sources, and to quantify natural background levels (NBLs) in groundwater bodies. According to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and, more recently, Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC, it is important to determine NBLs, as their correct assessment is the first, essential step to characterising groundwater bodies, establishing threshold values, assessing chemical status and identifying trends in pollutant concentrations. In many cases, NBLs are high for some parameters and types of groundwater, making it difficult to distinguish clearly between factors of natural or human origin. The main advantages of using stable isotopes in a complex area like the Guadalhorce River Basin that exhibits widely varying hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions and longstanding anthropogenic influences (mainly agriculture, but also many others) is accurate determination of pollution sources and precise quantification of NBLs. Since chemical analyses only provides the concentration of pollutants in water and not the source, three isotopic sampling campaigns for sulphates (δ{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4}, δ{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4}) were carried out, in 2006, 2007 and 2012, and another one was conducted for nitrates (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}, δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}), in 2009, in groundwater bodies in order to trace the origins of each pollutant. The present study identified different pollution sources of dissolved NO{sub 3}{sup −} in groundwater using an isotopic composition and quantified the percentage of natural (lithology, chemical and biological processes) and anthropogenic (fertilisers, manure and sewage) SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and matched a concentration

  12. Restructuring in SMEs: Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Jessica; Isusi, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Spain.

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U3O8). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in category

  14. Kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser with He-Ne-Ar and Ne-H2 beam plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Koval' , A.V.; Iakovlenko, S.I. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    A kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser laser with Ne-He-Ar and Ne-H2 mixtures pumped by an electron beam is developed. Plasma parameters and characteristics of the Ne yellow line emission (585.3 nm) are calculated for both quasi-steady-state and nonsteady-state pumping. Theoretical results agree well with experimental data on lasing for a wide range of durations and densities of the pump current, and mixture pressures and compositions. 13 refs.

  15. Testing models for the Messinian salinity crisis: The Messinian record in Almería, SE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, J. C.; Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Fuentenueva s.n., Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada, Spain; Martín, J. M.; Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Fuentenueva s.n., Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada, Spain; Riding, R.; School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3YE, United Kingdom; Aguirre, J.; Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Fuentenueva s.n., Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada, Spain; Sánchez-Almazo, I. M.; Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Fuentenueva s.n., Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada, Spain; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia

    2006-01-01

    Neogene intermontane basins in Almería Province, SE Spain, display excellent exposures of Messinian (Late Miocene) sequences. The Sorbas, Almería-Níjar and Vera basins maintained connection with the Mediterranean throughout the Messinian, except during the major desiccation phase leading to the formation of salt in the deep centre of the Western Mediterranean. These basins were part of the Western Mediterranean with no separate link to the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of normal marine sedimen...

  16. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated. PMID:18217916

  17. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  18. Measuring deprivation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Mayo, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the deprivation in Spain based on ECHP data for 1996. Usually, an indirect approach for measuring deprivation or poverty is used with poverty lines. That is, income is used as a proxy for analysing living conditions. However, some studies have used a direct approach to measure deprivation or poverty (Townsend 1988, Mayer and Jencks 1988, Muffels 1993, Callan et al 1993, Dirven and Fouarge 1995, Layte et al 1999, Whelan et al 2000). The aim of this paper is improving the id...

  19. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  1. OBLIKOVANJE TURISTIČNE DESTINACIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Debevec, Iztok

    2009-01-01

    Diplomska naloga obravnava oblikovanje turistične destinacije »Kamnik«. Razdeljena je na pet poglavij. V uvodu opredeljujemo problem, namen, cilje in osnovne trditve ter predpostavke in omejitve pri raziskavi in uporabljene raziskovalne metode. V drugem poglavju smo predstavili osnovne pojme v turizmu, katerih poznavanje je pomembno za pripravo in obravnavo teme diplomske naloge. Večjo pozornost pri predstavitvi osnovnih pojmov smo namenili turistični destinaciji, integralni turistični st...

  2. KRONIČNE RANE KAO JAVNOZDRAVSTVENI PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA; REDŽEPI, GZIM; Antolić, Slavko

    2014-01-01

    Kronične rane su ogroman teret bolesnicima, medicinskom osoblju ali i cjelokupnom zdravstvenom sustavu. Kronične rane su rane koje ne zarastaju unutar predviđenog razdoblja u korelaciji s etiologijom i lokalizacijom rane, a u najkraćem razdoblju od 6 tjedana. U 95 % slučajeva javljaju se ishemijske rane, neuropatski ulkus, venski ulkus te dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. Kronične rane na potkoljenicama u oko 80 % slučajeva posljedica su kronične venske insuficijencije, u 5-10 % su arterijske ...

  3. The NeXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S

    2008-01-01

    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  4. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Adoption of web databases for document management in SMEs of the construction sector in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Forcada Matheu, Núria; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Roca Ramon, Xavier; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based tool designed to improve internal and external document management for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector. For each specific project, the system creates an organisational document structure to be downloaded to the stakeholders’ PCs or servers and also to the web-based project management system (WPMS) that is being used to manage the entire project. A survey was conducted in Spain to define ne...

  6. Regional consequences of the way land users respond to future water availability in Murcia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Temansen, M.; Hubacek, K.; Reed, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural development in the Murcia autonomous region, Spain, has led to overexploitation of groundwater resources, and climate change will further increase pressures. Policy options to tackle the current unsustainable situation include the development of inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) schemes

  7. Propagation of a fold-and-thrust belt vs. timing of flexural basin formation: a case-study in the Betics (Gibraltar Arc System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Torvela, Taija; Exposito, Inmaculada; Balanya, Juan Carlos; Diaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia; Crespo-Blanc, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Miocene compressional event. Both the orogenic front and the flexural basin were well-developed by the Langhian, evidenced by the gravitational/erosional processes toward the frontal part of the FTB and by the basin infill. The Langhian sequence, therefore, corresponds with the first depositional sequence of the Guadalquivir foreland basin, dated at c.16 Ma [1]. The main shortening in the central Subbetic took place c.4 Ma earlier [2]. Finally, a post-Serravallian shortening event caused local deformation in the frontal Betics and in the Guadalquivir basin infill. These results permit to constrain the time of response of the crustal thickening of the external orogenic wedge and the flexural basin formation, and give some clues to the late orogenic deformation and migration of the deformation front. Acknowledgements: RNM-415 and CGL-2013-46368-P References: [1] Roldan, F.J., 1995. Evolución Neógena de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir. Ph.D., Univ. of Granada, Granada, Spain. [2] Crespo-Blanc, A., 2007. Superposed folding and oblique structures in the paleomargin-derived units of the Central Betics (SW Spain). J. Geol. Soc, 164, 621-636.

  8. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone - East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of syn-rift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of: (i) thermo-mechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf-progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle-to-late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the East and West Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate-motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.

  9. OBLIKOVANJE ETAŽNE LASTNINE

    OpenAIRE

    Štampalija, Nuša

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je najpomembnejša in najmnožičnejša lastninska oblika. Opredeljena je kot lastninska pravica na posameznem delu zgradbe in solastninska pravica na skupnih delih. Kot lastnina na posameznem delu zgradbe predstavlja izjemo od načela "superficies solo cedit" in načela specialnosti. Da se na zgradbi lahko oblikuje etažna lastnina, mora biti mogoče oblikovati posamezne dele zgradbe kot samostojne funkcionalne celote, primerne za samostojno uporabo. Oblikovanje etažne lastnine k...

  10. The Neogene of the Lower Tagus Basin (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, João

    2010-01-01

    Revista Española de Paleontologia 19 (2), 229-242 The Tertiary Lower Tagus Basin (LTB) occupies a large area in Portugal and constitutes a symmetric basin of the oriental huge Upper Tagus Basin, centered at Madrid (Spain). The LTB was an endorreic basin during the Paleogene. Marine connection occurred at the Lower Aquitanian; at the Lisbon – Setúbal Peninsula region the sedimentation was in the ocean/continent interface, with several changes in the coast line. Apparently, the first mar...

  11. Paleoambientes y magnetoestratigrafía del Neógeno de la Sierra de Mogna, y su relación con la Cuenca de Antepaís Andina Depositional environments and magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Mogna sequence and its relation to the Andean Foreland Basin

    OpenAIRE

    JP Milana; Bercowski, F.; Jordan, T.

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis preciso de la historia de acumulación del Neógeno de Mogna utilizando magnetoestratigrafía, dataciones absolutas, determinaciones de vertebrados fósiles y correlaciones con secciones vecinas. Esta secuencia, la más completas de la cuenca de antepaís del Bermejo, evolucionó debido a dos fases tectónicas moduladas por cambios fisiográficos y climáticos. Se estudiaron cronológica y sedimentológicamente ocho formaciones neógenas, determinándose una gran diacronicidad de su...

  12. SPAIN: FROM IMMIGRATION TO EMIGRATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Izquierdo; Juan F. Jimeno; Aitor Lacuesta

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Great Recession the unemployment rate in Spain has risen by almost 18 percentage points. The unemployment crisis is affecting all population groups, including the more highly educated; but it is even more acute for the foreign population, whose unemployment rate is close to 40%. This situation follows a period of very high immigration flows (1995-2007) that set the number of foreigners living in Spain at 11% of the population. This paper documents the characteristics of...

  13. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  14. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  15. Los roedores y lagomorfos del Neógeno de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies made since the middle of the last century by many authors about the Spanish micromammal faunas of many sites have given rise at present to a good knowledge of the fossil record of the Spanish Neogene. The former synthesis works on Neogene mammals made by López et al. (1987 and Calvo et al. (1993, of the rodents by Sesé (1988 and of the lagomorphs by López (1989 shows the extraordinary fossil richness of the several Spanish geographical areas and basins (Ebro, Tajo, Calatayud-Teruel, Duero, Vallés-Penedés, Levante, Béticas. In the present work it is made a review and update synthesis on the Spanish Neogene (Miocene and Pliocene rodents (order Rodentia and lagomorphs (order Lagomorpha, mainly of the peninsula where there are more findings, but also of some findings made in the islands. They have been analysed, mainly from the systematical and biostratigraphical point of view, the faunas of the Neogene sites that have characteristical taxa of their asigned age. The order of the presentation of the analysis is, at a first level, by the stages or mammal ages, giving their most important characteristics, and, at a second level, analysing the most characteristical features of the faunas of each biozone that belong to each stage. These stages are: in the Miocene, the Early Lower Miocene, Ramblian, Aragonian, Vallesian and Turolian, and, in the Pliocene, the Ruscinian (Alfambrian and Villanian. Regarding the zones, for the Miocene we follow the local biozonation more used in Spain that comprises the zones named from X to Y and from A to M, correlating them with the MN zones of the Mediterranean Neogene biozonation (Mein, 1975 that is the most used in Europe; and in the Pliocene, we used the MN 14 to MN 17 zones. They have been summarized the dates made in many sites, zones and stages, mainly since the last decade. It is pointed out the biogeographical differentiation between the Ibero-Central and the Ibero-Levant provinces during the

  16. Notion de gène candidat

    OpenAIRE

    Milan, Denis

    2000-01-01

    Lorsque l’analyse de performances permet de montrer qu’un gène gouverne une part importante de la variabilité d’un caractère, diverses approches sont possibles pour l’identifier : l’étude de candidats physiologiques afin d’identifier le gène recherché parmi les gènes connus intervenant dans ce caractère ; la cartographie fine de la région pour déterminer très précisément la position du gène recherché, jusqu’à ne plus trouver qu’un seul gène à cet endroit (démarche de clonage positionnel). Le ...

  17. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  18. Development of a stream-aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas-Pla, Josep, E-mail: josep.mas@udg.edu [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Font, Eva [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Astui, Oihane [Agencia Catalana de l' Aigua, Barcelona (Spain); Mencio, Anna; Rodriguez-Florit, Agusti [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Folch, Albert [Unitat de Geodinamica Externa i Hidrogeologia Dept. de Geologia, Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona (Spain); Brusi, David [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Perez-Paricio, Alfredo [Agencia Catalana de l' Aigua, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbucies River basin (116 km{sup 2}) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbucies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  19. Development of a stream–aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream–aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km2) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  20. Late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation: topography and significance of the 'Salinity Crisis' erosion surface on-land in southeast Spain: Comment

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, A. R.; Krijgsman, W.; F. J. Hilgen; F. J. Sierro

    2002-01-01

    One of the most striking aspects of the Mediterranean "Messinian Salinity Crisis" as observed in landbased sections, is the basin-wide synchronicity in facies change (Krijgsman et al., 1999a). The Messinian succession of the Caltanisetta Basin on Sicily serves as the classical standard for these facies changes, which can also be recognised elsewhere in the Mediterranean, i.e. on Cyprus, Crete, northern Italy and southern Spain. It starts with an alternation of open marine marls and sapropels,...

  1. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was collected in the Cantabrian Mountains.

  2. Tracing stream leakage towards an alluvial aquifer in a mountain basin using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Spring data define the altitudinal isotopic gradient in the Montseny-Guilleries area. ► Runoff isotopes are defined by the altitudinal gradient and the hypsometric curve. ► Head data alone are not sufficient to define the stream–aquifer relationship. ► Stream isotopic values are thus key in identify stream recharge to the aquifer. - Abstract: Stream–aquifer relationships in mountain basins are of great relevance because they control the water balance and, with it, the amount of resources (whether surface water or ground water) available for ecological and human demands. In this paper, this relationship is studied using environmental isotopes (δ18O and δD) to identify the occurrence of stream recharge in the Arbúcies River basin (NE Spain). Isotopic data from 51 natural springs define the local altitudinal gradient. This function is weighted by the proportional area above each point, given by the hypsometric curve, in order to estimate the isotopic stream water content as the contribution of runoff from incremental elevations. Stream water isotopes from two surveys are compared with hypsometrically averaged isotopic values to check for the appropriateness of this approach. Results show that it is more suitable when subsurface flows from surface formations, such as alluvial deposits, are the main contributors to stream discharge than when it derives from a single rainfall event. The characterization of stream isotope values is used as a key factor in identifying stream leakage to an unconfined alluvial aquifer in the lower reach of the Arbúcies River

  3. Proces oblikovanja električne kitare

    OpenAIRE

    Zorič, Anton

    2016-01-01

    V magistrskem delu je podan pristop oziroma proces inženirskega oblikovanja električne kitare: izbira oziroma zasnova telesa kitare, izbira materiala za telo kitare, odločitev, ali bo telo trdno ali votlo, izbira stila telesa kitare, izbira materiala za vrat kitare, izbira elektronike za kitaro, določitev načina končne izdelave kitare, določitev skale kitare, določitev vratu kitare, določitev oblike glave vratu kitare, določitev mehanskih delov kitare, določitev končne obdelave ter barvanje i...

  4. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Galve; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastruc...

  5. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Galve; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure hig...

  6. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Francisco; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; R. Francisco; E. Mochales; Dacal, V.; J. L. Suárez; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; P. Díez-Baños; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal ne...

  7. Tectonically controlled magnetic fabrics in the Iberian Triassic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lasanta, C.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Casas-Sainz, A.; Gil-Peña, I.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.

    2012-04-01

    A relationship between the orientation of the magnetic susceptibility ellipsoid and the strain ellipsoid has been demonstrated by using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in sedimentary rocks. Studies also interpret an early development of the magnetic fabric, which registers the stress pattern acting during deposition. But this primary fabric can be overwritten by successive deformation phases, and these changes have been registered even in weakly deformed sediments. This work studies the AMS registered in an inverted basin where no penetrative compression-related structures have been recognized. Although inversion took place, strata remain weakly deformed, with shallow dips in most part of the area. Triassic sedimentary rocks from the Castilian Branch of the Iberian Range (NE Spain) are studied. The Castilian Branch started to develop as a rift basin during the Late Permian-Early Triassic with NW-SE and NE-SW faults affecting Upper Permian materials. Buntsandstein red beds accumulated in asymmetric half-grabens with strong thickness variations related to their position within the troughs and highs. After the Mid-Triassic, a marine and transitional sedimentation spanned throughout the Iberian Range (Keuper and Muschelkalk). Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous deposits unconformably covered the Triassic sediments with thickness of a few hundreds of meters. During the Paleogene, tectonic inversion took place, developing gentle folds and steeply-dipping reverse faults, resulting from the reactivation of extensional Triassic faults. The particular lithology of the Buntsandstein red beds also allows determining the influence of ferromagnetic phases in the AMS. We analyzed 815 standard specimens from 55 sites in a KLY-3S Kappabridge (AGICO) susceptometer to obtain the bulk susceptibility and the orientation of the three main eigenvectors of the magnetic ellipsoid. In order to determine the magnetic carriers of the bulk susceptibility, 22 temperature dependent

  8. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Fortea, Ana Belén; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Sanfeliu Montolio, Teófilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution cont...

  9. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain) high frequency radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-08-01

    Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58-0.83 and 4.02-18.31 cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  10. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: mvicente@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gaspar@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: lpalazon@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: lquijano@eead.cisc.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long-term sustainability of mountain wetlands and agriculture. • {sup 137}Cs was applied for estimation of soil redistribution in a complex catchment. • A tracer derived sediment budget identified main sources causing lake siltation. • Fallout tracer and GIS provided information useful for wetland preservation. • Vegetation strips around fields would reduce siltation from tillage erosion.

  11. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain high frequency radar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorente

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014 real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB, occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May–October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58–0.83 and 4.02–18.31 cm s−1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  12. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, N.A.; Morón, S.V.; Berciano, José M.; Nicolas, O.; López, C.A.; Nevado, C.R.; Juste, Javier; Setién, A.A.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  13. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  14. A 2,500-year multi-proxy reconstruction of climate change and human activities in northern Spain: the Lake Arreo record

    OpenAIRE

    Corella, Juan Pablo; Stefanova, Vania,; El Anjouni, Adel; Rico, Eugenio; Giralt, Santiago; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Plata-Montero, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Arreo sequence (western Ebro Basin, Spain) illustrates the century-scale climatic variability and human interactions in the landscape during the last 2.5 kyr in the low lands of northern Spain. Two sediment cores from shallow-water and deep-water environments were analyzed using sedimentological, geochemical, mineralogical, biological ¿ diatoms, pollen and charcoal content ¿ and radiometric techniques for absolute dating. The shallow-water sequence indicates a rapid evolution from an all...

  15. Some geodynamic aspects of the Krishna-Godavari Basin, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Chandrasekhar, D.V.; Rao, T.C.S.

    provides new information on the evolution of this basin since the breakup of Peninsular India in the late Jurassic from the erstwhile Gondwanaland. The results establish the offshore extension of two major onshore cross trends viz, the Chintalapudi... and Avanigadda cross trends (CCT and ACT). While the onshore basin is characterized by NE-SW ridges and depressions, the offshore basin is divided essentially into three segments by these two NW-SE cross trends. The Ocean--Continent Boundary (OCB), located...

  16. Presenting SAPUSS: Solving Aerosol Problem by Using Synergistic Strategies in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB during September–October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations – both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively. SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the urban Mediterranean environment. This is well achieved only because of both the three dimensional spatial scale and the high sampling time resolution used. During SAPUSS different meteorological regimes were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant regional ones. The different meteorology of such regimes is herein described. Additionally, we report the trends of the parameters regulated by air quality purposes (both gaseous and aerosol mass concentrations; and we also compare the six monitoring sites. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night-time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3 were up to double compared to ground level ones. The examination of the vertical profiles clearly shows the predominant influence of NOx on ozone

  17. Adapting agricultural water governance to climate change: Experiences from Germany, Spain and California

    OpenAIRE

    Theesfeld, Insa; Schmidt, Oscar; Scheumann, Waltina; Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke; Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe

    2011-01-01

    This study describes and discusses initiatives taken by public (water) agencies in the state of Brandenburg in Germany, the state of California in the USA and the Ebro River Basin in Spain in response to the challenges which climate change poses for the agricultural water sector. The drivers and actors and the process of changing agricultural water governance are its particular focus. The assumptions discussed are: (i) the degree of planned and anticipatory top-down implementation processes d...

  18. Ultrapotassic volcanic centres as potential paleogeographic indicators:The Mediterranean Tortonian 'salinity crisis', southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cambeses, A.; J.H. Scarrow

    2013-01-01

    Dated peperites associated with ultrapotassic volcanic centres of the Neogene Volcanic Province of southeast Spain are of particular interest within the complex tectonomagmatic context of the Western Mediterranean because they show clear volcano-sedimentary interactions making them a valuable tool for correlating between Miocene sedimentary basins in the region. Detailed field mapping of two coeval, but geographically separate, ultrapotassic volcanic centres (Zeneta and La Aljorra), and compa...

  19. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  20. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two p...

  1. Taphonomy of a Mysticeti whale in the Lower Pliocene Huelva Sands Formation (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Esperante, R.; Muñiz Guinea, F.; Nick, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of an incomplete fossil baleen whale skeleton in the Lower Pliocene Huelva Sands Formation (Guadalquivir basin) near the town of Bonares, southwestern Spain. The skeleton was found in the highly bioturbated glauconitic sandstone unit in association with Neopycnodonte cochlear shells. Several morphological features of the mandibles, scapula and vertebrae suggest that the specimen belongs in the suborden Mysticeti, family Balaenopteridae. Most bones show abrasi...

  2. Coalbed gas potential in the miocene Soma basin (Western Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Sedat; Inan, Sedat; Baysal, Mustafa; YÜRÜM, YUDA; Yurum, Yuda

    2010-01-01

    The Neogene Basins of Turkey contain as much as 9 billion tons of lignite-rank coal (Sengiller, 2001; Tuncah et al., 2002). The Miocene Soma Basin, a rift basin trending NE-SW (approximately 20 kilometers by 5 kilometers) in the Aegean Extensional Province (EAP) of Western Turkey, is estimated to contain at the least one billion tons of lignite and about half of this reserve is present at depths greater than 600 m (Turkish Coal Enterprises, 2006). Miocene marillimestone units and Pliocene cla...

  3. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  4. National Identities and Cinema: a critical recension of the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Macedo

    2012-01-01

    This critical review concerns the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain. This book is part of a series of volumes published in the Directory of World Cinema, by Intellect Books. The first part consists of a critique of the film "Biutiful", an interview with the director Jaime Rosales, followed by a reflection on the Spanish film industry. This part is also composed of a chapter in which are discussed the aspects that the authors consider to define the Spanish culture, concluding with a reflection o...

  5. Understanding poverty persistence in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aylloón, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the mechanisms behind poverty persistence in Spain. We examine the importance of past poverty experiences for explaining current poverty as opposed to observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity. Our results are based on the model proposed by Cappellari and Jenkins (J Appl Econometr 19:593-610, 2004a) that estimates poverty transitions while simultaneously controlling for attrition and initial conditions. We find that about 50% of aggregate state depende...

  6. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  7. Découverte de deux nouvelles espèces du genre Myocricetodon dans le Miocène supérieur du bassin d'Aït Kandoula (Maroc)Discovery of two new species of Myocricetodon genus in the Upper Miocene of Aït Kandoula basin (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benammi, Mouloud

    2001-08-01

    The Aı̈t Kandoula basin is known for its abundance of micromammal fauna. The systematic study of the fauna of two layers of the Afoud section (AF6 and AF5), highlights the presence of two new species: Myocricetodon afoudensis nov. sp. and Myocricetodon jaegeri nov. sp. These two layers are respectively dated at 10.1 and 6.3 Ma by magnetostratigraphic correlation.

  8. Does immigration cause crime? : evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Borrego, César; Garoupa, Nuno; Vázquez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between crime and immigration has been a matter of controversy in the US and around the world. This paper investigates empirically the case of Spain. From 1999 to 2009, Spain has had a large wave of immigration from different areas of the globe. At the same time, crime rates have increased. However, by comparison with other European countries that have received similar massive immigration waves during the same period, crime rates in Spain have increased less considerably. We ...

  9. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  10. The thermal environment of Cascadia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Hautala, Susan L.; Bjorklund, Tor A.

    2012-07-01

    Located adjacent to the NE Pacific convergent boundary, Cascadia Basin has a global impact well beyond its small geographic size. Composed of young oceanic crust formed at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, igneous rocks underlying the basin are partially insulated from cooling of their initial heat of formation by a thick layer of pelagic and turbidite sediments derived from the adjacent North American margin. The igneous seafloor is eventually consumed at the Cascadia subduction zone, where interactions between the approaching oceanic crust and the North American continental margin are partially controlled by the thermal environment. Within Cascadia Basin, basement topographic relief varies dramatically, and sediments have a wide range of thickness and physical properties. This variation produces regional differences in heat flow and basement temperatures for seafloor even of similar age. Previous studies proposed a north-south thermal gradient within Cascadia Basin, with high geothermal flux and crustal temperatures measured in the heavily sedimented northern portion near Vancouver Island and lower than average heat flux and basement temperatures predicted for the central and southern portions of the basin. If confirmed, this prediction has implications for processes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, including the location of the "locked zone" of the megathrust fault. Although existing archival geophysical data in the central and southern basin are sparse, nonuniformly distributed, and derived from a wide range of historical sources, a substantial N-S geothermal gradient appears to be confirmed by our present compilation of combined water column and heat flow measurements.

  11. Nuclear power introduction experiences in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of its electrical system, Spain is an island weakly linked with its neighboring countries. Spain currently connects to the European market through a line with a capacity of 2000 MW. Moreover, Spain has few natural energy resources of its own and thus imports 82% of its domestic energy needs. This leaves Spain highly vulnerable to movements in market prices as well as to potential supply interruptions triggered by events occurring in the Spanish supplier countries, which are themselves not always stable. As a result, securing supply has become an important issue in the Spanish energy system

  12. Particulate and dissolved primary production along a pronounced hydrographic and trophic gradient (Turkish Straits System-NE Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagaria, A.; Psarra, S.; Gogou, A.; Tuğrul, S.; Christaki, U.

    2013-06-01

    The rates of particulate (PPp) and dissolved primary production (PPd) were estimated along a trajectory of variable environmental regimes formed in a narrow shelf area, following the course of Black Sea water masses (BSW) passing through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) into the NE Aegean Sea (BS-AS outflow). Seven stations in total were sampled, covering a transect from the eastern edge of the Marmara Sea basin to the NE Aegean Sea, during two consecutive cruises performed in October 2008 within the framework of the EU SESAME project. Along the BS-AS outflow, depth-integrated over the surface BSW layer PPp decreased considerably from 91 to cells (> 5 μm). This study showed that PER increased along a gradient from mesotrophy to oligotrophy, probably due to nutrient deficiency constraining phytoplankton growth and was closely related to phytoplankton size-structure. In the oligotrophic NE Aegean Sea, phytoplankton exudation was a significant source of dissolved organic carbon for heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  13. Dark Forces at DAΦNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The DAΦNE Φ-factory is an ideal place to search for forces beyond the Standard Model. By using the KLOE detector, limits on U-boson coupling ε2 of the order of 10−5 ÷ 10−7 and on the αD × ε2 product have been set through the study of the Φ Dalitz decay, Uγ events and the Higgsstrahlung process. An improvement of these limits is expected thanks to the KLOE detector and DAΦNE upgrades of KLOE-2.

  14. Dynamics of gas phase Ne$^*$ + NH$_3$ and Ne$^*$ + ND$_3$ Penning ionization at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michal; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Two isotopic chemical reactions, $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$, and $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + ND$_3$, have been studied at low collision energies by means of a merged beams technique. Partial cross sections have been recorded for the two reactive channels, namely $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$ $\\rightarrow$ Ne + NH$_3^+$ + $e^-$, and $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$ $\\rightarrow$ Ne + NH$_2^+$ + H + $e^-$, by detecting the NH$_3^+$ and NH$_2^+$ product ions, respectively. The cross sections for both reactions were found to increase with decreasing collision energy, $E_{coll}$, in the range 8 $\\mu$eV$Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$ reaction in the entire range of collision energies covered here. Calculations based on multichannel quantum defect theory were performed to reproduce and interpret the experimental results. Good agreement was obtained by i...

  15. Lower Energy α Elastic Scattering on 20Ne and Anomaly of α+20Ne Scattering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-Xu; TAN Hai-Lan; LI Qing-Run

    2011-01-01

    The α+20 Ne elastic scattering angular distributions at lower incident energies of Eα = 12.7-31.1 MeV have been analyzed by using the a-folding potential based on the α+16O structure model of the 20Ne nucleus. The α-folding potential with a standard Woods-Saxon type imaginary part, can reasonably describe experimental cross sections and the anomalous large angle scattering (ALAS) features. The anomaly of the α+20Ne scattering system is further confirmed in the lower incident energy region.PACS numbers: 25.70.Bc, 24.10.Ht, 21.60.Gx

  16. 75 FR 67162 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 09/13/2010 through 09/14/2010. DATES: Effective Date:...

  17. 78 FR 73581 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00055

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.../26/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  18. Mini Networked Screens (MiNeS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.A.; Maris, M.; Breen, P.C.; Versteeg, N.; Terwisga, P.F. van; Ort, C.M.; Blok, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The forward areas for an LPD in littoral waters can be full of surprises. A novel concept is presented for a networked screen consisting of elements of increasing capability to provide a progressive response to the threat. This MiNeS concept substantially improves the capability of the LPD as an aut

  19. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of n

  20. Use of Seasonal Forecasts for Dams Management in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, Jose; Sanchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    This presentation describes the potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water management in Spain. Given the low skill provided by seasonal forecasting systems based on the current operational models, and after analyzing the response to the climate drivers at different time scales for selected river basins in Spain, a two steps empirical forecasting technique has been developed and tested as a pilot study in the framework of the Euporias project. In the first step the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index is forecasted from the observed Eurasian Snow Advance Index in October taking advantage of the high correlation between them. Then, a synthetic probability distribution function is generated to sample the NAO index in order to assess the forecasting uncertainty. In the second step, a KNN algorithm is used to retrieve a set of reservoir inflows associated with each of the NAO index samples. The final result is an ensemble of possible scenarios (reservoir inflows) which are used as input for the water allocation decision support models.

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Ballesté, Aleix

    2008-01-01

    This document would like to be clear information about the present and the future of the CO2 emissions in Spain. First of all greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases contribution are explained to know what is happening with the atmosphere. Secondly, Spain’s emissions are detailed by sectors and origin. These details are going to show in which sectors there are more work to do and which origins are more important. Evolution is being studied to know the trend and the possible future. F...

  2. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  3. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  4. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  5. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  6. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  7. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  8. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  9. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  10. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  11. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  12. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2011-12-01

    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  13. Studying the NE Eridania sedimentary sequence through the Mars 2020 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Coradini, M.; McBride, K. S.

    2014-04-01

    The landing sites we are proposing for the next Mars 2020 rover span between 28°29'30"S-28°53'0"S Latitude and 178°56'30"W°178°28'0"W Longitude, i.e. on the NE floor of a 1.1×106 km2 closed drainage basin [1]. This area, see Fig. 1, belongs to the bigger (3×106 km2) Eridania basin that gave birth to the Ma'adim Vallis through catastrophic overflow, and presenting a water table between 950 and 1250 m [1,2,3]. The crater counting chronology for this area gives an age between Early to Middle Noachian [4]. By means of OMEGA [5] and CRISM [6] data, a large clay-bearing sedimentary unit has been identified over almost the entire margin of the Eridania basin [7]. On our specific site, i.e. the NE margin of the Eridania basin, sequences of aqueous minerals are observed. Such sedimentary minerals are accessible through erosional windows into the first several tens of meters of the sedimentary sequence. The top-down mineral sequence identified on the landing sites area presents an unaltered capping unit that is overlying an Al-rich clay stratum (see Fig. 2) akin to Al-smectite and/or kaolins with a 3.8 Ga) during which liquid water was durably stable at the surface. The most valuable candidates for ancient Martian microbial life sustainability and preservation are longlasting environments, characterized by the presence of ponding water [10,11,12]: hence, the proposed site presents a high exobiological potential that is just waiting to be unveiled. Besides that, when putting into context the future results on Eridania Basin, i.e. the Ma'adim Vallis source, together with those obtained from the Spirit rover inside Gusev Crater (see Fig. 1), i.e. the Ma'adim Vallis mouth, a wide understanding of this intriguing canyon and of the Mars megaflooding age is foreseen. Besides the above scientific analysis showing than the NE side of the Eridania region fulfills entirely the Mars 2020 scientific requirements [13], the location of the proposed landing sites widely meets all the

  14. Geological and environmental implications of the evaporite karst in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Cardona, F.; Ortí, F.; Durán, J. J.; Garay, P.

    2008-01-01

    In Spain, evaporite outcrops cover approximately 7% of the total area of the country. Most of the evaporitic formations are made up of Ca-sulfates (gypsum/anhydrite) or Ca-sulfates and halite. Certain Paleogene marine evaporites also contain K-Mg-chlorides, and some Tertiary continental formations bear substantial amounts of Na-sulfates in the subsurface (glauberite and thenardite). Mesozoic evaporitic formations commonly wedge out towards the ground surface, passing into condensed sequences and dissolution-collapse breccias. Some of these highly porous breccias constitute major regional aquifers. In several areas, interstratal karstification of the evaporites has given rise to gravitational deformations such as basin structures, monoclines, and collapse structures covering several square kilometers that record a cumulative subsidence in excess of 200 m (Teruel and Calatayud Grabens). A widespread consequence of evaporite dissolution processes in Spain is the hydrochemical degradation of surface waters. Some of the largest and most outstanding lake systems, from an environmental perspective, occur in karstic depressions developed in evaporitic formations (Fuente de Piedra, Gallocanta, Bujaraloz, and Bañolas lakes). Sinkhole activity is a major geohazard in several evaporite karst areas. The sinkhole risk has a particularly high impact in sectors where Tertiary evaporites are overlain by Quaternary alluvial aquifers (Calatayud, Zaragoza, and Madrid areas). Some of the detrimental effects of subsidence include severe damage to historical monuments (Calatayud), the demolition of a whole village (Puilatos), or the derailment of a freight train (Zaragoza area). The deepest gypsum caves are found in Triassic diapiric structures (El Sumidor Cave, 210 m deep), and the longest ones are developed in horizontally lying Neogene sequences (Sorbas caves, and Estremera maze cave). The Cardona diapir hosts salt caves up to 4,300 m long whose genesis is related to flooding of mine

  15. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea in the arc of Gibraltar during the latest Messinian-Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Hlila, Rachid; El Kadiri, Khalil; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Garcés, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    .e. Malaga, Vélez-Málaga, and Nerja basins in Spain and Tirinesse basin in Morocco). Tectonic activity during the early Zanclean leads to a new paleogeographic configuration of the Alboran peripheral areas. The main features are: (i) continentalization of the Nerja sector in the Betics, Tetouan, and Oued Laou-Tirinesse sectors in the Rif; (ii) on the contrary, a period of intense subsidence started in the coastal sectors between Torremolinos and Manilva, allowing the development of the Pl-3 unit directly on the substratum; and (iii) the Malaga, Vélez-Málaga, and Malalyine basins maintained the marine regime, so their sedimentary infilling recorded the Pl-2-Pl-3 unconformity. Nevertheless, these last basins emerged shortly afterwards, before the end of the early Zanclean (FO of Globorotalia puncticulata), probably in relation to the beginning of the sea-level fall which characterizes the upper part of the TB 3.4 cycle by Haq et al. (1987). During the late Zanclean, sedimentation occurred only in the Betic basins, where NNE-SSW faults - conjugated with NW-SE faults - induced a major subsidence, permitting better development of the Pl-3 unit. On the contrary, NW-SE faults in the sector between Malaga and Nerja, and NE-SW faults in the Tirinesse basin, became practically inactive. Before the end of the Zanclean, the subsidence ceased also in the westernmost Betic basins, thus causing emersion, firstly in the sector between Torremolinos and Manilva and, slightly later, in the San Roque-Algeciras sector. Thus, the whole geodynamic activity conditioned the time-space evolution of the northern edge of the Alboran Sea, which was emerging throughout the Zanclean, successively from the E to the W. A similar E to W continentalization trend can be suggested for the Rifian Pliocene sectors when taking into account the Oued Laou-Tirinesse basins that emerged before the Malalyine one. Moreover, the unit boundaries do not coincide with those of the familiar Exxon coastal aggradational

  16. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  17. Collision-induced intramultiplet mixing for the Ne**[(2p)5(3p)] + He or Ne system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ne**-He case, experimental data are confronted with quantum mechanical calculations. Quantum mechanical coupled-channel calculations using model potentials as input are presented, followed by a semiclassical approach which provides more physical insight. Experimental results are presented for the Ne**-Ne system with a discussion of the general principles involved in symmetrization. 184 refs.; 93 figs.; 19 tabs

  18. Anatomy of molecular structures in $^{20}$Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, E F; Li, Z P; Meng, J; Ring, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a beyond mean-field study of clusters and molecular structures in low-spin states of $^{20}$Ne with a multireference relativistic energy density functional, where the dynamical correlation effects of symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shapes fluctuation are taken into account with projections on parity, particle number and angular momentum in the framework of the generator coordinate method. Both the energy spectrum and the electric multipole transition strengths for low-lying parity-doublet bands are better reproduced after taking into account the dynamical octupole vibration effect. Consistent with the finding in previous antisymmetrized molecular dynamics studies, a rotation-induced dissolution of the $\\alpha+^{16}$O molecular structure in $^{20}$Ne is predicted and this peculiar phenomenon is partially attributed to the special deformation-dependent moment of inertia.

  19. The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne has been measured over a photon energy range 16 to 29 MeV in steps of 100 keV. The giant dipole resonance is resolved into three strong peaks below 21 MeV and at least two broader resonances at higher excitations. This structure is consistent with earlier measurements of poorer resolution and shows a correlation with the recent calculations of Schmid and Do Dang. Comparisons with high resolution neutron time-of-flight and electron scattering data indicate that there appear to exist in the giant resonance of 20Ne, regions of structure roughly 2-3 MeV wide which exhibit localised characteristics related to the excitation mechanisms. The role of deformation and configuration splitting effects in the cross section are discussed and possible directions of further study are noted which might clarify the situation more fully

  20. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherini, V.

    2010-10-01

    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  1. Status of KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  2. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  3. The Finuda Experiment on DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherini, Vincenzo

    FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of Λ-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  4. Drought Management Strategies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Paneque

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate on water policies in Spain is characterised by a traditional paradigm, dominated by the intervention on hydrological systems through the construction and management of infrastructure, which is progressively being abandoned but is currently still strong while the emergence of new management approaches. Climate change and the Water Framework Directive (WFD are, in addition, the background to increasing challenges to traditional perspectives on drought, and important steps have been taken towards their replacement. This work analyzes the evolution of the normative structure and management models to identify recent shifts. The analysis is based on a fundamental conceptual change that places drought in the framework of risk, rather than that of crisis. I argue for the need to advance new prevention policies that can finally overcome productivist inertia and undertake essential tasks such as reallocating water flows, revising and controlling the water-concession system, and reinforcing and guaranteeing public participation.

  5. [Viper bite treatment in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefanía Díez, M; Alonso Peña, D; García Cano, P; López Gamo, A

    2016-01-01

    Viper snake bite is, by far, the most common ophidian accident in Spain. It is responsible for between 100 and 150 hospitalizations per year in this country, although it is difficult to determine the frequency of emergency admissions due to this cause. The cornerstone to their approach rests on the correct evaluation of the possible effects derived from envenomation and the use of anti-venoms. In spite of all the controversies surrounding the use of anti-venoms, they have become a powerful therapeutic weapon ever since the serum has been highly purified and the great decrease of related anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this article is to update the emergency room procedures when viper bites are suspected, and to clarify the main therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25440968

  6. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea in the arc of Gibraltar during the latest Messinian-Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Hlila, Rachid; El Kadiri, Khalil; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Garcés, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    .e. Malaga, Vélez-Málaga, and Nerja basins in Spain and Tirinesse basin in Morocco). Tectonic activity during the early Zanclean leads to a new paleogeographic configuration of the Alboran peripheral areas. The main features are: (i) continentalization of the Nerja sector in the Betics, Tetouan, and Oued Laou-Tirinesse sectors in the Rif; (ii) on the contrary, a period of intense subsidence started in the coastal sectors between Torremolinos and Manilva, allowing the development of the Pl-3 unit directly on the substratum; and (iii) the Malaga, Vélez-Málaga, and Malalyine basins maintained the marine regime, so their sedimentary infilling recorded the Pl-2-Pl-3 unconformity. Nevertheless, these last basins emerged shortly afterwards, before the end of the early Zanclean (FO of Globorotalia puncticulata), probably in relation to the beginning of the sea-level fall which characterizes the upper part of the TB 3.4 cycle by Haq et al. (1987). During the late Zanclean, sedimentation occurred only in the Betic basins, where NNE-SSW faults - conjugated with NW-SE faults - induced a major subsidence, permitting better development of the Pl-3 unit. On the contrary, NW-SE faults in the sector between Malaga and Nerja, and NE-SW faults in the Tirinesse basin, became practically inactive. Before the end of the Zanclean, the subsidence ceased also in the westernmost Betic basins, thus causing emersion, firstly in the sector between Torremolinos and Manilva and, slightly later, in the San Roque-Algeciras sector. Thus, the whole geodynamic activity conditioned the time-space evolution of the northern edge of the Alboran Sea, which was emerging throughout the Zanclean, successively from the E to the W. A similar E to W continentalization trend can be suggested for the Rifian Pliocene sectors when taking into account the Oued Laou-Tirinesse basins that emerged before the Malalyine one. Moreover, the unit boundaries do not coincide with those of the familiar Exxon coastal aggradational

  7. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  8. Astronomical tuning for the upper Messinian Spanish Atlantic margin : Disentangling basin evolution, climate cyclicity and MOW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.C.J.; Sierro, F. J.; Hilgen, F. J.; Flecker, R.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Krijgsman, W.; Flores, J. A.; Mata, M. P.; Bellido Martín, E.; Civis, J.; González-Delgado, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new high-resolution cyclostratigraphic age model for the Messinian sediments of the Montemayor-1 core. This core was drilled in the Guadalquivir Basin in southern Spain, which formed part of the marine corridor linking the Mediterranean with the Atlantic in the Late Miocene. Tuning of h

  9. Hydrological dynamics of a Mediterranean catchment in a global change context. (Romanyac catchment, Cap de Creus, Girona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latron, J.; Pardini, G.; Gispert, M.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean regions are characterized by unevenly distributed water resources, and consequently a more precise knowledge of the main hydrological processes and their variability and changes is crucial for a better management of water resources. However, the lack of hydrological information and data in most areas of the Mediterranean basin greatly difficult the analyses of changes in water resources at relevant scales. In this context, the Soil Science Unit GRCT48 from the University of Girona is conducting an integrated study of hydrological response, soil erosion and soil degradation processes in fragile Mediterranean areas undergoing changes in use and management. The study area is located in the Cap de Creus Peninsula (NE Spain), where land abandonment has been the outstanding characteristic over the last decades. The area is covered by terraced soils, most of them abandoned, and stands for a representative Mediterranean environment. Current land cover is a mosaic of areas with different shrubs according to wildfire occurrence. Residual patches of cork and pine trees are also present as well as small extensions of pastures. Finally some localized areas of vineyards and olive trees are still cultivated. The approach is based on the complementary use of plot and catchment scales to assess the effect of land cover and land use change on physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil quality and on rainfall-runoff-erosion relationships. Along the study period, observed rainfall-runoff response at the plot scale was highly variable among sites but also for a given environment, depending on antecedent wetness conditions and rainfall characteristics. Overall, surface runoff responses were low in all environments. Soil loss associated to rainfall-runoff events showed very large variations among sites, and also for a given site, between the different rainfall events. At the catchment scale, preliminary results obtained from the monitoring, of three catchments of

  10. Mercury fractionation in sediments downstream of the abandoned mine site of La Soterraña (Asturias, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva V.; Fernández-Martínez R.; Loredo J.; Ordoñez A.; Rucandio I.

    2013-01-01

    Asturias (Northern Spain) has been an important mercury mining area during the twentieth century. The mining and smelting of ore has been the responsible for the large release of mercury to the aquatic and terrestrial environments in the area. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of mercury in stream sediments from the Caudal River basin in central Asturias by using sequential extraction. A novel five-step sequential extraction procedure was used to assess Hg partitioning. To...

  11. Organic geochemistry, stable isotopes, and facies analysis of the Early Aptian OAE—New records from Spain (Western Tethys)

    OpenAIRE

    Quijano López, María Luisa; Castro Jiménez, Jose Manuel; Pancost, Richard D.; Gea Guillén, Ginés Alfonso; Najarro, María; Aguado Merlo, Roque; Rosales, Idoia; Martín Chivelet, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The Early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a) is a time interval characterized by increased organic carbon accumulation in marine sediments, notable sedimentary and biotic changes, and abrupt carbon-isotope excursions indicative of significant major palaeoenvironmental changes linked to a perturbation in the global carbon cycle. Here we present the study of four sections recording the OAE1a (Early Aptian) in Spain, which are located in two broad basins respectively located in the ...

  12. Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯希杰; 戴王强

    2004-01-01

    Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin is a popular phenomenon and its characteristics are also typical.Taking the activity migrations of Wangshun Mountain piedmont fault toward Lishan piedmont fault and Weinan platform front fault, Dabaopi-Niujiaojian fault toward Shenyusi-Xiaojiazhai fault, among a serial of NE-trending faults from Baoji city to Jingyang County as examples, their migration time and process are analyzed and discussed in the present paper. It is useful for further understanding the structure development and physiognomy evolution history of Weihe basin.

  13. Controls of {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O in dissolved sulphate: Learning from a detailed survey in the Llobregat River (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Neus [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grup d' Hidrogeoquimica, Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: notero@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The S and O isotopic composition of dissolved SO{sub 4}, used as a tracer for SO{sub 4} sources, was applied to the water of the Llobregat River system (NE Spain). The survey was carried out at 30 sites where surface water was sampled on a monthly basis over a period of 2a. The concentration of dissolved SO{sub 4} varied from 20 to 1575 mg L{sup -1}. Sulphur isotopic compositions clustered in two populations: one - 93% of the samples - had positive values with a mode of +9 per mille ; the other had negative values and a mode of -5 per mille . Data for {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}} showed a mean value of +11 per mille , with no bi-modal distribution, though lower values of {delta}{sup 18}O corresponded to samples with negative {delta}{sup 34}S. These values can not be explained solely by the contribution of bedrock SO{sub 4} sources: that is, sulphide oxidation and the weathering of outcrops of sulphates, though numerous chemical sediments exist in the basin. Even in a river with a high concentration of natural sources of dissolved SO{sub 4}, such as the Llobregat River, the {delta}{sup 34}S values suggest that dissolved SO{sub 4} is controlled by a complex mix of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The main anthropogenic sources in this basin are fertilizers, sewage, potash mine effluent and power plant emissions. Detailed river water sampling, together with the chemical and isotopic characterisation of the main anthropogenic inputs, allowed determination of the influence of redox processes, as well as identification of the contribution of natural and anthropogenic SO{sub 4} sources and detection of spatial variations and seasonal changes among these sources. For instance, in the Llobregat River the input of fertilisers is well marked seasonally. Minimum values of {delta}{sup 34}S are reported during fertilization periods - from January to March - indicating a higher contribution of this source. The dual isotope approach, {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O

  14. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  16. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Larach

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to ...

  17. The evolution of obesity in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Considered the epidemic of the 21st century, obesity is a worldwide problem, affecting 260 million adults and 12 million children in the European Union (EU) alone. In Spain, adult and child obesity rates are increasing, in particular for women. Income-related inequalities in adult obesity in Spain also have increased over time, especially for women aged over 45. Although some regulatory initiatives have been approved to tackle child obesity, an evaluation of the effective...

  18. The impact of poplar tree plantations for biomass production on the aquifer water budget and base flow in a Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folch, Albert, E-mail: folch.hydro@gmail.com [Hydrogeology Group (UPC-CSIC), Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Ferrer, Núria [Hydrogeology Group (UPC-CSIC), Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Poplar plantations are used for biomass production in many countries. These plantations are often located in areas where the tree roots can reach the water table of shallow aquifers to reduce irrigation costs and increase evapotranspiration, mainly during the summer. This study aims to assess the effects of these plantations on an aquifer water budget and on the stream flow of a Mediterranean basin (Santa Coloma River, 321.3 km{sup 2} NE Spain). A numerical flow model was constructed to simulate shallow aquifers and to simulate the stream–aquifer interaction for a period of 9 years. Once the model was calibrated, different land use scenarios, such as deciduous forests, dry farming and irrigated farming, were simulated for comparison. The mass balance shows that poplar extracts an average of 2.40 hm{sup 3} from the aquifer, i.e., approximately 18% of the average recharge of the modelled area. This effect reduces the groundwater flow to the main stream and increases the infiltration from the stream to the aquifer. As a result, there is an average reduction in the main stream flow by 46% during the summer, when the lowest flow occurs and when the river is most sensitive. The results indicate that these impacts should be considered in basin management plans and in evaluating the benefits of this type of biomass production. - Highlights: • Poplar plantations can evapotranspirate aquifer groundwater in semiarid areas • A groundwater flow model is presented to quantify poplars’ impact on the water budget • 20% of the aquifer recharge is consumed by poplars • The main stream flow is reduced up to 46% during summer due to plantations uptake • Biomass production impacts must be considered for evaluating water resources planning.

  19. NE V and NE VI lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of the symbiotic star RR telescopii

    OpenAIRE

    ESPEY, BRIAN RUSSELL

    1996-01-01

    New theoretical Ne vi] electron density-sensitive ratios are presented for the intercombination transitions R1 = 1(1006.1 A)/I(999.6 A) and R2 = 1(1010.6 A)/I(999.6 A). Temperature-sensitive ratios are also given for the Ne v] ratio R = 1(1137.0 A)/I(1574.8 A). We discuss the potential usefulness of these line ratios for studying hot gas and apply them to the case of the symbiotic system RR Telescopii. Using far-UV data that has recently been acquired with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, w...

  20. Controls of Nazca ridge subduction on the Amazonian foreland basin geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Martinod, J.; Bolaños, R.

    2006-12-01

    In the central Andes, the Nazca ridge subduction imprints can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The western part of the Amazonian basin is currently an atypical foreland basin because the Amazonian foreland basin 3-D geometry does not follow the foreland basin system model of DeCelles and Giles [1]. The Amazonian foreland basin consists of two main subsiding basins separated by the NE-SW trending structural/morphologic Fitzcarrald Arch. Geomorphic and lithospheric data provide evidence that the large wavelength Fitzcarrald Arch uplift at 750 kilometers ahead of the trench results from the Nazca ridge flat subduction. The flexure of the South American lithosphere is overcompensated by the buoyancy of the Nazca ridge impeaching a four-component foreland basin system. The recent deformations of the Amazon basin are characterized by vertical motions as recorded by the radial modern drainage network and the deformation of Pliocene to recent fluvial deposits on both sides of the arch, according to the kinematics of the Nazca ridge subduction. In addition, analogue lithospheric experiments similarly show that the ridge buoyancy induces uplift above the flat-slab segment in the foreland basin separating two subsiding sub-basins resulting from the flexure of the continental lithosphere. [1] DeCelles, P.G., and Giles, K.A.(1996)Foreland basin systems: Basin Research, 8, 105-123.

  1. Uncertainty analysis in building ensemble of RCMs, on water cycle in South East of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Galiano, Sandra; Olmos Giménez, Patricia; Giraldo Osorio, Juan Diego

    2014-05-01

    The population growth and intense consumptive uses, generate pressures on water resources on South East of Spain. In catchments such as the Segura River Basin, the agriculture constitutes the 80% of use of water. Increasing knowledge about plausible impacts of climate change on hydrological cycle at basin scale, is an important step for building adaptive capacity to the impacts in this region where water shortages are expected for the next decades. For reaching this objective, the modelling of future hydrological scenarios at basin scale was addressed by a spatially distributed water balance model developed below a Geographical Information System (GIS). The study basin corresponds to a head basin of Segura River Basin (South East of Spain). Divergent trends of the simulated meteorological data considered from the RCMs were observed in comparison with the observed data. Therefore, ensembles of the several variables considered (rainfall and temperatures) from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) were built, as input to the distributed hydrological model. The observed meteorological dataset corresponded to grids (Spain02 dataset with spatial resolution of 20 by 20 km), for the time period 1961-2007. While the RCMs, were provided by the ENSEMBLES European project (pixels of 25 by 25 km). The assessment of RCMs goodness-of-fit in building of the ensemble, was based on empirical probability density functions (PDF) at each site for the story line (1961-1990 time period). The ensembles were built at monthly scale, both for rainfall and maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, for the time period 2021-2050. Then, the time series of evapotranspiration were estimated from the ensembles applying a modified version of Hargreaves method. Although, the RCMs ensembles are justified for increasing the reliability of climate and hydrological projections, the selection of methodology applied presents strong influence on the results. The ensemble method applied in this work, is considering

  2. An assessment of Spain's Programa AGUA and its implications for sustainable water management in the province of Almería, southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, Stuart R; Taylor, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Spain's Programa AGUA was proposed in 2004 as a replacement for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan and represented a fundamental policy shift in national water management from large inter-basin water transfers to a commitment to desalination. Twenty-one desalination facilities are planned for six provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast to supplement their water needs. These include the province of Almería that for the last 30 years has endured a net water abstraction overdraft leading to serious reservoir depletion and groundwater imbalances. Rising water use is a result of increasing demand to support irrigated agriculture (e.g. greenhouse horticulture) and for domestic needs (e.g. rapid urban growth and tourism development), which has led observers to question Almería's long-term water sustainability. Desalinated water alone is unlikely to be sufficient to make up these water deficits and water-users will have to accept a move to full-price water recovery by 2010 under the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive of which Spain is a signatory. Anticipated water efficiencies resulting from higher water tariffs, increasing water reuse and water infrastructure improvements (including inter-basin transfers), in conjunction with increasing use of desalinated water, are expected to address the province's current water overdraft. However, Almería will need to balance its planned initiatives against long-term estimates of projected agricultural and domestic development and the environmental consequences of adopting a desalination-supported water future.

  3. An assessment of Spain's Programa AGUA and its implications for sustainable water management in the province of Almería, southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, Stuart R; Taylor, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Spain's Programa AGUA was proposed in 2004 as a replacement for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan and represented a fundamental policy shift in national water management from large inter-basin water transfers to a commitment to desalination. Twenty-one desalination facilities are planned for six provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast to supplement their water needs. These include the province of Almería that for the last 30 years has endured a net water abstraction overdraft leading to serious reservoir depletion and groundwater imbalances. Rising water use is a result of increasing demand to support irrigated agriculture (e.g. greenhouse horticulture) and for domestic needs (e.g. rapid urban growth and tourism development), which has led observers to question Almería's long-term water sustainability. Desalinated water alone is unlikely to be sufficient to make up these water deficits and water-users will have to accept a move to full-price water recovery by 2010 under the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive of which Spain is a signatory. Anticipated water efficiencies resulting from higher water tariffs, increasing water reuse and water infrastructure improvements (including inter-basin transfers), in conjunction with increasing use of desalinated water, are expected to address the province's current water overdraft. However, Almería will need to balance its planned initiatives against long-term estimates of projected agricultural and domestic development and the environmental consequences of adopting a desalination-supported water future. PMID:16574308

  4. Čelične tunelske oplate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić, Ante; Tešović, Snježana

    2008-01-01

    Opisano je postrojenje za betoniranje sekundarne tunelske obloge. Postrojenje ima tri dijela: plašt, transporter s vlastitim pogonom i sustav opskrbe betonom. Uz tehničke karakteristike i funkcije postrojenja opisana je i tehnologija rada te problematika konstruiranja, projektiranja i prenamjene za trotračnu i četverotračnu oplatu. Opisana je i prikazana konstrukcija oplate portala, čelne oplate i tunelske niše te montaža dvotračne oplate po fazama kao i distribucija betona.

  5. Th/U dating of Strombus bubonius-bearing marine terraces in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Carro, O.; Causse, C.; Goy, J.; Zazo, C.

    1986-07-01

    Single dates obtained on mollusk shells by the U-series nuclides method are highly unreliable, primarily because of the mobility of uranium isotopes. However, in several cases, a statistical approach was demonstrated to yield coherent chronologies in both continental and marine environments. The authors report on 34 new Th and U isotope measurements on Strombus Bubonius and Glycymeris glycymeris fossils from raised marine terraces in the Almeria area, southeastern Spain. The results yield a coherent chronology that indicates the presence of the warm water S. bubonius fauna in the Mediterranean basin. Reconsideration of the Tyrrhenian stratigraphy based on the presence of S. bubonius is thus required.

  6. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  7. Examination of the Feynman-Hibbs Approach in the Study of Ne$_N$-Coronene Clusters at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Cantano, R; Bartolomei, M; Hernández, M I; Campos-Martínez, J; González-Lezana, T; Villarreal, P; Hernández-Rojas, J; Bretón, J

    2016-01-01

    Feynman-Hibbs (FH) effective potentials constitute an appealing approach for investigations of many-body systems at thermal equilibrium since they allow us to easily include quantum corrections within standard classical simulations. In this work we apply the FH formulation to the study of Ne$_N$-coronene clusters ($N=$ 1-4, 14) in the 2-14 K temperature range. Quadratic (FH2) and quartic (FH4) contributions to the effective potentials are built upon Ne-Ne and Ne-coronene analytical potentials. In particular, a new corrected expression for the FH4 effective potential is reported. FH2 and FH4 cluster energies and structures -obtained from energy optimization through a basin-hoping algorithm as well as classical Monte Carlo simulations- are reported and compared with reference path integral Monte Carlo calculations. For temperatures $T> \\approx 4$ K, both FH2 and FH4 potentials are able to correct the purely classical calculations in a consistent way. However, the FH approach fails at lower temperatures, especia...

  8. Examination of the Feynman-Hibbs Approach in the Study of NeN-Coronene Clusters at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cantano, Rocío; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Hernández, Marta I; Campos-Martínez, José; González-Lezana, Tomás; Villarreal, Pablo; Hernández-Rojas, Javier; Bretón, José

    2016-07-14

    Feynman-Hibbs (FH) effective potentials constitute an appealing approach for investigations of many-body systems at thermal equilibrium since they allow us to easily include quantum corrections within standard classical simulations. In this work we apply the FH formulation to the study of NeN-coronene clusters (N = 1-4, 14) in the 2-14 K temperature range. Quadratic (FH2) and quartic (FH4) contributions to the effective potentials are built upon Ne-Ne and Ne-coronene analytical potentials. In particular, a new corrected expression for the FH4 effective potential is reported. FH2 and FH4 cluster energies and structures-obtained from energy optimization through a basin-hopping algorithm as well as classical Monte Carlo simulations-are reported and compared with reference path integral Monte Carlo calculations. For temperatures T > 4 K, both FH2 and FH4 potentials are able to correct the purely classical calculations in a consistent way. However, the FH approach fails at lower temperatures, especially the quartic correction. It is thus crucial to assess the range of applicability of this formulation and, in particular, to apply the FH4 potentials with great caution. A simple model of N isotropic harmonic oscillators allows us to propose a means of estimating the cutoff temperature for the validity of the method, which is found to increase with the number of atoms adsorbed on the coronene molecule.

  9. 18Ne Excited States Two-Proton Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Napoli, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Raciti, G.; Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Giacoppo, F.; Sfienti, C.

    2008-04-01

    Two-proton radioactivity studies have been performed on excited states of 18Ne produced by 20Ne fragmentation at the FRS of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and excited via Coulomb excitation on a 209Pb target. The 18Ne levels decay has been studied by complete kinematical reconstruction. In spite of the low statistic, the energy and angular correlations of the emitted proton pairs indicate the presence of 2He emission toghether with the democratic decay.

  10. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei

    2001-01-01

    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  11. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  12. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  13. Satellite gravity anomalies and crustal features of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Grinko, B.N.

    Satellite free-air gravity anomaly contour map at 5 mGal interval, seismic reflection and bathymetric data lead to the identification of deformed crustal structure of the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Twenty-three NE-SW trending deformed crustal...

  14. Offshore structural trends from magnetic data over Cauvery Basin, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Chandrasekhar, D.V.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    Detailed analysis of magentic and bathymetric data over shelf and slope regions of Cauvery Basin, east coast of India, between Mahabalipuram and Vedaranyam demarcated three major offshore lineaments trending N-S, NE-SW and E-W. The N-S lineation has...

  15. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  16. Microscopic cluster study of the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, P

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne neutron-rich nuclei by using the Generator Coordinate Method. The wave functions are defined by a sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n and sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n + n cluster structure, respectively. The binding energies of both systems are studied with different parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and are shown to be similar. Assuming the particle stability of sup 3 sup 2 Ne, the sup 3 sup 1 Ne nucleus is therefore predicted to be stable with respect to neutron decay. Spectroscopic properties (r.m.s. radii and E2 transition probabilities) are presented for both nuclei.

  17. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  18. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  19. Stark Broadening of several Ne II, Ne III and O III Spectral Lines for the Stark-B Database

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    In order to complete Stark broadening data for Ne II, and O III lines, needed for analysis of stellar atmospheres, we determined, within the semiclassical perturbation method, the missing Stark broadening parameters for the broadening by collisions with protons and ionized helium, for 15 Ne II and 5 O III multiplets. Also, electron, proton, and ionized helium impact broadening parameters for an important Ne II multiplet in the visible part of the spectrum, and for three Ne III multiplets, were calculated. The obtained data will be included in the STARK-B database, which is a part of Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  20. Mineralogia e geoquímica dos perfis sobre sedimentos neógenos e quaternários da bacia do Solimões na região de Coari - AM Mineralogy and geochemistry of neogene and quaternary sediment profiles from the Solimões basin in the region of Coari, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Coimbra Horbe

    2007-01-01

    -se afirmar que a unidade que deu origem aos perfis na Formação Solimões foi exposta no Quaternário e que estes se encontram em desequilíbrio com as condições agressivas de lixiviação do ambiente laterítico reinantes na Amazônia pelo menos desde o Paleógeno.To shed light on lateritic evolution, six profiles were studied of weathered sediment developed on the Solimões Formation and one profile on Quaternary floodplain deposits of the Solimões River within the Solimões basin in the center-east of Amazonas State. The profiles on the Solimões Formation are comprised upwards of saprolitic (C, mottled (B and soil (A horizons, while the profile on the Quaternary floodplain sediments has only the saprolitic (C and soil (A horizons. All profiles are clayey-sands to sandy-clays, grey, yellowish, reddish or whitish and predominantly composed of quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, illite and smectite. Based on their textural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics, the profiles are divided into two groups. Profiles 2, 3, 4 and 5 are sandy-clays, have high contents of SiO2, Hg and Zr and are only associated with the Solimões Formation; Profiles 1, 6 and 7 are pelitic, have higher contents of smectite, illite and muscovite, Al2O3, alkalis and trace-elements, especially Ba, Co, Li, Ni, Sr, V, Y and Zn, and are found on both the Solimões Formation and the Quaternary floodplain sediments. This suggests that the Solimões Formation was the source for some of the Quaternary floodplain sediments in the region. The set of mineralogical and chemical characteristics indicates a similarity between horizons within each profile. The profiles on the Solimões Formation are not highly weathered, despite the hot and rainy climate prevailing in the Coari region (2300 mm.year-1, which would favor intense leaching. Therefore the studied profiles are in disequilibrium with the lateritic environment in Amazonia.

  1. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  2. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  3. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving. PMID:15493468

  4. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-01-01

    La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétratio...

  5. He-Ne laser extravascular irradiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Chen, Huifang; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Yanrong

    2000-10-01

    Based on the study of tissue optics related with the laser irradiation blood therapy, a new treatment method, extravascular low-level laser irradiation therapy (ELLLI) is developed. The veins of 30 patients with cerebrovascular disease combined with diabetes, asthma were treated by He-Ne laser (632.8nm, 25mW) which was delivered by an optics fiber. The fiber was outside the patient's skin and the laser irradiated on the blood vessel perpendicularly. The therapy time was 60 minutes each time and about 7-10 times a course of the treatment. The values of blood sugar, blood- fat and hemorrheology were measured as the effective indexes. After the treatment the effective indexes and the symptoms of the patients were all improved. With the advantages of simplicity and safety (no medical infection), laser extravascular irradiation therapy is likely to be a new medical method for heart brain and other diseases.

  6. On the Accession of Spain to the European Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the enlargement of the European Communities (hereinafter EC. Author outlines key questions of the accession of Spain to the EC. Main attention is paid to the characteristics of the conditions of the accession of Spain to the EC. The article explores the role of public authorities of Spain in the implementation of EC documents in Spain. Author investigates the doctrine of relationship between EC norms and Spanish national law.

  7. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin. PMID:21090684

  8. Double ionization of Ne5+ and Ne6+ ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies of electron impact double ionization cross sections of Ne5+ and Ne6+ ions have been performed in the binary encounter approximation (BEA). Direct double ionization (DDI) has been investigated in the modified double binary encounter model. The K-shell ionization cross sections have been also calculated in the BEA to take into account the contributions to double ionization from the ionization-autoionization (IA) process. The effect of the Coulombic field of the target ion on the incident electron has been considered in the present work. Accurate expression of σΔE (cross section for energy transfer ΔE) and the Hartree-Fock (HF) velocity distributions for the target electrons have been used throughout the calculations. The present results are in overall moderate agreement with the experimental observations. Possible reasons behind the discrepancies between the theory and the experiment have been discussed. (authors)

  9. The Practice of Fiscal Federalism in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Julio López Laborda; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Carlos Monasterio Escudero

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 25 years when the rapid decentralization was taking place, Spain enjoyed high rates of economic growth and prosperity, spotted with unusually high rates of unemployment associated with rigidities in labour market institutions. In 2005, GDP per capita was $ 25,500. Over the same period of 25 years, Spain underwent a considerable increase in tax effort. In 1975 total tax revenues as a percent of GDP stood at less than 20 percent. By comparison, at that time, the OECD average count...

  10. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  11. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Moya, Pedro R.; Ibarra, Ana; Herrero, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo d...

  12. Analysing surface runoff and erosion responses to different land uses from the NE of Iberian Peninsula through rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regüés, David; Arnáez, José; Badía, David; Cerdà, Artemi; Echeverría, María Teresa; Gispert, María; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Lasanta, Teodoro; León, Javier; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Pardini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    the highest rainfall intensities were applied in the most natural areas with a dense vegetation cover, the most intense responses were produced in the most altered environments (badlands, born forest, vineyard, pasture and stony soils). These results agreed with the cause-effect relationships observed in some antecedent studies, which compare the hydrological and erosive response in different land uses (Badía et al., 2008; García-Ruíz et al., 2008; García-Ruíz and Lana-Renault, 2011). This has been mainly associated with variations of soil chemical, physical and hydrological properties (Pardini et al., 2004, Emran et al., 2012; Regüés et al., 2012). Likewise, this analysis has provided comparable information for various contrasted land uses, allowing estimate proportionality factors between them. This information favours the classification of certain environments according to its relative trends to surface runoff and erosion. References Badía, D.; Martí, C.; Aguirre, J., Echeverría, M.T., Ibarra, P. (2008). Erodibility and hydrology of arid burned soils: soil type and revegetation effects. Arid Land Research and Management, 22: 286-295. Cerdà, A. (1998). The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. y Bodí, M.B. (2009). Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. Doi: 10.1002/esp.1889. Emran, M., Gispert, M., Pardini, G. (2012). Comparing measurements method of carbon dioxide fluxes in a soil sequence under land cover change in North Eastern Spain. Geoderma 170, 176-185. Doi. 10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.11.013. García-Ruíz, J.M., Regüés, D., Alvera, B., Lana-Renault, N., Serrano-Muela, P., Nadal-Romero, E., Navas, A., Latron, J., Martí-Bono, C., Arnáez, J. (2008). Flood generation and

  13. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31 Peppers from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  15. Tectonosedimentary evolution model of an intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin for paleoclimatic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Wang, Jiuyi; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Song, Chunhui; Yan, Maodu; Appel, Erwin; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Fuli; Yang, Yibo; Lu, Yin

    2016-10-01

    Intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin sediments are now frequently used as archives for detailed paleoclimatic and sedimentary environmental reconstruction, fossil and stratigraphic correlation, and tectonic evolution and uplift of basin and orogen. However, sedimentologic characteristics vary considerably in time-space with the evolution of flexural basin, apt to cause misinterpretation of climatic change and stratigraphic correlation. Based on high resolution fossil mammal and magnetostratigraphic constraints and sedimentary facies analysis, here we took the Linxia Basin at the front of the NE Tibetan Plateau as a case to demonstrate and figure out a model how sedimentology and stratigraphy vary temporospatially with the evolution of such flexural basin. The results show that the Linxia Basin is a type intracontinental foreland basin subjected to two phases of flexural deformation exerted by the West Qin Ling (Mts.) and NE Tibetan Plateau to the south. Phase I began latest at the beginning of the Miocene (23.3 Ma), indicated by a balanced fast flexural subsidence and mostly fine sediment infilling giving rise to the early underlying unconformity. It manifests as an obvious sediment wedge with high filling rate, thickening toward mountains and an occurrence of a mountains-parallel big river - shallow lake system along the foredeep, suggesting a less high mountain topography. In the late Phase I, from ~ 13 Ma to 8 Ma, the subsidence and thickening rates began to decrease, accompanied by faults and deformation propagating gradually into the basin, causing gradual basinward migration of the foredeep and its accompanying river-lake system. Since ~ 8 Ma in Phase II, the West Qin Ling and NE Tibetan began to uplift rapidly and thrust/load onto the Linxia Basin, causing strong mountain erosion, thrust-fold belt propagation and basin overfilling. This forced the mountains-parallel river - lake system to turn to the mountains-perpendicular alluvial - braided river

  16. Polyphase tectonic subsidence evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from quantitative subsidence analysis of the northern and central parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna Basin is a tectonically complex Neogene basin situated at the Alpine-Carpathian transition. This study analyzes a detailed quantification of subsidence in the northern and central parts of the Vienna Basin to understand its tectonic subsidence evolution. About 200 wells were used to arrange stratigraphic setting, and wells reaching the pre-Neogene basement were analyzed for subsidence. To enhance the understanding of the regional subsidences, the wells were sorted into ten groups based on their position on major fault blocks. In the Early Miocene, subsidence was slow and along E-W to NE-SW trending axis, indicating the development of thrust-controlled piggyback basins. During the late Early Miocene data show abruptly increasing subsidence, making the initiation of the Vienna pull-apart basin system. From the Middle Miocene, the tectonic subsidence curves show regionally different patterns. The tectonic subsidence during the Middle Miocene varies laterally across the Vienna Basin, and the differential subsidence can be related to the changing tensional regime of weakening transtension and strengthening extension toward the late Middle Miocene. From the late Middle Miocene to the Late Miocene, the tectonic subsidence occurred dominantly along the regional active faults, and corresponds to the axis of E-W trending extension of the western parts of the Pannonian Basin system. In the Quaternary the Vienna Basin has been reactivated, and resulted in subsidence along the NE-SW trending Vienna Basin transfer fault system.

  17. Runoff generation in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, E. N.; Kirkby, M. J.; Chapman, P. J.; Bracken, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    We are working to improve a hydrological model for prediction of runoff in medium-scale semi-arid catchments in SE Spain. The aim is to develop and improve understandings of runoff generation in semi-arid areas and to improve modelling of runoff. Objectives are to investigate the influence of geology, landuse and seasonality on infiltration rates and use remonte sensing (RS) and GIS to classify an area into Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS) categories. The research includes investigating the impact of different landscape elements on runoff within two 150 km2 catchments, the Rambla Nogalte and the Rambla de Torrealvilla. Most storms within these catchments are of short duration. HYSS are defined as areas with similar1-D (vertical) partitioning of net rainfall between infiltration and overland flow. HYSS are identified from field measurements of soils, micro and macro- topography and infiltration rates; then combined with analysis of multi-spectral airborne RS images. HYSS are selected to minimise internal variability in the relationship between rainfall and local runoff generation and are scaled up to cover larger areas. The overall sampling strategy for measurements has been to undertake constant intensity rainfall simulator measurements within provisional HYSS categories, and to augment this with a large number of minidisk infiltrometer measurements. This strategy captures as much of the variability in the landscape as possible. The wide variability within even small areas has led to the final adoption of only a few large classes that can be effectively distinguished. The final part of the research is to link the spatial partitioning of the two catchments into HYSS with the detailed rainfall records for the areas, and combine these two sets of data into a grid-based model for runoff generation across the area. The applied Green-Ampt modelling approach gave 63 possible combinations of surface properties (9 HYSS) and areas in the Rambla Nogalte each represented

  18. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  19. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E

    2010-01-01

    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transfer reaction cross sections from the interactions of 20Ne and 22Ne with 232Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target of 232Th has been bombarded with 114 MeV 22Ne and with 114 MeV and 129 MeV 20Ne beams. Recoiling reaction products were chemically isolated and the cross sections for protactinium, uranium, and neptunium isotopes were determined. The width of the cross section distributions for a given Z and their neutron-richness are the same as those for similar transfers in Ne+ 248Cm reactions. Population of low spin isomeric states is favored in these reactions over population of high spin states. As was seen in reactions with heavier targets, an increase in reaction energy does little to shift the evaporation residues toward neutron deficiency. The implications are that only primary products with little or no excitation energy and angular momentum survive the fission process to become evaporation residues in these systems, and that the production of these nuclides is more controlled by the change in the identity of the projectile than by the corresponding change in the target

  1. Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES Campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTES (“Woodlands”) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Wester...

  2. Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposhere during the MONTES campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penuelas, J.; Guenther, A.; Rapparini, F.; Llusia, J.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.

    2013-01-01

    MONTES (“Woodlands”) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Western Mediterranean Basi

  3. The end of scarcity? Water desalination as the new cornucopia for Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Rico-Amorós, Antonio M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we explore the new orientation taken by Spanish water policy since the beginning of the 21st century and very specifically the shift towards desalination as an alternative to other water supply options such as river regulation or inter-basin water transfers. Desalination has been seen as the cure for everything that dams and inter-basin water transfers were unable to solve, including droughts, scarcities, social conflicts, environmental impacts, and political rivalries among the different Spanish regions. Desalination also means a new and powerful element in water planning and management that could provide water for the continuous expansion of the urban and tourist growth machine in Mediterranean Spain and thus relax possible water constraints on this growth. However, by 2012 most new desalination plants along the Mediterranean coast remained almost idle. Focusing on the case of the Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibillla in South-eastern Spain, our aim is to develop a critical, integrated and reflexive perspective on the use of desalination as a source of water for urban and regional growth.

  4. Groundwater in steppe environments: "El Hito" Lagoon wetland as a case of study (Cuenca; Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Merlín, A.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Molina-Navarro, E.

    2012-04-01

    El Hito Lagoon wetland, located in the interfluve of the upper basins of the Cigüela and Záncara rivers (Guadiana Basin, central Spain), configures an important element of geo-environmental heritage of Castilla-LaMancha (Natural Reserve), as well as being an area recognized as Ramsar Site and integrated in the Natura 2000 Network. It has an extension around 290 ha in the periods of maximum flooding and it is embedded in an endorheic basin of 42 Km2. The area that includes it has an arid appearance in a landscape dominated by extensive agriculture, being catalogued as "without aquifers" under its unfavorable geo-hydrological substrate. Thereby, the manifestation of the wetland has been attributed to the simple accumulation of precipitation water in the rainy periods. However, studies to date show the contribution of groundwater to the dynamics of this geo-system, showing how the lake basin behaves itself like a diffuse discharge area of groundwater flow to the endorheic in which it is located. This paper shows the most relevant data to understand the functioning of this wetland of great scientific and environmental importance, as it support interesting halophytic plant communities as well as large number of waterflow and steppe birds.

  5. Dating of the Reocin MVT Deposit, Spain, by Paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, D. T.; Lewchuk, M. T.; Kawasaki, K.; Velasco, F.; Leach, D. L.

    2009-05-01

    Located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin of northernmost Spain, the Reocin mine exploited one of the worldfs largest known Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits (˜62 Mt at 8.7% Zn and 1.0% Pb) for >100 years. The sphalerite-galena and ferroan dolomite mineralization is in a karst system in 116±1 Ma Urgonian carbonates along the southeastern limb of the Santillana syncline that was formed by late Oligocene and mid Miocene pulses of the Pyrenean Orogeny. Paleomagnetic results from 22 sites (274 specimens) in ore-grade and marginal mineralization isolated a post-folding mid Miocene characteristic remanence (ChRM) direction. Mineral magnetics tests on mineralization, Zn concentrate and tailings show that the ChRM is carried both in sphalerite and ferroan dolomite by pyrrhotite mainly with minor magnetite. We suggest that the deposit was formed in the mid Miocene by fluids flowing from the Pyrenean highlands, ˜50 km SSW of Reocin, that scavenged the metals enroute to Reocin from the Paleozoic basement and/or Mesozoic clastic sediments below the deposit that were derived from the basement.

  6. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tra My

    2016-01-01

    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  7. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  8. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  9. Related variety and regional growth in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Minondo, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether related variety, among other types of spatial externalities, affected regional growth in Spain at the NUTS 3 level during the period 1995–2007. We found evidence that related variety matters for growth across regions, especially when using two new methods that measure

  10. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  11. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  12. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH(+)(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH(+) + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH(+)(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH(+) + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe](+) structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH(+) asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction. PMID:26801030

  13. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N.

    2016-01-01

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]+ structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH+ asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  14. Relocation and seismotectonic interpretation of the 2015 Ossa de Montiel (Albacete, Spain) seismic series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantavella, Juan V.; Gaite, Beatriz; Ruiz, Mario; Romero, Paula; Gómez-García, Clara; Cerdeño, Roberto; Villaseñor, Antonio; Díaz, Jordi; Lozano, Lucía

    2016-04-01

    A moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw 4.7 occurred on February 23, 2015 to the NE of Ossa de Montiel (SE central Spain), in a region with very low seismic activity and poorly monitored by permanent seismic stations. Two days after the event a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 13 stations was deployed in this area until April 6, 2015, allowing to detect more than 500 events inside the network limits. The data gathered from this network along with the data from more distant seismic stations has allowed us to perform a precise hypocentral location of the Ossa de Montiel seismic series. For this location we have manually read the arrival times for all the stations and used relative location techniques based on waveform cross-correlations and a double-difference algorithm. In addition, we have studied the focal mechanism of the main shock and the largest aftershocks using first motion polarities and full waveform inversion. We have found that the mechanism and aftershock distribution is consistent with a NW-SE normal fault with a dip of 40 degrees to the NE at a depth of about 12 km. With these results we analyze the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and propose a seismotectonic interpretation of a series developed in an area with scarce seismic information to this date.

  15. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems are prone to soil loss mainly due to the accelerated erosion as a consequence of human induced changes from agriculture and grazing practices over the last centuries and the climatic conditions (i.e. irregular and scarce precipitations and drought periods). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation inducing the loss of soil functions. The progressive decline of soil functions thereof soil quality is associated to a decrease of soil productivity and can threat the sustainability of cultivated soils. The use of fallout 137Cs as a soil movement tracer provides useful data to identify areas where loss and gain of 137Cs occurs and that of soil. This study aims to address soil movement and soil nutrient dynamics closely related to the status of soil degradation. A rain-fed cereal field (1.6 ha) representative of Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscapes (42°25'41''N 1°13'8''W) was selected to examine the effects of soil redistribution processes on the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) and their relationships with soil properties and topographic characteristics. From the hydrological point of view, the field is isolated due to the effect of landscape features and man-made structures. Climate is continental Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and soils are Calcisols. The reference inventories of 137Cs and soil nutrients were established from 21 soil samples collected in nearby undisturbed areas under typical Mediterranean vegetation cover. A total of 156 bulk soil samples (30-50 cm depth) and 156 topsoil samples (5 cm) were collected on a 10 m grid. 137Cs and soil nutrients loss and gain areas were identified by comparing the reference inventories with the values of inventories at the sampling points. A new approach to characterize and measure active (ACF) and stable (SCF) carbon fraction contents by using a dry combustion method based on the oxidation temperature of carbon fractions to analyze the SOC pool dynamics is presented in this study. A detailed field topographic survey and mapping of the spatial variability of soil properties and nutrient contents from soil analyses displayed similar spatial patterns of 137Cs and soil nutrients that also were directly and significantly correlated (p≤0.01). As much as 70% of the surface of the study field had lower values of 137Cs inventory indicating a predominance of soil loss linked to a generalized loss of soil nutrients. SOC gain was found in less than 1% of the study field and there was a large loss of SON compared to the undisturbed reference site. Higher and significant (p≤0.01) contents of soil nutrients were found in topsoil samples than in the bulk ones. Furthermore, there was an enrichment of the relative contribution of ACF to total SOC in sampling points where there was a 137Cs gain in both bulk and topsoil samples. Understanding patterns of soil nutrients can be useful for developing and implementing land management strategies to preserve soil quality in Mediterranean agricultural areas.

  16. Sorption and mobility of Sb(V) in calcareous soils of Catalonia (NE Spain): Batch and column experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lladó, Xavier; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Martí Gregorio, Vicenç; Giménez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier; Pablo Ribas, Joan de

    2011-01-01

    The sorption of Sb(V) onto natural calcareous soils was studied in batch and column experiments as a function of physicochemical properties of the soil, namely: organic matter, the active fraction of Fe and Al and the pH of the soils. Batch experiments were performed in order to determine the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate of the sorption. Freundlich isotherm described properly the equilibrium experimental data and the kinetic results show that the sorption was very slow in all the so...

  17. Palaeoflood response to climate and landuse changes in a Mediterranean river (Castellón, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Gerardo; Machado, Maria; Rico, MarÍa Teresa; Sánchez-Moya, Yolanda; Sopeña, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    The Rambla de la Viuda (drainage area of 1500 km2) is a Mediterranean ephemeral river, dry most of the year. The fluvial geomorphology of the rambla is dominated by transversal bars typical of short-lived flows. The short-lived and occasionally large floods, are produced by mesoscale convective systems fed by humidity from the Mediterranean sea during autumn months. For the past 120 years the largest floods recorded took place in: 1920, 1962 y 2000. The study rambla has recorded an excellent palaeoflood archive from which hydrological and environmental history (landuse and landcover) can be reconstructed. The methodology used in the study of the palaeohydrological and palaeolandscape changes during the last 500 yrs (sedimentary records timespan) involved: 1) Reconstruction of palaeoflood records ( Stratigraphic description of slack-water flood deposits, Geochronology of individual floods with Radiocarbon and Optically Stimulated Luminescence, and the estimation of discharges associated with the different flood units/features by computing the water surface profiles using one-dimensional hydraulic modeling (HEC-RAS); and 2) Reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions (Edaphological characterization of the soil horizons developed on flood units as well as the textural, geochemical and biomineralogical analysis of all sedimentary units). Four hydro/environmental phases were identified during the last 500 years, corresponding to different flood magnitud and frequency periods, associated to climate and/or land-use conditions. A high frequency and high magnitude palaeoflood period took place during the 15th-middle 16th century (Phase I) which seems to correlate in time with general wetter conditions and three main soil development episodes. Another important hydrological period took place until early 18th century (Phase III), though with a low frequency/ high magnitude floods, correlating in time with geochemical evidences of important changes on land use (deforestation and grazing). Poorer developed soils can be found at upper stratigraphic sequences (19th century), culminating sequences (sets) of slackwater flood units.

  18. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.; Gilbert, O.; Bernat, X.; Valhondo, C.; Kock-Schulmeyer, M.; Huerta-Fontela, M.; Colomer, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  19. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  20. Soil quality assessment through a multi-approach analysis in soils of abandoned terraced land in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pardini, Giovanni; Gispert i Negrell, Maria Assumpta

    2012-01-01

    The abandonment of agricultural land in mountainous areas has been an outstanding problem along the last century and has captured the attention of scientists, technicians and administrations, for the dramatic consequences sometimes occurred due to soil instability, steep slopes, rainfall regimes and wildfires. Hidromorfological and pedological alterations causing exceptional floods and accelerated erosion processes has therefore been studied, identifying the cause in the loss of landscape het...

  1. Historical upscaling of the socio-hydrological cycle: Three cases from the Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sanchis-Ibor, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the co-evolution between hydrological and socio-economic systems is vital to assess how anthropogenic and natural systems will evolve and interact in the future. Examining past socio-hydrological changes is therefore important to produce knowledge able to develop socio-hydrological models for predicting the future hydrology and society evolution patterns. As noticeable climate changes leading to higher water stress are expected in the Mediterranean Europe, socio-hydrological processes are likely to suffer considerable modifications in the XXI century, driving to potential conflicts as water demand increases while water resources fall. The goal of this contribution is to identify the hydro-social processes that have caused water conflicts, and how they have been solved in the Mediterranean Spain. The method is based in the analysis of historical documents, available since the Middle Ages. Once historical water conflicts (always well-documented) were located, a socio-hydrological "causal loop" is formulated, determining what caused that conflict, what factors or chain of factors were involved, and how it was addressed. Repeating that process for all the reported water conflicts allow us to gain insight into their driving forces, the socio-hydrological relationships linked to those, and the successful (and unsuccessful) strategies employed to address them. Three cases were selected from the Mediterranean Spain: the Mijares, the Turia and the Jucar river basins. All of them share similar documental sources (the Royal Archives, courts' archives, municipal archives and farmers' archives), similar climate and similar socio-economic backgrounds. Moreover, all of them are predicted to suffer similar climate change impacts. Irrigation is their major water demand. In these three rivers, during the last millennia, successive waterscapes have been constructed by different societies, in a prolonged process of institutional and environmental up-scaling, from the

  2. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides, in particular 10Be, have found use in modern sediments as a way of determining the erosion rate of river catchments. Cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz is easier and faster to measure than 10Be and has the potential to record erosion rates back 10s million years. However the routine use of cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz sand is hampered by ubiquitous nucleogenic 21Ne. When the eroding lithology can be identified it is possible to measure the nucleogenic in samples that are shielded from cosmic rays and correct for it in exposed bedrock [1]. However, identifying the lithologies that contributes quartz sand in large river catchments, and determining precise nucleogenic contributions is more problematic. The North and South Platte rivers drain early Prototerozoic lithologies of the Laramie and Front Ranges in the high Rockies of Wyoming. They have deposited several km of coarse clastic fluvial deposits on the Great Plains of Nebraska and Colorado up to 200 km from the mountain front. Quartz from shielded samples of granite and gneiss - the dominant quartz-bearing rocks - has high concentrations of nucleogenic 21Ne (60-140 e6 atoms/g). The 21Ne concentration in modern sand from the river (n=10) overlaps that measured in the shielded granite and gneiss. The sand data rarely lie on the air-spallation mixing line in the Ne three isotope plot indicating that it is dominantly derived from the granite and gneiss and has no resolvable cosmogenic 21Ne. Building on previous studies of cosmogenic 21Ne in pebbles [2] we have started a programme of analysis of pebbles derived from the Medicine Bow quartzite that are abundant throughout the Cenozoic alluvial sequence. Nucleogenic 21Ne in shielded quartzite is lower than granites (3-7 e6 atoms/g, n=4) and the data tend to lie on the air-spallation mixing line. All pebbles (n=14) from modern sediments analysed so far contain 2-80 times more excess 21Ne than the highest shielded quartzite suggesting that cosmogenic 21

  3. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  4. Variability in the hydraulic conductivity of the Boom clay in the Campine Basin, NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay has been investigated for more than 30 years as a candidate host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. The very low hydraulic conductivity (on the order of 10-12 m/s) in combination with limited hydraulic gradients over the host formation (0.02 ∼ 0.04 m/m) results in water flow in the Boom Formation being negligible and diffusion the dominant transport mechanism. The assessment of the long-term barrier function of the host clay formation in the framework of radioactive waste disposal requires rigorous quantitative characterization of key formation properties such as the hydraulic conductivity (K). Hydraulic conductivities of Boom Clay measured through various testing techniques in the laboratory, i.e. tracer percolation experiments, constant head permeameter experiments and isostatic experiments, exhibit similar K values in the order of 10-12 m/s. Based on a large set of test samples, the impact of sample scale, hydraulic gradient range adopted in the tests, stress controlled methods and pre-existing fissures in the sample on the K value is shown to be quite limited. In situ measurements obtained from both several-centimetre long piezometer filters and percolation into a 7-metre long gallery and 21-meter long shaft at the HADES underground research facility yield K values that are very similar to values measured in the laboratory on samples of a few centimetres. This indicates that the K measurements for the Boom Clay obtained through various techniques are very consistent. K values measured on a centimetre-scale are also representative at the metre-scale, which is often the size of grid cells used in numerical simulations for long-term safety assessments. Spatial analysis of K values across the Boom Clay at the Mol site reveals a typical profile with a very homogenous 61-m thick central part, i.e. the so-called Putte and Terhagen Members, which is also the least permeable part of the Boom Clay. The geometric mean of the vertical (Kv) and horizontal (Kh) hydraulic conductivities for the Putte and Terhagen Members of the Boom Clay at the Mol site are 1.7x10-12 and 4.4x10-12 m/s, respectively, with a vertical anisotropy Kh/Kv of about 2.5. Higher K values, but still low (10-12 to 10-10 m/s), are observed in the more silty zones at the bottom and the top of the Boom Formation, i.e. the lower Belsele-Waas Member and the upper Boeretang Member, as well as in the double band in the lower part of the Putte Member. A regional analysis of vertical K variability of the Boom Clay in the northeast of Belgium based on test results from five boreholes shows an increase in hydraulic conductivity from the east towards the west. Statistical analyses indicate that the effect of the sample's stratigraphic position on hydraulic conductivity is strongly related to different grain-size characteristics. However, a general K - grain-size model does not explain the geographical differences in K values satisfactorily. A variable which explains most of the variation in Kv is the grain-size parameter d40: the most efficient way to explain the variance in the data is to develop d40 regression models for each borehole separately rather than by stratigraphic member. Moreover, the regional variation in K could be attributed in part to porosity, which in turn is related to the burial depth of the clay and increases from the southwest towards the northeast. The results finally demonstrate that the hydraulic conductivity of the Boom Clay, especially in the Putte and Terhagen Members, remain very consistent even for the relatively large geographical area of northeast Belgium investigated here, but unexplained regional variations still exist until today. (authors)

  5. BASIN DİLİ ÜZERİNE BAZI DİKKATLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ersin özarslan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Basın dilinin umumî dil içerisinde yazı dili ile konuşma dili arasında kendine mahsus yeri ve işlevi vardır. Bu yazıda basın dilinin ana dil içerisindeki yeri ve kendisi gibi standard dil içerisinde yer alan diğer alt ve üst dil şubeleriyle benzerlik, farklılık ve işlev bakımından münasebeti üzerinde durulmuştur. 

  6. SROF12: NE Lau Basin on Scripps Research Vessel Roger Revelle between 20120909 and 20120926

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 cruise will use the University of Bremen Quest 4000 remotely operated vehicle to locate, map and sample hydrothermal sites at...

  7. Two Protons Emissions From 17Ne Excited States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experiment 17Ne+197Au has been finished in Heavy Ion Research Facility Radioactive Ion Beam Line at Lanzhou (RIBLL). Through the total kinematic method of silicon strip detectors and CsI(Tl)+PIN

  8. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  9. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  10. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  11. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  12. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  13. Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, P.T.

    1967-01-01

    Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation is considered theoretically, including explicitly the laser oscillator properties. Experiments reported previously by us and other authors are in agreement with our analysis.

  14. On the New Puzzling Results from MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    2011-01-01

    We look into the recent puzzlng results from MiniBooNE and contrast their results with that from NOMAD. A pictuire which provides consistent decscriptiobn of both is discussed here. This also points to future directions in neutrino studies.

  15. Noćne more Carlosa Fuentesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Krizmanić Ožegović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U Iraku se zvao Salim Abdul Husain i radio je za općinu kao čistač, u skupini kojoj je upravitelj dodijelio zadatak čišćenja nakon eksplozija. Umro je 2009. u Nizozemskoj pod drugim imenom: Carlos Fuentes. Salim i njegovi kolege, puni dosade i gnušanja, kao i svakoga drugog jadnog dana, čistili su tržnicu nakon što je eksplodirao tegljač s gorivom, zapalivši piliće, voće, povrće i pokojeg čovjeka. Meli su pažljivo i polako od straha da ne pokupe neki zaostali komad ljudskoga tijela. Uvijek su tražili netaknutu lisnicu ili možda zlatni lanac, prsten ili sat koji je još pokazivao vrijeme. U potrazi za posmrtnim dragocjenostima Salim nije imao sreće kao njegovi kolege. Trebao mu je novac za vizu kako bi otišao u Nizozemsku i pobjegao iz ovog vatrenoga užasa prepunoga smrti. Samo mu se jedanput posrećilo pa je našao prst s dragocjenim srebrnim prstenom, vrlo lijepim. Salim je poklopio prst stopalom, pažljivo se sagnuo i skinuo prsten s gađenjem. Prsten je završio na Salimovoj ruci, zadivljeno je promatrao dragi kamen i na kraju odustao od pomisli da ga proda. Može li se reći da je osjetio duboku duhovnu povezanost s prstenom?

  16. Polyphase evolution of the Chaîne des Matheux frontal thrust (Haiti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Richard; Ellouz-Zimmermann, Nadine; Rosenberg, Claudio; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Hamon, Youri; Deschamps, Remy; Battani, Anne; Leroy, Sylvie; Momplaisir, Roberte

    2016-04-01

    The NW - SE trending Haitian fold-and-thrust belt (HFTB) is located in the western part of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. It covers the suture between the Cretaceous Caribbean island arc in the north and the Late Cretaceous thickened oceanic crust in the south. The HFTB is bounded to the north and south by the left-lateral Septentrional (SFZ) and Enriquillo-Plantain Garden (EPGFZ) fault zones, respectively. Compressional deformation on the HFTB commenced as early as Eocene times. It was followed by transpressional deformation from the early Miocene onwards, with in sequence progressive stacking of thrust sheets towards the SW. Seismicity at the junction between the HFTB and the EPGFZ is recorded by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake. Surface mapping did not reveal a rupture, as the main activity occurred on the steep NNW dipping oblique transpressional Léogâne fault, while aftershocks documented motion on a shallow SW dipping thrust segment. The structural style of deformation of the HFTB, either the stacking of thrust sheets on basement heterogeneities or basement-involved thrusting, has not been studied in detail. Also lacking are conceptual models addressing the amount of convergence between the northern and southern domains, and describing how convergence was accommodated. To address these problems we conducted a detailed fieldwork on the southernmost thrust sheet, known as the Chaîne des Matheux front. Using stratigraphy, geological mapping, cross sections, kinematic fault slip data, analysis of mineralizations and fluid inclusions, and geochemical analysis of fluid seeps, we decipher the evolution of this anticlinal structure. Stratigraphic data reveal stable Eocene platform sedimentation over the whole region, which preceded deepening of the basin throughout Oligocene and early Miocene times. A diachronous evolution is evident from the middle Miocene onwards. The NE flank displays a shallowing upwards trend and clastic sedimentation, while the

  17. Sinking of Ne-22 in Liquid White Dwarf Interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Deloye, Christopher J.; Bildsten, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We assess the impact of the trace element Ne-22 on the cooling and seismology of a liquid C/O white dwarf (WD). Due to this element's neutron excess, it sinks towards the interior as the liquid WD cools. The gravitational energy released slows the WD's cooling by 0.5-1.6 Gyr. In addition the Ne-22 abundance gradient changes the periods of the high radial order g-modes at the 1% level.

  18. Low energy positron-induced ionization of He and Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the preliminary results of SzIuinska and Laricchia [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 221 (2004) 100], further investigations of ionization have been carried out below the positronium formation threshold of He and Ne. Within the present experimental sensitivity, no significant signal is observed for He. Additionally, the residual signal previously observed in Ne is found to be due principally to contaminants rather than annihilation from this atom

  19. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    OpenAIRE

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Yu. Aksyutina; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data ...

  20. Evidence for oceanic crust in the Herodotus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roi

    2016-04-01

    Some of the fundamental tectonic problems of the Eastern Mediterranean remain unresolved due to the extremely thick sedimentary cover (10 to 15 km) and the lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data. I have collected 7,000 km of marine magnetic profiles (2012-2014) across the Herodotus and Levant Basins, Eastern Mediterranean, to study the nature and age of the underlying igneous crust. The towed magnetometer array consisted of two Overhauser sensors recording the total magnetic anomaly field in a longitudinal gradiometer mode, and a fully oriented vector magnetometer. The total field data from the Herodotus Basin reveal a newly detected short sequence of long-wavelength NE-SW lineated anomalies that straddle the entire basin suggesting a deep two-dimensional magnetic source layer. The three components of the magnetic vector data indicate that an abrupt transition from a 2D to 3D magnetic structure occurs east of the Herodotus Basin, along where a prominent NE-SW gravity feature is found. Altogether, these new findings confirm that the Herodotus Basin preserves remnants of oceanic crust that formed along the Neotethyan mid-ocean ridge system. The continuous northward and counterclockwise motion of the African Plate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic allow predicting the evolution of remanent magnetization directions, which in-turn dictate that shape of the anomalies. The shape of the Herodotus anomalies best fit Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (300±20 Myr old) magnetization directions. Finally, I will discuss the implications of these results on the tectonic architecture of the region as well as on various geodynamic processes.

  1. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    complicated thrust and fold, the previous uniifed Ordos-North China Basin was separated by the northeast-oriented Great Xing’an Range and Taihang Mountain uplifted linearment. The differential evolution of basins and sedimentary palaeoge-ography between eastern and western North China was initiated, and was interpreted to result in the closure of Okhotsk Ocean and the subduction of Palaeo-Paciifc Plate (late stage 2). During the Late Jurassic (the early phase of stage 3), a variety of faulted basins occurred in the Yanshan and Yinshan areas in the northeastern North China. In Yanshan area, basins were iflled with thickened intermediate volcanic rocks and purple-red coarse-grained clastic rocks. In contrast, only thick layered sedimentary rocks with rare volcanic rocks developed in the Yinshan faulted basins, the Ordos Basin and basins in sourthern North China. XMOB was the main provenance of the Early Mesozoic basins in the North China, while the Ordos Basin and the Hefei Basin were partly supplied by the northern Qinling Orogenic Belt. During the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (the late phase of stage 3), the north-ern and northeastern North China experienced extensional movement after the subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate, the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and the subsequent Yanshanian orogeny. At the same time, a NE-oriented, giant rift basin system (NE Asia Rift) extended from the Yanshan to the western Great Xing’an Range, where rift basins were iflled with the regional, NE-oriented, thick coarse-grained clastic rocks and a belt of volcanic rocks. In the meantime, the eastern and northeastern China and most areas of NCC were presented as highland terrains. During the middle-late Early Cretaceous (stage 4), rift basins developed and accumulated alluvial sediments and interbedded alkaline volcanic rocks in the western and northern North China, including Yingen, Ejinaqi and Erlian regions. Basins were formed on both sides of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone

  2. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  3. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  4. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  5. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  6. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  7. Phenolic Profile of Asturian (Spain) Natural Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2¢-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, aviculari...

  8. Generational Differences at Work in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lasierra, Jose Manuel; Molina, Jose Alberto; Ortega, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore differentials in the job satisfaction and the organizational commitment of Baby Boomers and Generation X. In light of multiple age segments in the workforce, and the ageing population, human resource management strategies aimed at attracting, engaging, and retaining employees of all ages are of strategic importance. Through the use of the large-scale Quality of Life at Work, 2006-2010 survey (Spain), we have carried out an empirical approach that points...

  9. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on b...

  10. Media and Informational Literacy Policies in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Grandío, María del Mar; Vicente, Miguel; Matilla, Agustín; Guitierrez Martín, Alfonso; Marta Lazo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Media education in Spain has never received a public acknowledgment according to its importance within our time’s society. While the presence of media education in the curricula of European countries was growing during the 1970’s, Spanish scholars refused to grant this topic a priority attention. Alternatively, they let the task of raising awareness about the need to develop a critical and creative media education system in hands of other professional groups, like journalists or teachers.

  11. Residential mobile phone users complaints' in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio; Gijón, Covadonga; Garín-Muñoz, Teresa; López, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction is a key determinant of customer retention, profitability of operators, consumer welfare and a strategic variable for competition and international comparisons. Spain's mobile customer satisfaction is the lowest in the European Union according to recent EU studies (SMREC, 2013). Consumer complaints are numerous according to official statistics. In turn, consumer complaints (and how well they are dealt with) influence customer satisfaction and retention. This paper analyz...

  12. Occupational segregation of immigrant women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. Our results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent than it does either native women or immigrant men. There are, however, remarkable discrepancies among the segregation of immigrant women depending on their region ...

  13. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  14. A population density grid for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarino Martí, Isidro; Goerlich, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an author's accepted manuscript of an article published in "International Journal of Geographical Information Science"; Volume 27, Issue 12, 2013; copyright Taylor & Francis; available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13658816.2013.799283 This article describes a high-resolution land cover data set for Spain and its application to dasymetric population mapping (at census tract level). Eventually, this vector layer is transformed into a grid format. The wo...

  15. Community nutrition in Spain: advances and drawbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Aranceta, Javier; Lobo, Félix; Viedma, Pilar; Salvador-Castell, Gemma; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M.; Bello, Luis; Tur-Marí, Josep A

    2009-01-01

    Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front-line strategies in health promotion. Community nutrition in different regions of Spain has developed at an unequal pace. Early initiatives in the mid 1980s provided good-quality population data and established a basis for nutrition surveillance including individual body measurements, dietary intake data, information on physical activity, and biomarkers. The Nutrition and Physical Activity for Obesity Preventi...

  16. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

  17. Factors affecting quits and layoffs in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Caparrós Ruiz; Mª Lucía Navarro Gómez

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, unemployment rates in the European Union have been higher than in other regions, e.g., the United States, and these are even higher in Spain. It has been argued that the different degrees of labour mobility between the European and the American labour markets can account for the differences in the pattern observed. This paper follows the McLaughlin's model (1991) and provides empirical evidence regarding the factors determining quits and layoffs due to contract termina...

  18. Technological spillovers and industrial location in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Jose G.

    1998-01-01

    While different studies have supported the existence of knowledge spillovers and shown their importance for economic growth, very few have focused on analysing their relation with the propensity for industrial activity to cluster spatially. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the geographic concentration of industrial activity in Spain, specially of innovative activity, and to link it with the existence of knowledge externalities. This analysis will be based in the marshallian concep...

  19. Aids in Spain and Immigration: Epidemiological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ualberto Buela-Casal****; Ángel Castro; María Paz-Bermúdez**

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the current HIV/AIDS situation in Spain according to Spanish regions. Epidemiological HIV and AIDS Spanish data are analyzed and adjusted by population rates. Prevalence indexes and distribution by gender, age and way of transmission in the Spanish regions are compared. In addition, it is paid special attention to immigrant population as people who can take HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Results revealed that the Spanish regions with the highest prevalence rates ...

  20. Wage Assimilation of Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zenón Jiménez-Ridruejo; Carlos Borondo Arribas

    2011-01-01

    In this study we quantify the effect of the years of residence in Spain on the earnings of immigrants. We take sex, origin, education and age into account. The results are clearly positive, the longer the length of residence the more earnings, confirming the hypothesis of wage assimilation of immigrants as their human capital is adapted to the Spanish labor market. The information used comes from the Social Security’s Continuous Sample of Working Lives 2007. Additionally, we merge the earning...