Sample records for basin ne spain

  1. Meteoric calcitization of magnesite in Miocene lacustrine deposits (Calatayud basin, NE Spain) (United States)

    Cañaveras, J. C.; Sánchez-Moral, S.; Sanz-Rubio, E.; Hoyos, M.


    Sedimentary magnesite deposits are commonly present in evaporite successions in the Tertiary Calatayud basin (NE Spain). Outcropping evaporite sequences, mainly composed of secondary gypsum after anhydrite-glauberite, show centimetre-thick layers of magnesite passing laterally into calcite pseudospar. Petrographic and stable isotope data indicate that calcite pseudospar formed via late-stage calcitization of magnesite under near-surface conditions. Calcitization occurred by the interaction between magnesite and Ca-enriched waters derived from the dissolution of gypsum and/or glauberite. The geochemical simulation of this process, petrographic evidence, and the correlation between the magnesite/calcite ratio and the δ18O values of both magnesite and calcite samples across the reaction front are in agreement with the existence of neoformed 18O-depleted magnesite during the waning stages of the calcitization process.

  2. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.


    The endorheic Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the centre of the Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, but strongly to individual events, with reaction times from hours to months after rainfall. Individual extreme event intensities as well as magnitudes affect lake level through both groundwater and surface runoff. In this study, the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed to assess the role of past, current and future rainfall characteristics for the lake level and its fluctuations. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the rainfall recharge of groundwater appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall and surface runoff has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by researchers involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other endorheic basins with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal

  3. Factors controlling the sedimentary evolution of the Kimmeridgian ramp in the north Iberian Basin (NE Spain

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    Bádenas, B.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge reached by the authors on the carbonate ramp which developed in the iberian basin during Kimmeridgian times. Our results were obtained from a combined field analysis and computer modelling carried out in the north Iberian Chain (NE Spain. Extensive field analysis in the Ricia area (Zaragoza, NE Spain, resulted in a detailed mapping of the transition from inner to outerramp facies on this carbonate rampo Three facies belts may be distinguished in this rampo The outer ramp facies consists of marls and mudstones rhythmic facies. The inner ramp facies, located aboye fair-weather wave base, are dominated by coral patch reef growing. The middle ramp facies are represented by marls and micrites bearing skeletal and oolitic tempestite levels which sharply grade into high-amplitude o'olitic sandwave. Factors such as resedimentation by storms, carbonate production and relative variation of sea level acting in the Kimmeridgian ramp are also quantiphied and discussed. Most of the mud accumulated in outer-ramp areas was produced in the coral «carbonate factory» located in inner areas. Off-shore resedimentation by storm was the main agent of basinward transport of this mudo The deduced accommodation curve consists of three elements: a linear rise which satisfactorily matches the normal subsidence figures observed in intracratonic basins; a third-order cycle, that may have a regional cause and higher order cycles in the Milanckovich band, that may be eustatic in origin.La sedimentación en la cuenca ibérica septentrional durante el Kimmeridgiense tuvo lugar en una extensa rampa carbonatada de bajo ángulo. Las facies de rampa externa, acumuladas por debajo del nivel de base del oleaje debido a tormentas (i.e., C. 50 to 80 m de profundidad, están formadas por una ritmita de margas y calizas (i.e., Fm Loriguilla. Las facies de rampa interna, localizadas por encima del nivel de base del oleaje de

  4. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain) (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente


    PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg μL-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg μL-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target

  5. Response of alluvial systems to Late Pleistocene climate changes recorded by environmental magnetism in the Añavieja Basin (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

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    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Muñoz, A.; Larrasoaña, J.C.; Luzon, A.; Perez, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Jiang, Z.; Liu, Q.; Roman-Berdi, T.


    Environmental magnetic proxies were analyzed in a relatively monotonous, ~25.3m thick alluvial sedimentary sequence drilled in the Añavieja Basin (NE Spain). Results from the core AÑ2 suggest that the concentrationdependent magnetic parameters mainly reflect variations in the content of detrital magnetite, sourced in the catchment rocks and soils of the basin, via changes in the dynamics of alluvial fans due to temperature changes in the northern hemisphere during the Late Pleistocene. The correspondence between the magnetic proxies and the temperature variations in the North Atlantic region (NGRIP curve) indicates that higher (lower) concentrations and finer (coarser) magnetite grains coincide with warm (cold) periods. We propose that during cold periods, a sparser vegetation cover favored the incoming of higher energy runoff bearing coarser sediments to the basin that are relatively impoverished in magnetite. In contrast, during warm periods, the wider distribution of the vegetation cover associated with the lower runoff energy lead to finer, magnetite-richer sediment input to the basin. Maghemite, presumably of pedogenic origin, appears to be present also in the studied alluvial sediments. Further studies are necessary to unravel its palaeoclimatic significance. (Author)

  6. GPS deformation rates in the Bajo Segura Basin (NE of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, SE Spain) (United States)

    Jesús Borque, María; Sánchez-Alzola, Alberto; Estévez, Antonio; García-Tortosa, Francisco J.; Martín-Rojas, Iván; Molina, Sergio; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; de Lacy, Clara; García-Armenteros, Juan Antonio; Avilés, Manuel; Herrera, Antonio; Rosa-Cintas, Sergio; Gil, Antonio J.


    The Bajo Segura Basin, located in the NE end of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, is one of the areas with highest seismic activity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bounded by the Crevillente Fault to the north and the Bajo Segura Fault to the south, and it is characterized by a Late Miocene to Quaternary folded cover. We estimate the present-day deformation of the study area from a GPS network with 11 sites. Observation campaigns were carried out four times (June 1999, September 2001, September 2002 and September 2013). We used the 6.2 version of GIPSY-OASIS software to process GPS data in Precise Point Positioning mode (PPP). In order to obtain the position time series in the whole period of these episodic campaigns, all the GPS observations from 1999 to 2013 campaigns were processed with an identical standard procedure. We compared our velocity field estimation with respect to GEODVEL tectonic model to obtain the residual velocity field of the Bajo Segura Basin. We estimated a ~N-S shortening with deformation rates varying between 0.2 and 0.6 mm/yr. These results are consistent with local geological deformation rates although slightly higher. They also fit well with regional geodetic data estimated for the Western Mediterranean.

  7. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

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    Quiros, Laia [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina [Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament de Salut Publica (Bioestadistica), Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:


    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites.

  8. Morphology and micro-fabrics of weathering features on gyprock exposures in a semiarid environment (Ebro Tertiary Basin, NE Spain) (United States)

    Artieda, O.


    Gyprock is a common rock in evaporitic formations, which have a wide distribution across all continents. However, outcrops of gyprock are rather limited, occurring mainly in low rainfall areas (i.e. southwest of USA, Italy, Spain). Gyprock is one of the most common lithology in the Ebro Tertiary Basin. Here, semiarid conditions propitiate the development of specific weathering processes and landforms with significant implications for understanding the genesis of soils and the geomorphological evolution of these areas. Gypsum crystallization within the pores and fissures of gyprock close to the surface leads to volume increase and pressures, with the consequent weathering of this rock. As a result, considerable porosity develops producing peculiar morphologies on gyprock outcrops (domes and decimetre-scale blisters), specific microscopic features (voids with plain walls, horse-shoe pores and serrated pores), as well as microscopic fabrics (grating fabric, skeletal fabric, fan fabric and botryoidal fabric). This paper presents a morphological characterization of the material forming the various types of weathering features, from microscopic to mesoscopic scale. The macromorphology and micromorphology of those features were used to interpret their genesis.

  9. The microfauna assemblages as indicators of paleoenvironmental changes in the Miocene fluvial- lacustrine cycles (NE Duero Basin, Spain

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    A. Herrero-Hernández


    Full Text Available The siliclastic and carbonate deposits are interbedded in the Villadiego area (Miocene, NE Duero Basin. They have been subdivided into two high-rank depositional sequences: DDS and CDS. The sedimentary analysis of these units and the study of the microfauna content, mainly ostracods, led to the identification of lacustrine-fluvial interaction systems. The sedimentary characteristics reveal the existence of fluvial systems of gravel, flood plains and lacustrine systems that were interconnected and intimately related in north-south direction. In the sedimentological analysis, thirteen types of fluvial and lacustrine lithofacies and six genetic facies associations were recognized. The top of DDS is the result of lake level risings. The CDS shows a deepening-shallowing cycle. The ostracod micropaleontological analysis of the sediments have been studied, with the aim of reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area. These microfauna assemblages integrated with the analysis of the sedimentary facies allowed to conclude the existence of lakes with a water-bearing level of few tens of meters. A change in the chemical conditions of the waters, which evolved from oligohaline and carbonated to mesohaline and sulphated is concluded.

  10. Simulating transport and deposition of clastic sediments in an elongate basin using the SIMSAFADIM-CLASTIC program: The Camarasa artificial lake case study (NE Spain) (United States)

    Gratacós, O.; Bitzer, K.; Casamor, J. L.; Cabrera, L.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Roca, E.


    Predicting facies distribution and the stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary basins by process-oriented numerical models is nowadays an essential tool in geologic studies. They constitute a new approach to predict the geologic heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of the diverse facies generated in a depositional system jointly with the distribution of the physical, chemical, and petrophysical characteristics of the sedimentary deposits in a quantitative way. SIMSAFADIM-CLASTIC is a 3D process-based, forward numerical model for the simulation of clastic sediment transport and sedimentation in aquatic systems. It simulates the physical process of clastic transport using the advective, diffusive, and dispersive terms of the transport equation and clastic sediment deposition as a result of a variety of processes. The capabilities of SIMSAFADIM-CLASTIC have been confirmed through the application of the program to a large deep elongated artificial lake, the Camarasa reservoir in the Noguera Pallaresa River, NE of Spain. Simulation results yield sedimentation rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 cm·yr - 1 close to the dam, and from 1.73 to 1.63 cm·yr - 1 in the upper reservoir section. The sample experiment results match well with the observed transport pattern linked to the flow system in Camarasa's reservoir near-bottom water layer, which transports more than 50% of the sediment that is supplied to the reservoir. Opening and closure of turbine gates and the basin geometry are the main controlling factors on the fluid flow and depositional pattern in the reservoir, with a more diversified pattern obtained when an open boundary is defined. However, the resulting model also shows some limitations of the program as it does consider a stratified water column that is consistently observed in the reservoir. Refined modeling exercises of the type described in this paper are of potential application to predict and quantify sedimentation patterns allowing the

  11. Emission factor estimation of ca. 160 emerging organic microcontaminants by inverse modeling in a Mediterranean river basin (Llobregat, NE Spain). (United States)

    Banjac, Zoran; Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Marcé, Rafael; Nadal, Martí; Riera, Josep M; Barceló, Damià


    Starting from measured river concentrations, emission factors of 158 organic compounds out of 199 analyzed belonging to different groups of priority and emerging contaminants [pesticides (25), pharmaceuticals and hormones (81), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (18), industrial compounds (12), drugs of abuse (8) and personal care products (14)] have been estimated by inverse modeling. The Llobregat river was taken as case study representative of Mediterranean rivers. Industrial compounds and pharmaceuticals are the dominant groups (range of 10(4) mg·1000 inhab(-1)·d(-1)). Personal care products, pesticides, PFASs and illegal drugs showed a load approximately one order of magnitude smaller. Considered on a single compound basis industrial compounds still dominate (range of ca. 10(3) mg·1000 inhab(-1)·d(-1)) over other classes. Generally, the results are within the range when compared to previously published estimations for other river basins. River attenuation expressed as the percentage fraction of microcontaminants eliminated was quantified. On average they were around 60-70% of the amount discharged for all classes, except for PFASs, that are poorly eliminated (ca. 20% on average). Uncertainties associated with the calculated emissions have been estimated by Monte-Carlo methods (15,000 runs) and typically show coefficients of variation of ca. 120%. Sensitivities associated with the various variables involved in the calculations (river discharge, river length, concentration, elimination constant, hydraulic travel time and river velocity) have been assessed as well. For the intervals chosen for the different variables, all show sensitivities exceeding unity (1.14 to 3.43), tending to amplify the variation of the emission. River velocity and basin length showed the highest sensitivity value. Even considering the limitations of the approach used, inverse modeling can provide a useful tool for management purposes facilitating the quantification of release rates of

  12. Impact of halite dissolution subsidence on Quaternary fluvial terrace development: Case study of the Huerva River, Ebro Basin, NE Spain (United States)

    Guerrero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lucha, Pedro


    This paper analyses the control of evaporite dissolution subsidence on the evolution of the lower 30 km-long reach of the Huerva River up to its confluence with the Ebro River. In the study area the Huerva River flows across different interfingered lithofacies of the subhorizontally lying Ebro Basin fill: (1) shales and sandstones upstream of Cadrete; (2) evaporites dominated by gypsum between Cadrete and Cuarte; (3) gypsum with glauberite and halite units in the subsurface downstream of Cuarte. The halite shows a marked downvalley increase in thickness. Twelve terrace levels and seven pediment levels correlative to some of the terraces have been mapped in the studied area. Upstream of Cadrete, the terrace deposits, with a relatively constant thickness less than 4 m and overlying unsoluble bedrock, remain undeformed. Between Cadrete and Cuarte the deposits of some terraces show local thickening ( 60 m-thick terrace alluvium that fills a 5 km-long trough generated by synsedimentary subsidence phenomena caused primarily by the interstratal dissolution of halite. The older terraces (T1 to T4) show slight thickening (> 18 m) and locally truncate paleocollapse structures ascribed to the interstratal karstification of halite beds. The intermediate terraces (T5 to T7) correspond to degradation surfaces that grade downstream of Cuarte into aggradation flights underlain by the abruptly thickened deposits that fill this 5 km-long dissolution trough. Subsidence migrated episodically downstream during the generation of these terraces and the subsidence/aggradation rate was probably large enough to induce a base-level drop and knickpoint migration upstream generating strath terraces with convergent longitudinal profiles. The sedimentological changes that show the thickened terrace deposits in the subsidence area (high proportion of overbank fines (> 60%) including palustrine facies, gravel channels with lower width/depth ratio, multiple fining-upward cycles, decrease in the

  13. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

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    Wagner, R.H. (Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain))


    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

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    Wagner, R.H. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)


    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Groundwater development effects on different scale hydrogeological systems using head, hydrochemical and isotopic data and implications for water resources management: The Selva basin (NE Spain) (United States)

    Folch, A.; Menció, A.; Puig, R.; Soler, A.; Mas-Pla, J.


    SummaryHydrogeological resources in regional, large-scale groundwater systems are conditioned by their specific geological setting, which defines their capacity to supply human demand and their potential to recover from human-induced stress factors such as water withdrawal. In this paper, the hydrogeology of a range-and-basin hydrogeological system is described, based on potentiometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, in order to fulfill a twofold objective: to characterize the alteration brought about in the hydrogeological system by intensive groundwater withdrawal, where tectonic elements such as fault zones play a significant role in the flow behaviour, and to define groundwater hydrodynamics under current human pressures as a necessary step to achieve appropriate groundwater management. Hydraulic head data indicate the relationships between geological formations in the range areas and the sedimentary infill of the basin. In this set-up, fault zones and a fracture network have a direct effect on the recharge, and allow upward vertical flow from the basement to the sedimentary aquifers. Hydrochemical and isotopic data support this observation. The use of fluoride and nitrate as tracers for the contribution of deep and shallow flow systems provides a detailed portrait of the effects of pumping on the flow path distribution. Isotopic data depict seasonal trends in the water captured by wells. In this connection, we can differentiate between two distinct flow systems: a regional, large-scale, longer residence time system, originating in the surrounding ranges, and a local flow system constituted by infiltration in the lower areas of the basin. The two systems, with specific water qualities, contribute differently to the resources that are withdrawn, and their specific contributions, in the frame of the basin water budget, determine the potential for present sustainable water exploitation.

  16. Erosion processes acting in semi-arid climate zone of the Ebro Basin (Bardenas Reales, NE of Spain); Procesos de erosion actuantes en una zona de clima semiarido de la Depresion del Ebro (Bardenas Reales, NE de Espana)

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    Marin, C.; Desir, G.


    Bardenas Reales is an erosive depression located in the central-western part of the Ebro Depression. May different erosion processes act on this zone: gullying, piping, mud slides and armoured mud balls among others that contribute to export great quantity of material outside the basin. Depending on lithology and physico-chemical properties erosion acting processes differ. The knowledge of that processes help us to understand the great amount of soil loss that take place on the studied zone, bigger than those recommended. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.


    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  18. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

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    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  19. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE Spain after fire

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    Pausas, J.G. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, Valencia (Spain)


    Many Mediterranean species have evolved strategies that allow them to survive periodic wildfires. Quercus suber trees resprout after fire, some from stem buds and others from basal buds only. In the former case the canopy recovers quickly. In the latter case the stem dies but the tree survives and regrows from basal sprouts. The probability of stem death and the degree of height recovery were studied after a fire in a Q. suber forest in NE Spain using logistic regression analysis. The results suggest that most trees survive after fire; the probability of stem death is negatively related to tree diameter; and recovery is positively related to tree diameter and to bark thickness. Implication for management and conservation of cork-oak forests are discussed 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Urban Planning in riverfront areas. A case study of a mediterranean city: Terrassa (Catalonia, NE Spain)



    Since 1980, Spain has introduced urban regeneration plans in various cities with the aim of integrating the river environment into the urban system. This process has proved most challenging in cities whose rivers present extreme features, as is the case with Terrassa (Catalonia, NE Spain), a medium-sized city (215,000 inhabitants in 2013) whose three river courses are prone to flash flooding. Through the critical analysis of urban planning undertaken in the city from the fifties to the presen...

  1. Hydrologic and land-use change influence landscape diversity in the Ebro River (NE Spain) (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Comin, F. A.; Begueria, S.; Trabucchi, M.


    The landscape dynamics (1927 2003) of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined using aerial pictures and GIS techniques. Moreover, changes in the natural flow regime and anthropic activities within the river-floodplain system were investigated. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach, as well as the overall basin. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased, especially since 1981, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927 1957 should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces) patters should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  2. The beginning of the Buntsandstein cycle (Early-Middle Triassic) in the Catalan Ranges, NE Spain: Sedimentary and palaeogeographic implications (United States)

    Galán-Abellán, Belén; López-Gómez, José; Barrenechea, José F.; Marzo, Mariano; De la Horra, Raúl; Arche, Alfredo


    The Early-Middle Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Catalan Ranges, NE Spain, are dominated by aeolian sediments indicating a predominance of arid climate during this time span, in sharp contrast with the coeval fluvial sediments found in the Castilian Branch of the Iberian Ranges, 300 km to the SW. The NE-SW-oriented Catalan Basin evolved during the Middle-Late Permian as the result of widespread extension in the Iberian plate. This rift basin was bounded by the Pyrenees, Ebro and Montalbán-Oropesa highs. The Permian-Early Triassic-age sediments of the Catalan Basin were deposited in three isolated subbasins (Montseny, Garraf, Prades), separated by intrabasinal highs, but linked by transversal NW-SE oriented faults. The three subbasins show evidence of diachronic evolution with different subsidence rates and differences in their sedimentary records. The Buntsandstein sedimentary cycle started in the late Early Triassic (Smithian-Spathian) in the central and southern domains (Garraf and Prades), with conglomerates of alluvial fan origin followed by fluvial and aeolian sandstones. Source area of the fluvial sediments was nearby Paleozoic highs to the north and west, in contrast with the far-away source areas of the fluvial sediments in the Iberian Ranges, to the SW. These fluvial systems were interacting with migrating aeolian dune fields located towards the S, which developed in the shadow areas behind the barriers formed by the Paleozoic highs. These highs were separating the subbasins under arid and semi-arid climate conditions. The dominating winds came from the east where the westernmost coast of the Tethys Sea was located, and periods of water run-off and fields of aeolian dunes development alternated. Some of the fluvial systems were probably evaporating as they were mixed into the interdune areas, never reaching the sea. From the end of the Smithian to the Spathian, the Catalan Basin and neighbour peri-Tethys basins of the present-day southern France

  3. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)


    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  4. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

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    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)


    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  6. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.


    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  7. Fault-related fold kinematics recorded by terrestrial growth strata, Sant Llorenç de Morunys, Pyrenees Mountains, NE Spain (United States)

    Carrigan, James H.; Anastasio, David J.; Kodama, Kenneth P.; Parés, Josep M.


    Foreland basin growth strata are ideal recorders of deformation rates and kinematics in tectonically active regions. This study develops a high-resolution chronostratigraphic age model to determine folding rates in the Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial growth strata of the Berga Conglomerate Group, NE Spain. The Berga Conglomerate Group was sampled for rock magnetic, magnetostratigraphic, and magnetic susceptibility (χ) cyclostratigraphy analyses. Analysis of rock magnetic measurements indicate a mixed mineral assemblage with both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals. A new magnetic reversal stratigraphy constrains the time frame of folding and is in agreement with previous interpretations. Time series analysis of χ variations show statistically significant power at expected orbital frequencies and provides precession-scale (20 kyr) temporal resolution. Strain measurements including anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics and bedding plane strain worm burrow distortion are consistent with fixed hinge, flexural folding kinematics. Fault-related folding was modeled using χ cyclostratigraphy timing and strain measurement kinematic constraints. The onset of folding was at 33.85 Ma and the end of deformation is less constrained but is younger than 31.06 Ma. Deformation and sediment accumulation rates are unsteady at 20 kyr time scales but appear artificially steady at polarity chron time scales.

  8. Basement structure of the Granada basin, Betic Cordilleras, southern Spain (United States)

    Morales, J.; Vidal, F.; De Miguel, F.; Alguacil, G.; Posadas, A. M.; Ibañez, J. M.; Guzmán, A.; Guirao, J. M.


    The analysis and interpretation of geophysical data (gravity and seismic reflection) has facilitated the definition of the Granada basin structure. The reflector showing the contact between the Betic-Subbetic basement and the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary filling has been identified. Mapping of the basement in two and three dimensions is presented. The presence of four important depocenters (Genil, Chimeneas, Cubillas and Granada) has been determined. These troughs are limited by ridge areas through important sets of fractures. In some cases the accumulation of Neogene-Quaternary sediments reaches a thickness exceeding 3 km as in the Genii and Cubillas depocenters. The mapping of the most important fractures affecting the basement has been achieved, defining four systems that have influenced and conditioned the genesis and late evolution of the Granada basin. The directions of the most important groups of fractures are: NE-SW, N70W to E-W, N45W and N10-30E.

  9. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

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    S. Beguería


    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  10. 700 years reconstruction of mercury and lead atmospheric deposition in the Pyrenees (NE Spain) (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Wang, F.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.


    Geochemical analyses in varved lake sediment cores (Lake Montcortès, Pre-Pyrenees) allowed reconstruction of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) atmospheric deposition over the past seven centuries in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Accumulation Rates (AR) from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Period ranged from 2500 to 26130 μg m2.y-1 and 15-152 μg m2.y-1 for Pb and Hg respectively. Significant metal pollution started ca CE 1550 during a period of increased exploitation of ore resources in Spain. Colder and humid conditions in the Pyrenees during the Little Ice Age may have also favoured Hg and Pb atmospheric deposition in the lake. Therefore, the interplay between increased rainfall (wet deposition) and mining activities in the Iberian Peninsula has driven Hg and Pb AR during the Pre-industrial Period. More recently, the use of leaded gasoline in Europe in the mid-20th century may explain the highest Pb AR between CE 1953 and 1971. The highest Hg AR occurred in CE 1940 synchronous with the highest Hg production peak in Almadén mining district (southern Spain) and the Second World War. The record of Hg enrichment in Lake Montcortès shows a decrease during the last decades in Western Europe similar to other regional records and global emission models. This study highlights the exceptional quality of varved sequences to tease apart pollutants depositional mechanisms, identify historical periods of increased atmospheric pollution and provide a historical context for pollutant baseline values to make correct assessments of recent (atmospheric) pollution in lake ecosystems.

  11. Continuité ou discontinuité de sémentation marine mio-pliocène en Méditerranée occidentale. L'example du bassin de vera (Espagne méridionale Continuity Or Discontinuity of Io-Pliocene Marine Sedimentation in the Western Mediterranean. Example of the Vera Basin (Southern Spain

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    Montenat C.


    Full Text Available L'étude du bassin néogène de Vera apporte des données fort instructives pour l'interprétation du a phénomène Mio-Pliocène » en Méditerranée occidentale. a Au point de vue biostratigraphique La coupe de Cuevas del Almanzora permet d'observer, pour la première fois en Méditerranée, une succession continue de foraminifères planctoniques du Messinien au Pliocène inférieur. Les biozones à G. acostaensis, G. humerosa-G. duterérei, G. mediterranea-G. conomiozea et G. margaritae se succèdent sans hiatus évolutif. b Au point de vue géodynamique Le bassin de Vera montre une grande variété dans les modalités du passage Miocène-Pliocène, depuis des discordances à la périphérie du bassin jusqu'à une sédimentation vaseuse continue en son centre. L'étude des profils sismiques offshore montre de nombreux exemples comparables, en relation avec le comportement structural du substratum fragmenté en horst et graben mobiles. Des mouvements tectoniques distensifs ont eu lieu à la limite Miocène-Pliocène. Ils ont eu pour résultat un approfondissement relatif des bassins méditerranéens mais ceci ne représente qu'un épisode parmi d'autres d'un processus de distension inauguré au Miocène supérieur et qui s'est prolongé jusqu'au début du Quaternaire. II semble prudent en tous cas, de ne pas exagérer cet approfondissement de la mer au Pliocène. c Au point de vue paléogéographique L'exemple du bassin de Vera prouve la pérennité des conditions marines durant le Messinien du moins dans certaines parties de la Méditerranée. Ceci implique naturellement des liaisons continues avec l'Atlantique, et exclut un dessèchement général du bassin méditerranéen durant les temps messiniens. La paléogéographie de la zone bétique durant le Miocène supérieur est caractérisée par une extrême compartimentation du domaine marin constitué de bassins subsidents, communiquant par des seuils. Cette compartimentation s

  12. Drivers influencing streamflow changes in the Upper Turia basin, Spain. (United States)

    Salmoral, Gloria; Willaarts, Bárbara A; Troch, Peter A; Garrido, Alberto


    Many rivers across the world have experienced a significant streamflow reduction over the last decades. Drivers of the observed streamflow changes are multiple, including climate change (CC), land use and land cover changes (LULCC), water transfers and river impoundment. Many of these drivers inter-act simultaneously, making it difficult to discern the impact of each driver individually. In this study we isolate the effects of LULCC on the observed streamflow reduction in the Upper Turia basin (east Spain) during the period 1973-2008. Regression models of annual streamflow are fitted with climatic variables and also additional time variant drivers like LULCC. The ecohydrological model SWAT is used to study the magnitude and sign of streamflow change when LULCC occurs. Our results show that LULCC does play a significant role on the water balance, but it is not the main driver underpinning the observed reduction on Turia's streamflow. Increasing mean temperature is the main factor supporting increasing evapotranspiration and streamflow reduction. In fact, LULCC and CC have had an offsetting effect on the streamflow generation during the study period. While streamflow has been negatively affected by increasing temperature, ongoing LULCC have positively compensated with reduced evapotranspiration rates, thanks to mainly shrubland clearing and forest degradation processes. These findings are valuable for the management of the Turia river basin, as well as a useful approach for the determination of the weight of LULCC on the hydrological response in other regions.

  13. Geophysical characterization of buried active faults: the Concud Fault (Iberian Chain, NE Spain) (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Liesa, Carlos L.; Simón, José L.


    The Concud Fault is a 14-km-long active fault that extends close to Teruel, a city with about 35,000 inhabitants in the Iberian Range (NE Spain). It shows evidence of recurrent activity during Late Pleistocene time, posing a significant seismic hazard in an area of moderate-to-low tectonic rates. A geophysical survey was carried out along the mapped trace of the southern branch of the Concud Fault to evaluate the geophysical signature from the fault and the location of paleoseismic trenches. The survey identified a lineation of inverse magnetic dipoles at residual and vertical magnetic gradient, a local increase in apparent conductivity, and interruptions of the underground sediment structure along GPR profiles. The origin of these anomalies is due to lateral contrast between both fault blocks and the geophysical signature of Quaternary materials located above and directly south of the fault. The spatial distribution of anomalies was successfully used to locate suitable trench sites and to map non-exposed segments of the fault. The geophysical anomalies are related to the sedimentological characteristics and permeability differences of the deposits and to deformation related to fault activity. The results illustrate the usefulness of geophysics to detect and map non-exposed faults in areas of moderate-to-low tectonic activity where faults are often covered by recent pediments that obscure geological evidence of the most recent earthquakes. The results also highlight the importance of applying multiple geophysical techniques in defining the location of buried faults.

  14. Quaternary over-elevated torrential channels. Characteristics and depositional significance: the Maresme model (Catalonia, NE Spain) (United States)

    Colombo, Ferran; Rivero, Lluis


    Channel-levee deposits that occur in some large sand-dominated fluvial systems are commonly elevated above the surrounding floodplain. However, the over-elevation processes of small and isolated fluvial channels are poorly documented. The Maresme zone located NE of Barcelona (Spain) offers many examples of small over-elevated channels. This area is characterised by weathered granodiorites forming a thick coarse-grained sand-dominated regolith, which was initially covered by dense forests. In the XVIII and XIX centuries human activity led to the destruction of the vegetal cover, resulting in subsequent erosion and in the intense remobilisation of sediments during storms. Thus, large amounts of sand were transported during historical times. The intermittent discharges were confined to short (few km) and straight channels with high and uncommon gradients from 3.2 to 3.4%. These discharges flowed at high velocities towards the Mediterranean Sea, the regional base-level. High infiltration rates contributed to the accretion of sandy sediments along the channels coevally with levee development. This sandy lithosome, which is usually elevated above the surrounding floodplain, displays a characteristic convex-up cross section.

  15. Trichinella sp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Catalonia, NE Spain. (United States)

    López-Olvera, Jorge-Ramón; Vives, Laia; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Picart, Lluís; Rossi, Luca; Marco, Ignasi; Bigas, Esther; Lavín, Santiago


    European legislation allows the official recognition of Trichinella-free pig holdings, provided Trichinella sp. infection is absent from humans and prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) is below 0.1% in the area, region or country. Tibialis anterior muscle samples from 1,319 red foxes captured in Catalonia (NE Spain) between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed for Trichinella sp. using the digestion method. Four foxes resulted positive (one in 1999, one in 2002 and two in 2006), accounting for a low prevalence (0.3%). However, this prevalence was concentrated in mountain or rural areas with a low sample size, reaching high local prevalences. The two positive samples in 2006 were characterized as Trichinella britovi, and a sylvatic cycle of trichinellosis seems to occur, at least in the rural insufficiently sampled regions of Catalonia. Overall, the results obtained do not currently allow the establishment of Trichinella-free pig holdings in the study area, but further research is needed to better know the prevalence and cycle of Trichinella sp. in Catalonia.

  16. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain) (United States)

    Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rosell-Melé, A.


    Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA) of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems) to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (north-east Spain), for the period 1996-2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E=0.85 for phosphorus and E=0.86 for nitrogen), the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful in estimating nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94% for 1996-2002), and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31% for 1996-2002). Despite hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used by water managers for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios for the purpose of managing river basins. As an example of scenario modelling, an analysis of the changes in nutrient emissions through two different future scenarios allowed the identification of a set of relevant measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  17. Basin Modelling of the Laptev Sea Rift, NE Russia (United States)

    Brandes, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Gaedicke, C.


    The Laptev Sea Rift in the northeastern Arctic shelf area of Russia is a standard example for an oceanic rift system that propagates into a continent and plays an important role in the geodynamic models for the opening of the Eurasia Basin. To better understand the evolution of this rift, a basin modelling study was carried out with the software PetroMod®. The software simulates and analyses the burial history and temperature evolution of a sedimentary basin. It is a dynamic forward simulation based on the finite element method. The modelled section used in this study is based on a depth converted seismic section, acquired by the BGR. The section covers the Anisin Basin and is characterized by listric normal faults. The numerical simulation was supported by tectonic and sedimentological field data sets that were collected in outcrops during the CASE 13 expedition in 2011. Normal faults in outcrops were analysed using fault-slip inversion techniques to derive the paleo-extension direction. The presence of normal faults in relatively unconsolidated Paleogene sediments and in Neogene to Quaternary volcanic rocks, indicate very young extension in the area of the New Siberian Islands. The conceptual model for the simulation was built on the basis of the seismic data and the properties of the rocks and sediments observed in the outcrops. Initial results show that the present-day temperature field in the area of the Anisin Basin is characterized by seafloor-parallel isotherms. In the central part of the graben structure, the isotherms are slightly bent down and the heat-flow is reduced, probably due to blanketing effects. An extracted geohistory curve is almost linear and implies that subsidence controlled by faults is the dominating mechanism. From the simulation, sedimentation rates are derived that were highest in the early Paleocene phase of graben development and decreased in the late Eocene.

  18. Meganodular anhydritization in the Tertiary Ebro basin (Spain) (United States)

    Orti, Federico; Rosell, Laura; Playà, Elisabet; Salvany, Josep Maria


    A number of gypsiferous units in the Tertiary Ebro Basin (Spain) are located along their southern margins. These units, aged Paleogene to Miocene, were accumulated in small shallow saline lakes of low ionic concentration, in which Ca-sulphates (gypsum/anhydrite) precipitated. The lakes were nourished by groundwater from deep regional aquifers, which had the recharge areas in the bounding chains and recycled sulphates/chlorides from the Mesozoic (Triassic, Liassic) evaporites. Some of these units graded laterally to the thick, highly-saline (halite, glauberite, polyhalite) evaporite units developed coevally in the basin centre. In the gypsiferous marginal units, meganodules and large irregular masses (from 0.5 m to >5 m in diameter/length) of secondary gypsum are present in outcrop. These particular features originated as anhydrite, which displaced/replaced the host-gypsum rocks. Although these features mainly display stratiform arrangements, also vertical disposals are found locally suggesting the circulation of ascending flows. The isotopic values (δ34S and δ18O; 87Sr/86Sr) of these features are the same than those of the gypsum host-rocks, suggesting that the precursor anhydrite derived from the in situ replacement of the depositional sulphates. Commonly, the host-rock of the meganodules has been preserved as primary gypsum in the Miocene units. The common characteristics of the meganodules/irregular masses suggest that the anhydrite growth happened in burial conditions from shallow to moderate depths. The anhydritization was caused mainly by the same hydraulic systems feeding the marginal saline lakes. With progressive burial of the gypsiferous units, the gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion initiated in few nucleation points and progressed slowly and to variable depths. At such depths (from some metres to few hundred metres?), the regional ascending flows probably had temperatures (>25°C) and solute contents higher than today. Additionally, compaction brines

  19. The climate of Zaragoza (NE of Spain) in the context of global change (United States)

    María Cuadrat, José; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto


    The IPCC 2013 (AR5) emphasizes that the impact of an increase in temperature will be compounded in large cities by the effect of the urban heat island. Therefore, it suggests the need to study the urban climate in urban planning to anticipate changes and define adaptation strategies. The aim of this work is to analyze recent trends in temperature in the city of Zaragoza (NE of Spain, 750,000 inhabitants) and the extreme values from climate indices defined by the WMO. Daily temperature data recorded at 10 observatories located in Zaragoza was homogenized and quality-controlled using 'HOMER, R-Package', developing a single daily series since 1892 to present. Temperature records show a clear positive trend since the early 80s of 20th century. The first decade of the 21th century is the warmest since the beginning of the instrumental records. There is an increase of +0.07 °C per decade. Furthermore, the temperature rise in this period has been +1.6 ° C. The frequency of tropical nights has also been increased. The number of nights when the minimum temperature was not lower than 20 °C has moved from 89 in the period 1900-1930 to 386 in 1991-2010. Days when the maximum daily exceeds 35°C are also more frequent. Regarding the cold events, there is a decrease in the number of days with temperatures below 0 °C. These results reinforce the idea of the IPCC that the challenges of climate change should be recognized as fundamental elements for urban planning in order to reduce risks and promote the welfare of citizens, as well as an instrument to minimize vulnerability and identify ways to maximize opportunities.

  20. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

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    A. Cabezas


    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  1. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain): implications for restoration and management (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Comín, F. A.; Beguería, S.; Trabucchi, M.


    The changes of landscape (1927-2003), discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927-1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces) patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  2. Analysis of vulnerability factors that control nitrate occurrence in natural springs (Osona Region, NE Spain). (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Boy, Mercè; Mas-Pla, Josep


    Nitrate pollution is one of the main concerns of groundwater management in most of the world's agricultural areas. In the Osona region of NE Spain, high concentrations of nitrates have been reported in wells. This study uses the occurrence of this pollutant in natural springs as an indicator of the sub-surface dynamics of the water cycle and shows how groundwater quality is affected by crop fertilization, as an approach to determine the aquifer vulnerability. Nitrate concentration and other hydrochemical parameters based on a biannual database are reported for approximately 80 springs for the period 2004-2009. The background concentration of nitrate is first determined to distinguish polluted areas from natural nitrate occurrence. A statistical treatment using logistic regression and ANOVA is then performed to identify the significance of the effect of vulnerability factors such as the geological setting of the springs, land use in recharge areas, sampling periods, and chemical parameters like pH and EC, on groundwater nitrate pollution. The results of the analysis identify a threshold value of 7-8 mg NO(3)(-)/L for nitrate pollution in this area. Logistic regression and ANOVA results show that an increase in EC or a decrease in pH values is linked to the possibility of higher nitrate concentrations in springs. These analyses also show that nitrate pollution is more dependent on land use than the geological setting of springs or sampling periods. Indeed, the specific geological and soil features of the uppermost layers in their recharge areas do not contribute to the buffering of nitrate impacts on aquifers as measured in natural springs. Land use, and particularly fertilization practices, are major factors in groundwater vulnerability.

  3. Alterations of River Flow Caused By Dams. The Ebro River (ne Spain) (United States)

    Batalla, R. J.; Kondolf, G. M.

    The Ebro River drains 85,530 km2 of the Cantabrian Range, Pyrenees, and Iberian Massif in northeastern Spain, with a mean annual runoff of 13,400 106 m3 at Tortosa, where it debouches into the Mediterranean Sea, about 180 km south of Barcelona. One hundred eighty-seven reservoirs (two-thirds built between 1950 and 1975) built for hydroelectric production, irrigation, cooling water, and industrial and domestic uses, have a total capacity equivalent to 57% of the Ebro River's mean annual runoff. Gauging records are available from the Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro (CHE), a government agency established in 1926 to manage the water resources in the Ebro River basin. We analyzed 38 gauging records from 22 rivers that, by virtue of their location within the drainage network and period of record, would reflect hydrological changes from reservoir construction and operation. From pre- and post-dam records, we analyzed changes in flood peaks, mean annual runoff, mean daily flows, and mean monthly flows for four distinct climatic zones. Most rivers showed reduction in flood magnitude, with average reduction of over 30% for Q2 and Q10. Greater reductions were associated with higher values of the Impounded Runoff index (IR, calculated as reservoir capacity divided by mean annual runoff). Despite similar values of IR, floods in the low-rainfall Mediterranean tributaries in the southeast part of the basin were more affected by reservoirs than those in the high-rainfall humid Atlantic tributaries in the western part of the basin, with a given percentage of regulation producing twice the flood reduction as in the humid Atlantic zone. Annual runoff did not show strong trends, but the variability of mean daily flows was reduced in most cases due to storing of winter floods and increased baseflows in summer for irrigation. Monthly flows ranged from virtually no change post-dam to complete inversion in seasonal pattern, the latter due to releases for irrigation in the summer

  4. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain) (United States)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan


    . Distribution of heavy metals in calcareous and non-calcareous soils in Spain. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 162, 127-142. Sanfeliu, T., Jordán, M. M., Gómez, E. T., Álvarez, C. 2002. Contribution of the atmospheric emissions of Spanish ceramic industries. Environmental Geology 41: 601-607. Soriano, A.; Pallares, S.; Pardo, F.; Vicente, A.B.; Sanfeliu, T.; Bech, J. 2012. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialised area. Journal Geochemical Exploration 113: 36-44 Vicente, A. B., Sanfeliu, T. Jordán, M. M., Sánchez, A., Esteban, M. D. 2008. Air prediction models of pollutants in an industrialised area of the Mediterranean basin. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 17 [10a]: 1554-1564.

  5. Population structure and effective/census population size ratio in threatened three-spined stickleback populations from an isolated river basin in northwest Spain. (United States)

    Pérez-Figueroa, A; Fernández, C; Amaro, R; Hermida, M; San Miguel, E


    Variability at 20 microsatellite loci was examined to assess the population genetic structure, gene flow, and effective population size (N(e)) in three populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the upper basin of the Miño River in Galicia, NW Spain, where this species is threatened. The three populations showed similar levels of genetic diversity. There is a significant genetic differentiation between the three populations, but also significant gene flow. N(e) estimates based on linkage disequilibrium yielded values of 355 for the Miño River population and 241 and 311 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively, although we expect that these are overestimates. N(e) estimates based on temporal methods, considering gene flow or not, for the tributaries yielded values of 30-56 and 47-56 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively. Estimated census size (N(c)) for the Rato River was 880 individuals. This yielded a N(e)/N(c) estimate of 3-6 % for temporal estimation of N(e), which is within the empirical range observed in freshwater fishes. We suggest that the three populations analyzed have a sufficient level of genetic diversity with some genetic structure. Additionally, the absence of physical barriers suggests that conservation efforts and monitoring should focus in the whole basin as a unit.

  6. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain (United States)

    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara


    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The socio-economic changes that occurred in the last decades have contributed to an increase in forest fires (Shakesby, 2011). There was found a change in the fire regimes in terms of frequency, size, seasonality, recurrence as well as fire intensity and severity (Keeley, 2009), which resulted in severe effects on soils, water and vegetation (Guénon et al., 2013). Fire affects soil properties directly by the heat impact (Aznar et al., 2013), and the ash cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and the reduction of the plant cover (Neary et al., 1999). The lack of vegetation and the heating promotes changes in the soil organic matter content (González-Pérez et al., 2004), on the structural stability (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), on the hydrophobic response (Bodí et al., 2012), and on the infiltration capacity (Cerdà, 1998a). This is why the vegetation cover and the litter are key factors on soil erosion after forest fires (Prats et al., 2013). Besides, the ash plays an important paper in the soil protection after the forest fire and after the first storms and winds (León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this experiment is to asses the vegetation response after a forest fire and the impact of vegetation recovery on soil erosion. The experiment consisted in a sampling of a linear transect of 10 m with samples each 2 m, under different slope position and aspect. To measure the soil erosion rates we used rainfall simulation experiments (León et al., 2013). The experiments were carried in Castejón (UTM 30T, X671106, Y4644584) in a forest burned in 2008, in the Zuera Mountains, both located in the north of Zaragoza province (NE Spain). The soils on limestone parent material are Rendzic Phaeozem (IUSS, 2007) and the texture of Ah horizons of soils developed on limestone is sandy-loam (Badía et al., 2013). The result shows fast and successful vegetation regeneration in the north

  7. Sandstone composition and provenance of the Rotliegend of the NE German Basin (United States)

    McCann, Tommy


    The NE German Basin contains an approximately 2.5 km thick Rotliegend sedimentary section, subdivided into 4 formations. These were, deposited following the cessation of the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian volcanic episode and a ca. 20 Ma period of erosion and non-deposition. Initial deposition was confined to two areas, but with increasing thermal subsidence the basin extended to the south. Petrographic (190 sandstones) and geochemical (48 sandstones and mudstones) analyses suggested that the sands are quartz-rich and are derived largely from cratonic or recycled sources. Volcanic and sedimentary rock fragments form most of the labile grains. The succession was deposited in a relatively stable tectonic environment with sediment input derived largely from the lower and upper Palaeozoic strata of the Variscan hinterland and the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanics. Volcanic input increases with younger stratigraphic units. This is interpreted as resulting from the unroofing of a more basic source.

  8. An Early Triassic evolving erg system (Iberian Chain, NE Spain): palaeoclimate implications

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    Soria, A.R.; Liesa, C.L.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J.P.; Melendez, N.; Boer, P.L. de; Melendez, A.


    The Triassic Buntsandstein facies in the north-eastern Iberian Chain (central eastern Spain), previously considered to be fluvial in origin, is shown to contain an evolving erg system. The preserved erg accumulation comprises a succession that represents the transition from a wadi belt via inner erg

  9. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.


    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  10. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

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    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia


    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The Neogene tectonic evolution and climatic change of the Tianshui Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Peng, T.; Li, J.; Song, C.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X.; Hui, Z.


    The Tianshui Basin, located at the conjunction of NE Tibetan Plateau and Chinese Loess Plateau, has received intensive attention recently. Fine-grained Miocene sediment was identified as loess in its north part and this pushes the onset of Asian aridification into 22 Ma. However, our sedimentological, biomarker, pollen, diatom and mammalian fossils evidence propose that these sediments were suggested to be mudflat/distal fan and floodplain deposit instead of eolian deposit. So detailed tectonic background and climate reconstruction may illustrate the controversy and shed light on the tectonic, climate and ecology interactions. Here we report our integrated studies on the tectonic evolution, climate change and paleoecology reconstruction in the Tianshui basin. Based on the magnetostratigraphy and fossil mammal ages, sedimentological and detrital fission-track thermochronologic (DFT) analysis reveals four episodic tectonic uplift events occurred at ~20 Ma, ~14 Ma, ~9.2-7.4 Ma and ~3.6 Ma along the basin and its adjacent mountains. The timing of these activities at Western Qinling have been documented at many segments of the Tibetan Plateau, so most likely they were the remote response to the ongoing India-Asia collision. Pollen, mammalian fossils and biomarker data permit us to illustrate the paleoenvironment in the Tianshui Basin. During the period of ~17-10 Ma, the climate was generally warm-humid revealed by the broad-leaved forest and low Average Chain Length (ACL) values, when the Paltybelodon and Gomphotherium were roaming near an extensive aquatic setting. In addition, the observed Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum and Middle Miocene Climatic Transition events may be a terrestrial response to global climate changes. During the interval of ~10-6 Ma, the climate was relatively arid characterized by the rapid development of steppe and appearance of the Hipparion fauna, consistent with the biomarker proxy. Although the NE Tibetan Plateau experienced a phase of

  12. Active faulting in Raghunandan Anticline, NE Bengal Basin, implications for future earthquake hazards (United States)

    Ahsan, A.; Kali, E.; Coudurier Curveur, A.; van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Alam, A. K.; Ildefonso, S.; Banerjee, P.; Dorbath, C.


    The Bengal basin is situated in a complex tectonic zone where the Indian-Eurasian Plates and Indian-Burmese Plates are colliding. This region is known for some of the largest intra-continental seismic events of the last 500 years, the 1548 Bengal earthquake of magnitude M>8?, the 1762 Arakan earthquake of magnitude M>8?, the 1897 Shillong earthquakes of magnitude Ms 8.7, the 1918 Srimangal earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.6 and the 1950 Assam earthquake of magnitude Mw 8.6. The source faults of these events and whether these large earthquakes occurred on faults that reached the surface or reminded blind remain controversial. The Bengal basin still needs to be better understood in terms of active faulting and seismicity. The Eastern boundary of Bengal basin is marked by numerous NS trending folds of the Indo-Burma Ranges. We focused on the Raghunandan Anticline, NE Bengal basin, a broad, asymmetric, growing ramp anticline, steep west-facing front and bounded westwards by a steep tectonic scarp truncating gently east dipping Quaternary sandstone beds. The scarp morphology is suggestive of a still preserved co-seismic free face above a colluvial wedge. We carried out more than 20 topographic profiles to document the precise height and shape of this 12-15 m high scarp (above alluvial surface) and to survey a set of uplifted alluvial terraces located along the Shahapur River behind the scarp. The analysis of the topographic profiles around the Shajibazar area reveals the presence of 5 alluvial terraces hanging 3 m to 19 m above Shahapur River bed. T1 and T2 terraces are the best-preserved terraces on both sides of the Shahapur River. C14 and Be 10 ages allow to date the lowest abandonned terrace and to estimate the uplift rate of this area.

  13. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain.

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    Víctor Sauqué

    Full Text Available Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain; we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  14. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain). (United States)

    Sauqué, Víctor; Rabal-Garcés, Raquel; Sola-Almagro, Cristina; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria


    Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain); we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  15. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain). (United States)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel


    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions.

  16. Architecture and depositional development of the Eocene deep-marine Morillo and Coscojuela formations, Ainsa Basin, Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, F.; McCann, Tom


    The Aínsa Basin of northern Spain contains a deep-marine succession comprising up to 24 sandstone bodies separated by thick marl-rich units. A detailed analysis of nine outcrops (>900m of sediment profiles) from the Morillo Formation of the San Vicente Group, from the upper part of the basin success

  17. The Upper Triassic alkaline magmatism of the western Neo-Tethys (Bajo Ebro, NE Spain): age and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Sanz, T.; Lago, M.; Gil, A.; Pocoví, A.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Larrea, P.; Ramajo, J.; Tierz, P.


    A set of mafic rocks crop out in the north-western margin of the Neo-Tethys (eastern Spain and France). These rocks show three common features: 1) they were emplaced into Upper Triassic sediments (Keuper facies), 2) they are mainly basalts and dolerites and show an alkaline geochemical affinity and 3) these magmas rose to their emplacement level through deep fractures; some of the fractures were newly opened as a result of the Triassic extension (Triassic-Liassic rifting), whereas others had been generated during the Permian extension (Lower Permian rifting) and were reopened. Magmatic activity has also been recognized in these areas during the Jurassic, the Cretaceous and the Quaternary. The Bajo Ebro sector (NE Spain) comprises two types of Upper Triassic mafic rocks: 1) massive rocks emplaced as dikes, sills and basaltic lavas (10-12 meters in thickness and up to kilometric in extension) and 2) a wide range of pyroclasts (from ash grains to bombs) forming layers more than 100 meters thick, which are usually interbedded with argillites and carbonates. Protrusions of the sills into the overlying sediments, together with spilitization of the igneous rocks, suggest that the magmas emplaced into unconsolidated sediments. Furthermore, a level of epiclastic-basaltic breccias is recognized overlying the magmatic levels and below the dolostones of the Imón Formation (Rhaetian in age); these breccias are interpreted to represent an erosive episode which affected the magmatic rocks in emerged areas. According to these criteria, these rocks can be considered Upper Triassic (pre-Rhaetian) in age. The basaltic lavas show alkaline mineral assemblages composed of: olivine (Fo79-65), Ti-rich clinopyroxene (Fs3-15, En52-35, Wo50-42), plagioclase (An80-50), Ti-rich magnetite and apatite. Their major and trace element whole rock compositions show contents in SiO2 (41,3-49,3 w.%), Nb/Y (1,5-4,1), Zr/TiO2 (0,0057-0,013), V (157,8-292,1 ppm) and Ti/1000 (11,3-18,53) which indicate

  18. Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin) (United States)

    Ruebsam, Wolfgang; Münzberger, Petra; Schwark, Lorenz


    Early Toarcian (Jurassic; ∼183 Ma) sediments recorded profound environmental changes, including mass extinction, global warming, marine transgression as well as widespread bottom water anoxia and organic matter accumulation on the Western Tethyan shelf. Enhanced organic matter accumulation was accompanied by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in pelagic carbonate, which marks the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. These environmental changes were accompanied by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle, expressed by negative CIE, interrupting the positive trend. The duration of the carbon cycle perturbation is still debated, with estimates for the negative CIE range from ∼200 to ∼600 kyr. Here we present ultra high-resolution (place within the uppermost tenuicostatum zone resulted in a strong condensation of the basal Schistes Carton formation. Strong condensation can explain the discrepancy between durations previously calculated for the CIE placed at this stratigraphic interval. Our data support durations of ∼900 kyr and ∼600 kyr for the positive and negative CIE, respectively. The cyclostratigraphy-based timescale further proposes a duration of >555 kyr for the tenuicostatum zone and 1310 kyr for the serpentinum zone. The durations of the elegantulum and falciferum subzones can be estimated to ∼790 kyr and ∼520 kyr, respectively. A change in the orbital response from eccentricity- to obliquity-forcing, evident from other locations, is well-expressed in the Lorraine Sub-Basin and occurred within the CIE interval. The strong impact of the obliquity component in post-event deposits hints to processes most effective at high latitudes, such as the waxing and waning of polar ice. Paleogeographic features of the Western Tethyan shelf supported the tele-connection of higher to lower latitude processes via water exchange through the Viking Corridor.

  19. The impact of droughts and climate change on sinkhole occurrence. A case study from the evaporite karst of the Fluvia Valley, NE Spain. (United States)

    Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Bach, Joan; Fabregat, Ivan


    This work introduces the concept that sinkhole frequency in some karst settings increases during drought periods. This conception is tested in a sector of the Fluvia River valley in NE Spain, where subsidence phenomena is related to the karstification of folded Eocene evaporite formations. In the discharge areas, the evaporites behave as confined aquifers affected by hypogene karstification caused by aggressive artesian flows coming form an underlying carbonate aquifer. A sinkhole inventory with chronological data has been constructed, revealing temporal clusters. Those clusters show a good correlation with drought periods, as revealed by precipitation, river discharge and piezometric data. This temporal association is particularly obvious for the last and current drought starting in 1998, which is the most intense of the record period (1940-present). Climatic projections based on recent studies foresee an intensification of the droughts in this sector of NE Spain, which could be accompanied by the enhancement of the sinkhole hazard and the associated risks.

  20. Structure of the Pliocene Camp dels Ninots maar-diatreme (Catalan Volcanic Zone, NE Spain) (United States)

    Oms, O.; Bolós, X.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Martí, J.; Casas, A.; Lovera, R.; Himi, M.; Gómez de Soler, B.; Campeny Vall-Llosera, G.; Pedrazzi, D.; Agustí, J.


    Maar volcanoes expose shallower or deeper levels of their internal structure as a function of the degree of erosion. In El Camp dels Ninots maar-diatreme (Catalan Volcanic Zone, Spain), the tephra ring has been largely eroded, and the remaining volcanic deposits infilling the diatreme are hidden under a lacustrine sedimentary infill of the crater. The volcano shows hardly any exposure, so its study needs the application of direct (e.g., boreholes) and indirect (shallow geophysics) subsurface exploration techniques. Additionally, this maar-diatreme was built astride two different substrates (i.e., mixed setting) as a result of its location in a normal fault separating Neogene sediments from Paleozoic granites. In order to characterize the internal structure and post-eruption stratigraphy of the maar-diatreme, we did geological studies (mapping, continuous core logging, and description of the tephra ring outcrops) and near-surface geophysics, including nine transects of electric resistivity tomography and a gravity survey. Results show that the deeper part of the diatreme is excavated into granites and is relatively steep and symmetrical. The uppermost diatreme is asymmetrical because of mechanical contrast between granites and Pliocene sands. The maar crater contained a lake permanently isolated from the surrounding relief and was deep enough to host anoxic bottom waters while its margins had shallower waters. These lake conditions preserved the remarkable Pliocene fossil record found in the lacustrine sediments.

  1. Seasonal variations in terpene emission factors of dominant species in four ecosystems in NE Spain (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep; Guenther, Alex; Rapparini, Francesca


    We studied the daily patterns in the rates of foliar terpene emissions by four typical species from the Mediterranean region in two days of early spring and two days of summer in 4 localities of increasing biomass cover in Northern Spain. The species studied were Thymelaea tinctoria (in Monegros), Quercus coccifera (in Garraf), Quercus ilex (in Prades) and Fagus sylvatica (in Montseny). Of the total 43 VOCs detected, 23 were monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 15 were not terpenes. Sesquiterpenes were the main terpenes emitted from T. tinctoria. Total VOC emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring. The maximum rates of emission were recorded around midday. Emissions nearly stopped in the dark. No significant differences were found for nocturnal total terpene emission rates between places and seasons. The seasonal variations in the rate of terpene emissions and in their chemical composition can be explained mainly by dramatic changes in emission factors (emission capacity) associated in some cases, such as for beech trees, with very different foliar ontogenical characteristics between spring and summer. The results show that temperature and light-standardised emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring, which, corroborating other works, calls to attention when applying the same emission factor in modelling throughout the different seasons of the year.

  2. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain) (United States)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José


    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  3. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL


    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  4. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.


    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  5. Geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in complex near surface environments. Examples of Zaragoza, NE Spain (United States)

    Pueyo-Anchuela, Ó.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Soriano, M. A.; Pocoví-Juan, A.

    Complex geological shallow subsurface environments represent an important handicap in urban and building projects. The geological features of the Central Ebro Basin, with sharp lateral changes in Quaternary deposits, alluvial karst phenomena and anthropic activity can preclude the characterization of future urban areas only from isolated geomechanical tests or from non-correctly dimensioned geophysical techniques. This complexity is here analyzed in two different test fields, (i) one of them linked to flat-bottomed valleys with irregular distribution of Quaternary deposits related to sharp lateral facies changes and irregular preconsolidated substratum position and (ii) a second one with similar complexities in the alluvial deposits and karst activity linked to solution of the underlying evaporite substratum. The results show that different geophysical techniques allow for similar geological models to be obtained in the first case (flat-bottomed valleys), whereas only the application of several geophysical techniques can permit to correctly evaluate the geological model complexities in the second case (alluvial karst). In this second case, the geological and superficial information permit to refine the sensitivity of the applied geophysical techniques to different indicators of karst activity. In both cases 3D models are needed to correctly distinguish alluvial lateral sedimentary changes from superimposed karstic activity.

  6. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias


    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  7. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain). (United States)

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D


    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of

  8. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos


    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  9. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  10. Algunas plantas interesantes para la flora de Aragón, IV [Some plants of interest for the flora of Aragón (NE Spain, IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se citan por primera vez en la provincia de Huesca Coronopus didymus, Cressa cretica, Lagurus ovatus, Paspalum saurae, Senecio inaequidens, Silene pendula y Smyrnium olusatrum, y como novedad provincial para Zaragoza Silene pendula. Además, se dan nuevas citas en Aragón de otros 33 taxones. SUMMARY: Coronopus didymus, Cressa cretica, Lagurus ovatus, Paspalum saurae, Senecio inaequidens, Silene pendula y Smyrnium olusatrum are cited for the first time in the province of Huesca, and Silene pendula in the province of Saragossa. In addition, new citations are given for 33 other taxons in Aragón (N.E. Spain.

  11. A facies model for internalites (internal wave deposits) on a gently sloping carbonate ramp (Upper Jurassic, Ricla, NE Spain) (United States)

    Bádenas, Beatriz; Pomar, Luis; Aurell, Marc; Morsilli, Michele


    Internal waves are waves that propagate along the pycnocline, the interface between two density-stratified fluids. Even though internal waves are ubiquitous in oceans and lakes, their impact in the sedimentary record has remained largely unrecognized. Internal waves can remobilize the sediment from the depth at which the internal waves break onto the sea floor. In shelf, or ramp settings, internal wave deposits (internalites) have to be distinguished from tempestites while in slope and deeper settings internalites require distinction from turbidites. The Upper Kimmeridgian carbonate ramp succession cropping out near Ricla (NE Spain) provides some key evidence to differentiate the depositional processes induced by breaking internal waves from those related to surface storm waves. Sandy-oolitic grainstone eventites, previously interpreted as tempestites, contain evidence of reworking by turbulent events related to breaking internal waves. Underlying rationale are: 1) they occur in distal mid-ramp position, detached from the coeval shallow-water successions; 2) they do not have the characteristic coarsening- and thickening upward trend of storm deposits; 3) they gradually thin-out to disappear both up dip and down dip, interbedded with mid-ramp lime mudstones; and 4) they show little or no erosion towards the shallower areas. A facies model for internalites produced by two sediment populations, sand and mud, on a gently sloping carbonate ramp is proposed. The individual internalites occurring at Ricla include several architectural elements, sequentially organized in dip direction, which can be related to the flows associated with breaking internal waves: erosion in the breaker zone, swash run-up and tractive backwash flow. Individual internalites stack, with down- and up-slope shingling configuration, in dm-thick packages thought to reflect the up-slope and down-slope migration of the breaker zone, in turn related to depth variations of the palaeo-pycnocline. Packages

  12. Campylobacter shared between free-ranging cattle and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (NE Spain). (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Porrero, M C; Zamora, L; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L


    Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission.

  13. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.


    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  14. Depositional history and clay minerals of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, P.J.C.


    An ordered sequence of well-defined sedimentary environments reflects the deepening and shallowing stages in the depositional history of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain. The sequence, which has a Santonian age at its base, starts with a calcarenite barrier system on w

  15. Carbonate replacement of lacustrine gypsum deposits in two Neogene continental basins, eastern Spain (United States)

    Anadón, P.; Rosell, L.; Talbot, M. R.


    Bedded nonmarine gypsum deposits in the Miocene Teruel and Cabriel basins, eastern Spain, are partly replaced by carbonate. The Libros gypsum (Teruel Graben) is associated with fossiliferous carbonate wackestones and finely laminated, organic matter-rich mudstones which accumulated under anoxic conditions in a meromictic, permanent lake. The gypsum is locally pseudomorphed by aragonite or, less commonly, replaced by calcite. Low δ 13C values indicate that sulphate replacement resulted from bacterial sulphate reduction processes that were favoured by anacrobic conditions and abundant labile organic matter in the sediments. Petrographic evidence and oxygen isotopic composition suggest that gypsum replacement by aragonite occurred soon after deposition. A subsequent return to oxidising conditions caused some aragonite to be replaced by diagenetic gypsum. Native sulphur is associated with some of these secondary gypsum occurrences. The Los Ruices sulphate deposits (Cabriel Basin) contain beds of clastic and selenitic gypsum which are associated with limestones and red beds indicating accumulation in a shallow lake. Calcite is the principal replacement mineral. Bacterial sulphate reduction was insignificant in this basin because of a scarcity of organic matter. Stable isotope composition of diagenetic carbonate indicates that gypsum replacement occurred at shallow burial depths due to contact with dilute groundwaters of meteoric origin. Depositional environment evidently has a major influence upon the diagenetic history of primary sulphate deposits. The quantity of preserved organic matter degradable by sulphate-reducing bacteria is of particular importance and, along with groundwater composition, is the main factor controlling the mechanism of gypsum replacement by carbonate.

  16. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

      The 2,265 km2 Andarax river basin located in Southern Spain is one of the most arid regions in Europe with a mean annual precipitation of 250-350 mm, which mainly falls (70%) in autumn and winter. The terrain changes from sea level at the coast to more than 2,500 m in the Sierra Nevada Mountains....... Most of the precipitation falling in the mountainous areas, where the unit Triassic schists dominates, is converted into overland flow, which runs directly to the rivers. In areas with limestone most of the precipitation infiltrates and is subsequently routed through fractures before discharging...... availability in the delta region. Due to the high evapotranspiration in semi-arid or arid regions groundwater recharge can be as low as 1 % of the precipitation. Thus it is essential to accurately predict the seasonal and regional distribution of actual evapotranspiration (ET) within the river catchment...

  17. The biogeochemical reactivity of suspended particulate matter at nested sites in the Dee basin, NE Scotland. (United States)

    Dawson, J J C; Adhikari, Y R; Soulsby, C; Stutter, M I


    Variation in the organic matter content associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an often overlooked component of carbon cycling within freshwater riverine systems. The potential biogeochemical reactivity of particulate organic carbon (POC) that affect its interactions and fate, i.e. respired and lost to the atmosphere along river continua or ultimately exported to estuarine and oceanic pools was assessed. Eleven contrasting sites draining nested catchments (5-1837 km(2)) in the River Dee basin, NE Scotland were sampled during summer 2008 to evaluate spatio-temporal variations in quantity and quality (biogeochemical reactivity) of SPM during relatively low flow conditions. Mean SPM concentrations increased from 0.21 to 1.22 mg L(-1) between the uppermost and lowest mainstem sites. Individually, POC concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 0.55 mg L(-1) and accounted for ca. 3-15% of total aqueous organic carbon transported. The POC content was partitioned into autotrophic (2.78-73.0 mg C g(-1) SPM) and detrital (119-388 mg C g(-1) SPM) biomass carbon content. The particulate respired CO(2)-C as a % of the total carbon associated with SPM, measured by MicroResp™ over 18 h, varied in recalcitrance from 0.49% at peat-dominated sites to 3.20% at the lowermost mainstem site. Significant (p<0.05) relationships were observed between SPM biogeochemical reactivity measures (% respired CO(2)-C; chlorophyll α; bioavailable-phosphorus) and arable and improved grassland area, associated with increasing biological productivity downstream. Compositional characteristics and in-stream processing of SPM appear to be related to contributory land use pressures, that influence SPM characteristics and biogeochemistry (C:N:P stoichiometry) of its surrounding aqueous environment. As moorland influences declined, nutrient inputs from arable and improved grasslands increasingly affected the biogeochemical content and reactivity of both dissolved and particulate matter. This

  18. Using the stratigraphic record to document tectonic-geomorphologic interactions in a foreland basin setting: outcrop study of the Ainsa Basin, Spain (United States)

    Pyles, D. R.; Moody, J.; Gordon, G.; Hoffman, M.; Moss-Russell, A.; Silalahi, H.; Setiawan, P.; Clark, J.; Bracken, B.; Guzofski, C.


    Eocene strata of the Ainsa Basin (Spain) contain clastic and carbonate strata deposited in a relatively small (100 km^2), structurally active piggyback foreland basin. The basin is bounded by the Mediano Anticline to the east and the Boltana Anticline to the west. Clastic strata were sourced by an eastern fluvial-deltaic system whereas carbonate strata were sourced from shallow-water carbonate systems that rimmed the southern and western margins of the basin. Four time-stratigraphic units, which form an upward transect through the basin-fill succession, were studied in detail: Ainsa, Morillo, Guaso, Sobrarbe-Escanilla. The study uses the stratigraphic record to document linkages between progressive uplift of the basin-bounding structures, spatial-temporal changes in the amount and location of subsidence, and temporal changes in the landscape. The Ainsa unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and exited the basin to the northwest, although some channels locally transfer to lobes near the northwest end of the basin. The Morillo unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east, dispersed onto the basin floor, then converged at the western end of the basin where they continued onto the longitudinally adjacent Jaca Basin. The Guaso unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and transfer to a ponded distributive submarine fan at the center of the basin. The Escanilla-Sobrarbe unit contains a linked shelf-to-basin system that prograded from south to north and records the final filling of the basin. Four lines of evidence collectively support the basin-fill succession was deposited during structural growth. First, the depocenter, which is interpreted to reflect the position of maximum subsidence during deposition, of the systems systematically shifted westward as the basin filled. Second, the axial part of the clastic sediment systematically shifted southward as the basin filled. Third, the

  19. Towards quantifying long-term erosion rates in the Campine Basin, NE Belgium (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanacker, Veerle


    The Campine Basin, NE Belgium, is situated between the uplifting Ardennes Massif and rapidly subsiding Roer Valley Graben. It contains a thick series of marine, estuarine and continental Neogene and Quaternary sediments, locally more than 300 m. As a result of relief inversion during the Quaternary, the Campine Plateau is nowadays a distinct morphological feature in this basin. Its surface elevation dips from 100 m in the south to 30 m in the north over a distance of about 60 km, which is the result of differential uplift. The Campine Plateau is covered by Early and Middle Pleistocene erosion-resistant fluvial sediments from the Rhine and Meuse and can thus be regarded as a fluvial terrace. The age of deposition and time of abandonment of the terrace have not yet been resolved by direct numerical dating. In this study, we apply the cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) profiling technique that, in ideal circumstances, allows one to constrain the exposure age, burial age and amount of post-depositional erosion of the landform. Samples were taken from a 3.5 m deep cross-section in coarse river sands that were deposited by the river Rhine, and now situated at an altitude of about 50 m (a.s.l.). Nine of them were prepared for CRN measurements according to state-of-the-art techniques. The in-situ 10Be concentration of the samples was determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (ETH, Zurich). The in-situ 10Be concentrations are 1.5x10e5 atoms/g for the uppermost sample (at 0.3 m depth) and 0.9x10e5 at/g for the lowermost sample (at 3.1 m depth), yielding an estimated 0.6x10e5 at/g of radionuclide accumulation following sediment deposition. Using forward modelling, we solved for the exposure duration and erosion rate that best fit the measured in-situ 10Be depth profile data, nuclide inheritance and their associated analytical uncertainties. Model optimisation is here based on the sum of chi-squared between the measured and modelled 10Be concentrations. When taking previous

  20. Seismic transpressive basement faults and monocline development in a foreland basin (Eastern Guadalquivir, SE Spain) (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Marín-Lechado, C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González, A.; Peláez, J. A.


    We examine the late Tortonian to present-day deformation of an active seismic sector of the eastern Iberian foreland basement of the Betic Cordillera, in southern Spain. Transpressive faults affecting Paleozoic basement offset up to Triassic rocks. Late Triassic clays and evaporites constitute a décollement level decoupling the basement rocks and a ~100 m thick cover of Jurassic carbonates. Monoclines trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW deform the Jurassic cover driven by the propagation of high-angle transpressive right-lateral basement faults. They favor the migration of clays and evaporites toward the propagated fault tip, i.e., the core of the anticline, resulting in fluid overpressure, fluid flow, and precipitation of fibrous gypsum parallel to a vertical σ3. The overall geometry of the studied monoclines, as well as the intense deformation within the clays and evaporites, reproduces three-layer discrete element models entailing a weak middle unit sandwiched between strong layers. Late Tortonian syn-folding sediments recorded the initial stages of the fault-propagation folding. Equivalent unexposed transpressive structures and associated monoclines reactivated under the present-day NW-SE convergence are recognized and analyzed in the Sabiote-Torreperogil region, using seismic reflection, gravity, and borehole data. A seismic series of more than 2100 low-magnitude earthquakes was recorded within a very limited area of the basement of this sector from October 2012 to May 2013. Seismic activity within a major NE-SW trending transpressive basement fault plane stimulated rupture along a subsidiary E-W (~N95°E) strike-slip relay fault. The biggest event (mbLg 3.9, MW 3.7) occurred at the junction between them in a transpressive relay sector.

  1. Testing fine sediment connectivity hypotheses using fallout radionuclide tracers in a small catchment with badlands. Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain) (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan


    In the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain), results obtained during over 20 years showed that badlands are the primary sources of sediments to the drainage network. Parent lutitic rocks are weathered during winter producing regoliths, which are eroded from badland surfaces mainly during summer intense rainstorms. Even if the produced sediments are mainly fine, due to the ephemeral nature of summer runoff events most of them are deposited on the stream beds, where they may remain during some time (months to years). Within the MEDhyCON project, a fallout radionuclides (FRNs) tracing experiment (i.e., excess lead 210 (Pbx-210) and beryllium 7 (Be-7)) is being carried out in order to investigate sediment connectivity. A simplified Pbx-210 balance model on badland surfaces suggested a seasonal sawtooth-like activity pattern: FRN being accumulated in regoliths from October to June and depleted in summer. Early summer erosion events would produce the sediments with the highest activity whereas late summer events would produce sediments with the lowest activity coming from the deeper regolith horizons. These findings lead us to launch two sediment transfer connectivity hypotheses analysing respectively the temporal and spatial variability of the Pb-210 activities within the fine sediments at the small catchment scale: (1) The temporal variability of suspended sediment activities at the gauging stations is a measure of sediment transfer immediacy, ergo connectivity. Hence, a high variability in suspended sediment activities, mimicking regolith activity temporal pattern would indicate high connectivity, whereas a low variability, meaning that sediments are mostly pooled in a large and slowly moving stock, would indicate low connectivity. (2) In a drainage system where fine sediments temporarily remain on the dry stream bed, the ratio between fine sediment activities at the sources and fine in-stream sediment activities downstream is a measure of sediment connectivity

  2. Application of the European water framework directive in a Western Mediterranean basin (Málaga, Spain) (United States)

    Carrasco, F.; Sánchez, D.; Vadillo, I.; Andreo, B.; Martínez, C.; Fernández, L.


    The water framework directive (WFD) is applied within the Guadalhorce river basin, a Western Mediterranean basin in the Málaga province (South Spain). Criteria defining different surface and groundwater bodies are described. The basic hydrographic network is constituted of low-mountain and low-altitude Mediterranean mineralized rivers. Heavily modified surface water bodies correspond (1) to areas where dams regulate the main watercourses, (2) to areas downstream of reservoirs, where river flow is reduced, and (3) to the coastal sector of the river where artificial channelling has caused morphological variations. Groundwater bodies are related to carbonate and porous aquifers and, locally, to aquifers influenced by dissolution of evaporites. The main impacts to water bodies are irrigated lands and livestock farming. There are also point sources of pollution, such as wastewater, landfills, golf courses, industrial zones, quarries and petrol stations. In addition, groundwater is frequently pumped for human supply and irrigation. Qualitative status of groundwater bodies was done by chemical analysis of samples from a monitoring network and the quantitative status by examining variations in piezometric levels. Both revealed the existence of water bodies at risk of not meeting the environmental objectives of the WFD. The main indicators of pollution are nitrates related to agricultural activities, and total organic carbon (TOC), PO{4/3-} and NH{4/+} in relation to wastewater.

  3. Distribution of uranium isotopes in surface water of the Llobregat river basin (Northeast Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, A.; Devesa, R.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Soler, J.; Blazquez, S.; Ortega, X.; Matia, L. [University of Politecn Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)


    A study is presented on the distribution of U-234, U-238, U-235 isotopes in surface water of the Llobregat river basin (Northeast Spain), from 2001 to 2006. Sixty-six superficial water samples were collected at 16 points distributed throughout the Llobregat river basin. Uranium isotopes were measured by alpha spectrometry (PIPS detectors). The test procedure was validated according to the quality requirements of the ISO17025 standard. The activity concentration for the total dissolved uranium ranges from 20 to 261 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations of uranium were detected in an area with formations of sedimentary rock, limestone and lignite. A high degree of radioactive disequilibrium was noted among the uranium isotopes. The U-234/R-238 U activity ratio varied between 1.1 and 1.9 and the waters with the lowest uranium activity registered the highest level of U-234/U-238 activity ratio. Correlations between uranium activity in the tested water and chemical and physical characteristics of the aquifer were found.

  4. Analysing the role of abandoned agricultural terraces on flood generation in a set of small Mediterranean mountain research catchments (Vallcebre, NE Spain) (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Latron, Jérôme


    The Vallcebre research catchments are located in NE Spain, in a middle mountain area with a Mediterranean sub-humid climate. Most of the bedrock consists of continental red lutites that are easily weathered into loamy soils. This area was intensely used for agriculture in the past when most of the sunny gentle hillslopes were terraced. The land was progressively abandoned since the mid-20th Century and most of the fields were converted to meadows or were spontaneously forested. Early studies carried out in the terraced Cal Parisa catchment demonstrated the occurrence of two types of frequently saturated areas, ones situated in downslope locations with high topographic index values, and the others located in the inner parts of many terraces, where the shallow water table usually outcrops due to the topographical modifications linked to terrace construction. Both the increased extent of saturated areas and the role of a man-made elementary drainage system designed for depleting water from the terraces suggested that terraced areas would induce an enhanced hydrological response during rainfall events when compared with non-terraced hillslopes. The response of 3 sub-catchments, of increasing area and decreasing percentage of terraced area, during a set of major events collected during over 15 years has been analysed. The results show that storm runoff depths were roughly proportional to precipitations above 30 mm although the smallest catchment (Cal Parisa), with the highest percentage of terraces, was able to completely buffer rainfall events of 60 mm in one hour without any runoff when antecedent conditions were dry. Runoff coefficients depended on antecedent conditions and peak discharges were weakly linked to rainfall intensities. Peak lag times, peak runoff rates and recession coefficients were similar in the 3 catchments; the first variable values were in the range between Hortonian and saturation overland flow and the two last ones were in the range of

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in land cover and its relation to the wildfire risk in Montes de Zuera (NE-Spain) (United States)

    Iñiguez-Remón, E.; Badía-Villas, D.; Ibarra-Benlloch, P.


    Land cover changes in a territory can be as result of the diverse human activities, and also, by the dynamic natural ecosystem. The analysis of these changes constitutes a fundamental indicator in improving the knowledge towards a potential sustainable development (OSE, 2006). This paper analyzes the evolution of the land cover at detailed scale 1:5000, along the years 1957, 1984, and 2005, in the Montes de Zuera (UTM: 665000-680000 East /4640000-4650000 North), nearby Zaragoza city (NE-Spain). Despite they are located in the midst of the semiarid Central Ebro Basin, the area have an uncommon, extensive and dense forest cover. For these reasons, Montes de Zuera form part of the "Natura 2000 Network" of Aragon. Because this region has a high incidence of wildfires and, as a measure to prevent them, land cover changes have been analyzed in this study. To get this objective, a methodology is developed based on GIS and Remote Sensing tools, and this makes it possible to establish the relationship between the dynamic land cover and "fire hazard". According to FAO (1986), fire hazard is the measure of risk of wildfire, which is explained by the presence of combustible materials available to burn (Chuvieco et al, 2004). It is understood that the areas with major fire hazard present a high vulnerability to suffer vast wildfires. To develop this work, the type of vegetation, its distribution and the state of maturity of the forest masses are analyzed. Moreover, the wildfires that occurred during the last five decades have been located, and the forest masses and the processes (anthropic and natural) associated to them have been characterized in the regions affected by vast wildfires. Moreover, the cartography of fire hazard is obtained, and this is useful tool to fre prevention and to promote the sustainable management of the forest masses. Two regions with high rate of fire hazards are differentiated (region 1 and region 2). The Aleppo pine cover occupies the majority of

  6. Modelling runoff and soil water content with the DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model at catchment scale under Mediterranean conditions (NE Spain) (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel, , Dr.; Palazón, M. Sc. Leticia; Quijano, M. Sc. Laura; Gaspar, Leticia, , Dr.; Navas, Ana, , Dr.


    Hydrological and soil erosion models allow mapping and quantifying spatially distributed rates of runoff depth and soil redistribution for different land uses, management and tillage practices and climatic scenarios. The different temporal and spatial [very small (1000 km2)] scales of numerical simulations make model selection specific to each range of scales. Additionally, the spatial resolution of the inputs is in agreement with the size of the study area. In this study, we run the GIS-based water balance DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model (freely downloaded as executable file at, in the Vandunchil stream catchment (23 km2; Ebro river basin, NE Spain). All input maps are generated at 5 x 5 m of cell size (924,573 pixels per map) allowing sound parameterization. Simulation is run at monthly scale with average climatic values. This catchment is an open hydrological system and it has a long history of human occupation, agricultural practices and water management. Numerous manmade infrastructures or landscape linear elements (LLEs: paved and unpaved trails, rock mounds in non-cultivated areas, disperse and small settlements, shallow and long drainage ditches, stone walls, small rock dams, fences and vegetation strips) appear throughout the hillslopes and streams and modify the natural runoff pathways and thus the hydrological and sediment connectivity. Rain-fed cereal fields occupy one third of the catchment area, 1% corresponds to sealed soils, and the remaining area is covered with Mediterranean forest, scrubland, pine afforestation and meadow. The parent material corresponds to Miocene sandstones and lutites and Holocene colluvial and alluvial deposits. The climate is continental Mediterranean with two humid periods, one in spring and a second in autumn that summarizes 63% of the total annual precipitation. We created a synthetic weather station (WS) from the Caseda and Uncastillo WS. The effective rainfall that reaches the soils

  7. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain) (United States)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.


    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution

  8. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago


    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  9. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  10. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla


    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  11. The Eastern delta-fan deposits on the Granada Basin as tectonic indicators of the Sierra Nevada uplift (Betic Cordillera, South Spain) (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Mateos, Rosa Maria


    Sierra Nevada uplift and with original NE-SW normal left-lateral fault system associated with a compatible ESE-WNW normal fault system. The asymmetrical morphologies of the two delta-fan bodies confirm this configuration as tectonic induced deposits. References Braga, J.C., Martín, J.M. and Alcalá, B. (1990). Coral reefs in coarse-terrigenous sedimentary environments (Upper Tortonian, Granada Basin, southern Spain). Sedimentary Geology, 66, pp 135-150. Clark, S.J.P.and Dempster, T.J. (2009). The record of tectonic denudation and erosion in an emerging orogen: an apatite fission-track study of the Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 166, pp. 87-100. Dabrio, C.J., Fernández, J., Peña, J., Ruíz-Bustos, A. y Sanz de Galdeano, C. (1978). Rasgos sedimentarios de los conglomerados miocénicos del borde noreste de la Depresión de Granada. Estudios Geológicos, 34, pp 89-97. García-García, F., Fernández, J., Viseras, C. and Soria, J.M. (2006). Architecture and sedimentary facies evolution in a delta stack controlled by fault growth (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain, late Tortonian). Sedimentary Geology, 185, pp. 79-92. García-García, F., Viseras, C. and Fernández, J. (1999). Organización secuencial de abanicos deltaicos controlados por la tectónica (Tortoniense superior, cuenca de Granada, Cordillera Bética). Rev. Soc. Geol. España, 12 (2): 199-208.

  12. Late Aptian-Albian of the Vocontian Basin (SE-France) and Albian of NE-Texas: Biostratigraphic and paleoceanographic implications by planktic foraminifera faunas


    Reichelt, Kerstin


    Planktic foraminifera fauna and carbon isotopes of the bulk rock have been investigated to compile a high resolution biostratigraphy for the Late Aptian to Late Albian in the Vocontian Basin (SE-France) and for the Middle and Late Albian in NE-Texas. A high resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy (CIS) has been established for the Albian of the Vocontian Basin, and partially correlated with sections in the eastern (ODP 547, Mazagan Plateau) and western (ODP 1052; Blake Nose Plateau) Atlantic a...

  13. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain (United States)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.


    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a

  14. Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bromley


    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

  15. Neotectonic aspects of the northern margin of the Adana–Cilicia submarine basin, NE Mediterranean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Ozel; A Ulug; B Pekcetinoz


    The sedimentary basins that dominate the north-eastern Mediterranean (Adana–Cilicia basins in the west and Iskenderun basin in the east) are located on the flanks of a partly submerged positive structure (a part of the Africa–Eurasia convergence zone) along which strike-slip faults are evident. This study summarizes the findings of two seismic surveys carried out in the Alanya– Mersin offshore region. Some 850 km of geophysical survey lines were compiled on these cruises. Based on the results determined from these surveys, the north and central part of Adana–Cilicia basin can be subdivided into eastern, central and western structural sub-basins separated by the Ecemiş fault complex in the east and the Anamur–Kormakiti structural high in the west at the same time. Results of this study also indicate that Ecemiş and Anamur–Kormakiti faults are active. Late Miocene regional compression was responsible for the compartmentation of this complex into the present arrangement and has initiated the rotational regime which has governed subsequent tectonic developments, notably the extensional behaviour of the NE–SW trending Ecemiş and Anamur–Kormakiti faults and the transpressive behaviour of the NNE–SSW trending border fault complex.

  16. Magma Emplacement and the 3D Geometry of Igneous Bodies in Rift Basins: Insights from the Bornu Basin, Onshore NE Nigeria (United States)

    Suleiman, Adamu; Jackson, Christopher; Magee, Craig; Fraser, Alastair


    Recent studies of regional unconformities in the circum-South Atlantic tectonic plates have linked unconformity age to the timing of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones, caused by plate interactions during opening of the South Atlantic. This observation is significant, proposing that a plate boundary geodynamic processes are transmitted into and expressed in plate interiors. However, it is not yet clear if and how other geologic events, such as intra-plate magmatism, may be linked to changes in the oceanic fracture azimuthal geometry. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection, geochemical, borehole datasets and outcrop observations from the Bornu Basin, one of several intra-continental rift basins located in NE Nigeria to constrain the 3D geometry of igneous bodies and magmatic emplacement processes. This allows us to link South Atlantic plate boundary geodynamics and magmatism in the surrounding continental rift basins. Seismic attributes, reflection intensity, relative acoustic impedance, were used to identify and map igneous intrusions. Saucer-shaped sills are the most common type of intrusion, although en-echelon sills, up to 1.4 km in length, were also identified. The 3D geometry of the sills reveals the detailed structural components like inner sill, inclined sheets and outer sill. A mapped bifurcating network of the sills suggests magma emplacement process through upward and outward propagation. Seismic-stratigraphic observations indicate that igneous activity occurred in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous and Paleogene corresponding to the timing of major azimuth changes observed in the Kane Oceanic fracture zone in the South Atlantic Ocean. Overall, our study, suggests a possible influence of plate boundary geodynamics on intra-plate magmatism as reflected in the link between the time of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones and magmatic emplacement observed in the tectono-stratigraphy of the intra-continental rift basins.

  17. Zircon U-Pb ages of the basement rocks beneath the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The basement of the Songliao Basin is mainly composed of slightly-metamorphosed or unmetamorphosed Paleozoic strata, granites and gneiss. Petrographical studies indicate that the gneiss was originally the granitic intrusions which were deformed in the later stage. One undeformed granitic rock sample gives a U-Pb age of (305±2) Ma, and the mylonitic granite yields a U-Pb age of (165±3) Ma. Both of the two samples contain no inherited zircon, which suggests that there is no large-scale Precambrian crystalline basement beneath the Songliao Basin.

  18. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg) (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain


    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  19. Palaeoenvironmental and chronological constraints on the Early Pleistocene mammal fauna from loess deposits in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Maodu; Zhang, Tao


    The Longdan mammal fauna from the central part of Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau, is the first Early Pleistocene fauna in China in which the fossils are derived loess deposits, and it provides an excellent opportunity to document mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia. However, the precise age and palaeoenvironmental setting of the fauna are controversial due to the poor exposure of the outcrop section. In the present study, a 105-m-long drill core was obtained from Longdan village and used for detailed magnetostratigraphic dating. The results demonstrate that the late Pliocene- Pleistocene loess deposits in the Longdan section deposited since ca. 3 Ma and that the Longdan fauna has an age range of 2.5-2.2 Ma. In addition, the results of lithological and rock magnetic analyses demonstrate that paleosols are weakly developed throughout the whole core and that in the lower and middle parts the core the magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are relatively low and uniform. These observations, combined with the ecological characteristics of the Longdan fauna, indicate that during the Early Pleistocene the climate in the Longdan area, and even in the Linxia Basin, was sub-humid and that the aeolian dust was frequently subjected to post-depositional reworking by water.

  20. Paleosols, types and their characteristics in the Shurijeh Formation, Kopet- Dagh basin, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadolah Mahbobi


    Full Text Available The Shurijeh Formation (Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous consists of siliciclastic facies in the southeastern and eastern parts of the Kopet- Dagh basin, whereas evaporate and carbonate strata are present in its facies succession toward central and western parts of the basin. In addition, various paleosols are identified in this formation that based on relative preference of pedogenic procecces, are classified into three classes including histosols, oxisols and calcisols. The Shurijeh Formation calcisols, based on mineralogical composition, are divided into calcretes and dolocretes and contain special macromorphology and micromorphology features. Based on macroscopic- microscopic properties (alpha and beta microfabrics, the Shurijeh calcretes are divided into pedogenic and non- pedogenic (ground water types that are formed under different conditions. The Shurijeh Formation dolocretes, only found in one section (Esfidan section, and the mudstone host rocks, are probably non- pedogenic (ground water. Water table fluctuations with arid to semiarid climatic conditions are caused calsisols creation in the Shurijeh Formation.

  1. Formation Water Geochemistry and Its Controlling Factors: Case Study on Shiwu Rifted Sub-basin of Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A common way to trace fluid flow and hydrocarbon accumulation is by studying the geochemistry of formation water. This paper focuses on the spacial distribution of the geochemical features of the formation water in the Shiwu Rifted Basin and its indication of the water-rock interaction processes. The hydrodynamic field controls the spacial distribution of formation water. Due to the penetration of meteoric water, the salinity is below 4,500mg/L at the basin margin and the severely faulted central ridge and increases basin ward to 7,000-10,000mg/L. The vertical change of formation water can be divided into 3 zones, which correspond respectively to the free replacement zone (<1,250m), the obstructed replacement zone (1,250m-1,650m) and thelagged zone (>1,650m) in hydrodynamics. In the free replacement zone, the formation water is NaHCO3-type with its salinity increased to 10,000mg/L. The formation water in the obstructed replacement zone is Na2SO4-type with its salinity decreased to 5,000mg/L-7,000mg/L because of the dehydration of mud rocks. The formation water in the lagged zone is CaCl2-type, but its salinity decreases sharply at a depth of 1,650m and then increases vertically downward to 10,000mg/L. This phenomenon can be best explained by the osmosis effect rather than the dehydration of mud rocks. The relationships between Cl--HCO3- and Na++K+-Ca2+ show that the initial water-rock interaction is the dissolution of NaCl and calcium-bearing carbonate, causing an increase of Na+-K+-Ca2+-Cl- and salinity. The succeeding water-rock interaction is albitization, which leads to a decrease of Na+ and an increase of Ca2+ simultaneously, and generates CaCl2-type fluid. The above analysis shows that the geochemical evolution of formation water is governed by the water-rock interactions, while its spacial distribution is controlled by the hydrological conditions. The water-rock interaction processes are supported by other geological observations, suggesting that

  2. Origin and Distribution of Groundwater Chemical Fields of the Oilfield in the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    There are many factors affecting the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the forming process of groundwater chemical fields, such as freshening due to meteoric water leaching downwards, freshening due to mudstone compaction and water release, concentration due to infiltration and freshening due to dehydration of clay minerals. As a result, the groundwater chemical fields are characterized by lengthwise stages and planar selectivity. The former arouses vertical chemical zonality of groundwater. Five units could be identified downwards in the Songliao basin: (1) freshening zone due to downward-leaching meteoric water, (2) concentration zone due to evaporation near the ground surface, (3)freshening zone due to mudstone compaction and water release, and concentration zone due to compaction and infiltration,(4) freshening zone due to dehydration of clay minerals, and (5) filtration-concentration zone; whereas the latter determines the planar division of groundwater chemical fields: (1) the freshening area due to meteoric water, asymmetrically on the margin of the basin, (2) the freshening area due to mudstone compaction and water release in the central part of the basin, (3)the leaky area, which is a transitional zone, and (4) leakage-evaporation area, which is a concentration zone. In the direction of centrifugal flows caused by mudstone compaction in the depression area, the mineralization degree, concentrations of Na+ and CI-, and salinity coefficient (SC) increase, while concentrations of (CO32-+HCO3-) and SO42-, metamorphism coefficient (MC) and desulfuration coefficient (DSC) decrease. However, all these parameters increase in the direction of gravity-induced centripetal flows.

  3. Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Hurtado, Ana; Lavín, Santiago


    In 2001 and 2002, an outbreak of a previously unreported disease, associated with a border disease virus (BDV), caused high mortality in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) population in the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). Between 2002 and 2006, sera and/or tissue samples taken from 116 healthy chamois shot during the hunting season, plus 42 from chamois affected by different diseases, were studied. A blocking enzyme-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to study pestivirus seroprevalence in 114 healthy hunted and 31 diseased chamois, yielding positive results in 73.7 and 22.6% of the chamois, respectively. Comparative virus neutralization tests (VNT) performed on 42 seropositive samples with 6 pestivirus strains yielded statistically higher titres to BDV Spain 97, followed by BDV chamois, BDV 137/4, BDV Moredun, Bovine Diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1) NADL and BVDV-2 atypical. Virological investigations for pestivirus detection were performed using an antigen ELISA test in 82 healthy and 18 diseased chamois, RT-PCR in 16 healthy and in all diseased chamois, and virus isolation in 14 diseased chamois. No viral antigen was detected in any of the healthy animals. A pestivirus, characterized as BDV by monoclonal antibodies, was detected in the 10 chamois showing clinical signs consistent with BDV infection. Sequence analysis in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. In the remaining chamois, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, trauma and contagious ecthyma were diagnosed. The cause of death was unknown in five chamois. The results suggest that the infection has become endemic in the population and that it could have a significant impact on chamois population dynamics.

  4. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo


    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3–1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO42‑ concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5–4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; (c) pore water or fluid was Fe/Mg-rich in 7.3–6.0 Ma, Mg-rich in 6.0–4.5 Ma, and K-rich in 4.1–1.6 Ma and (d) evaporation rates were high, but weaker than today’s.

  5. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yugang; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Yang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Bin; He, Xingyuan


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002). This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems.

  6. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002. This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems.

  7. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Salmoral


    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading both water quality indicators are exports from upland areas and agricultural intensification. Water quality conditions have improved in regions where there has been abandonment and/or deintensification. The decoupling process has reduced the concentration of nitrates and suspended solids in a number of subbasins. Although agricultural production and water efficiency in the basin have improved, high erosion rates have not yet been addressed. 

  8. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel


    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  9. Investigation of a large collapse sinkhole affecting a multi-storey building by means of geophysics and the trenching technique (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Galve, J. P.; Lucha, P.; Bonachea, J.; Jordá, L.; Jordá, R.


    An active sinkhole around 100 m long has been investigated in the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain). Subsidence activity on this depression, including the sudden occurrence of a collapse sinkhole 5 m across, led to the abandonment of a factory in the 1990s. At the present time, a building with 100 flats and shallow pad foundations partially built on the sinkhole, is affected by rapid differential settlement. The development of the sinkhole results from the karstification of the halite- and glauberite- bearing bedrock and the sagging and collapse of the overlying bedrock and alluvium, more than 30 m thick. GPR and electrical resistivity profiles have provided information on the distribution and geometry of the subsidence structure. The application of the trenching technique and geochronological methods (AMS and OSL dating) has allowed us to infer objective and practical data on the sinkhole including (1) Limits of the subsidence structure, (2) subsidence mechanisms, (3) cumulative subsidence (>408 cm), (4) subsidence rates on specific failure planes (>1.8 cm/year), (5) episodic displacement regime of some fault planes. The available information indicates that the progressive deformation recorded in the building will continue and might be punctuated by events of more rapid displacement. This work illustrates the practicality of the trenching technique for the study of sinkholes in mantled karst areas.

  10. Facies-controlled volcanic reservoirs of northern Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Volcanic rocks of the late Mesozoic are very important reservoirs for the commercial natural gases including hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide and rare gases in the northern Songliao Basin. The reservoir volcanic rocks include rhyolite,andesite, trachyte, basalt and tuff. Facies of the volcanic rocks can be classified into 5 categories and 15 special types.Porosity and permeability of the volcanic reservoirs are facies-controlled. Commercial reservoirs were commonly found among the following volcanic subfacies: volcanic neck (Ⅰ1), underground-explosive breccia (Ⅰ3), pyroclastic-bearing lava flow (Ⅱ3), upper effusive (Ⅲ3) and inner extrusive ones (Ⅳ1). The best volcanic reservoirs are generally evolved in the interbedded explosive and effusive volcanics. Rhyolites show in general better reservoir features than other types of rocks do.

  11. Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry at a site of strategic importance: the Pareja Limno-reservoir drainage basin (Guadalajara, central Spain) (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Vicente, Rosa; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia


    A small calcareous basin in central Spain was studied to establish the role of groundwater in the Pareja Limno-reservoir. Limno-reservoirs aim to preserve a constant water level in the riverine zone of large reservoirs to mitigate the impacts arising from their construction. Groundwater flow contribution (mean 60 %) was derived by recharge estimation. In situ measurements (spring discharge, electrical conductivity and sulfate) were undertaken and spring discharge was compared with a drought index. Twenty-eight springs were monitored and three hydrogeological units (HGUs) were defined: a carbonate plateau (HGU1), the underlying aquitard (HGU2), and the gypsum-enriched HGU3. HGU1 is the main aquifer and may play a role in the preservation of the limno-reservoir water level. Hydrogeochemical sampling was conducted and the code PHREEQC used to describe the main geochemical processes. Weathering and dissolution of calcite and gypsum seem to control the hydrogeochemical processes in the basin. Water progresses from Ca2+-HCO3 - in the upper basin to Ca2+-SO4 2- in the lower basin, where HGU3 outcrops. A clear temporal pattern was observed in the limno-reservoir, with salinity decreasing in winter and increasing in summer. This variation was wider at the river outlet, but the mixing of the river discharge with limno-reservoir water buffered it.

  12. Dealing with uncertainties in impact studies of climate change on hydrometeorological series over Segura River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Garcia Cardenas, R.; Tetay Botia, C.; Giraldo Osorio, J.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Baille, A.


    The Segura River Basin (SRB) located in the South East of Spain, is affected by recurrent drought and water scarcity episodes. This basin presents the lowest percentage of renewable water resources of all the Spanish basins. Intensive reforestation has been carried out in the region, to halt desertification and erosion, which added to climate change and variability, do not allow the default assumption of stationarity in the water resources systems. Therefore, the study of effects in hydrometeorological series should be addressed by nonstationary probabilistic models that allow describing the time evolution of their probability distribution functions (PDFs). In the present work, the GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shaper) approach is applied to identify of spatio-temporal trends in observed precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), at basin scale. Several previous studies have addressed the potential impacts of climate change in water supply systems, focusing on the sensitivity analysis of runoff to climate. Considering the use of a conceptual hydrological model with few parameters, the impacts on runoff and its trend from historical data, are assessed. The conclusions of this study represent a breakthrough in the development of methodologies to understand and anticipate the impacts on water resources systems, in the light of current and future climate conditions, considering hydroclimatic non-stationarity. These findings are expected to contribute to the management of conditions of water resources scarcity and droughts, such as the observed in the SRB, as support to decision-making process by stakeholders.

  13. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia (United States)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar; Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Rahman, M. Nasir B. A.


    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I -Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well - log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  14. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar, E-mail:; Wahid, Ali, E-mail:; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Rahman, M. Nasir B. A., E-mail: [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I –Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well – log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  15. Calculated Porosity of Volcanic Reservoir in Wangjiatun of the Northern Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanlong Shan; Chuanbiao Wa; Rihui Cheng; Wanzhu Liu


    In Wangjiatun area of the Northern Songliao Basin, reservoir space can be divided into three types: primary pore, secondary pore and fissure according to their origins,which can be subdivided into eight subtypes: macro-vesicule,shrank primary vesicule, alteration pore, groundmass corrosive pore, normal structural crack, corrosive structural crack,filled structural crack and groundmass shrank crack according to texture and origin of the pore space. It has characteristic of double pore medium. Volcanic porosities of small diameter samples (with diameter of ca. 2.5 cm) and large diameter samples (with diameter of ca. 21.5 cm) were tested in accordance with the characteristic of volcanic reservoir space. Volcanic porosities for small diameter samples correspond with matrix porosities and those of large diameter samples correspond with total porosities including matrix and fractured porosities. Models of the calculated porosity by acoustic wave or density of volcanic reservoir are established in view of those measured data. Comparison of calculated and measuredporosities shows that precision of calculated porosities is lower for rhyolite and tuffites, and higher for basaltand andesite.Relative errors of calculated porosities by model of large diameter samples are lower than those of small diameter samples, i. e. precision of the former is higher than that of the later.

  16. Re-evaluation of the petroleum potential of the Kufra Basin (SE Libya, NE Chad): does the source rock barrier fall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Sebastian [Wales Univ., Inst. of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Craig, Jonathan [LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Fitches, Bill [Robertson Research International, Llandudno (United Kingdom); Mayouf, Juma; Busrewil, Ahmed; El Dieb, Mufta; Gammudi, Amar [Petroleum Research Centre, Tripoli (Libya); Loydell, David [Portsmouth Univ., School of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); McIlroy, Duncan [Liverpool Univ., STRAT Group, Liverpool (United Kingdom)


    The Kufra Basin is a large, underexplored, Palaeozoic intracratonic sag basin in SE Libya and NE Chad with extensions into NW Sudan and SW Egypt. The basin fill consists of shallow marine to fluvial deposits ranging in age from infracambrian to Cretaceous. Geologically, the basin is very similar to the Murzuq Basin in SW Libya which recently presented Libya with its largest oil discovery for over a decade. Most of the hydrocarbon play elements known from the Murzuq Basin also occur in the Kufra Basin: thick, porous Cambro-Ordovician sandstones are present and would form good reservoirs, lower Silurian shales may act as effective seals, and there are potential structural traps in seismically defined fault blocks. However, the source rock availability in the Kufra Basin is currently unclear. One of the two main source rock candidates in the basin is a lower Silurian shale unit (Tanezzuft Formation). The Tanezzuft shales have been described as being up to 130 m thick in outcrops at the basin margins, but the shales were found to be replaced by siltstones and sandstones in two dry exploration wells drilled in the northern part of the basin by AGIP between 1978 and 1981. Hot shales developed at the base of this widespread Silurian shale unit form important source rocks in many areas of North Africa and Arabia. These hot shales are interpreted to have been deposited in palaeodepressions, such as incised valleys of the preceding lowstand, or intrashelf basins, during the initial transgression after the melting of the late Ordovician ice cap. The areal distribution of the organic-rich unit is, therefore, discontinuous. Fieldwork in the Kufra Basin has shown that the basal Tanezzuft horizon is not exposed on the northern and eastern margins of the basin. Deep infracambrian rift grabens have been interpreted on seismic lines from the Kufra Basin and, in analogy to Oman and Algeria, could contain organic-rich infracambrian deposits. The infracambrian succession in the Kufra

  17. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004-2014: a multi-exponential approach (United States)

    Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemi; Reche, Cristina; Castro, Iria; Shatalov, Victor; Querol, Xavier


    In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background), located in the northeast (NE) of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004-2014) were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann-Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10) showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN) and Montseny (MSY) during 2004-2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V-Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic) and from the industrial (metallurgy mainly) source at BCN

  18. Patterns of mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation in fish species downstream of a long-term mercury-contaminated site in the lower Ebro River (NE Spain). (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis; Barata, Carlos; García-Berthou, Emili; Tobias, Aurelio; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi


    Since the 19th century, large amounts of industrial waste were dumped in a reservoir adjacent to a chlor-alkali plant in the lower Ebro River (NE Spain). Previous toxicological analysis of carp populations inhabiting the surveyed area have shown that the highest biological impact attributable to mercury pollution occurred downstream of the discharge site. However, mercury speciation in fish from this polluted area has not been addressed yet. Thus, in the present study, piscivorous European catfish (Silurus glanis) and non-piscivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were selected, to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation capacities of both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at the discharge site and downstream points. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data set, and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were fitted in order to assess the relationship between both Hg species in fish and different variables of interest. Mercury levels in fish inhabiting the dam at the discharge site were found to be approximately 2-fold higher than those from an upstream site; while mercury pollution progressively increased downstream of the hot spot. In fact, both THg and MeHg levels at the farthest downstream point were 3 times greater than those close to the waste dump. This result clearly indicates downstream transport and increased mercury bioavailability as a function of distance downstream from the contamination source. A number of factors may affect both the downstream transport and increased Hg bioavailability associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

  19. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain. (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S


    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion.

  20. Environmental isotopes (N, S, C, O, D) to determine natural attenuation processes in nitrate contaminated waters: Example of Osona (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoria, Laura [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Otero, Neus [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)


    Nitrate-contaminated groundwater from an aquifer in the Osona region (NE Spain) was chemically and isotopically ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO{sub 4}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}}, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) characterized. Diffuse- NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination reached values of 366 mg/L. Nearly 75% of the 37 sampled sites had higher concentrations than the 50 mg/L in NO{sub 3}{sup -} limit for drinking water. To identify the source of pollution {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} were used with results, for most samples, in the range of pig manure NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of the {delta}{sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and water. Isotopic data suggested that natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taking place. This process was confirmed using the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} coupled with the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio, avoiding the influence of continuous NO{sub 3}{sup -} inputs. A further insight on denitrification processes was obtained by analyzing the ions involved in denitrification reactions. Although the role of organic matter oxidation could neither be confirmed nor discarded, this approach showed a link between denitrification and pyrite oxidation. Therefore, in areas with no adequate infrastructure (e.g. multipiezometers), such as the one studied, this approach could be useful for implementing better water management.

  1. Inverse modeling of groundwater flow in the semiarid evaporitic closed basin of Los Monegros, Spain (United States)

    Samper-Calvete, F. J.; García-Vera, M. A.

    Only minor attention has been given in the past to the study of closed-basin hydrogeology in evaporitic environments, because these basins usually contain poor-quality groundwater. The motivation for hydrogeological research in the Los Monegros area in northeastern Spain was the approval in 1986 of a large irrigation project in the Ebre River basin. The irrigation of 60,000 ha is planned, partly in an evaporitic closed basin containing playa lakes. The project has given rise to environmental concerns. The evaluation of the hydrologic impacts of irrigation requires quantifying properly the hydrogeology of the area. With the available information, a conceptual hydrogeological model was formulated that identifies two main aquifers connected through a leaky aquitard. On the basis of the conceptual model, a numerical model was calibrated under steady-state conditions using the method of maximum-likelihood automatic parameter estimation (Carrera and Neuman, 1986a). The calibrated model reproduces the measured hydraulic heads fairly well and is consistent with independent information on groundwater discharge. By the solution of the inverse problem, reliable parameter estimates were obtained. It is concluded that anisotropy plays a major role in some parts of the lower aquifer. The geometric average of model conductivity is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the average conductivity derived from small-scale field tests. This scale effect in hydraulic conductivity is consistent with the findings of Neuman (1994) and Sánchez-Vila et al. (1996). Résumé Dans le passé, on s'est peu intéresséà l'hydrogéologie des bassins fermés en milieu évaporitique, parce que ces bassins possèdent en général de l'eau souterraine de qualité médiocre. L'intérêt porté aux recherches hydrogéologiques dans la région de Los Monegros, dans le nord-est de l'Espagne est dûà l'approbation en 1986 d'un vaste projet d'irrigation dans le bassin de l'Ebre. L'irrigation de 60000

  2. Assessing spatial patterns of extreme droughts associated to return periods from observed dataset: Case study of Segura River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    García Galiano, Sandra G.; Diego Giraldo Osorio, Juan


    In basins of South-eastern Spain, such as the Segura River Basin (SRB), a strong decrease in runoff from the end of the 1970s has been observed. In the SRB, due to intensive reforestation aimed at halting desertification and erosion, added to climate variability and change, the default assumption of stationarity in water resources systems cannot be guaranteed. Therefore there is an important need for improvement in the ability of monitoring and predicting the impacts associated with the change of hydrologic regime. It is thus necessary to apply non-stationary probabilistic models, which are able to reproduce probability density functions whose parameters vary with time. From a high-resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset of more than 50 years (1950-2007 time period), the spatial distribution of lengths of maximum dry spells for several thresholds are assessed, applying GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape) models at grid site. Results reveal an intensification of extreme drought events in some headbasins of the SRB important for water supply. The identification of spatial patterns of drought hazards at basin scale, associated to return periods, contribute to designing strategies of drought contingency preparedness and recovery operations, which are the leading edge of adaptation strategies.

  3. Syntectonic fluid flow and fluid compartmentalization in a compressive basin: Example of the Jaca basin (Southwest Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Lacroix, Brice; Travé, Anna; Buatier, Martine; Labaume, Pierre


    During compressive events, deformation in sedimentary basins is mainly accommodated by thrust faults emplacement and related fold growth. In such a structure, thrust faults are generally rooted in the basement and may act as conduits or barriers for crustal fluid flow. However, most of recent studies suggest that fluid flow through such discontinuities is not so evident and depends on the structural levels of the thrust inside the fold-and-thrust belt. In order to constrain the paleofluid flow through the Jaca thrust-sheet-top basin (Paleogene southwest-Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt) we focus our study on different thrust faults located at different structural levels. The microstructures observed in the different studied fault zones are similar and consist of pervasive cleavage, calcite shear and extension veins and late dilatation veins. In order to constrain the nature and the source of fluids involved in fluid-rock interactions in fault zones, a geochemical approach, based on oxygen and carbon stable isotopes and trace elements on calcite, was adopted on the different vein generations and host rocks. The results suggest a high complexity in the paleo-hydrological behaviors of thrust faults evidencing a fluid-flow compartmentalization of the basin. North of the Jaca basin, previous studies in the southern part of the Axial Zones showed the contribution of deep metamorphic water, probably derived from the Paleozoic basement, along along fault zones related the major Gavarnie thrust. Contrarily, in the northern part of the Jaca basin, we evidence the contribution of formation water during the Monte Perdido thrust fault activity. These data suggest a closed hydrological fluid system where distance of fluid flow did not exceeded 70 m. On the other hand, the Jaca and Cotiella thrust faults, both located more to the south in the basin, are characterized by a composite fluid flow system. Indeed, stable isotopes and trace elements compositions of the first generation of

  4. Lithofacies characterization of fluvial sandstones from outcrop gamma-ray logs (Loranca Basin, Spain): the influence of provenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinius, A.W.; Geel, C.R. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Subfaculty of Technical Earth Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Arribas, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dept. de Petrologia y Geoquimica, Madrid (Spain)


    Natural gamma spectral (NGS) log motifs and cluster analysis were used to characterise outcropping sandstone bodies formed in braided and high-sinuosity streams of the Tertiary Tortola fluvial system of the Loranca Basin (Spain). Five coarse-grained lithofacies comprise these deposits and determine distinct NGS log motif. Cross-plots and cluster analysis of NGS log data of the lithofacies suggest three distinct clusters. These clusters reflect distinct values for sandstones with small sets of ripple lamination, cross-stratification, and conglomerates and pebbles. Ripple-laminated sandstones show the most variability in NGS signature, whereas conglomeratic sandstones show the most uniform signature. Such cluster analysis may be used to assign NGS log data points of unknown origin to a specific fluvial lithofacies under conditions of equal rock provenance and diagenetic history. A sedimentaclastic (i.e. sedimentary parent rock) origin of sediments appears to be the main control on detrital composition that, in turn, varies with grain size. (Author)

  5. Single-grain and multi-grain OSL dating of river terrace sediments in the Tabernas Basin, SE Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geach, M.R.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    River terraces represent important records of landscape response to e.g. base-level change and tectonicmovement. Both these driving forces are important in the southern Iberian Peninsula. In this study,Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to date two principal river terraces...... in theTabernas Basin, SE Spain. A total of 23 samples was collected from the fluvial terraces for dating usingquartz OSL. Sixteen of the samples could not be dated because of low saturation levels (e.g. typical2xD0 ... usingboth multi-grain and single-grain analysis. Single grain results show that: (i) measurements from multigrainaliquots overestimate ages by up to ~ 4 ka for modern analogues and young samples (

  6. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain (United States)

    Polo, María J.; Rovira, Albert; García-Contreras, Darío; Contreras, Eva; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Losada, Miguel A.


    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930-2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  7. Review of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy in Western Cameros basin, Northern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Maria del Pilar Clemente


    which consists of fresh water lacustrine carbonates and Golmayo representing a fluvial dominated coastal plain with marly lakes. The Oliván Group encompasses three formations of fluvial deposits: La Gallega, Castrillo de la Reina and Cuerda del Pozo. The Salas Group consists of two formations Cabezón de......: Señora de Brezales and Magaña. The Oncala Group is represented by two formations of fluvial deposits, Jaramillo de la Fuente and Río del Salcedal and a third formation, Rupelo of lacustrine /coastal carbonates and evaporites. The Peñacoba Formation is an independent formation made of biogenic lacustrine...... of subsidence and terrigenous supply. The onlap of the syn-rift mega-sequence on the basin margins, the extra-basinal fluvial systems and shallow carbonate lakes together with its condensed character and the preservation of pre-rift mega-sequence at the basin margins point towards a basin with low...

  8. Water Quantity and Quality Models Applied to the Jucar River Basin, Spain


    Paredes Arquiola, Javier; Andreu Álvarez, Joaquín; Martín Monerris, Miguel; Solera Solera, Abel


    “The final publication is available at Springer via 10.1007/s11269-010-9578-z ”. Traditionally, water quality modelling has focused on modelling individual water bodies. However, water quality management problems must be analyzed at the basin scale. European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires introducing physical, chemical and biological aspects into the management of water resources systems. Water quality modelling at a basin scale presents the advantage of incorp...

  9. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.


    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  10. Astronomical forcing in continental sediments. An integrated stratigraphic study of Miocene deposits from the Calatayud and Teruel basins, NE Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, H.A.


    During the last decades, there is an increasing concern about global climate change as a consequence of anthropogenic influences. Recently, a report presented by the working group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that there is convincing evidence that most of the war

  11. Drought early warning based on optimal risk forecasts in regulated river systems: Application to the Jucar River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Haro-Monteagudo, David; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín


    Droughts are a major threat to water resources systems management. Timely anticipation results crucial to defining strategies and measures to minimise their effects. Water managers make use of monitoring systems in order to characterise and assess drought risk by means of indices and indicators. However, there are few systems currently in operation that are capable of providing early warning with regard to the occurrence of a drought episode. This paper proposes a novel methodology to support and complement drought monitoring and early warning in regulated water resources systems. It is based in the combined use of two models, a water resources optimization model and a stochastic streamflow generation model, to generate a series of results that allow evaluating the future state of the system. The results for the period 1998-2009 in the Jucar River Basin (Spain) show that accounting for scenario change risk can be beneficial for basin managers by providing them with information on the current and future drought situation at any given moment. Our results show that the combination of scenario change probabilities with the current drought monitoring system can represent a major advance towards improved drought management in the future, and add a significant value to the existing national State Index (SI) approach for early warning purposes.

  12. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching (United States)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique


    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre

  13. GIS-based models for water quantity and quality assessment in the Júcar River Basin, Spain, including climate change effects. (United States)

    Ferrer, Javier; Pérez-Martín, Miguel A; Jiménez, Sara; Estrela, Teodoro; Andreu, Joaquín


    This paper describes two different GIS models - one stationary (GeoImpress) and the other non-stationary (Patrical) - that assess water quantity and quality in the Júcar River Basin District, a large river basin district (43,000km(2)) located in Spain. It aims to analyze the status of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and to support measures to achieve the WFD objectives. The non-stationary model is used for quantitative analysis of water resources, including long-term water resource assessment; estimation of available GW resources; and evaluation of climate change impact on water resources. The main results obtained are the following: recent water resources have been reduced by approximately 18% compared to the reference period 1961-1990; the GW environmental volume required to accomplish the WFD objectives is approximately 30% of the GW annual resources; and the climate change impact on water resources for the short-term (2010-2040), based on a dynamic downscaling A1B scenario, implies a reduction in water resources by approximately 19% compared to 1990-2000 and a reduction of approximately 40-50% for the long-term (2070-2100), based on dynamic downscaling A2 and B2 scenarios. The model also assesses the impact of various fertilizer application scenarios on the status of future GW quality (nitrate) and if these future statuses will meet the WFD requirements. The stationary model generates data on the actual and future chemical status of SW bodies in the river basin according to the modeled scenarios and reflects the implementation of different types of measures to accomplish the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive and the WFD. Finally, the selection and prioritization of additional measures to accomplish the WFD are based on cost-effectiveness analysis.

  14. Gravity flow deposits of the Maceio Formation - Alagoas Basin, NE of Brazil; Depositos de fluxos gravitacionais da Formacao Maceio - Bacia de Alagoas, NE do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Luci Maria [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Petrologia]. E-mail:


    This work deals with the Aptian rift section of Maceio Formation (Albian), Alagoas Basin, Northeast of Brazil, using data from outcrops and wells (Tabuleiro dos Martins Field). Studies of facies, process, depositional systems, facies tract and sequences were performed to characterize hyperpicnal turbidities; of which sediments were directly input by catastrophic river floods. Sequence stratigraphy concepts can be used for rift-section analysis, considering the concept of - climate systems tracts - and the result is an excellent correlation between deposit types and climate conditions. Transgressive system tracts (TTS) related to humid periods represent phases of high siliciclastic input into the basin, resulting on sandstone turbidity sequences, typically enriched by continental organic matter. In contrast, later high stand system tracts (LHST), corresponding to arid conditions, are dominated by muddy lacustrine deposits, enriched by algalic organic matter and showing mud cracks. Locally, low stand system tracts (LST) dominated by evaporites are found in restricted areas. Climate and tectonics were the main controlling factors of the architecture and frequency of the sequences. This study showed that an integrated approach, using outcrops and subsurface data, is a powerful tool to understand facies and depositional process, sequences and their stacking pattern on continental- rift deposits. (author)

  15. Sedimentology and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van B.


    The present study deals with the primary lithology, sedimentary structures, depositional history and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the south-central Pyrenees, and presents a brief review of the lithology and depositional environment of surrounding contemporaneous deposits.

  16. Tectonic analysis of Lechada and Curavacas synclines, Yuso basin, León, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, J.F.


    The structures along the southern boundary of the flysch-filled Yuso Basin bear witness to continuous epeirogenic activity during the Upper Carboniferous. The Carda\\u0148o Line foems the boundary proper but other structures, somewhat similar to this fundamental feature e.g. the Pe\\u0148a Prieta line


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir foreland basin, located between the Iberian basement northward and the Betic orogen to the South, represents the western sector of the earlier foredeep basin of the Betic Cordillera. Along the northern foreland margin, the sedimentary fill of this basin includes a Tortonian Basal Transgressive Complex (BTC, composed of five internal sequences bounded by transgressive surfaces. Two main parts are distinguished within each sequence: the lower transgressive lag deposits, and the upper stillstand/prograding sediments. Three facies associations were distinguished within this stratigraphic succession along the central sector of this basin margin: unfossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (A, fossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (B, and yellow medium-coarse-grained fossiliferous sands (C. A fourth facies association (D: blue silty marlstones and shales overlies the BTC. Deposits of alluvial sediments (facies association A and shallow-marine/foreshore sediments (facies association C, were recurrently interrupted by transgressive pulses (facies associations B and C. Every pulse is recorded by an erosional, cemented sandy-conglomerate bar with bivalves (Ostreidae, Isognomon, balanids, gastropods and other marine bioclasts; or their transgressive equivalents. The lateral facies changes in each individual sequence of the BTC are related to: (1 the influence on the northern foreland margin of the tectonic activity of the southern orogenic margin; (2 the palaeorelief formed by irregularities of the substrate which controls the sediment dispersal; and (3 the evolution stages of the sedimentary systems. 

  18. Diagenetic and oil migration history of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation, Maestrat Basin, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, C.; Marfil, R.; Pena, J.A. de la; Caja, M.A. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Petrologia y Geoquimica; Goldstein, R.H. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Salas, R.; Permanyer, A. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Geoquimica; Benito, M.I. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Estratigrafia


    The marine limestones of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation in the Maestrat Basin reached more than 3500 m in burial depth during the Cretaceous era. Despite containing organic-rich intervals, mature in parts of the basin, its potential as oil source-rock has been either overlooked or questioned. A petrographic, geochemical and fluid-inclusion (Fl) study of the cements of the Ascla was performed in order to unravel its diagenetic and thermal evolution. We particularly sought evidence of oil migration and its timing. Three sequences of cement were distinguished. Sequence 1 fills the primary porosity and began with Fe-poor calcites with geochemistry and FIs consistent with precipitation from marine-derived waters during shallow burial. These calcites were followed by burial cements, including ferroan calcite, dolomite, and minor celestite and barite. Sequence 2 consists of Mg-rich, fracture-filling calcite cement zones. The earlier ones are ferroan and contain primary aqueous and oil FIs with homogenization temperatures suggesting precipitation at temperatures as high as 117{sup o}C. Sequence 3 is dominated by fracture-filling calcites with geochemistry and FIs indicating precipitation at low temperatures (less than {approx} 50{sup o}C) from meteoric waters. Cross-cutting relationships with compressional microstructures indicate that Sequence 3 formed after the Eocene Oligocene tectonic inversion of the basin. Oil FIs in Sequence 2 provide evidence that light oils migrated through the Ascla Formation via fractures and microfractures. These oils were likely generated in the organic-rich marls of the basal part of the Ascla. The paragenetic sequence and burial history are consistent with oil generation when the Ascla was at or close to maximum burial depth, but before the Eocene Alpine tectonism, which likely formed the structural traps in the basin. Oil generation and migration occurred long before this event. Therefore, it is probable that early traps were breached by

  19. Geochemistry of Late Triassic pelitic rocks in the NE part of Songpan-Ganzi Basin, western China: Implications for source weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang


    Full Text Available Major, trace and rare earth element (REE concentrations of Late Triassic sediments (fine-grained sandstones and mudstones from Hongcan Well 1 in the NE part of the Songpan-Ganzi Basin, western China, are used to reveal weathering, provenance and tectonic setting of inferred source areas. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA reflects a low to moderate degree of chemical weathering in a cool and somewhat dry climate, and an A-CN-K plot suggests an older upper continental crust provenance dominated by felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of average tonalite composition. Based on the various geochemical tectonic setting discrimination diagrams, the Late Triassic sediments are inferred to have been deposited in a back-arc basin situated between an active continental margin (the Kunlun-Qinling Fold Belt and a continental island arc (the Yidun Island Arc. The Triassic sediments in the study area underwent a rapid erosion and burial in a proximal slope-basin environment by the petrographic data, while the published flow directions of Triassic turbidites in the Aba-Zoige region was not supported Yidun volcanic arc source. Therefore, we suggest that the Kunlun-Qinling terrane is most likely to have supplied source materials to the northeast part of the Songpan-Ganzi Basin during the Late Triassic.

  20. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain



    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage ...

  1. Density and population structure of the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the High Ebro Basin (Northern Spain)


    González-Martínez, Santiago; Bravo, Felipe


    International audience; This paper presents the analysis of 11 natural regenerated stands in native Scots pine forests located in the High Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). The natural regeneration showed a continuous age distribution, early height differentiation and a high stability in the height position of seedlings. Total density and main crop (trees selected for future commercial harvest) density models were developed to study the relationship between natural regeneration and site variables....

  2. The stratigraphic record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the northern margin of the Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain) (United States)

    Soria, J. M.; Caracuel, J. E.; Yébenes, A.; Fernández, J.; Viseras, C.


    The Bajo Segura Basin is a marginal basin of the Western Mediterranean located on the eastern end of the Betic Cordillera (southeastern Spain). Its Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphic record is divided into four allostratigraphic units, with bounding unconformities represented by erosional surfaces corresponding to palaeogeographic changes. The Messinian Unit I (MI) is composed of three depositional systems (fluvial, coastal lagoon, and shelf) which lateral facies changes, deposited in a context of sea level highstand. The upper boundary of the MI Unit corresponds to the intra-Messinian unconformity, a lowstand erosional surface with palaeovalleys of 30 m deep generated by a sea level fall. Messinian Unit II (MII) comprises five correlative depositional systems (from fluvial to coastal) deposited during a new sea level highstand after a reflooding that followed the preceding lowstand. The upper boundary of Unit MII corresponds to the end-Messinian unconformity, which is another lowstand erosional surface with similar palaeovalleys to those of the intra-Messinian unconformity. Messinian Unit MIII forms the fluvial fill of some small incised palaeovalleys, developed during the end-Messinian lowstand. Over the end-Messinian unconformity lies the Pliocene Unit (P), which consists of four depositional systems superimposed in continuity. The first two (littoral and open marine) form a transgressive assemblage that fill the palaeovalley carved over the end-Messinian unconformity. The latter two (shallow marine to coastal in the lower part, and fluvial in the upper part) form a regressive prograding assemblage deposited in a highstand context, when the sea level reached its height in the early Pliocene. In relation to the Messinian salinity crisis, we propose that Unit MII is correlative to the evaporites deposited in the centre of the Bajo Segura Basin (San Miguel Gypsum Formation), corresponding to the marginal evaporites of the Mediterranean. Evaporitic sedimentation

  3. Experimental studies of supercritical bedforms applied to coarse-grained turbidite deposits of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene) (United States)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, George; Kleverlaan, Kick


    Modern submarine canyon floors are often covered with bedform patterns linked to supercritical turbidity currents, while recognition of sedimentary structures associated with such bedforms in outcrops are rare. On the basis of experimental work on bed morphodynamics and flow structure of high-density turbidity currents, a 3-dimensional bedform stability diagram and related sedimentary facies diagram have been constructed. To allow scaling of this diagram to natural flows, four non-dimensional parameters are used: 1) densimetric Froude number, 2) modified mobility parameter, 3) dimensionless grain size and 4) basal sediment concentration. Each bedform and basal sediment concentration is then linked to a characteristic facies type. Numerical and theoretical models from the literature and observations from modern turbidite depositional systems are used to estimate characteristic sizes of the bedforms for different flow types. The model is applied to the turbidite fan systems of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene) and discussed along existing classical models of high density turbidity current deposits. It is concluded that the vertical sequence of supercritical bedforms have been described in these models, yet to date have never been recognized as bedforms in outcrop, presumably because of their large size that easily exceeds the dimensions of commonly available outcrop. On the basis both experimental work and outcrop studies in the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain) a conceptual three-dimensional bedform diagram for recognition of cyclic steps in outcrop is constructed. Experimental data indicates that depositional processes on the stoss-side of a cyclic step are controlled by hydraulic jump, which temporarily stalls the flow and by subsequent waxing of the flow up to supercritical again. The hydraulic jump produces large scours with soft sediment deformation (flames) preserved in Bouma Ta, while near horizontal, massive to stratified top-cut-out turbidite beds are

  4. Dam safety risk analysis, assessment and management in the Duero River Basin (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardiles, Liana; Moreno, Pedro; Jenaro, Esther [Duero River Authority, Valladolid, (Spain); Fleitz, Jurgen [OFITECO, Madrid, (Spain); Escuder, Ignacio [Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Valencia, (Spain)


    The Duero River Authority (DRA) integrated risk management into state of the art dam safety activities in Spain. An analysis was performed on the DRA system of 26 state-owned dams. A quantitative analysis on two pilot schemes (the Carrion and Pisuerga systems) was done. It included quantitative estimations of the probability of occurrence of different events, the identification of the potential failure modes, the probabilities of failure related to each event and the estimation of resulting consequences. A current risk analysis is being adopted as a tool for dam safety management of the whole portfolio of the DRA dams. The systematic framework developed by the DRA for integrating risk analysis and evaluation in overall dam safety management is focused on three activities. The development of risk models for 7 dam systems as a helpful tool for overall dam safety management is presented in this paper.

  5. Characterization of asphaltic oil occurrences from the southeastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Spain


    Marín, P.; Márquez, G.; Gallego, J. R.; Permanyer, A.


    A geochemical investigation has been undertaken on biodegraded hydrocarbons in outcropping reservoirs of the south-eastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Álava sector). The aims of the study were the characterization of the geochemical features and biodegradation level of these hydrocarbons, and the evaluation of their resemblance to oils from the Ayoluengo onshore oil field by means of isotopic analyses and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Most of the samples lack n-a...

  6. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics (United States)

    Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics


    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

  7. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain. (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz


    Mediterranean landscapes are man-made. Its human ecosystems are characterized by a high population density, a long history of human settlement and an intense exchange of goods and people (Cerdà et al., 2010). This was possible due to a dense road network, most of it created during the Roman Empire. Modern roads and railways increased drastically during the last 30 years in the Mediterranean. Spain is a clear example of the acceleration of the road and railway infrastructures (Bel, 2005), especially during the 1960s as the tourism started to become a big issue in this part of the World. The increase in road and railways during the last 30 years resulted in a new transport system in Spain, which is based on high-speed railways and motorways. The characteristic of these infrastructures is that they were built by means of embankments, and little is now about the erosional response of those embankments to rainfall. The objective of this research is to assess the soil losses measured in road and railway embankments. The Canyoles River watershed was selected as an example of a region with a dense and recently developed modern network of roads, motorways and railway. The Canyoles river watershed is the natural path between the Mediterranean coast and Central Spain, the capital of the country and the touristic regions. Two motorways and two railways were built or re-built during the last two years and this paper assesses their impact on soil and water losses. As soil erosion rates are dependent on the high intensity - low frequency rainfall events, rainfall simulation experiments (40 experiments) were conducted (1 m2 plots; 60 minutes duration; 78 mm h-1 intensity) were carried out over plots on 2 railway (n=10 + 10) and motorway (n=10 + 10) research sites in August 2011, under very dry conditions. Soil moisture was below 5 % in the top 2 cm soil layer. The vegetation cover was very low in the two road and two railway embankments as the average cover was 4.2 % ranging from

  8. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei


    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  9. Occurrence and spatial distribution of emerging contaminants in the unsaturated zone. case study: Guadalete River basin (Cadiz, Spain). (United States)

    Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A


    Irrigation with reclaimed water is becoming a common practice in arid- and semi-arid regions as a consequence of structural water resource scarcity. This practice can lead to contamination of the vadose zone if sewage-derived contaminants are not removed properly. In the current work, we have characterized soils from the Guadalete River basin (SW Spain), which are often irrigated with reclaimed water from a nearby wastewater treatment plant and amended using sludge. Physico-chemical, mineralogical and hydraulic properties were measured in soil samples from this area (from surface up to 2 m depth). Emerging contaminants (synthetic surfactants and pharmaceutically active compounds, or PhACs) were also determined. Synthetic surfactants, widely used in personal care products (PCPs), were found in a wide range of concentrations: 73-1300 μg kg(-1) for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), 120-496 μg kg(-1) for alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), 19-1090 μg kg(-1) for alcohol polyethoxylates (AEOs), and 155-280 μg kg(-1) for nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs). The presence of surfactant homologues with longer alkyl chains was predominant due to their sorption capacity. A positive correlation was found between LAS and AEOs and soil organic carbon and clay content, respectively. Out of 64 PhACs analyzed, only 7 were detected occasionally (diclofenac, metoprolol, fenofibrate, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, famotidine and hydrochlorothiazide), always at very low concentrations (from 0.1 to 1.3 μg kg(-1)).

  10. Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater and identification of the geochemical sources in the Duero Cenozoic Basin, Spain (United States)

    Gómez, J. J.; Lillo, J.; Sahún, B.


    Arsenic concentrations surpassing potability limit of 10 μg/L in the groundwater supplies of an extensive area in the Duero Cenozoic Basin (central Spain) have been detected and the main sources of arsenic identified. Arsenic in 514 samples of groundwater, having mean values of 40.8 μg/L, is natural in origin. Geochemical analysis of 553 rock samples, assaying arsenic mean values of 23 mg/kg, was performed. Spatial coincidence between the arsenic anomaly in groundwater and the arsenic lithogeochemical distribution recorded in the Middle Miocene clayey organic-rich Zaratan facies illustrates that the rocks of this unit are the main source of arsenic in groundwater. The ferricretes associated to the Late Cretaceous-Middle Miocene siliciclastics also constitute a potential arsenic source. Mineralogical study has identified the presence of arsenic in iron oxides, authigenic pyrite, manganese oxides, inherited titanium-iron oxides, phyllosilicates and organomineral compounds. Arsenic mobilization to groundwater corresponds to arsenic desorption from iron and manganese oxides and from organic matter.

  11. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual


    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  12. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual


    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  13. Sédimentation et tectonique dans le bassin marin Eocène supérieur-Oligocène des Alpes du Sud Sedimentation and Tectonics in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene Marine Basin in the Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riche P.


    'exprime nettement moins que précédemment. Le toit des grès est marqué par une surface de discontinuité fortement érosive correspondant à des canyons sous-marins de direction NE-SO. Cette surface peut être mise en relation avec l'écoulement des olistostromes qui termine le remplissage du bassin. La mise en place de ces olistostromes et des olistolithes qui les accompagnent n'est pas paléontologiquement datée : elle débute avec la fin de la sédimentation gréseuse. L'ensemble est encore affecté par une distension E-O ce qui tend à montrer que cette mise en place est antérieure à la phase de serrage miocène. La confrontation entre les observations de terrain, les expériences de sédimentation en canal et l'interprétation sismique de bassins offshore argumente les interprétations proposées. This paper is based on local field surveys performed recently by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM in the western part of the southern Alps nummulitic basin, to help interpret seismic data. It underlines the role of extensional tectonics during sedimentation. It questions the geodynamic interpretation of the basin as a foredeep basin in the Alpine orogenic belt. On a Mesozoic basement folded by the Pyreneo-Provençale orogeny, as early as the Lutetian the nummulitic transgression flooded the eastern area, which was subsequently obscured by the Pennine main fault during Mio-Pliocene times. It spread westward during the Upper Eocene. In the meantime, an E-W extension, shown clearly along the Var River faults and along the edge of the Pelvoux range, fragmented the fringes of the basin with blocks tilted during sedimentation. The result is fast changes of facies within the basal carbonates, which pass from platform types to slope types and to thin gravitational sediments farther into the basin. The overlying marls correspond to slope facies wrapping the inherited topography. The Gres d'Annot s. l

  14. Natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Ll.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A


    A radiological characterisation of surface waters of the Ebro river basin was carried out during November 1994. For this purpose, 75 water samples were collected from points distributed throughout the Ebro river basin. Analysis included gross alpha and gross beta activities, relevant natural radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 234,238}U -uranium total-) and several artificial radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and radiocaesium). Mean gross alpha and gross beta activities in surface waters of the river's main course were 0.095{+-}0.004 and 0.213{+-}0.012 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Mean activities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and uranium (total) were 0.132{+-}0.009, 0.0282{+-}0.0008 and 0.053{+-}0.006 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Regarding artificial radionuclides, the mean {sup 90}Sr activity was 6.6{+-}0.3 mBq l{sup -1}, {sup 3}H was detected in 8% of the samples, and radiocaesium was not detected in any sample. It is estimated that almost 100% of gross alpha and 97% of gross beta activities of surface waters in the Ebro river came from natural sources. Furthermore, results showed that the geological setting, large cities, agricultural areas and dams strongly influence the occurrence of natural radionuclides. Contamination from nuclear power plants located along the river was not detected. Finally, we estimated that the annual dose equivalent due to the hypothetical ingestion of Ebro river waters was 7.59 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, which represented only 0.3% of the average annual effective dose attributable to natural background radiation in the area.

  15. Record of Carcharocles megalodon in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Miocene, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reolid, M.


    Full Text Available Tortonian diatomites of the San Felix Quarry (Porcuna, in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin, have given isolated marine vertebrate remains that include a large shark tooth (123.96 mm from apex to the baseline of the root. The large size of the crown height (92.2 mm, the triangular shape, the broad serrated crown, the convex lingual face and flat labial face, and the robust, thick angled root determine that this specimen corresponds to Carcharocles megalodon. The symmetry with low slant shows it to be an upper anterior tooth. The total length estimated from the tooth crown height is calculated by means of different methods, and comparison is made with Carcharodon carcharias. The final inferred total length of around 11 m classifies this specimen in the upper size range of the known C. megalodon specimens. The palaeogeography of the Guadalquivir Basin close to the North Betic Strait, which connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, favoured the interaction of the cold nutrient-rich Atlantic waters with warmer Mediterranean waters. The presence of diatomites indicates potential upwelling currents in this context, as well as high productivity favouring the presence of large vertebrates such as mysticetid whales, pinnipeds and small sharks (Isurus. These large vertebrates recorded in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin were potential prey of C. megalodon.Las diatomitas tortonienses de la antigua Cantera de San Félix (Porcuna, Jaén, en el sector oriental de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir, han proporcionado restos aislados de vertebrados marinos entre los que destaca un gran diente de tiburón (123.96 mm desde el ápice hasta la línea basal de la raiz. La altura de la corona (92.2 mm, su forma triangular con bordes aserrados, la presencia de una cara lingual convexa y una labial plana, conjuntamente con la raíz angulosa y robusta, permiten determinar que este diente perteneció a un ejemplar de Carcharocles megalodon. La alta simetría de la pieza

  16. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón


    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC farm residues. The highest NO3 concentrations (mean of 113 mg/L) and annual N loads (mean of 38 kg/ha) were found in Valcuerna, the most intense corn sprinkler-irrigated catchment. The lowest NO3 concentrations (21 mg/L; 5 times lower than Valcuerna) were measured in the Alcanadre flood-irrigated catchment. In contrast, Alcanadre N loads (21 kg/ha) were only about two times lower than in Valcuerna, due to the higher IRF volumes in Alcanadre (353 mm versus 132 mm in Valcuerna). Irrigation modernization in Violada decreased N loads from 20 to 5 kg N/ha (four times lower) due to the sharp reduction of IRF while maintaining NO3 concentration around 20 mg/L. The only significant contribution of ammonium (17% to the total N load of 13 hg/ha) was found in Clamor, the catchment with highest agro-industrial development. Overall, IRF salt and nitrate concentrations tended to increase and salt

  17. Sedimentology and hydrocarbon habitat of the submarine-fan deposits of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (NE Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotak, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Pereszlenyi, M. [VVNP Research Oil Company for Exploration and Production, Bratislava (Slovakia); Marschalko, R.; Starek, D. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Milicka, J. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Geochemistry


    The Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin accommodates a subsiding area of the destructive plate-margin. The basin history comprises marginal faulting and alluvial fan accumulation (E{sub 2}); transgressive onlap by shoreface sediments and carbonate platform deposits (E{sub 2}); glacio-eustatic regression induced by cooling (Terminal Eocene Event); forced regression, tectonic subsidence and growth-fault accumulation of basin-floor and slope fans (E{sub 3}); decelerating subsidence, aggradation and sea-level rising during the mud-rich deposition (O{sub 1}); high-magnitude drop in sea-level (Mid-Oligocene Event), retroarc backstep of depocenters and lowstand accumulation of sand-rich fans and suprafans (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}); subduction-related shortening and basin inversion along the northern margins affected by backthrusting and transpressional deformation (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}). The basin-fill sequence has poor (TOC {<=} 0.5%) to fair (TOC < 1.0%) quality of source rocks. Maturity of OM ranges from initial to relic stage of HC generation. Paleogene rock-extracts display a good correlation with scarce trapped oils. 'The presence of solid bitumens and HC-rich fluid inclusions indicates overpressure conditions during HC generation and migration. Potential HC reservoirs can be expected in porous lithologies (scarp breccias), in basement highs and traps related to backthrusting, fault-propagation folding and strike-slip tectonics. (author)

  18. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio


    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  19. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen


    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  20. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara


    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  1. Natural attenuation processes of nitrate in a saline lake-aquifer system: Pétrola Basin (Central Spain) (United States)

    Valiente, Nicolas; Menchen, Alfonso; Jirsa, Franz; Hein, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gomez-Alday, Juan Jose


    Saline wetlands associated with intense agricultural activities in semi-arid to arid climates are among the most vulnerable environments to NO3- pollution. The endorheic Pétrola Basin (High Segura River Basin, Central Spain) was declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution by the Regional Government of Castilla-La Mancha in 1998. The hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified waterbody, due to the inputs of pollutants from agricultural sources and urban waste waters, the latest are discharged directly into the lake without proper treatment. Previous studies showed that the aquifer system has two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas into the lake, and a density-driven flow from the lake to the underlying aquifer. The NO3- inputs derived from agriculture originate from nitrification of synthetic ammonium fertilizers, and afterwards, NO3- is expected to be attenuated by denitrification (up to 60%) in the saltwater-freshwater interface around the lake. However, the spatial and temporal pattern of nitrate reduction in lake sediments is not known. In this study, an isotope pairing technique was used in order to clarify the main pathways for the NO3- attenuation linked to the sediment-water interface. For that purpose mesocosm experiments were performed: organic-rich lake sediment (up to 23% organic carbon content) was incubated for 96 hours with the addition of 15N nitrate tracer. During the experiments two factors were modified: light and oxic conditions. Analyzing inorganic N-species (n=20) over time (72 hours) showed that NO3- attenuation was coupled with an increment in the NH4+ concentration (from 0.8 mg/L up to 5.3 mg/L) and a decrease in redox values (from 135.1 mV up to -422 mV) in the water column. The main outcome of this study was to elucidate the importance of different microbial pathways denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), in controlling the fate

  2. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  3. Geophysical evidence of crustal-heterogeneity control of fault growth in the Neocomian Iguatu basin, NE Brazil (United States)

    de Castro, David L.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Castelo Branco, Raimundo M. G.


    Models of fault growth propose that rift initiation starts with short fault segments. Knowledge of the growth of these segments and their interactions is important to understanding rift geometry and evolution. In the northern part of the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, a continental-scale, Cretaceous extensional system of faults has been observed to have reactivated ductile Precambrian shear zones. The faults form small grabens that represent the rift stage of the sedimentary basins. We integrated airborne radiometric and magnetic data with terrestrial gravity survey to investigate the influence of crustal heterogeneity on fault growth and the development of the extensional faults in one of these grabens, the Iguatu basin. Previous studies presented geophysical data, which provide evidence that the Iguatu basin contains a half-graben geometry. In our study, gravity and airborne geophysical data indicate that the basement of the Iguatu basin is part of a heterogeneous structural framework composed of two structural domains, is affected by several ductile shear zones and intruded by a few granite bodies. The gravity modeling reveals that this basin is composed of three right-bend en echelon fault segments. They form a sigmoid system of normal faults that accommodate the strong ˜90° bend of the Precambrian shear zones from E-W to roughly N-S. The growth of these segments led to the generation of two isolated depocenters. The overlapping fault segments link through relay ramps. Release faults that are nearly perpendicular or oblique to the three main fault segments form marginal strike ramps and horst structures in both depocenters. 3D-gravity modeling incorporates the presence of interfering sources of a heterogeneous structural framework. The modeling reveals a maximum sedimentary cover 1620 m thick, which occurs at the bend of the reactivated shear zones. The gravity signature of a possible granite body, after removal of the gravity effect of the basin

  4. Spectral analysis of hydrological time series of a river basin in southern Spain (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Fernández-Chacón, Francisca; Jiménez-Sánchez, Jorge; Chica-Olmo, Mario


    Spectral analysis has been applied with the aim to determine the presence and statistical significance of climate cycles in data series from different rainfall, piezometric and gauging stations located in upper Genil River Basin. This river starts in Sierra Nevada Range at 3,480 m a.s.l. and is one of the most important rivers of this region. The study area has more than 2.500 km2, with large topographic differences. For this previous study, we have used more than 30 rain data series, 4 piezometric data series and 3 data series from gauging stations. Considering a monthly temporal unit, the studied period range from 1951 to 2015 but most of the data series have some lacks. Spectral analysis is a methodology widely used to discover cyclic components in time series. The time series is assumed to be a linear combination of sinusoidal functions of known periods but of unknown amplitude and phase. The amplitude is related with the variance of the time series, explained by the oscillation at each frequency (Blackman and Tukey, 1958, Bras and Rodríguez-Iturbe, 1985, Chatfield, 1991, Jenkins and Watts, 1968, among others). The signal component represents the structured part of the time series, made up of a small number of embedded periodicities. Then, we take into account the known result for the one-sided confidence band of the power spectrum estimator. For this study, we established confidence levels of <90%, 90%, 95%, and 99%. Different climate signals have been identified: ENSO, QBO, NAO, Sun Spot cycles, as well as others related to sun activity, but the most powerful signals correspond to the annual cycle, followed by the 6 month and NAO cycles. Nevertheless, significant differences between rain data series and piezometric/flow data series have been pointed out. In piezometric data series and flow data series, ENSO and NAO signals could be stronger than others with high frequencies. The climatic peaks in lower frequencies in rain data are smaller and the confidence

  5. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain (United States)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.


    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater

  6. A Prediction Model of Oil Cracked Gas Resources and Its Application in the Gas Pools of Feixianguan Formation in NE Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongshan Wang


    Full Text Available The prediction of oil cracked gas resources is necessary and urgent in the gas exploration of these basins at high to over stage in China. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system in our study. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid, and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid, and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracked gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this model were discussed. Finally the model was extrapolated to the prediction of oil cracked gas resources of Feixianguan formation in NE Sichuan basin, SW China. The prediction value of oil cracked resources is about 6.84×1012 m3, and generation intensity of oil cracked gas is about 97.5×108 m3/km2, and the paleo-oil reserves is about 97×108 t. The verifying value for this prediction is approximately equal to 1, indicating the model is reliable in the resource estimation of oil cracked gas.

  7. Analyse séquentielle de l'Eocène et de l'Oligocène du bassin Parisien (France Sequence Analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene Paris Basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.


    Full Text Available Dans le Bassin parisien pendant l'Eocène et l'Oligocène, on dénombre vingt-deux discontinuités issues d'émersions correspondant aux périodes de bas-niveaux marins. La présence de fleuves est décelée dans les prismes de bordure de plate-forme et dans les prismes de haut niveau, remobilisant des stocks sableux anciens à partir des anticlinaux actifs et des bordures du bassin. Ainsi, indépendamment du volume disponible pour les sédiments, se succèdent des séquences dominées soit par des formations détritiques, soit par des formations carbonatées. La plate-forme parisienne a enregistré toutes les variations eustatiques connues, bien que les mouvements tectoniques syn-sédimentaires locaux puissent influencer fortement les conditions de sédimentation. Mieux encore, la plate-forme parisienne a subi des fluctuations marines d'ordre supérieur de très courte durée qui, si elles sont retrouvées dans d'autres domaines, pourront être attribuées à des phénomènes eustatiques. The Paris Basin (Map 1 is a classic example of a stable platform such as has been known throughout the World for a long time now. Aside from the Bartonian and Priabonian, all Eocene and Oligocene stages have been defined in the form of the following four international stratotypes : Sparnacian, Cuisian, Lutetian and Stampian. It should also be noted that the substages of the Bartonian (Auversian, marinesian and the Ludian, the equivalent of the Priabonian, are also Parisian. Even though gaps have recently been redefined (C. Pomerol, 1989, though the correlations between the different formations in the basin and those of the surrounding areas (D. Curry, 1967; et al. 1969, 1978; C. Pomerol, 1977; C. Cavelier, 1979; C. Cavelier and C. Pomerol, 1986 have now been determined, and though the worldwide eustatic sea level curve was partly plotted with the help of stratotype sections (B. U. Haq et al. , 1988, the Eocene and Oligocene sequence analysis of the paris Basin

  8. Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq


    Abdullah, Twana; Ali, Salahalddin; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Knutsson, Sven


    Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision meth...

  9. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tarriño


    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  10. Organic-rich shales from internal Betic basins (SE Spain): potential source rocks analogs for the pre-Messinian Salt play in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A.; Jorge, R.; Baudino, R.; Gilbert, L.


    Southeastern Spain has a large number of Late Neogene basins with substantial evaporitic deposits that developed under an overall NNW-SSE compressional regime related to the African-European tectonic plates collision. Located in the Betic Cordillera, they can be considered as marginal Mediterranean basins that became gradually isolated during the Tortonian and Early Messinian due to tectonic uplift. Different evaporitic units accumulated in these basins during isolation and, in several cases, evaporitic conditions were associated to episodes of important organic matter accumulation. Results obtained from Late Tortonian to Early Messinian shales collected from boreholes, mines and outcrops in the internal Betic basins of Las Minas de Hellín, Cenajo and Socovos are presented. The organic matter was studied under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the main geochemical characteristics defined. They show a relation between organic-rich intervals with high potential of hydrocarbon generation, native sulfur, bio-induced dolomite and evaporitic deposits. These organicrich shales can be found before, during and after the evaporitic episodes. Results from the present study are compared with those previously obtained in the pre-evaporitic deposits of the Lorca Basin that showed high oil generation potential, a restricted-marine origin of the organic matter and a low degree of maturity. The occurrence of such potential source rocks in several basins points to a broad regional distribution. At a larger scale, in the Mediterranean Basin, organic-rich sediments were deposited before and during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The studied examples could represent analogs for potential source rocks of the pre-Messinian salt play in the Western Mediterranean. (Author)

  11. Late Miocene extension partitioning in the eastern Betics: from W- to E-directed extension between the Sorbas and Vera basins (SE Spain). (United States)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Jose Miguel; Azañon, Jose Miguel


    Late Miocene westward-directed extension in the Betics produced elongated core-complexes like Sierra Nevada and the Sierra de Filabres, tilted-block domains and associated basins. This extension represents the superficial manifestation of the rupture of the Tethyan slab and associated edge delamination along a lithospheric transform fault beneath the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc orogenic system. However, crustal thinning at the eastern Betics occurs progressively towards the east suggesting an eastward-directed extension, probably related to the late Miocene opening of the Algero-Balearic basin. In order to define the kinematics and timing of such a heterogeneous extension at the eastern Betics we have carefully mapped a key area at the transition between the Sorbas and Vera basins. Field data indicate that extension in the area started at the southern margin of the Vera basin during the Serravallian (13.8 Ma) and continued until the Tortonian (approximately 8 Ma). This extension was characterized by a set of NE- to E-directed normal faults to the east, in the Vera basin, and a set of SW-directed normal faults to the west, towards the Sorbas basin. This opposite-directed extension is segmented by E-W to WNW-ESE strike-slip faults like the North Cabrera dextral transfer fault that accommodates NE- to E-directed extension to the north and SW-directed extension to the south. This structure resulted in westward tilted blocks that lead to Serravallian-Tortonian depocenters deepening towards the east at the Vera basin along the northern side of Sierra Cabrera. Meanwhile, at the western termination of Sierra Cabrera, westward-directed extension migrated SW-ward forming the Sorbas basin during the Tortonian (approximately 9-7.24 Ma). This extension was characterized by a listric fan of SW-directed normal faults highly segmented by E-W to NE-SW transfer. This extensional system produced tiled-blocks defining a Tortonian depocenter at the eastern margin of the Sorbas

  12. Marine Ingressive Events Recorded in Epicontinental Sequences:Example from the Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China in Comparison with the Triassic Central Europe Basin of SW Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pujun; LIU Wanzhu; YIN Xiuzhen; SCHNEIDER Werner; MATTERN Frank


    Songliao Basin is filled predominantly with continental facies sediments including alluvial fan, fluvial plain, fan delta, lacustrine delta, shore - shallow lacustrine, beach salty flat, semi - deep to deep lacustrine, subaqueous gravity flow,lacustrine swamp and pyroclastic sediments. However, some event units were formed during lake - marine linking periods of the Mid - Cretaceous in the basin, which include black shales with high values for salinity (Sr/Ba) , alkalinity ( Ca + Mg)/(Si + Al) , reducibility (Ni + Zn)/Ga and sulfide sulfur as well as heavy isotopes. The Breitenholz -section to be represented for facies comparison with the Cretaceous evaporitic series in Northeast China is localized in Southwest Germany. Stratigraphically it belongs to the Crabfeld Formation of Keuper of the Germanic Triassic corresponding to Ladinian - Carnian of the international reference scale, and is generally called Lower Gipskeuper. The Germanic Triassic was deposited in the epicontinental (cratonic) central Europe Basin. It covered the area in between Great Britain, North Sea, Poland and Southern Germany. It is composed of cyclic deposits of multicolored mudstones, gypsum/anhydrite, and dolomite beds. The two cases of marine ingression - influenced sequences share some common features.

  13. Syngenetic and diagenetic features of evaporite-lutite successions of the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Santana do Cariri, NE Brazil (United States)

    do Nascimento, Daniel Rodrigues, Jr.; da Silva Filho, Wellington Ferreira; Freire, José Gervásio, Jr.; dos Santos, Felipe Holanda


    The Ipubi Formation in the Araripe Basin (Northeast Brazil) has evaporite-lutite successions rich in gypsum, a mineral of great regional economic relevance, a highlighted stratigraphic mark, and also a natural boundary for underlying successions potentially analogous to "Pre-Salt" hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Brazilian coastal basins. In this study, syngenetic and diagenetic aspects of the Ipubi Formation at Santana do Cariri (Ceará State) were investigated by means of facies analysis, petrography, and mineralogical/chemical analyses of evaporites and shales. The results show that the contact relationship between evaporites and marly shales, without signs of subaerial exposure and laterally adjacent, was associated with shallow, calm and somewhat anoxic waterbodies, locally salt-supersaturated (brines) but under seasonal variations of water levels. This scenario could have shared place with hydrothermal phenomena in a playa lake depositional system. Regarding diagenesis, although there is evidence supporting pseudomorphic replacement of gypsum by anhydrite, the burial of the Ipubi Formation would have been limited due to the frequent occurrence of gypsum without any trace of chemical replacement.

  14. Estimation of areal precipitation based on rainfall data and X-band radar images in the Venero-Claro Basin (Ávila, Spain) (United States)

    Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; River-Honegger, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Agut, Robert Monjo i.; Díez-Herrero, Andrés; María Bodoque, José; José Tapiador, Francisco


    The aim of this work is to estimate the spatial-temporal rainfall during precipitation events with hydrological response in Venero-Claro Basin (Avila, Spain). In this small mountainous basin of 15km2, flood events of different magnitudes have been often registered. Therefore, rainfall estimation is essential to calibrate and validate hydrological models, and hence implies an improvement in the objectivity of risk studies and its predictive and preventive capacity. The geostatistical merging method of ordinary kriging of the errors (OKRE) has been applied. This technique has been already used by several authors to merge C-band radar and dense rain gauge networks. Here it is adapted to estimate hourly rainfall accumulations over the area with observations from one of the 5 existing X-band radar in Spain and 7 rain gauges located in the zone. Verification of the results has been performed through cross-validation comparing the estimation error of the OKRE with the one obtained adjusting the Marshall-Palmer relation. Analyzed errors are bias, the Hanseen-Kuiper coefficient and the relative mean root transformed error. Results have an average error of 15%, distinguishing quite well between dry and wet periods.

  15. Soil characterization in urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin (Southeast Spain) using H/V, F-K and ESAC methods (United States)

    Rosa-Cintas, S.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Molina-Palacios, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.; García-Fernández, M.; Jiménez, M. J.


    Bajo Segura Basin, placed in the south of Alicante province (southeast Spain), is a region of moderate seismicity, which presents frequent seismic episodes. This region, as the rest of south-eastern part of Spain, is growing both economically and demographically. Hence, the presence of soft soils in a seismic region where many towns and villages are placed shows the importance of an adequate characterization of the site effects study in this area. The present work investigates the use of noise measurements for soil characterization by the application of H/V method and array techniques: extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) and frequency-wave number (F-K) in three urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin. The application of these methods will help us to estimate the resonance frequencies, as well as shear-wave velocity profiles, having a better understanding of the sediment depth and site effects phenomena at the studied places. The estimated velocity profiles are used to model the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves and the S-wave site transfer functions. Finally, the correlation between this curves and the experimental H/V analysis has allowed us a better assessment of the site response in the studied areas.

  16. Predominance of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes from lacustrine sediments in Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau: Implications for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yongli [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Tibetan and Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fang Xiaomin, E-mail: [Institute of Tibetan and Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Western Resources and Environment of Education Ministry, College at Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Tongwei [Key Laboratory of Western Resources and Environment of Education Ministry, College at Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yuanmao; Wu Yingqin; He Daxiang; Wang Youxiao [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} This study reports the first observation of predominant even carbon-numbered n-alkanes of sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. {yields} Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for the special distribution of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. {yields} These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change. {yields} A close correspondence among the low ratio of n-C{sub 27}/n-C{sub 31}, the heavy {delta}{sup 13}C values of TOC and a strong even carbon-number predominance (low OEP{sub 16-20} values) from approximately 6.5 to 4.4 Ma and at approximately 8 Ma in the studied section suggests that n-alkanes with a high predominance of even carbon-numbers may be treated as geochemical proxies for arid climate. - Abstract: This study reports the first observation of predominant even C-numbered n-alkanes from sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. The n-alkanes showed a bimodal distribution that is characterised by a centre at n-C{sub 16}-n-C{sub 20} with maximum values at n-C{sub 18} and n-C{sub 27}-n-C{sub 31} as well as at n-C{sub 29}. The first mode shows a strong even C-number predominance (OEP{sub 16-20} 0.34-0.66). In contrast, the second mode has a strong odd C-number predominance (OEP{sub 27-31} 1.20-2.45). Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for this distribution of even C-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded

  17. Methane-rich fluid inclusions and their hosting volcanic reservoir rocks of the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pu-Jun; HOU Qi-jun; CHENG Ri-hui; LI Quan-lin; GUO Zhen-hua; HUANG Yu-long


    Methane-rich fluids were recognized to be hosted in the reservoir volcanic rocks as primary inclusions.Samples were collected from core-drillings of volcanic gas reservoirs with reversed δ12C of alkane in the Xujiaweizi depression of the Songliao Basin. The volcanic rocks are rhyolite dominant being enriched in the more incompatible elements like Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Th with relative high LREE, depleted HREE and negative anomalies of Ti and Nb,suggesting a melt involving both in mantle source and crustal assimilation. Primary fluids hosted in the volcanic rocks should have the same provenance with the magma. The authors concluded that the enclosed CH4 in the volcanics are mantle/magma-derived alkane and the reversed δ13C of alkane in the corresponding gas reservoirs is partly resulted from mixture between biogenic and abiogenic gases.

  18. Organic geochemical characterisation of shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Jauro, Aliyu; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode


    The shallow marine shales of the Cretaceous formations namely Yolde, Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye and Numanha ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian within the Yola Sub-basin in the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were analysed to provide an overview on their hydrocarbon generation potential. This study is based on pyrolysis analysis, total organic carbon content (TOC), extractable organic matter (EOM), biomarker distributions and measured vitrinite reflectance. The present-day TOC contents range between 0.24 and 0.71 wt. % and Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 8.7 and 113 mg HC/g TOC with Type III/IV kerogens. Based on the present-day kerogen typing, the shale sediments are expected to generate mainly gas. Biomarker compositions indicates deposition in a marine environment under suboxic conditions with prevalent contribution of aquatic organic matter and a significant amount of terrigenous organic matter input. Organic matter that is dominated by marine components contains kerogens of Type II and Type II-III. This study shows that the organic matter has been affected by volcanic intrusion and consequently, have reached post-mature stage of oil generation. These higher thermal maturities levels are consistent with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.85 to 2.35 Ro % and high Tmax (440-508 °C) values as supported by biomarker maturity ratios. Based on this study, a high prospect for major gas and minor oil generation potential is anticipated from the shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin.

  19. Paleoclimatic implications of micromorphic features of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros Desert (NE-Spain Implicaciones paleoclimáticas de los rasgos micromorfológicos de un suelo policíclico en el Desierto de Monegros (NE-España Implicações paleoclimáticas das características micromorfológicas de um solo policíclico no Deserto de Monegros (NE-Espanha

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    David Badía


    Full Text Available Pedofeatures can be repositories of information about soil forming factors such as climate. The aim of this work is to provide a model of interpretation of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros desert (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain and its relationship to environmental changes during the Quaternary. To achieve this goal, the physical, chemical, mineralogical and especially the micromorphic pedofeatures of this profile were studied. Carbonate accumulations extend into all of the horizons of the profile. The paleosol has a thick petrocalcic horizon at the top, with a massive-laminar structure comprising layers of micrite and sparite that sometimes form pendants. Towards its base, the petrocalcic horizon contains a spaced framework of orthic micrite nodules packed between relatively pure micritic laminar bands. Below the petrocalcic horizon, coatings and infillings of microcrystalline calcite occur in old channels, and soft concretions (some of them geodic indicate an in situ accumulation process (Bkc, calcic horizon. Another calcic horizon with orthic nodules of calcite, impregnative and diffuse (Ckc, is present at the bottom part of the profile. Between the two nodular calcic horizons, two recarbonated argic horizons are found (Btkc and Btk with coarse orthic nodules of dense micrite superimposed on textural pedofeatures. These textural micromorphic pedofeatures are: (1 interbedded microlaminated clay pockets not associated with current or past pores and (2 microlaminated clay and silt (dusty clay present as weakly oriented coatings on channel walls. Reduction pedofeatures are associated with textural ones: (1 coatings of manganese oxides around pore channels and cracks, and (2 nodules of manganese and iron oxides within the peds. The presence of calcic horizons alternating with argic horizons, all positioned below the petrocalcic horizon, confirm fluctuations in paleohydrological conditions in the Pleistocene. Its presence indicates that the oldest soil

  20. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías


    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  1. Using Geochemical Method to Distinguish Lateral Migration and Vertical Migration in Rifted Basin: A Case Study from Eastern Lujiapu Depression in the Kailu Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shuqing; HUANG Haiping; LIU Yuming


    Migration fractionation diagnosis is complicated in rifted basins where migration distance is generally short and lateral migration in sandy beds and vertical migration along faults are co-existed. Quantitative data from GC-MS analysis makes it possible to distinguish lateral and vertical migration effects. Oils discovered from the Jiaolige oilfield, eastern Lujiapu Depression are derived from single source rock with similar maturity, which is an ideal case to study the migration fractionation effects. Compositional differences among oils are largely caused by the migration fractionation either laterally in sand beds or vertically along the faults. Subtle maturity differences are assessed by the classic saturated hydrocarbon parameters which have certain influence on nitrogen compounds. In a certain maturity range, the ratios of shield and semi-shield isomers to the exposed isomers of alkylcarbazoles change with maturity in an opposite direction with migration fractionation, which may conceal the migration influence. However, migration and maturation have the same effects on absolute concentrations of aikylated carbazoles and benzocarhazole [a]/([a]+[c]) ratios, which provides an ideal tool for migration direction assessment. Continuous variations among different samples reflect increased migration distance in sandy beds, while abrupt changes may indicate the change of migration conduit systems. Integrated both geochemical interpretation and geological constrains, not only migration direction can be determined, but also the conduit systems through the sandy beds or the. faults can be recognized.

  2. Large depressions, thickened terraces, and gravitational deformation in the Ebro River valley (Zaragoza area, NE Spain): Evidence of glauberite and halite interstratal karstification (United States)

    Guerrero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge P.


    In the studied reach of the Ebro Valley, the terrace and pediment sediments deposited over glauberite- and halite-bearing evaporites show local thickenings (> 50 m) recording dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence. Recent data on the lithostratigraphy of the evaporite sequence allow relating the alluvium thickenings with either halite or glauberite dissolution. The alluvium-filled dissolution basin underlying the youngest terraces (T8-T11) is ascribed to halite karstification; the top of a halite unit approximately 75 m thick is situated 40-15 m below the valley bottom. The thickenings of terrace (T1-T7) and pediment sediments are attributed to interstratal glauberite karstification: (1) Coincidence between the elevation range of the terraces and that of the glauberite-rich unit. Glauberite beds reach 30 and 100 m in single-bed and cumulative thickness, respectively. (2) The exposed bedrock underlying thickened alluvium shows abundant subsidence features indicative of interstratal karstification. The most common structure corresponds to hectometer-scale sag basins with superimposed collapses in the central sector of each basin. The subsided bedrock is frequently transformed into dissolution-collapse breccias showing a complete textural gradation, from crackle packbreccias to chaotic floatbreccias and karstic residues. (3) Paleokarst exposures show evidence of karstification confined to specific beds made up of secondary gypsum after precursory glauberite, partly dissolved and partly replaced. Despite the magnitude of the subsidence recorded by the thickened alluvium and unlike nearby tributaries, the terraces show a continuous and parallel arrangement indicating that the fluvial system was able to counterbalance subsidence by aggradation. A number of kilometer-size flat-bottom depressions have been developed in the valley margin, typically next to and inset into thickened terrace and pediment deposits. The subsidence structures exposed in artificial

  3. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Jurassic siliciclastics in the eastern Kopet-Dagh Basin, NE Iran (United States)

    Zand-Moghadam, Hamed; Moussavi-Harami, Reza; Mahboubi, Asadollah; Aghaei, Ali


    The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) Mozduran Formation is the most important gas reservoirs of the northeast Iran. Siliciclastic facies of this formation in eastern most parts of the basin have not been studied yet. Therefore, four stratigraphic sections of Mozduran Formation have been selected in the Kole-Malekabad, Kale-Karab, Deraz-Ab and Karizak to interpret depositional history and analyze depositional sequences. Based on texture and sedimentary structures, 14 slilciclastic lithofacies were identified and classified into four categories, including conglomerate (Gms, Gp, Gt), sandstone (Sh, Sp, St, Sr, Sl, Sm, Se), mud rock (Fl) and intermediate sandstone-mud rock (Sr (Fl), Sr/Fl, Fl (Sr)). Identified lithofacies formed four architectural elements CH, SB, LA and FF. Lithofacies characteristics and architectural elements with mostly bimodal pattern of paleocurrents show that the majority of Mozduran lithofacies deposited in the coastal environment (tidal influence). Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that the Kole-Malekabad section consists of two depositional sequences while other sections are characterized by three depositional sequences. The lower and upper sequence boundaries of the Mozduran Formation in all stratigraphic sections are SB1 that are distinguished by paleosol and sometime conglomerate horizons. Most of depositional sequences in studied sections are composed only of TST and HST. The TST deposits consist mostly of quartzarenite and litharenite petrofacies that have been deposited in the tidal zone. HST packages are mostly including mud rocks with interdeds of sandstone lithofacies that are deposited in supratidal setting. The LST facies is recognized only in the DS3 (equivalent to the second depositional sequences of the Kole-Malekabad), which consist of conglomerate facies. Instead, the Kole-Malekabad section is often composed of supratidal gypsiferrous shales, indicating sea level fall in the study area.

  4. Transpressive inversion of a Mesozoic extensional forced fold system with an intermediate décollement level in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Carola, Eloi; Granado, Pablo; Quintã, Anna; MuñOz, Josep Anton


    In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain), normal faulting and associated folding occurred during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting. Cenozoic Pyrenean thick-skinned transpressive inversion in the western parts of the basin preserved the first-order extensional architecture. Integration of geological maps and seismic profiles has permitted to fully constrain the style of extensional deformation and subsequent inversion in the western portion of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. Extensional faults offset the Paleozoic basement up to Lower Triassic rocks. The presence of an efficient décollement level represented by Triassic evaporites produced the decoupling between basement rocks and the Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic prerift cover sequence. Extensional forced folding occurred in the cover, driven by basement faulting and the migration of evaporites toward the hanging wall of the extensional faults, with salt welds developing away from them. Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous syn-rift sediments deposited synchronously with forced folding, which led to the development of extensional growth geometries associated with both master faults and nearly-transverse faults. Syn-rift growth sequences are characterized by downlap and onlap relationships with the underlying prerift units, interpreted as the result of along-strike variations of master fault extensional displacement rate. Cenozoic Pyrenean contraction generated the right-lateral transpressive inversion of basement master faults and the almost dip-slip reactivation of transverse extensional faults.

  5. Assessing Nonstationary Spatial Patterns of Extreme Droughts from Long-Term High-Resolution Observational Dataset on a Semiarid Basin (Spain

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    Sandra G. Garcia Galiano


    Full Text Available In basins of South-eastern Spain; such as the semiarid Segura River Basin (SRB, a strong decrease in runoff from the end of the 1970s has been observed. However, in the SRB the decreasing trend is not only related with climate variability and change, also with intensive reforestation aimed at halting desertification and erosion, whichever the reason is, the default assumption of stationarity in water resources systems cannot be guaranteed. Therefore there is an important need for improvement in the ability of monitoring and predicting the impacts associated with the change of hydrologic regimes. It is thus necessary to apply non-stationary probabilistic models, which are able to reproduce probability density functions whose parameters vary with time. From a high-resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset of more than five decades (1950−2007, the spatial distribution of lengths of maximum dry spells for several thresholds are assessed, applying Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS models at the grid site. Results reveal an intensification of extreme drought events in some headbasins of the SRB important for water supply. The identification of spatial patterns of drought hazards at basin scale, associated with return periods; contribute to designing strategies of drought contingency preparedness and recovery operations, which are the leading edge of adaptation strategies.

  6. Sinkholes in the salt-bearing evaporite karst of the Ebro River valley upstream of Zaragoza city (NE Spain): Geomorphological mapping and analysis as a basis for risk management (United States)

    Galve, J. P.; Gutiérrez, F.; Lucha, P.; Bonachea, J.; Remondo, J.; Cendrero, A.; Gutiérrez, M.; Gimeno, M. J.; Pardo, G.; Sánchez, J. A.


    A detailed sinkhole map has been produced in a stretch of the Ebro Valley (40.8 km 2) including the western sector of Zaragoza city (NE Spain). During the last few decades, around 70% of the original sinkhole area has been filled with anthropogenic sediments causing the disappearance of 137 ha of wetlands. The interstratal karstification of salts (halite and glauberite) and a WNW-ESE-trending joint set have played a major control in the development of sinkholes. Three morphometric types of sinkholes have been differentiated, each attributed to a specific subsidence mechanism inferred from the paleosinkholes exposed in the surrounding of Zaragoza city; sagging of bedrock and cover, collapse of bedrock and cover, and collapse of cover material related to the downward migration of particles through dissolutional conduits. Each type of sinkhole is characterised by a distinctive behaviour in terms of controlling factors, spatio-temporal distribution and kinematics, and consequently the proposed differentiation may have a practical utility. The vast majority of the subsidence damage identified in the area occurs within the boundaries of pre-existing sinkholes identifiable in old aerial photographs and topographical maps. This fact demonstrates that the application of preventive planning strategies based on detailed geomorphological maps would have allowed avoidance of most of the large financial losses caused by subsidence in the area, of the order of hundreds of thousands of euros per year.

  7. The Messinian early Pliocene stratigraphic record in the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain): Implications for the Mediterranean salinity crisis (United States)

    Soria, Jesús M.; Caracuel, Jesús E.; Corbí, Hugo; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Lancis, Carlos; Tent-Manclús, José E.; Viseras, César; Yébenes, Alfonso


    The analysis of the Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphy of the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain) has revealed three highstand sedimentary phases (Messinian I, Messinian II, and Pliocene) bounded by two lowstand erosional surfaces (intra-Messinian and end-Messinian unconformities). The Messinian I highstand phase is characterized by the progradation of coastal and shallow marine sandstones (La Virgen Fm) over slope and pelagic-basin marls (Torremendo Fm). After this first phase, a fall in sea level brought about the intra-Messinian unconformity, a subaerial erosional surface with local accumulations of karstic breccias and caliche-like carbonate crusts. The Messinian II highstand phase is represented by sandy beaches and muddy lagoons (Garruchal Fm) correlative with shallow marine evaporites (San Miguel Fm); this second phase records the intra-Messinian reflooding of the basin, which characterizes the salinity crisis in the marginal basins of the Mediterranean. A new sea-level fall resulted in the end-Messinian unconformity, of which the most significant feature is the presence of a broad palaeovalley, c. 200 m deep, which, along its course, completely eroded the deposits of the Messinian II phase and part of the deposits of the Messinian I phase. The Pliocene highstand phase begins with coastal and shallow marine conglomerates and sandstones (La Pedrera Fm) which fill the deep part of the above-mentioned palaeovalley. These bottom deposits evolved gradually upwards towards pelagic marls (Hurchillo Fm), over which shallow marine and coastal sandstones prograded (Rojales Fm). This third phase records the flooding of the basin at the beginning of the Pliocene, when the salinity crisis ended in the marginal basins of the Mediterranean. The combination of calcareous nannoplankton biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy has confirmed that both the end of the sedimentation of the Messinian I phase, as well as the two lowstand erosional surfaces (intra

  8. Sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation assessment in abandoned copper and mercury mining areas of the Nalón River basin (Spain). (United States)

    Méndez-Fernández, L; Rodríguez, P; Martínez-Madrid, M


    Sediment toxicity and metal bioaccumulation were assessed at sites affected by historical copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) mining activities in the Nalón River basin, Asturias, Spain. Toxicity assessment of stream sediments was based on a 28-day oligochaete Tubifex tubifex sediment bioassay, which allowed the classification of sites into three levels of toxicity: 11 sites were classified as nontoxic (including Cu mine sites), three sites as potentially toxic, and seven sites as toxic (all located in Hg mine districts). The greatest levels of arsenic (As), chromium, Hg, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in T. tubifex were measured at sites affected by Hg mining and the highest Cu levels in tissues at Cu mining sites. Chronic toxicity responses were best explained by As and Hg sediment concentrations and by As, Pb, and Zn tissue residues. Residue levels of As, Hg, Zn, and Pb were successfully used to predict sediment chronic toxicity and estimate effective tissue residues.

  9. Chronology and tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Upper Pliocene to Quaternary deposits of the lower Guadalquivir foreland basin, SW Spain (United States)

    Salvany, Josep Maria; Larrasoaña, Juan Cruz; Mediavilla, Carlos; Rebollo, Ana


    This paper presents new litho, chrono and magnetostratigraphic data from cores of 23 exploratory boreholes drilled in the Abalario and marshlands areas of the lower Guadalquivir basin (the western sector of the Guadalquivir foreland basin, SW of Spain). The lithologic logs of these boreholes identify four main sedimentary formations, namely: Almonte Sand and Gravel, Lebrija Clay and Gravel, Marismas Clay and Abalario Sand, respectively interpreted as proximal-alluvial, distal-alluvial, alluvial-estuarine and aeolian. From radiocarbon and magnetostratigraphic data, these formations were dated as Upper Pliocene to Holocene. In the marshlands area, three main sedimentary sequences are present: an Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene sequence of the Almonte and Lebrija (lower unit) formations, a Pleistocene sequence of the Lebrija (upper unit) and the lower Marismas formations, and a latest Pleistocene to present-day sequence of the upper Marismas Formation. The three sequences began as a rapid alluvial progradation on a previously eroded surface, and a subsequent alluvial retrogradation. In the third sequence, estuarine and marsh sediments accumulated on top of the alluvial sediments. The aeolian sands of the Abalario topographic high developed coeval to alluvial and estuarine sedimentation after the first alluvial progradation, and continuously until the present. Correlation with the surrounding areas show that the sequences are the result of the forebulge uplift of the northern margin of the basin (Sierra Morena) and the adjacent Neogene oldest sediments of their northern fringe, both form the main source area of the study formations. This uplift occurred simultaneous to the flexural subsidence (SSE tilting) of the southern part of the basin, where sedimentary aggradation dominated.

  10. Long-term effect of no-tillage on soil organic matter fractions in rainfed Aragon (NE Spain Efecto a largo plazo del no laboreo sobre fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo en agrosistemas de secano en Aragón (NE España Efeito a longo prazo do plantio direto em frações de matéria orgânica do solo no sequeiro de Aragon (NE Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Blanco-Moure


    Full Text Available

    This paper assesses the long-term effect of no-tillage (NT on soil organic carbon (OC content and its distribution among different organic matter fractions in rainfed agrosystems of Aragón (NE Spain. Adjacent fields of NT, conventional tillage (CT and natural soils (NAT were compared in three different cereal production areas. In the soil surface, the higher OC content found in the NAT soils was due to the particulate organic matter. In the case of agricultural soils, in general, the fractions responsible for the OC increase under NT were the fine particulate organic matter and the mineral-associated organic matter occluded within stable microaggregates.

    En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto a largo plazo del no laboreo (NT en el contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo (OC y su distribución en diferentes fracciones de materia orgánica en agrosistemas de secano en Aragón (NE España. En tres diferentes zonas cerealistas se compararon campos adyacentes de NT, laboreo tradicional (CT y suelo natural (NAT. En la superficie del suelo, el mayor contenido en CO encontrado en los suelos NAT se debió a la materia orgánica particulada. En el caso de los suelos agrícolas las fracciones responsables del incremento de OC en NL fueron, en general, la materia orgánica particulada fina y la fracción organo-mineral de los microagregados estables.

    Este trabalho avalia o efeito a longo prazo do plantio direto (NT no conteúdo de carbono orgânico no solo (OC e a sua distribuição em diferentes frações da matéria orgânica em sistemas agrícolas de sequeiro em Aragon (NE Espanha. Campos adjacentes do NT, plantio convencional (CT e solos naturais (NAT foram comparados em três diferentes áreas de produção de cereais. Na superfície do solo, o maior teor de OC encontrado nos solos NAT deveu-se à matéria orgânica particulada. No caso dos solos agr

  11. Hydrology in a Mediterranean mountain environment, the Vallcebre Research basins (North Eastern Spain). IV. Testing hydrological and erosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Martinez-Carreras, N.


    Three modelling exercises were carried out in the Vallcebre research basins in order to both improve the understanding of the hydrological processes and test the adequate of some models in such Mediterranean mountain conditions. These exercises consisted of i) the analysis of the hydrological role of the agricultural terraces using the TOPMODEL topographic index, ii) the parametrisation of TOPMODEL using internal basin information, and iii) a test of the erosion model KINEROS2 for simulating badlands erosion. (Author) 13 refs.

  12. Mitilanotherium inexpectatum (Giraffidae, Mammalia from Huélago (Lower Pleistocene; Guadix-Baza basin, Granada, Spain - observations on a peculiar biogegraphic pattern

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    Morales, J.


    Full Text Available Giraffid fossils from the lowermost Pleistocene (MN17 locality Huélago (Guadix-Baza Basin, Granada, Spain are described and assigned to Mitilanotherium inexpectatum Samson & Radulesco (1966. The remains are compared to giraffid material from the Pliocene and younger. The known geographic distribution of this giraffid is disjunct; it is found in Spain and in an area stretching from Rumania and Greece to Tadzhikistan, but not in central Europe. The oldest record is from the Upper Pliocene (MN16 of Turkey and the youngest is from the Lower Pleistocene of Greece (with an estimated age of about 1.2 Ma. Shortly after 2.6 Ma it may have dispersed to Spain, where it may have lived as much as half a million years. The dispersal did not leave a fossil record in the area between SE Europe and Spain. The same occured with dispersals of other mammals in the Early, Middle and Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene. These species that show this pattern are interpreted to be adapted to open or arid environments. Their dispersals across Europe to Spain may have occurred during short periods of atypical environmental conditions and thus did not leave an easily detectable fossil record.Los fósiles de jirafas del Pleistoceno basal (MN 17 de la localidad de Huélago (Cuenca de Guadix- Baza, Granada, Spain son descritos y asignados a Mitilanotherium inexpectatum Samson & Radulesco (1966. Los restos fósiles son comparados con jiráfidos del Plioceno, y formas más recientes. La distribución geográfica conocida muestra que es disyunta; encontrándose en España y en un área que se extiende de Rumania y Grecia a Tadzhikistan, pero no en Europa central. El registro más antiguo procede del Plioceno Superior (MN 16 de Turquía y el más reciente del Pleistoceno inferior de Grecia (con una edad estimada de ca. 1, 2 Ma. Poco después de los 2,6 Ma la especie pudo haberse dispersado a España, donde como mucho pudo haber durado medio millón de años. Esta dispersion

  13. Assesment of PM10 pollution episodes in a ceramic cluster (NE Spain): proposal of a new quality index for PM10, As, Cd, Ni and Pb. (United States)

    Vicente, A B; Sanfeliu, T; Jordan, M M


    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. In this sense, modern and precise tools that allow scientists to evaluate, quantify and predict air pollution are of particular interest. Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter is a challenge faced by the European Union. Specific rules on this subject are being developed (Directive 2004/107/EC, Directive 2008/50/EC) in order to reduce the potential adverse effects on human health caused by air pollution. Air pollution has two sources: natural and anthropogenic. Contributions from natural sources can be assessed but cannot be controlled, while emissions from anthropogenic sources can be controlled; monitoring to reduce this latter type of pollution should therefore be carried out. In this paper, we describe an air quality evaluation in terms of levels of atmospheric particles (PM10), as outlined by European Union legislation, carried out in an industrialised Spanish coastal area over a five-year period with the purpose of comparing these values with those of other areas in the Mediterranean Basin with different weather conditions from North of Europe. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategic area in the frame work of European Union (EU) pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frit manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "ceramics clusters"; ones in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón. In this kind of areas, there are a lot of air pollutants from this industry then it is difficult to fulfill de European limits of PM10 so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. The seasonal differences in the number of days in which pollutant level limits were exceeded were evaluated and the sources of contamination were identified. Air quality indexes for each pollutant have been established to determine easily and clearly the quality of air breathed. Furthermore

  14. Hydrological response variability in a small vineyard catchment (D.O. Penedès, NE Spain): effects of rainfall intensity and soil moisture conditions (United States)

    Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep; Concepción Ramos Martín, M.; Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio


    The catchment of Hostalets de Pierola, a small tributary of the low course of the Anoia river (Llobregat basin), is located in the Catalan Prelitoral Depression (Penedès Depression) on Pliocene gravels and detritic Miocene substratum. The catchment size is 0.46 km2 with an average slope of 7.2 %. The main land use in the catchment is vineyards (62.3 %), with other crops and land uses with minor occupation: olive trees 4.8 %, winter cereals 9.5 %, alfalfa 8.5 %, among other). In order to carry out a research on the hydrological response and sediment transport in a representative catchment of vineyard areas in the Spanish Mediterranean region, the catchment was equipped with pluviographs to measure rainfall amount and intensity, soil moisture content sensors and a flume (HL 4" type) to measure water flow in the outlet. This water gauging allows to measure flows up to 3400 l•s-1, and it is equipped with two ultrasonic level sensors and a data-logger for data register. In parallel, monitoring of subsurface water flow of the catchment was carried out in the natural source called Can Flaquer. During the springs of 2011 and 2012 several rainfall events occurred, which allow a preliminary analysis of the hydrological response of the catchment, in comparison with rainfall characteristics (depth and intensity) and the antecedent soil moisture content. The spring events include episodes up to 27 mm, with maximum intensities of 50 mm•h-1 and peak flows up to 1100 l•s-1. The surface runoff of the catchment ceases very quickly, in a few hours after the end of rainfall events, indicating a limited role of soils in water retention and a very active percolation into the aquifer of the Pleistocene gravels. The runoff rates of the analyzed events were relatively low (between 1 - 12 %), depending on the rainfall characteristics and the antecedent soil moisture, indicating a high soil permeability. An important part of the infiltrated water follows a slow subsuperficial way to

  15. Assessment of brown trout habitat suitability in the Jucar River Basin (SPAIN): comparison of data-driven approaches with fuzzy-logic models and univariate suitability curves. (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Schneider, Matthias; Mouton, Ans M


    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive implies the determination of an environmental flow (E-flow) in each running water body. In Spain, many of the minimum flow assessments were determined with the physical habitat simulation system based on univariate habitat suitability curves. Multivariate habitat suitability models, widely applied in habitat assessment, are potentially more accurate than univariate suitability models. This article analyses the microhabitat selection by medium-sized (10-20 cm) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in three streams of the Jucar River Basin District (eastern Iberian Peninsula). The data were collected with an equal effort sampling approach. Univariate habitat suitability curves were built with a data-driven process for depth, mean velocity and substrate classes; three types of data-driven fuzzy models were generated with the FISH software: two models of presence-absence and a model of abundance. FISH applies a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the fuzzy rules. A hydraulic model was calibrated with the tool River-2D in a segment of the Cabriel River (Jucar River Basin). The fuzzy-logic models and three methods to produce a suitability index from the three univariate curves were applied to evaluate the river habitat in the tool CASiMiR©. The comparison of results was based on the spatial arrangement of habitat suitability and the curves of weighted usable area versus discharge. The differences were relevant in different aspects, e.g. in the estimated minimum environmental flow according to the Spanish legal norm for hydrological planning. This work demonstrates the impact of the model's selection on the habitat suitability modelling and the assessment of environmental flows, based on an objective data-driven procedure; the conclusions are important for the water management in the Jucar River Basin and other river systems in Europe, where the environmental flows are a keystone for the achievement of the goals established

  16. Origin of the tertiary red beds in the Northern part of the Duero Basin (Spain), II. Composition and genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabesoone, J.M.


    In this second paper the red beds outcropping in the northern part of the Duero basin have been treated regarding their mineral and pebble composition, chemical parameters, and surface textures of quartz sand grains, taking as basis the results reported in the first paper. These deposits originate f

  17. Actual extension of sinkholes: Considerations about geophysical, geomorphological, and field inspection techniques in urban planning projects in the Ebro basin (NE Spain) (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Ansón-López, D.; Gil-Garbi, H.


    Aerial photographs, historical cartographies, and field inspection are useful tools in urban planning design on mantled karst because they permit a wide time interval to be analyzed. In the case of Zaragoza city, several works have confirmed the interest of these approaches in configuring the urban planning code and therefore represent a promising technique. Nevertheless, some caveats should be taken into account when using this kind of information. A detailed analysis is presented comparing (in a case study from the surroundings of Zaragoza) geomorphological, historical analysis, and field inspection with geophysical data. Field inspection in a noncultivated area permits the constraint of the presence of karst indicators below the geomorphological resolution of aerial photographs and shows results consistent with geophysical surveys. The studied case shows an inner zone coinciding with the sinkhole mapped from aerial photographs that correlates with changes in the position of the substratum and changes in thickness of alluvial sediments. The integrated analysis permits us to define an external subsidence ring around the geomorphological sinkhole whose surface is twice the size of the inner zone. This outer ring is indicated by geometrical changes in GPR profiles, increases of thickness of the conductive shallower unit toward the collapse, and small collapses on marginal cracks. These results support the higher extension of karst hazards linked to sinkholes with respect to their geomorphological expression and the needed detailed analysis to constrain the real sinkhole size or the use of security radii surrounding this surficial evidence when geomorphological data is used for the hazard analyses or the urban planning at karstic zones.

  18. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchán, D., E-mail: [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); Auqué, L.F.; Acero, P.; Gimeno, M.J. [University of Zaragoza — Department of Earth Sciences (Geochemical Modelling Group), C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Causapé, J. [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain)


    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO{sub 3}, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO{sub 3}, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process

  19. First record of the mangrove palm Nypa from the northeastern Ebro Basin, Spain: with taphonomic criteria to evaluate the drifting duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Dominguez, R.; Cascales-Minana, B.; Ferrer, J.; Diez, J.B.


    Fossil fruits pertaining to the mangrove palm genus Nypa Steck, (Arecaceae, Arecales) were collected from a new plant-bearing assemblage in the Arguis Formation (Fm.), northeastern Ebro Basin (Arguis, Huesca Province, Spain). This formation is Bartonian to early Priabonian in age and comprises pro-delta and carbonate platform deposits. The new assemblage consists of nine specimens of fossil Nypa fruits and one monocotyledon leaf fragment. Over half of these fossil fruits are nearly-complete (i.e. with preserved mesocarps) while the other represent endocarps. From the point of view of morphology and size they resemble other European records of this genus. The type of remain preserved (fruits or endocarps), presence of abrasion, Teredo borings and sedimentary facies provide criteria to infer contrasting lengths of transport (drifting). However, they indicate in all cases that these fossil fruits were afloat in seawater for a considerable time. The discovery of Nypa fruits suggests a tropical-subtropical climate in the area, as well as the presence of a coastal environment and littoral forests during deposition. This interpretation corroborates previous findings from the nearby Eocene outcrops of the Catalan Central Depression (Eastern Pyrenees range). (Author)

  20. The Last Appearance Datum of Hipparion in Western Europe: magnetostratigraphy along the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary in the Villarroya Basin (Northern Spain) (United States)

    Pueyo, Emilio L.; Muñoz, Arsenio; Laplana, César; Parés, Josep M.


    The Villarroya Basin in Northern Spain contains one of the classic Villafranchian localities of Europe and allows about 100 m of sediments to be explored by magnetostratigraphic techniques. Besides, the occurrence of some other macro- and micro-mammifera fossils becomes Villarroya in one of the most important Villafranchian localities of Southern Europe. Therefore, we have sampled two sections (one contains the classic locality) to shed some light on its chronostratigraphy. Detailed stepwise demagnetization has revealed primary and reliable directions (carried by magnetite and hematite) in more than 250 samples and allows us building a robust local polarity scale. The correlation with the geologic time scale locates the local sequence along the Gauss and Matuyama chrons. A Réunion chron (C2r.1n) equivalent age (2.128-2.148 Ma) is here proposed for the Villarroya fossil locality since it is clearly located above the Gauss/Matuyama boundary (very well defined in the magnetostratigraphic section) and displays normal polarity. This correlation implies a new age assignment for the classic paleontological fossil locality of Villarroya and a Last Appearance Datum of Hipparion sensu lato in Western Europe significantly younger than previously established. Taking into account this new dating, the Hipparion and Equus horses could have coexisted in Europe up to the complete extinction of Hipparion in early Matuyama times.

  1. Facies control on seismites in an alluvial-aeolian system: The Pliocene dunefield of the Teruel half-graben basin (eastern Spain) (United States)

    Liesa, Carlos L.; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Ezquerro, Lope; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Ángel; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Simón, José L.


    The recognition of seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in sedimentary successions characterized by different facies, and hence by different rheology, is challenging. This is the case for high porosity and high permeability aeolian facies interbedded with muddy wet interdune deposits and alluvial conglomerates and sandstones. Several types of SSDS have been studied in two exposures of the Upper Pliocene (2.9-2.6 Ma) sediments of a fault-bounded intracontinental aeolian dune field in the Teruel Basin (Iberian Chain, eastern Spain). Among SSDS, load and fluid-escape structures, apart from several animal tracks, have been recognized. Those structures show an irregular distribution through the studied stratigraphic sections, being scarce in homogenous aeolian sands and frequent in water-related facies. A detailed study of the distribution and geometry of SSDS and their relationships with respect to the stratigraphic architecture and facies has allowed a critical discrimination of trigger mechanisms, i.e. biological or physical overloading vs. earthquakes. The seismically induced structures are concentrated into seven deformed beds, showing an uneven lateral distribution and geometry closely controlled by the hosting sedimentary facies and their rheology. These seismites resulted from liquefaction during moderate earthquakes (estimated magnitude from 5.0 to 6.8). The most probable seismogenic source was the Sierra del Pobo normal fault zone, located 2 km to the East. Results show how an appropriate recognition of sedimentary facies is crucial to understand the lateral variability of seismites in sedimentary environments characterized by sharp facies changes.

  2. On the origin of crevasse-splay amalgamation in the Huesca fluvial fan (Ebro Basin, Spain): Implications for connectivity in low net-to-gross fluvial deposits (United States)

    van Toorenenburg, K. A.; Donselaar, M. E.; Noordijk, N. A.; Weltje, G. J.


    Floodplain deposits are abundant in low-gradient dryland river systems, but their contribution to connected reservoir volumes has not yet been fully acknowledged due to their poor detectability with typical wireline log suites and relatively-lower reservoir quality. This study presents an analysis of stacked crevasse splays in the distal part of the Miocene Huesca fluvial fan (Ebro Basin, Spain). Vertical stacking of crevasse splays implies local aggradation of the active channel belt. Lateral amalgamation of crevasse splays created an elevated rim around their feeder channel, raising its bankfull height. Subsequent crevasse splays were deposited on top of their predecessors, creating sand-on-sand contact through incision and further raising the active channel belt. This process of channel-belt super-elevation repeated until an upstream avulsion occurred. Amalgamated crevasse splays constitute connected reservoir volumes up to 107 m3. Despite their lower reservoir quality, they effectively connect channel deposits in low net-to-gross fluvial stratigraphy, and hence, their contribution to producible volumes should be considered. Unswept intervals of amalgamated crevasse splays may constitute a secondary source of natural gas. Their interval thickness can serve as a proxy for feeder-channel dimensions, which can in turn be used to estimate the degree of stratigraphic connectivity.

  3. Geophysical characterization of stratigraphical surfaces: Basin floor and sedimentological architectural elements of Las Tablas de Daimiel (Quaternary of southern-central Spain) (United States)

    Rey, Javier; Martínez, Julián; Mediavilla, Rosa; Santisteban, Juan I.; Castaño, Silvino; de la Losa, Almudena


    In this paper we analyse and compare the efficiency of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as tools for stratigraphic and sedimentological studies. To this end, we carried out borehole drilling and geophysical survey campaigns in two locations in Las Tablas de Daimiel area (Ciudad Real, Spain). In this region, the Quaternary record is build up by siliciclastic deposits (gravel, sand and silt) of fluvial origin and organic matter-rich sediments (peat, clay and silty clay rich in organic matter) and carbonates (biogenic deposits mainly made up of Characeae) deposited in fluvial wetland environments that rest on Ordovician quartzites and Pliocene karstified carbonates. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) supported by surface and subsurface (boreholes) lithological information allow to identify the geometry of the basement-Quaternary boundary in two areas. The morphology of this boundary is controlled by fractures and the karstification of the top of the Pliocene limestones. Thirteen GPR profiles (100 and 250 MHz antenna) provide information about the morphology and internal structure of the sedimentary units, down to 4 m below the surface. The observed features include: onlap of the sediments on the edge of the basin, fossilization of small paleo-reliefs by lacustrine deposits and channel fills in the Holocene deposits, and the sinking-collapse structures in the Neogene substratum.

  4. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence. (United States)

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J


    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors.

  5. Hydrogeological behaviour of the Fuente-de-Piedra playa lake and tectonic origin of its basin (Malaga, southern Spain) (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Miguel; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Pedrera, Antonio


    Changes in the quantity of groundwater input due to water extraction for irrigation and urban supply has modified the water balance in the Fuente de Piedra playa lake. We have analysed the hydrogeology of the playa-lake system and developed a water-level model by means of a simple long-term water balance and piezometric analysis. In addition, a tectonic model is proposed to explain the endorheic basin development that led to the formation of the playa. Upright folds developed since the late Miocene and density-driven subsidence favoured the setting-up of and endorheic system located between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean basins in the Quaternary. The underlying low permeability rocks beneath the playa form a very stable aquitard with highly saline groundwater that prevents groundwater recharge of the lake into the aquitard. The hydrological modelling allowed us to simulate the evolution of the wáter level under a scenario of unaltered conditions during a 13-year period, showing that the percentage of days with dry conditions varies from 24.8% of the time under altered conditions to 14.9% as far as an unaltered scenario is concerned.

  6. On the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin basin (SE-Spain): Towards comprehensive understanding for effective remediation (United States)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.


    During the last two decades, the Guadalentin basin in south-eastern Spain has been the study area for many national- and international studies dealing with land degradation and desertification. One of the reasons for such a broad interest in the Guadalentin basin is that land degradation is generally considered severe in large parts of the basin due to a combination of the Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers followed by intense autumn rainfall, steep topography that marks most parts of the landscape, and fragile soils on erodible lithologies. The main types of degradation are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. Moreover, triggered by various political and socioeconomic drivers, important land use and management changes have taken place over the last centuries, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. Examples of such changes are large-scale land abandonment, a shift from dryland cereals production to large almond plantations, large scale land levelling for irrigated horticulture and urban expansions, and several types of agricultural subsidies. Numerous publications have been produced based on works done to address land degradation in the Guadalentin. However, until now there is no concise and integrated overview of what has been done and what is still missing regarding the study of the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation and conservation. This is in fact crucial to assist policy makers in making decisions that would effectively navigate land management in the area to a sustainable way. Here, we aim to provide such an overview by listing and discussing the main studies performed in this area, and by providing an integrated synthesis of the main physical- and socioeconomic factors identified in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. In overall, there has been a strong

  7. The Middle Aragonian (Middle Miocene Micromammals from La Retama (Intermediate Depression, Tagus Basin Province of Cuenca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilla, P.


    Full Text Available The micromammal fauna from the Middle Miocene (Middle Aragonian of La Retama, eastern central Spain, is described. It is a relatively poor rodent fauna composed by ten species only, associated to a highly diverse bat fauna, which includes five genera. The insectivores are represented by two species. This fossil assemblage has been correlated to zone Db (MN 5. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on micromammals indicates open and dry conditions for this locality.Se describen los micromamíferos del Mioceno medio (Aragoniense medio de La Retama, sector centro-oriental español. La fauna de roedores es relativamente pobre y está compuesta únicamente por diez especies. Sin embargo, cabe destacar la elevada diversidad de los quirópteros, representados por cinco géneros. Se describe también dos taxa de insectívoros. Esta asociación fósil ha sido correlacionada con la zona Db (MN5. La reconstrucción paleoambiental de La Retama inferida a partir de la fauna de micromamíferos corresponde a un ambiente abierto y seco.

  8. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)


    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  9. Microtectonic and geochemical characterization of thrusting in a foreland basin: Example of the South-Pyrenean orogenic wedge (Spain) (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Buatier, M.; Labaume, P.; Travé, A.; Dubois, M.; Charpentier, D.; Ventalon, S.; Convert-Gaubier, D.


    In orogenic systems, thrust faults play a major role in stacking different tectonic units and may act as conduits for the expulsion of large amounts of fluid of different origins (metamorphic, diagenetic, meteoric). This study focuses on the Monte Perdido thrust unit emplaced in the Paleogene Jaca thrust-sheet-top basin, in the SW-central Pyrenees. We aim to decipher the mechanisms and P-T conditions of deformation in fault zones and characterize the related fluid involvement, through combined microstructural, geochemical and microthermometry analyses. Two thrust faults cutting platform limestones, marls and siliciclastic turbidites of the lower part of the basin-fill (Paleocene-lower Eocene) have been studied. The fault zones are characterized by metre-thick shear zones with highly deformed, foliated clay-rich sediments. Foliation is underlined by preferentially oriented phyllosilicates. Several generations of shear and extension calcite, quartz and chlorite-bearing veins attest to fluid-rock interactions during a multi-stage deformation. Microstructural observations and stable isotope analyses on calcite from veins and host sediments suggest that deformation was aseismic and dominated by diffusive mass transfer from pressure solution sites along cleavage and stylolites to the precipitation sites in veins, with mineralizing fluids in equilibrium with the host sediments. Our results suggest an essentially closed hydrologic system, and imply the absence of significant fluid flow along the studied fault zones. Microthermometric study on fluid inclusions present in calcite and quartz veins, and calcite-quartz oxygen isotopic fractionation determined for the first generation shear veins, allow a geothermal gradient of 34 °C/km to be estimated. Analytical results demonstrate an evolution of the fault zones in three stages. The first stage was related to the emplacement of the Monte Perdido thrust unit during the middle Eocene at a temperature of ˜208 °C and a burial

  10. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain) (United States)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis


    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  11. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga


    Full Text Available The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  12. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain (United States)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.


    The forecast office of the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET) which is located in the city of Zaragoza provides weather forecast, warnings and aviation forecast products for Aragón, Navarra and La Rioja regions. This area of Spain lies mainly on the Ebro river basin. Although the likelihood of snowfall in this territory is low, a forecasting of snow-depth higher than 5cm for low elevations activates the orange warning which must be issued to local emergency management and civil protection authorities. Zero wet bulb temperature has been historically the main tool for forecasting the altitude of snow-rain boundary at the forecast office; it shows the freezing level limit due to evaporational cooling when lower troposphere is saturated from aloft. This work adds two new parameters, the 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness in order to characterize the thermal structure of surface based cold air and atmospheric mid-levels. The three main airports in this area Zaragoza-Aragón, Logroño-La Rioja and Pamplona-Navarra are located at altitudes below 500 m. They are thus suitable for this study. In addition, more than 16 years of meteorological observations every hour, known as METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), are available at these locations. These observations were analysed and the predominant precipitation type during a six-hour period was characterized. The 00h, 06h, 12h and 18h analysis time of the ECMWF Forecast model were employed in order to get the parameters at the day and time when the precipitation took place. The most representative grid point of the model for each airport was chosen in order to illustrate the atmospheric conditions. A correlation between precipitation type and zero wet bulb temperature, 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness was done for more than 230 different situations during a 16 year period. As a result, we plotted a series of site specific charts for each airport based on these parameters, in order to describe the

  13. Biomarker characterization of the record of the OAE1a (early Aptian) in Betic and Cantabrian basins (Spain)-Sedimentary implications (United States)

    Quijano, María. Luisa; Castro, José Manuel; Pancost, Richard D.; de Gea, Ginés. A.; Najarro, María.; Aguado, Roque; Rosales, Idoia; Martín-Chivelet, Javier


    Molecular analyses of sedimentary organic matter are powerful tools in assessing the origin of organic matter and its thermal maturity as well as constraining ancient environmental conditions, such as as marine productivity, anoxia in bottom waters or the photic zone and sea surface temperatures. This communication presents the study of four sections recording the OAE1a (early Aptian) in Spain, which are located in two broad basins respectively located in the South and the North of Iberia: the Southern Iberian Palaeomargin (Carbonero - CAB, La Frontera - XF and Cau - CAU sections) and the Cantabrian Basin (Puente Nansa - PN section). These sections represent depositional settings ranging from platform (CAU, PN) to pelagic environments (CAB, XF). C-isotope profiles and biostratigraphic data are used to define the interval corresponding to the OAE 1a. Here we focus on the biomarker composition of the organic-rich facies, and the integration of these data with the sedimentology, stratigraphy and paleogeography. The study has been based mainly upon the analysis of samples with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Four main groups of compounds are present in all sections: n-alkanes, isoprenoids, hopanes and steranes. n-Alkanes and isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) are dominant in most samples. To facilitate interpretation of these distributions, we have calculated the TAR (terrestrial aquatic ratio derived from the ratio of long to short chain compounds) and also the OEP (odd over even predominance of n-alkanes). The ratio of pristane to phytane and various isoprenoid/n-alkanes ratios have also been calculated. The hopanes are represented by a range of C27 to C35 components, with the specific isomers varying amongst the sections due to differences in thermal maturity. Steranes occur as a range of C27, C28 and C29 isomers, whereas diasteranes only occur in the most thermally mature section (CAB). Other compounds of interest include gammacerane and dinosterane

  14. Factors selection in landslide susceptibility modelling on large scale following the gis matrix method: application to the river Beiro basin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costanzo


    Full Text Available A procedure to select the controlling factors connected to the slope instability has been defined. It allowed us to assess the landslide susceptibility in the Rio Beiro basin (about 10 km2 over the northeastern area of the city of Granada (Spain. Field and remote (Google EarthTM recognition techniques allowed us to generate a landslide inventory consisting in 127 phenomena. To discriminate between stable and unstable conditions, a diagnostic area had been chosen as the one limited to the crown and the toe of the scarp of the landslide. 15 controlling or determining factors have been defined considering topographic, geologic, geomorphologic and pedologic available data. Univariate tests, using both association coefficients and validation results of single-variable susceptibility models, allowed us to select the best predictors, which were combined for the unique conditions analysis. For each of the five recognised landslide typologies, susceptibility maps for the best models were prepared. In order to verify both the goodness of fit and the prediction skill of the susceptibility models, two different validation procedures were applied and compared. Both procedures are based on a random partition of the landslide archive for producing a test and a training subset. The first method is based on the analysis of the shape of the success and prediction rate curves, which are quantitatively analysed exploiting two morphometric indexes. The second method is based on the analysis of the degree of fit, by considering the relative error between the intersected target landslides by each of the different susceptibility classes in which the study area was partitioned. Both the validation procedures confirmed a very good predictive performance of the susceptibility models and of the actual procedure followed to select the controlling factors.

  15. Determining the sources of suspended sediment in a Mediterranean groundwater-dominated river: the Na Borges basin (Mallorca, Spain). (United States)

    Estrany, Joan; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria


    Tracers have been acknowledged as a useful tool to identify sediment sources, based upon a variety of techniques and chemical and physical sediment properties. Sediment fingerprinting supports the notion that changes in sedimentation rates are not just related to increased/reduced erosion and transport in the same areas, but also to the establishment of different pathways increasing sediment connectivity. The Na Borges is a Mediterranean lowland agricultural river basin (319 km2) where traditional soil and water conservation practices have been applied over millennia to provide effective protection of cultivated land. During the twentieth century, industrialisation and pressure from tourism activities have increased urbanised surfaces, which have impacts on the processes that control streamflow. Within this context, source material sampling was focused in Na Borges on obtaining representative samples from potential sediment sources (comprised topsoil; i.e., 0-2 cm) susceptible to mobilisation by water and subsequent routing to the river channel network, while those representing channel bank sources were collected from actively eroding channel margins and ditches. Samples of road dust and of solids from sewage treatment plants were also collected. During two hydrological years (2004-2006), representative suspended sediment samples for use in source fingerprinting studies were collected at four flow gauging stations and at eight secondary sampling points using time-integrating sampling samplers. Likewise, representative bed-channel sediment samples were obtained using the resuspension approach at eight sampling points in the main stem of the Na Borges River. These deposits represent the fine sediment temporarily stored in the bed-channel and were also used for tracing source contributions. A total of 102 individual time-integrated sediment samples, 40 bulk samples and 48 bed-sediment samples were collected. Upon return to the laboratory, source material samples were

  16. Magnetic properties contribution to the identification and provenance of marine sediments: distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Spain) (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia


    This paper discusses the advantages of using a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal IRDs occurring during the Last Glacial Period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB). Six Heinrich layers (HL1-6) have been identified in the area in base to the detection of distinct populations of exotic magnetic mineral assemblages alien to the local/regional sedimentation environment. Their extension has been determined by Ca/Sr and Si/Sr ratios and their provenance by 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios and FORCs. The sedimentary expression of HL is characterized by the presence of distal Ice Rafted Detritus (IRD). Distal IRD magnetic signatures in the GIB consist of (i) an increase of one order of magnitude in the peak amplitude of magnetic susceptibility from background values, (ii) a general coarsening of the magnetic grain size in a mineral assemblage dominated by titano-magnetites, (iii) FORC distributions pushing towards the coarse MD or PSD component, and (iv) thermomagnetic curves depicting the occurrence of several magnetite phases. These four features are very different from the fine-grained biogenic magnetic assemblages characterized by the combination of lower MS and higher coercivity values that dominate the predominant mixtures of the non-interacting SSD and PSD components in the non-IRD influenced background sedimentation. Our results show that the last 70.000 yr of sedimentation in the GIB were controlled by the relative contribution of local detrital material derived from the Iberian Variscan Chain and IRD alien material from the iceberg melting during the Heinrich Events. They also show two main IRD provenance fields: Europe and Canada. And that the later is more important for for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. FORCs analysis complemented the isotopic information and provided a very unique information, indicating that glacial flour may not always have the same provenance as IRD and that

  17. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany) (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard


    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  18. Approach to the Lower Pliocene marine-continental correlation from southern Spain. The micrommamal site of Alhaurín el Grande-1 (Málaga Basin, Betic Cordillera, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra-Merchán, A.


    Full Text Available A new micromammal site at Alhaurín el Grande (Málaga, southern Spain located above early Pliocene marine deposits allows an approach to the marine-continental correlation for this age. The early Pliocene marine filling throughout the Málaga Basin is developed in three transgressive-regressive sequences (Pl-1, Pl-2, and Pl-3 units bounded by discontinuities. At the top of the intermediate sequence Pl-2, peaty sediments have yielded fossils of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora, and Crocodylia. The presence of Cricetus barrieri Mein & Michaux, 1970 in combination with murids, both of primitive morphology, such as Apodemus gudrunae Van de Weerd, 1976, something clearer (i.e. Occitanomys brailloni Michaux, 1969 and Stephanomys donnezani cordii Ruiz Bustos, 1986, points to an early Ruscinian age(MN14 biozone. Based on the planktonic foraminifers, the biostratigraphic data indicate that marine sediments just below the micromammal beds belong to the the MPl-2 biozone of the early Zanclean. Available paleomagnetic data from the marine sediments show that the micromammal bed must be located between the normal geomagnetic subchron C3n3n (4.89-4.80 Ma and the subchron C3n2n (4.63-4.49 Ma, limiting the age of this site to the late part of the early Zanclean.Un nuevo yacimiento de micromamíferos en Alhaurín el Grande (Málaga, Sur de España situado sobre depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior permite una aproximación a la correlación marino-continental para esa época. El relleno sedimentario marino del Plioceno inferior en el conjunto de la cuenca de Málaga comprende tres secuencias transgresivas-regresivas (unidades Pl-1, Pl-2 y Pl-3 limitadas por discordancias. A techo de la secuencia intermedia Pl-2, sedimentos turbosos han liberado restos de Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora y Crocodylia. La presencia de Cricetus barrieri Mein & Michaux, 1970 en asociación con dos múridos, uno con morfología primitiva (Apodemus gudrunae Van de Weerd, 1976 y

  19. The cosmogenic record of mountain erosion transmitted across a foreland basin: Source-to-sink analysis of in situ10Be, 26Al and 21Ne in sediment of the Po river catchment (United States)

    Wittmann, Hella; Malusà, Marco G.; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo; Niedermann, Samuel


    We analyze the source-to-sink variations of in situ10Be, 26Al and 21Ne concentrations in modern sediment of the Po river catchment, from Alpine, Apennine, floodplain, and delta samples, in order to investigate how the cosmogenic record of orogenic erosion is transmitted across a fast-subsiding foreland basin. The in situ10Be concentrations in the analyzed samples range from ∼ 0.8 ×104 at /gQTZ to ∼ 6.5 ×104 at /gQTZ. The 10Be-derived denudation rates range from 0.1 to 1.5 mm/yr in the Alpine source areas and from 0.3 to 0.5 mm/yr in the Apenninic source areas. The highest 10Be-derived denudation rates are found in the western Central Alps (1.5 mm/yr). From these data, we constrain a sediment flux leaving the Alpine and the Apenninic source areas (>27 Mt/yr and ca. 5 Mt/yr, respectively) that is notably higher than the estimates of sediment export provided by gauging (∼10 Mt/yr at the Po delta). We observe a high variability in 10Be concentrations and 10Be-derived denudation rates in the source areas. In the Po Plain, little variability is observed, and at the same time, the area-weighed 10Be concentration of (2.29 ± 1.57) ×104 at /gQTZ (±1 SD of the dataset) from both the Alps and the Apennines is poorly modified (by tributary input) in sediment of the Po Plain ((2.68 ± 0.78 , ± 1 SD) ×104 at /gQTZ). The buffering effect of the Po floodplain largely removes scatter in 10Be signals. We test for several potential perturbations of the cosmogenic nuclide record during source to sink transfer in the Po basin. We find that sediment trapping in deep glacial lakes or behind dams does not significantly change the 10Be-mountain record. For example, similar 10Be concentrations are measured upstream and downstream of the postglacial Lake Maggiore, suggesting that denudation rates prior to lake formation were similar to today's. On the scale of the entire basin, the 10Be concentration of basins with major dams is similar to those without major dams. A potential

  20. Late Oligocene-Early Miocene magnetochronology of the mammalian faunas in the Lanzhou Basin-environmental changes in the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Li, Yongxiang; An, Zhisheng


    A large number of terrestrial mammalian fossils were reported in the well-exposed Paleogene and Neogene fluvio-lacustrine strata in Western China. Their accurate ages are crucial to understand the mammalian and environmental evolution associated with the step-wise uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. At present their ages are surprisingly poorly constrained. Here, we present a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene mammal assemblages from a 233-m thick fluvio-lacustrine section in the Lanzhou Basin located at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China. The results suggest that the section spans from the polarity subchron C6Cn.2r to C5En, i.e. ranging from ca 23 to 18 Ma. This magnetochronology provides considerably more robust ages for three associated land mammalian faunal assemblages. Updated ages end the debate on existing ambiguous and distinctly different magnetostratigraphic correlations for those Late Oligocene-Early Miocene assemblages. The new ages now enable precise correlation of these faunas to the European Land Mammal and North American Land Mammal Ages. The faunal assemblages further suggest a mixed setting of woodlands and grasslands associated with a humid environment in the Lanzhou Basin during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, in contrast to its modern poor vegetation cover and arid environment.

  1. A record of Quaternary humidity fluctuations on the NE Tibetan Plateau based on magnetic susceptibility variations in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam Basin (United States)

    Herb, Christian; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Pross, Jörg; Fang, Xiaomin


    Magnetic susceptibility (?) and other magnetic proxies play an important role in paleoclimatic studies as they hold the potential for high-resolution records of past environmental change. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand the cause of the variation in magnetic proxies by comparing them to more direct climate proxies such as pollen or stable isotopes. In this study we have compiled a high-resolution magnetic proxy dataset of the ca. 940-m-long core SG-1, which was drilled in the lacustrine sediments of the western Qaidam Basin on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our record spans the entire Quaternary (~2.8 to 0.1 Ma). The magnetic susceptibility record is compared to the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio, which is used to discriminate between dry and more humid phases in the Qaidam Basin, based on (i) 41 samples spanning the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ~1 Ma BP) and (ii) additional 40 samples selected from intervals of minimum and maximum ? values throughout the core. For the drill core SG-1, we observe a high correlation of the A/C ratio with ? results: minima of ? correspond to maxima of the A/C ratio (representing more humid phases) and vice versa. Additionally, spectral analysis of the ? record shows the emergence of the 100-ka Milankovitch cycle after the MPT. This testifies to the fact that cyclic variation of ? represents a response to global climate change.

  2. Samotragus pilgrimi n. sp., a new species of Oiocerini (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Middle Miocene of SpainSamotragus pilgrimi n. sp., un nouvel Oicerini (Bovidae, Mammalia) du Miocène moyen d'Espagne (United States)

    Azanza, Beatriz; Nieto, Manuel; Morales, Jorge


    A new Oiocerini, Samotragus pilgrimi n. sp., from the Middle Miocene of Spain is described. This medium sized bovid is characterized by large, massive, inverse-twisted horn cores with an abrupt narrowing of the section at mid-length. These features allow the inclusion of this form within the genus Samotragus. To date, this form is the earliest and westernmost record of this tribe.

  3. Variation of olivine composition in the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: lithosphere control on the origin of the K-rich intraplate mafic lavas (United States)

    Zhang, L.-Y.; Prelević, D.; Li, N.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Buhre, S.


    Lithospheric thickness and the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere are two major parameters that play a role in determining the final composition of the mafic melts and their minerals. The Songliao basin in northeast China represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the effect of these two parameters on early Pliocene to Holocene K-rich mafic lavas (K2O > 4 wt.%; K2O/Na2O > 1). A series of Cenozoic volcanic edifices (Erkeshan, Wudalianchi, Keluo and Xiaogulihe) are tentatively divided into three groups (Group 1 - thin, Group 2 - middle, and Group 3 - thick) according to the lithosphere thickness. They are located in the northern region of the Songliao basin extending in a near north-south direction along a broad zone where the lithosphere thickness increases gradually. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical study on olivine macrocrysts in combination with new geochemical data on their host lavas, including major and trace element abundances as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic signatures. Our ultimate aim is to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the role of lithospheric mantle thickness (named as "lid effect") and composition in the variation of mafic lavas and olivine composition. When corrected to Mg# = 0.72, a number of major elements in the lavas correlate with increasing lithospheric thickness (L): Si72 and Al72 decrease, whereas Mg72, Fe72, Ti72 and P72 increase. Sm/Yb ratios in the lavas increase, implying that lithospheric thickness exerts an important control. Group 3 mafic lavas are ultrapotassic (showing lamproite affinity) with K2O/Na2O > 4: their La/Sm and Pb isotope ratios deviate from the above correlations, indicating that the lavas from the thickest part of the basin exhibit the highest extent of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source. Several parameters (e.g. [Ni], Ni/Mg, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Mn/Fe and Ca/Fe) in melt-related olivine from Group 1 and Group 2 lavas are controlled by variable lithosphere thickness. Olivine

  4. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  5. Paleoclimatic implications of magnetic susceptibility in Late Pliocene-Quaternary sediments from deep drilling core SG-1 in the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau) (United States)

    Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Yan, Maodu; Song, Chunhui; Cao, Liwan


    Lake sediments are important archives of paleoclimate change and erosion history. A 938.5 m long core (SG-1) of lacustrine sediments, dated at 2.77 Ma to 0.1 Ma, was obtained from the western Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, consisting of dark grayish mudstone and grayish siltstone, intercalated with salts and fine sandstones in the upper part. Magnetic susceptibility data, combined with detailed rock magnetic properties, were analyzed for revealing the significance of ferro(i)magnetic concentration for past changes of climate and erosion. Mass-specific susceptibility (χ) shows a striking cyclic and long-term variation. Samples with high χ values are dominated by magnetite and maghemite with pseudo-single-domain properties. In contrast, samples with low χ values contain maghemite from single-domain to multidomain and, additionally, a significant fraction of hematite. The driving mechanism of χ variation can be explained by three alternative models: (1) different source regions with alternations of wind and cryoclastic erosion in a wider hinterland (dry-cold climate) and surface runoff erosion from a narrower area (more humid climate) and (2 and 3) low-temperature oxidation, occurring either in the lake sediments (dry climate) or in the catchment area during weathering (more humid climate). Trends of χ match with changes in sedimention rates and are roughly synchronous with the deep-sea δ18O record on a glacial-interglacial timescale. Therefore, the concentration of magnetic minerals in the western Qaidam Basin sediments is likely controlled by both tectonic influence and paleoenvironmental changes but can be best interpreted by alternations and trends of dry-cold and more humid periods due to Asian drying and global cooling.

  6. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd( t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd( t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  7. Advanced interpretation of ground motion using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case of study (United States)

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Zucca, Francesco; Bejar, Marta; González, Pablo; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás, Roberto; Fernandez, José; Fernández-Merodo, José; Mulas, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Mora, Oscar


    Subsidence related to fluid withdrawal has occurred in numerous regions of the world. The phenomena is an important hazard closely related to the development of urban areas. The analysis of the deformations requires an extensive and continuous spatial and temporal monitoring to prevent the negative effects of such risks on structures and infrastructures. Deformation measurements are fundamental in order to identify the affected area extension, to evaluate the temporal evolution of deformation velocities and to identify the main control mechanisms. Differential SAR interferometry represents an advanced remote sensing tool, which can map displacements at very high spatial resolution. The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique is a class of SAR interferometry that uses point-wise radar targets (PS) on the ground whose phase is not interested by temporal and geometrical decorrelation. This technique generates starting from a set of images two main products: the displacement rate along line of sight (LOS) of single PS; and the LOS displacement time series of individual PS. In this work SAR data with different spatio-temporal resolution were used to study the displacements that occur from 1992 to 2012 in the Alto Guadalentin Basin (southern Spain), where is located the city of Lorca The area is affected by the highest rate of subsidence measured in Europe (>10 cm/yr-1) related to long-term exploitation of the aquifer (González et al. 2011). The objectives of the work were 1) to analyse land subsidence evolution over a 20-year period with PSI technique; 2) to compare the spatial and temporal resolution of SAR data acquired by different sensors, 3) to investigate the causes that could explain this land motion. The SAR data have been obtained with ERS-1/2 & ENVISAT (1992-2007), ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) images, processed with the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique. The PSI data obtained from different satellite from 1992 to 2012

  8. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence bou

  9. n-alkane distribution coupled with organic carbon isotope composition in the shell bar section, Qarhan paleolake, Qaidam basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang PU; Hucai ZHANG; Guoliang LEI; Fengqin CHANG; Mingsheng YANG; Xianyu HUANG


    Lipids extracted from lacustrine deposits in the paleolake Qarhan of the Qaidam basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau were determined by conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several series of biomarkers were identified, mainly including n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanoic acids, branched alkanes, triter-penoids and steroids, indicative of various biogenic contributions. On the basis of cluster analysis, the n-C15, n-C17, n-C19 alkanes were proposed to be derived from algae and/or photosynthetic bacteria, the n-C21 n-C23, n-C25 homologues from aquatic plants, and the n-C29, n-C31 homologues from vascular plants. In contrast, the n-C27 alkane is not categorized in the n-C29 and n-C31 group of alkanes, probably due to more complex origins including both aquatic and vascular plants, and/or differential biodegradation. Stratigraphically, layers-2, 4 and 5 were found to show a close relationship in n-alkane distribution, associated with a positive shift in carbon isotope composition of bulk organic matter (δ13Corg), inferring a cold/dry period. Layers-1 and 6 were clustered together in association with a negative δ13Corg excursion, probably indicating a relatively warm/humid climate. The potential coupling between the n-alkane distributions and δ13Corg, suggests a consequence of vegetation change in response to climate change, with the late MIS3 being shown to be unstable, thought to be the climatic optimum in the Tibetan Plateau. Our results suggest that the cluster analysis used in this study probably provides an effective and authentic method to investigate the n-alkane distribution in paleolake sediments.

  10. On the ecological context of the earliest human settlements in Europe: Resource availability and competition intensity in the carnivore guild of Barranco León-D and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain) (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Palmqvist, Paul; Rodríguez, Jesús; Mateos, Ana; Martín-González, Jesús A.; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido


    With an age of ∼1.4 Ma, the Early Pleistocene archaeopaleontological sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain) provide the oldest evidence on human presence in Western Europe, including the finding of a deciduous tooth of Homo sp., huge lithic assemblages of Oldowan tradition and abundant cut-marks on large mammal bones. Here we use a mathematical approach based on Leslie matrices to quantify for the large mammal species preserved at the sites the biomass of primary consumers available, the distribution of meat resources among the secondary consumers and the competition intensity within the carnivore guild. The results obtained show a community of large mammals with a high diversity of secondary consumers that would satisfy slightly less than half of their dietary requirements under optimal ecological conditions. In the case of Homo sp., and considering that flesh resources were obtained through the scavenging of ungulate carcasses, the model indicates that the ecosystems of the basin could hold 10-14 individuals per 100 km2 during a year, a value that is close to the mean population density of recent hunter-gatherers. These density estimates decrease slightly when a mixed hunting-scavenging strategy is considered and even more in the case of a strict hunting behavior. In addition, the value of the species competition index obtained for Homo sp. is among the lowest of the carnivore guild. These results suggest that the hominin populations that inhabited Southeast Spain during the Early Pleistocene behaved more as opportunistic scavengers than as active predators.

  11. Early Pliocene transgressive coastal lags (Bajo Segura Basin, Spain): a marker of the flooding after the Messinian salinity crisis [rapid communication (United States)

    Caracuel, Jesús E.; Soria, Jesús M.; Yébenes, Alfonso


    The Messinian salinity crisis is recorded on the northern margin of the Bajo Segura Basin by lacustrine and fluvial deposits coeval to the evaporites that precipitated in the basin's central areas. These syn-evaporitic Messinian deposits are bounded at the top by an erosional surface caused by a fall in base level (end-Messinian unconformity) on which an early Pliocene sequence is located. The latter begins with a coastal lag, consisting of oncoliths and carbonate clasts intensely bored and encrusted by lithobionts, that records the installation of beach environments at the beginning of the Pliocene transgression. A succession of pelagic marls rich in planktonic and benthic foraminifers lies on this basal lag and indicates the complete marine flooding of the basin and the definitive conclusion of the salinity crisis.

  12. Origin of the tertiary red beds in the Northern part of the Duero Basin (Spain). I. Grain size, roundness, and sphericity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabesoone, J.M.


    Red sediments of Tertiary age crop out alongside the southern border of the Cantabrian Mountains in the northern part of the Duero basin. They consist mainly of conglomerates with quartzite pebbles, sandstones, and sandy, loamy, and marly deposits, all with a deep red colour. Detailed analyses were

  13. A reappraisal of the Middle Triassic chirotheriid Chirotherium ibericus Navás, 1906 (Iberian Range NE Spain, with comments on the Triassic tetrapod track biochronology of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Díaz-Martínez


    Full Text Available Triassic vertebrate tracks are known from the beginning of the 19th century and have a worldwide distribution. Several Triassic track ichnoassemblages and ichnotaxa have a restricted stratigraphic range and are useful in biochronology and biostratigraphy. The record of Triassic tracks in the Iberian Peninsula has gone almost unnoticed although more than 25 localities have been described since 1897. In one of these localities, the naturalist Longinos Navás described the ichnotaxon Chirotherium ibericus in 1906.The vertebrate tracks are in two sandy slabs from the Anisian (Middle Triassic of the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, Spain. In a recent revision, new, previously undescribed vertebrate tracks have been identified. The tracks considered to be C. ibericus as well as other tracks with the same morphology from both slabs have been classified as Chirotherium barthii. The rest of the tracks have been assigned to Chirotheriidae indet., Rhynchosauroides isp. and undetermined material. This new identification of C. barthii at the Navás site adds new data to the Iberian record of this ichnotaxon, which is characterized by the small size of the tracks when compared with the main occurrences of this ichnotaxon elsewhere. As at the Navás tracksite, the Anisian C. barthii-Rhynchosauroides ichnoassemblage has been found in other coeval localities in Iberia and worldwide. This ichnoassemblage belongs to the upper Olenekian-lower Anisian interval according to previous biochronological proposals. Analysis of the Triassic Iberian record of tetrapod tracks is uneven in terms of abundance over time. From the earliest Triassic to the latest Lower Triassic the record is very scarce, with Rhynchosauroides being the only known ichnotaxon. Rhynchosauroides covers a wide temporal range and gives poor information for biochronology. The record from the uppermost Lower Triassic to the Middle Triassic is abundant. The highest ichnodiversity has been reported for the

  14. Using SWAT and Fuzzy TOPSIS to Assess the Impact of Climate Change in the Headwaters of the Segura River Basin (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio


    Full Text Available The Segura River Basin is one of the most water-stressed basins in Mediterranean Europe. If we add to the actual situation that most climate change projections forecast important decreases in water resource availability in the Mediterranean region, the situation will become totally unsustainable. This study assessed the impact of climate change in the headwaters of the Segura River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT with bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data from two Regional Climate Models (RCMs for the medium term (2041–2070 and the long term (2071–2100 under two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Bias correction was performed using the distribution mapping approach. The fuzzy TOPSIS technique was applied to rank a set of nine GCM–RCM combinations, choosing the climate models with a higher relative closeness. The study results show that the SWAT performed satisfactorily for both calibration (NSE = 0.80 and validation (NSE = 0.77 periods. Comparing the long-term and baseline (1971–2000 periods, precipitation showed a negative trend between 6% and 32%, whereas projected annual mean temperatures demonstrated an estimated increase of 1.5–3.3 °C. Water resources were estimated to experience a decrease of 2%–54%. These findings provide local water management authorities with very useful information in the face of climate change.

  15. Does the Depth to Slab Control Volatile Contents? New Insights from Glasses Erupted at the Fonualei Spreading Center (NE Lau Basin), a Very Arc-like Back-arc (United States)

    Keller, N. S.; Shaw, A. M.


    The role of water and other volatiles in generating arc and back-arc volcanism is fundamental; however, the relationship between physical subduction parameters and volatile recycling remains poorly understood. Here, we present new volatile data from the Fonualei Spreading Centre (FSC), a back-arc environment in the NE Lau Basin where the depth to the slab increases from 125 km in the south (similar to typical arc settings) to 210 km in the north. The southernmost tip of the FSC lies within 20 km of the adjacent Tofua Arc, thus offering an ideal case study of arc-related magmatism. The FSC terminates in the north at the Mangatolu Triple Junction (MTJ), situated ~140 km to the south of the edge of the Australian Plate where a tear in the plate allows the influx from less depleted mantle1. Prior work2 shows that the major and trace element compositions of the FSC are relatively depleted and similar to that of the adjacent Tofua arc, whereas the MTJ samples are derived from a less depleted mantle and trend towards Lau back-arc basin basalt compositions. This geochemical contrast is also found in volatile contents reported here. CO2 and S contents are higher in the northern MTJ samples (up to 110 ppm and 800 ppm, respectively) as compared to the southern FSC samples (less than 10 and 40 ppm). To some extent, this difference can be attributed to enhanced degassing in the FSC samples since they are erupted at shallower depths. Indeed, S contents correlate broadly with CO2 contents; however, degassing cannot solely account for the sharp discrepancy in sulfur contents. The less depleted, more reduced nature of the MTJ mantle has likely influenced the S concentrations. The H2O contents of glasses cover an intermediate back-arc range (1 to 1.5 wt%) and show the characteristic negative correlation with TiO2, indicating that flux melting processes prevail3. A slab signature can be clearly recognized: B/Yb and Ba/Yb both show a positive correlation with H2O/Yb and with each

  16. Land snails and slugs at the Natural Park of the Serralada Litoral (Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bros, V.


    Full Text Available The population of molluscs at the Natural Park of the Serralada Litoral (Barcelona, Spain, NE Iberian Peninsula was assessed, contributing to the conservation plan. A wildlife inventory was conducted based on fieldwork.

  17. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in semiarid and karstic environments: A field study in the Granada Basin (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohfahl, Claus [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail:; Sprenger, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Herrera, Jose Benavente [Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada, Ramon y Cajal, 4, 18071 Granada (Spain); Meyer, Hanno [Isotope Laboratory of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Chacon, Franzisca Fernandez [Dpto. Hidrogeologia y Aguas Subterraneas, Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Oficina de Proyectos, Urb. Alcazar del Genil 4, Edificio Zulema bajo, 18006 Granada (Spain); Pekdeger, Asaf [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)


    The objective of this study is to refine the understanding of recharge processes in watersheds representative for karstic semiarid areas by means of stable isotope analysis and hydrogeochemistry. The study focuses on the Granada aquifer system which is located in an intramontane basin bounded by high mountain ranges providing elevation differences of almost 2900 m. These altitude gradients lead to important temperature and precipitation gradients and provide excellent conditions for the application of stable isotopes of water whose composition depends mainly on temperature. Samples of rain, snow, surface water and groundwater were collected at 154 locations for stable isotope studies ({delta}{sup 18}O, D) and, in the case of ground- and surface waters, also for major and minor ion analysis. Thirty-seven springs were sampled between 2 and 5 times from October 2004 to March 2005 along an altitudinal gradient from 552 masl in the Granada basin to 2156 masl in Sierra Nevada. Nine groundwater samples were taken from the discharge of operating wells in the Granada basin which are all located between 540 and 728 masl. The two main rivers were monitored every 2-3 weeks at three different altitudes. Rainfall being scarce during the sampling period, precipitation could only be sampled during four rainfall events. Calculated recharge altitudes of springs showed that source areas of mainly snowmelt recharge are generally located between 1600 and 2000 masl. The isotope compositions of spring water indicate water sources from the western Mediterranean as well as from the Atlantic without indicating a seasonal trend. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different sources of recharge which occur mainly by bankfiltration of the main rivers. Isotopic signatures in the southeastern part of the aquifer indicate a considerable recharge contribution by subsurface flow discharged from the adjacent carbonate aquifer. No evaporation effects due

  18. Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain); Facetas triangulares de ladera en la region de Tudela (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.


    Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588{+-}2,488 yr. BP, 35,355{+-}2,446 yr. BP and 40.185{+-}2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.

  19. Relationships between precipitation and floods in the fluvial basins of Central Spain based on documentary sources from the end of the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bullón


    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a historic reconstruction based upon documentary sources of precipitation and floods during the last fifty years of the 16th century in Central Spain. We used data from primary sources contemporary to the events rather than compilations or secondary references. These documents belong to the institutions that administered the study area during the time period of interest and consist of municipal or monastic minute books and administrative texts from properties belonging to the nobility and royal family. Direct data that explicitly describe meteorological or flood-related events are haphazardly distributed throughout personal correspondence and various reports, and the sizes of floods or precipitation events can also be deduced from indirect data. We analysed the qualitative data by transforming them into numerical indices of intensity/duration for precipitation and intensity/area for floods. We differentiated three sets of years that presented different hydrological patterns. The first period, from 1554 to 1575, exhibited regular precipitation patterns associated with low-intensity floods. The second, from 1576 to 1584, was characterised by low precipitation levels and few floods. The third, from 1585 to 1599, showed intense precipitation with large floods interspersed with long-lasting droughts. We interpret these results in the context of the environmental and land-use patterns of the time period studied, which coincided with a period of low temperatures.

  20. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): The role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Alday, J.J., E-mail: [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Valiente, N., E-mail: [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Otero, N., E-mail: [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, C., E-mail: [Grup d' Hidrologia Subterrània (GHS), Institut de Diagnóstic Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, D. [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); and others


    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO{sub 3}{sup −} pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 34}S, δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, δ{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} suggest that NO{sub 3}{sup −} from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup −} can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater–saltwater interface (down to 12–16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO{sub 3}{sup −} attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. - Highlights: • Denitrification comes about in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system. • Nitrate in the basin is derived from synthetic fertilizers slightly volatilized. • Organic carbon oxidation is likely to be the main electron donor in denitrification. • Density driven flow transports organic carbon to deeper zones of the aquifer.

  1. Characterization of the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a in the Eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, E Spain) by Means of Ammonite Biostratigraphy (United States)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Company, M.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Delanoy, G.; Martinez, R.; Grauges, A.; Salas, R.


    Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) is now generally recognized to correlate with the lower part of the Leupoldina cabri planktonic foraminifer Zone. Unfortunately, the calibration of this zone against the standard ammonite scale has remained uncertain. Our recent high-resolution geochemical study (Carbon-isotope) of Lower Aptian sequences in the Iberian Chain of eastern Spain (Moreno-Bedmar et al., in prep) was used as proxy to further characterize OAE 1a. The sequence provides additional ammonite biostratigraphic data that permit correlation of the ammonite zonation with the isotopic signature of OAE1a. That interval includes specimens we identified with affinity for species of Roloboceras and Megatyloceras in the same beds that contain species of Deshayesites forbesi Casey, and Deshayesites gr. euglyphus/spathi, which are characteristic of the Deshayesites weissi Zone. Our results also indicate that D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny), the nominate taxon which marks the base of the superjacent Zone, first occurs a few meters above the geochemical signature corresponding to OAE 1a. Our isotopic data correlated with the ammonite occurrences are in further agreement with Roloboceras beds in England (Casey, 1961a, b; Casey et al., 1998) that are correlational with the Boreal Deshayesites forbesi Zone, which is coeval with the Mediterranean Deshayesites weissi Zone. Similarly, in the Cassis-La Bédoule area (SE France) the OAE 1a interval also corresponds to the Roloboceras beds, but they have been assigned to the Deshayesites deshayesi biozone (Ropolo et al., 2000; 2006). Here we argue that specimens attributed to D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny) and D. dechyi (Papp) from the Roloboceras levels (Ropolo et al., 2006) can be reinterpreted as belonging to D. forbesi, characteristic species of Deshayesites weissi Zone. Stratigraphic data from Roloboceras beds in le Teil region (Ardech patform, SE France) also reveal the presence of Deshayesites consobrinus (d'Orbigny) and Deshayesites gr

  2. MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.


    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  3. Three-phase tectonic evolution of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A

    A three-phase evolutionary scheme since Late Oligocene for the Andaman backarc basin is proposed based on the multibeam swath bathymetry, magnetic and seismological data. A SW–NE trending spreading ridge bisects the basin. The tectonic evolution...

  4. Reply to comment by J.L. Díaz-Hernández and R. Julià on “Quaternary landscape evolution and erosion rates for an intramontane Neogene basin (Guadix-Baza basin, SE Spain)” (United States)

    Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Azor, Antonio; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel María; Tuccimei, Paola; Della Seta, Marta; Soligo, Michele


    We demonstrate that the age of 43 ka obtained for the topmost calcrete layer in the Guadix-Baza remains the only reliable numerical dating of the flat geomorphic surface that marks the end of the sedimentation in the basin. Consequently, the late Pleistocene to Holocene erosion rates derived from the incision of the present-day drainage network into the flat geomorphic surface remain valid. The calcrete radiometric ages reported by Díaz-Hernández and Julià (2012) in their comment are untenable due to the contamination with detrital 230Th (not corrected with the applied U/Th technique) and the possible mix of textural elements with different ages (older inherited grains and newly formed grains). Díaz-Hernández and Julià also quote U/Th ages for travertine terraces formed later than the calcrete layer. These ages lack internal consistency probably due to systematic contamination and/or weathering of the samples. The archaeological ages reported by Díaz-Hernández and Julià are subjected to great uncertainties, but independently of the age assumed as most realistic, they are completely compatible with the age of 43 ka that we obtained for the topmost calcrete layer in the Guadix-Baza basin.

  5. Evidence of a large deep conductive body within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland Basin (Betic Cordillera, S-Spain) from tipper vector modelling: Tectonic implications (United States)

    González-Castillo, L.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Junge, A.; Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Löwer, A.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Pedrera, A.; López-Garrido, A. C.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruano, P.; Martínez-Martos, M.


    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and the westward motion of the Alboran Domain. Long Period Magnetotelluric observations at 26 sites in its westernmost part provide induction arrows that have been compared with 3D forward models including bathymetry and major geological bodies. The results highlight the presence of a major conductive body (0.05 Ω m) unknown to date and located within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland basin. Aeromagnetic and field magnetic measurements further support the occurrence of magnetic anomalies related to the top of this anomalous body. This major structure is interpreted as an intermediate or basic igneous rock, with a high proportion of metallic mineralization. Its origin is discussed in the framework of the regional geological setting, possibly produced in the southern Iberian Variscan Massif by a huge concentration of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) in the prolongation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt during Devonian-early Carboniferous times. Another possibility is that the conductive anomaly is due to magmatic intrusions associated with the Mesozoic fragmentation of Southern Iberia and the opening of the Tethys.

  6. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of a downslope accretion history: From coralgal-coralline sponge rubble to mud mound deposits (Eocene, Ainsa Basin, Spain) (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Reitner, Joachim


    In the Lutetian intraslope Ainsa sub-basin, small, sub-spherical, carbonate mud mounds occur associated with hemipelagic marls and mixed gravity flow deposits. The studied mud mounds consist of a mixture of allochthonous, parautochthonous and autochthonous components that show evidences of reworking, bioerosion, and accretion by different fossil assemblages at different growth stages. The crusts of microbial-lithistid sponges played an important role stabilizing the rubble of coralgal-coralline sponges and formed low-relief small benthic patches in a dominant marly soft slope environment. These accidental hard substrates turned into suitable initiation/nucleation sites for automicrite production (dense and peloidal automicrites) on which the small mud mounds dominated by opportunistic epi- and infaunal heterozoan assemblages grew. A detailed microfacies mapping and paleoenvironmental analysis reveals a multi-episodic downslope accretion history starred by demosponges (coralline and lithistid sponges), agariciid corals, calcareous red algae, putative microbial benthic communities and diverse sclerobionts from the upper slope to the middle slope. The analyzed mud mound microfacies are compared with similar fossil assemblages and growth fabrics described in many fossil mud mounds, and with recent deep-water fore reefs and cave environments.

  7. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies. (United States)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange


    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  8. Impact of climate change on Precipitation and temperature under the RCP 8.5 and A1B scenarios in an Alpine Cathment (Alto-Genil Basin,southeast Spain). A comparison of statistical downscaling methods (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Fernandez-Chacon, Francisca


    In order to design adaptive strategies to global change we need to assess the future impact of climate change on water resources, which depends on precipitation and temperature series in the systems. The objective of this work is to generate future climate series in the "Alto Genil" Basin (southeast Spain) for the period 2071-2100 by perturbing the historical series using different statistical methods. For this targeted we use information coming from regionals climate model simulations (RCMs) available in two European projects, CORDEX (2013), with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, and ENSEMBLES (2009), with a spatial resolution of 25 km. The historical climate series used for the period 1971-2000 have been obtained from Spain02 project (2012) which has the same spatial resolution that CORDEX project (both use the EURO-CORDEX grid). Two emission scenarios have been considered: the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario, which is the most unfavorable scenario considered in the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the A1B emission scenario of fourth Assessment Report (AR4). We use the RCM simulations to create an ensemble of predictions weighting their information according to their ability to reproduce the main statistic of the historical climatology. A multi-objective analysis has been performed to identify which models are better in terms of goodness of fit to the cited statistic of the historical series. The ensemble of the CORDEX and the ENSEMBLES projects has been finally created with nine and four models respectively. These ensemble series have been used to assess the anomalies in mean and standard deviation (differences between the control and future RCM series). A "delta-change" method (Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2011) has been applied to define future series by modifying the historical climate series in accordance with the cited anomalies in mean and standard deviation. A

  9. Current Travertines Precipitation from CO{sub 2}-rich Groundwaters as an alert of CO{sub 2} Leakages from a Natural CO{sub 2} Storage at Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Delgado, A.; Herrero, M. J.; Granados, A.; Perez del Villar, L.


    Carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS) represent the most suitable solutions related to the high anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. As a consequence, monitoring of the possible CO{sub 2} leakages from an artificial deep geological CO{sub 2} storage (DGS) is indispensable to guarantee its safety. Fast surficial travertine precipitation related to these CO{sub 2} leakages can be used as an alert for these escapes. Since few studies exist focusing on the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} DGS, natural CO{sub 2} storage affected by natural or artificial escapes must be studied as natural analogues for predicting the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} storage. In this context, a natural CO{sub 2} reservoir affected by artificial CO{sub 2} escapes has been studied in this work. This study has mainly focused on the current travertines precipitation associated with the upwelling CO{sub 2}-rich waters from several hydrogeological wells drilled in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (SE Spain), and consists of a comprehensive characterisation of parent-waters and their associated carbonates, including elemental and isotopic geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography. Geochemical characterisation of groundwaters has led to recognise 4 hydrofacies from 3 different aquifers. These groundwaters have very high salinity and electrical conductivity; are slightly acid; present high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO{sub 2}; are oversaturated in both aragonite and calcite; and dissolve, mobilize and transport low quantities of heavy and/or toxic elements. Isotopic values indicate that: i) the origin of parent-waters is related to rainfalls from clouds originated in the Mediterranean Sea or continental areas; ii) the origin of C is mainly inorganic; and iii) sulphate anions come mainly from the dissolution of the Messinian gypsum from the Tertiary Basin sediments. Current travertines precipitation seems to be controlled by a

  10. Geochemical correlation of oil from the Ayoluengo field to Liassic black shale units in the southwestern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Santiago; Robles, Sergio [University of the Basque Country, Stratigraphy and Paleontology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Dorronsoro, Carmen [University of the Basque Country, Geology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Chaler, Roser; Grimalt, Joan O. [C.I.D.-C.S.I.C., Environmental Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)


    A study of the Liassic sequence in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin has shown the presence of organic-rich (TOC, HI and S{sub 2} up to 8.7%, 760 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively) Pliensbachian-early Toarcian black shales that constitute the only feasible source rock for Ayoluengo oil. The stratigraphical and sedimentological data show that these black shales developed into a major transgressive sequence of hemipelagic Lotharingian-Toarcian facies, which suggests the presence of anoxic or near anoxic bottom water conditions in troughs during their deposition. The {delta}{sup 13}C composition, and a detailed study of the linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid and hopanoid aliphatic hydrocarbons in these shales, marls and the Ayoluengo oil confirms this hypothesis. Specifically, the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the total solvent extract of the thicker shale (No. 2) and the oil are -29.93 and -29.88``per mille``, respectively; also a close similarity in the relative compositions of steranes and hopanes is observed between these samples. The distributions of these compounds exhibit several distinct features. The steranes in this shale and crude oil are characterized by a depletion of C{sub 28} vs C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} homologues (24 vs 32 and 44%, respectively), which is consistent with the carbon number sterane distributions generally observed among Upper Paleozoic to Liassic rock-sourced oils. Furthermore, hopanes and steranes are characterized by their high relative content of rearranged molecules. Diasteranes (13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H)- and 13{alpha}(H),17{beta}(H)- series) are the dominant compounds among the steranes and significant amounts of 18{alpha}(H)-17{alpha}methyl-28-norhopanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} homologues) and 17{alpha}(H)-15{alpha}-methyl- 27 norhopanes (C{sub 30} homologue) are found in the hopanoid hydrocarbons. Conversely, the proportion of these rearranged molecules in other sediment samples from the same formation decrease with increasing

  11. Tidal dunes versus tidal bars: The sedimentological and architectural characteristics of compound dunes in a tidal seaway, the lower Baronia Sandstone (Lower Eocene), Ager Basin, Spain (United States)

    Olariu, Cornel; Steel, Ronald J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.; Gingras, Murray K.


    The Lower Eocene Baronia Formation in the Ager Basin is interpreted as a series of stacked compound dunes confined within a tectonically generated embayment or tidal seaway. This differs from the previous interpretation of lower Baronia sand bodies as tidal bars in the front of a delta. The key architectural building block of the succession, the deposit of a single compound dune, forms a 1-3 m-thick, upward coarsening succession that begins with highly bioturbated, muddy, very fine to fine grained sandstone that contains an open-marine Cruziana ichnofacies. This is overlain gradationally by ripple-laminated sandstone that is commonly bioturbated and contains mud drapes. The succession is capped by fine- to coarse-grained sandstones that contain both planar and trough cross-strata with unidirectional or bi-directional paleocurrent directions and occasional thin mud drapes on the foresets. The base of a compound dune is gradational where it migrated over muddy sandstone deposited between adjacent dunes, but is sharp and erosional where it migrated over the stoss side of a previous compound dune. The cross strata that formed by simple superimposed dunes dip in the same direction as the inclined master bedding planes within the compound dune, forming a forward-accretion architecture. This configuration is the fundamental reason why these sandbodies are interpreted as compound tidal dunes rather than as tidal bars, which, in contrast, generate lateral-accretion architecture. In the Baronia, fields of compound dunes generated tabular sandbodies 100s to 1000s of meters in extent parallel to the paleocurrent direction and up to 6 m thick that alternate vertically with highly bioturbated muddy sandstones (up to 10 m thick) that represent the low-energy fringes of the dune fields or periods of high sea level when current speeds decreased. Each cross-stratified sandstone sheet (compound-dune complexes) contains overlapping lenticular "shingles" formed by individual compound

  12. Comment on “Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain” by S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual [Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29 (United States)

    Wagner, R. H.; Mayoral, E.


    Comments are provided on a published paper on "Lower Permian" strata in SW Spain [S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual, Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain, Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29], which failed to take into account up-to-date information on this most southerly occurrence in western Europe. This generally lacustrine basin commenced with valley fill deposits in a deeply incised palaeotopography and contains mainly red beds with two basaltic intervals and a major acidic volcanic episode linked to a nearby volcanic centre to the Northeast. The stratigraphic succession shows southeasterly onlap. Although a syn-sedimentary fault has been postulated on the NE basin margin, the field evidence disproves this notion as well as the assumption that this "Early Permian" basin would have been controlled by a rejuvenated Ossa-Morena/South Portuguese boundary fault. In fact, this basin lies within the (former) area of Ossa-Morena.

  13. Simulation de la sédimentation dans un bassin évaporitique à niveau d'eau sous influence eustatique. Application au bassin paléogène de Mulhouse (Alsace, France Simulation of Sedimentation in an Evaporitic Basin At Water Level under Eustatic Influence. Application to the Paleogene Mulhouse Basin (Alsace, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier B.


    Full Text Available Le programme SIMSALT permet, à partir de fonctions sinusoïdales simulant des variations climatiques et eustatiques, de modéliser la sédimentation dans une maille élémentaire d'un bassin évaporitique en communication restreinte permanente avec l'océan, les arrivées d'eau marine se faisant par l'intermédiaire d'un seuil topographique. En fonction des salinités calculées, le programme détermine s'il y a précipitation de sels ainsi que les épaisseurs sédimentées. Les principaux résultats fournis sont représentés par des colonnes lithologiques en fonction des épaisseurs cumulées et en fonction du temps. Ce programme renferme également un module permettant de tester des fonctions simulant la production-dégradation de la matière organique. Ce modèle a été appliqué à une partie de la série évaporitique d'âge Eocène supérieur - Oligocène inférieur du bassin de Mulhouse. L'application du modèle aux cyclothèmes carottés du sondage Max montre que la sédimentation évaporitique et organique peut être contrôlée principalement par des variations climatiques résultant de la somme de trois sinusoïdes, respectivement de période de l'ordre de 13000, 500 et 100 ans, associées à des variations eustatiques de période 13000 ans déphasées par rapport aux variations climatiques de même période. Avec le modèle SIMSALT, il est donc possible de reconnaitre les influences respectives de l'eustatisme et du climat sur la sédimenation évaporitique et organique dans un bassin en communication restreinte avec le domaine marin. The SIMSALT program takes sinusoidal functions simulating climatic and eustatic variations and uses them to model sedimentation in an elementary mesh of an evaporitic basin in permanent restricted communication with the ocean, with arrivals of seawater being determined via a topographic threshold (Fig. 1. For this, the mesh is assumed to be made up of several superposed elements (Fig. 2, i. e. a

  14. Paleoambientes y magnetoestratigrafía del Neógeno de la Sierra de Mogna, y su relación con la Cuenca de Antepaís Andina Depositional environments and magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Mogna sequence and its relation to the Andean Foreland Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Milana


    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis preciso de la historia de acumulación del Neógeno de Mogna utilizando magnetoestratigrafía, dataciones absolutas, determinaciones de vertebrados fósiles y correlaciones con secciones vecinas. Esta secuencia, la más completas de la cuenca de antepaís del Bermejo, evolucionó debido a dos fases tectónicas moduladas por cambios fisiográficos y climáticos. Se estudiaron cronológica y sedimentológicamente ocho formaciones neógenas, determinándose una gran diacronicidad de sus límites, hasta de 1 Ma. El Neógeno se acumuló entre los 19 y 1 Ma ininterrumpidamente salvo entre los 15 y 12 Ma, donde la correlación magnetoestratigráfica es dudosa. La formación basal, Río Salado, se depositó en un ambiente de playa lake (centro de cuenca, mientras que las cuatro unidades siguientes (Formaciones Quebrada del Jarillal, Huachipampa, Qa. del Cura y Río Jáchal caracterizan sistemas fluviales efímeros, distinguiéndose en la relación arena/pelita, morfología de canal, bioturbación, y composición. Las formaciones superiores, Mogna y El Corral son gravosas y se interdigitan lateral y verticalmente. La primera fue depositada por un importante río entrelazado gravoso mientras que la segunda se acumuló como una bajada aluvial. Toda la secuencia caracteriza la progradación de una cuña aluvial, empujada por la deformación que avanzó hacia el este. La evolución asociada a las fases tectónicas sugiere una reología del basamento disímil a lo largo del eje de cuenca. Durante la deformación inicial la subsidencia disminuyó hacia el sur, acomodada por fallas sinsedimentarias expuestas en Loma de los Pozos, mientras que durante la deformación principal la subsidencia del antepaís fue más homogénea.A precise history of accumulation has been depicted for the Mogna Neogene sequence, using magnetostratigraphy, absolute dating, vertebrate fossil determinations and comparisons with neighboring sections. A two

  15. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.


    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  16. Geophysical Research in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain), as a Natural Analogue of CO{sub 2} Storage and Leakage; Estudio Geofisico del Analogo Natural de Almacenamiento y Escape de CO{sub 2} de la Cuenca Terciaria de Ganuelas-Mazarron (Murcia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Aracil, E.; Perez del Villar, L.


    In order to determine the depth, morphology and extent of the CO{sub 2}-enriched deep saline aquifer in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (Murcia, Spain), it was necessary reprocessing the vertical electrical soundings performed by IGME-ADARO in the eighties and to perform several geophysical campaigns by means of electrical tomography, time domain electromagnetic surveys and gravimetry. Densities of the outcropping lithologies in the studied basin were also determined in order to refine the model obtained from gravimetric data. The geophysical results, particularly from gravimetric data, seem to indicate that the CO{sub 2}-enriched deep saline aquifer, located in the contact or within the carbonate materials of the Nevado-Filabride Complex, could reach a depth greater than 800 m. For this reason, the possibility that this CO{sub 2} is in supercritical state in certain areas of the aquifer, is not discardable. Thus, the studied basin would be an excellent natural analogue of a CO{sub 2}-deep geological storage in a deep saline aquifer in volcanic and/or carbonate rocks, anthropogenically perturbed by geothermal exploration wells (La Ermita de El Saladillo and El Alto de El Reventon) and hydrogeological wells for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  17. Tectónica neógena en el extremo sur de la Cordillera Patagónica Septentrional: Cuenca de los lagos la Plata y Fontana (45°S Neogene tectonics in the southernmost extreme of the Northern Patagonian Cordillera: La Plata-Fontana lakes basin (45°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Folguera


    Full Text Available Nuevos datos acerca de la anisotropía del manto, debajo de los Andes entre los 45° y los 46°S han revelado un rasgo sorprendente: un eje de polarización con orientación NO coincide con la segmentación estructural, derivada de la geometría de la cuenca cretácica inferior a estas latitudes. La geometría de la litosfera inferior induciría flujo astenosférico, en forma no paralela al tren andino. Adicionalmente se relaciona este mismo, con el desarrollo de una serie de pequeños depocentros extensionales en el retroarco de edad neógena a cuaternaria, los cuales se encuentran alineados con la estructura extensional cretácica. ¿Fue la reactivación transtensional de estructuras de basamento, durante el Neógeno, la que modificó la geometría de la litosfera inferior, a través de la actividad de un antiguo detachment, induciendo corrientes convectivas en el manto superior? ¿O simplemente la actividad de este detachment se relacionó con los efectos de arrastre que produjera la apertura de una ventana astenosférica, en la litosfera inferior, provocando la ruptura de la corteza a través de discontinuidades fósiles?New anisotropic seismic data below the Andes at 45°- 46°S have revealed a striking feature: a fast polarization NW axis coinciding with the Lower Cretaceous segmentation derived from basin geometry. The geometry of the lower lithosphere would induce astenospheric flux which is not parallel to the Andean trend. Moreover, a series of Quaternary-Neogene small basins in the retro-arc are aligned with the Cretaceous extensional structure. Did transtensional reactivation of basement structures during the Neogene modify lower lithosphere geometry through activity of ancient detachments, inducing convective cells in the upper mantle? Or would the activity of the ancient detachment be linked to the opening of a slab astenospheric window and to its drag in the lower lithosphere, making the crust yield through fossilized

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic composition from foreland sediments of the Assam Basin, NE India: Constraints on sediment provenance and tectonics of the Eastern Himalaya (United States)

    Vadlamani, Ravikant; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang


    Synorogenic Palaeogene-Neogene sediments of the Assam foreland basin, were derived by erosion of adjacent crustal and orogenic sources following the Greater India-Eurasia collision since ∼55 Ma. To constrain source sediment influx, and its relation to Himalayan tectonics, from pre- to post-collision time, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and their Hf isotopic compositions were carried out. The varying detrital zircon spectral patterns analyzed from the Paleogene Jaintia, Barail and Neogene Surma and Tipam Groups, with sediment petrography, track source sediment derived from cratonic India, Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths and the eastern Himalaya. These sources are tested against Cenozoic paleopositions proposed for the northeastward motion of the Indian plate. Precollisional cratonic detritus to Middle to Late Eocene Sylhet Formation shifted to Tethyan Himalaya and arc sources of the Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths to Late Eocene Kopili and Barail Formations, consistent with the proposed paleoposition proximal to the Indus-Yarlung suture. This Sylhet-Kopili Formation transition, within the Jaintia Group, reflects one of the earliest Himalayan hinterland exhumation stages during the Late Eocene. Major shift in provenance to Higher Himalayan Crystalline and arc detritus is recorded from the Surma Group, constraining Mid Miocene Himalayan tectonic exhumation from the eastern Himalaya. Late Miocene Tipam Group preserves sediment of Higher Himalayan Crystalline detritus, ophiolite and likely Lesser Himalayan rocks.

  19. 2 D seismic sections interpretation for the Xareu field in the Mundau sub-basin (Ceara basin, Northeastern Brazil); Interpretacao de secoes sismicas 2D para o Campo de Xareu na sub-bacia de Mundau (Bacia do Ceara, NE do Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alex Francisco [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Jardim de Sa, Emanuel Ferraz [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Matos, Renato Marcos Darros de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Keller Filho, Odilon [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE; Lima Neto, Francisco Fontes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    This paper presents a reinterpretation of seismic sections of the Xareu Oil Field, located in the central portion of the Mundau Sub-basin (Ceara Basin, Northeast Brazil). These seismic sections were acquired during the 80's and the 90's. Their reinterpretation show that the field is structured by a main arrangement of N W-trending listric normal faults, with associated roll-over structures affecting the rocks of the rift (Mundau Formation) and transitional (Paracuru Formation) sections of the basin. Some of these faults also affect the basal and intermediate layers of the drift section (Ubarana Formation), what denotes their reactivation (or even the formation of new faults). the new interpretation allows a better understanding of the frequency, geometry, orientation, style and kinematic of the faults, important factors in the structural characterization of the Xareu Oil Field. (author)

  20. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments (United States)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric


    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10-6 to 76.5×10-6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of the

  1. Submarine fans and associated deposits in the lower Tertiary of Guipuzcoa (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.


    The Lower Tertiary outcrop along the coast of Guipuzcoa, northern Spain, consists exclusively of deep-marine sediments, deposited in a narrow elongated (ESE-WNW) basin. The early Tertiary sedimentary history of this basin can be described in terms of three main phases:- a phase of predominantly (hem

  2. Drainage and reclamation of salt-affected soils in the bardenas area, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Beltran, J.


    Chapter 1The Ebro basin is situated in north-eastern Spain and forms a geographic unit bounded by high mountains. The Bardenas area lies in the Ebro basin and forms part of the Bardenas Alto - Aragón irrigation scheme, which was designed to make use of the surface water resources from the Pyrenees.C

  3. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  4. Evidence for hydrothermal activity in the Andaman Backarc Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.; Nair, R.R.

    Multibeam bathymetric, magnetic, gravity and seismic surveys revealed a complex morphotectonic fabric of the Andaman Backare Basin with a spreading ridge, several seamounts and faults. The ridge trending SW-NE direction is segmented and shows...

  5. Definition of the ecological status of Estanco River Basin (Antas de Ulla, Lugo, Spain) with Water Framework Directive; Definicion del estado ecologico de la cuenca del rio Estanco (Antas de Ulla, Lugo) segun la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muno Fafian, D.; Cuesta Garcia, T. S.; Cancela Barrio, J. J.; Marin Lopez, A.; Carballo, R.; Marin Lopez, A.; Neira Seijo, X. X.


    The Water Framework Directiva (WFD) extends the scope of protection to all water uses. The WDF defines the ecological status of water bodies by characterizing each water body type and establishing reference conditions for the quality elements. This paper identifies indicators for defining the ecological status of Estanco river Basin (Antas de Ulla, Lugo) by using the methodology proposed in the WFD. In additions, this study highlights the obstacles for a correct application of the WFD in the study river basin. this study presents conclusions about the usefulness of the WFD in the development of specific programmes for improving the ecological status of rivers. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds, mission orgon 2, 1975 (Bassin de Cariaco et cône de l'Amazone Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Orgon 2 Mission, 1975 (Cariaco Basin and Amazon Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.


    Full Text Available Trois articles distincts traitent, le premier des généralités sur la mission ORLON, les deux autres des résultats obtenus à la mer dans les domaines de la microbiologie et de la biochimie des eaux. En microbiologie, une opposition existe entre le bassin de Cariaco d'une part, milieu anoxique riche en microflore et spécialement en bactéries sulfato-réductrices, et d'autre part la plaine du Demerara et le cône de l'Amazone, où les eaux ont des teneurs médiocres en microflore et les sédiments des teneurs si faibles qu'elles sont inférieures aux teneurs des eaux (phénomène qui n'existe jamais dans les milieux côtiers ou peu profonds. On met en évidence une relation directe entre teneurs en microflore et vitesse de sédimentation, qui permet d'avoir une vision cohérente des résultats obtenus tant à ORLON I qu'à ORLON 2. Dans le domaine de la biochimie des eaux, on a étudié outre l'eau sus-jacente au sédiment, les eaux interstitielles de 95 niveaux sédimentaires des carottes. L'utilisation d'un dispositif spécial de découpage des carottes prélevées à l'aide du carottier Reineck court a permis une étude fine des paramètres physiques (pH, Eh et des constituants chimiques (O, dissous, S-- dissous, PO---, NH4 et alcalinité des eaux interstitielles. L'influence des conditions régnant dans la Cariaco Trench sur la minéralisation de la matière organique a été étudiée au cours de l'enfouissement. Les mesures effectuées dans la mer du Demerara et sur le cône fossile de l'Amazone soulignent l'influence des conditions ambiantes et la pauvreté en matériel organique des régions océaniques profondes. Les dépôts côtiers de l'Amazone et du Para ont également été étudiés. Three separate articles are given. The first deals with general comments on the ORLON cruise, and the other two give the findings obtained on board ship in the fields of microbiology and biochemisiry of water. In microbiology, there is an

  7. Uplift history of a Betic fold nappe inferred from Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation and tectonics (in the Sierra Alhamilla and Almeria, Sorbas and Tabernas Basins of the Betic Cordilleras, SE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Roep, Th.B.; Eeckhout, B. van den; Postma, G.; Kleverlaan, K.


    Structural, stratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Alhamilla region show that the Sierra Alhamilla was elevated relative to the surrounding basins by open folding towards the end of the Tortonian period (about 7 Ma ago) and before the onset of Messinian sedimentation. The main arguments

  8. The impact of climate change on water provision under a low flow regime: a case study of the ecosystems services in the Francoli river basin. (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Sharp, Richard; Schuhmacher, Marta


    Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and with high probability to face acute water scarcity problem in the coming years. Francolí River basin (NE Spain), located in this vulnerable region is selected as a case study to evaluate the impact of climate change on the delivery of water considering the IPCC scenarios A2 and B1 for the time spans 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. InVEST model is applied in a low flow river as a new case study, which reported successful results after its model validation. The studied hydrological ecosystem services will be highly impacted by climate change at Francolí River basin. Water yield is expected to be reduced between 11.5 and 44% while total drinking water provisioning will decrease between 13 and 50% having adverse consequences on the water quality of the river. Focusing at regional scale, Prades Mountains and Brugent Tributary provide most of the provision of water and also considered highly vulnerable areas to climate change. However, the most vulnerable part is the northern area which has the lowest provision of water. Francolí River basin is likely to experience desertification at this area drying Anguera and Vallverd tributaries.

  9. The NeXT Mission


    Takahashi, T.; Kelley, R; Mitsuda, K.; Kunieda, H.; Petre, R.; White, N; Dotani, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; K. Koyama


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will a...

  10. Spain to Join ESO (United States)


    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  11. Kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser with He-Ne-Ar and Ne-H2 beam plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Koval' , A.V.; Iakovlenko, S.I. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))


    A kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser laser with Ne-He-Ar and Ne-H2 mixtures pumped by an electron beam is developed. Plasma parameters and characteristics of the Ne yellow line emission (585.3 nm) are calculated for both quasi-steady-state and nonsteady-state pumping. Theoretical results agree well with experimental data on lasing for a wide range of durations and densities of the pump current, and mixture pressures and compositions. 13 refs.

  12. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.


    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  13. [Foreign immigration in Spain]. (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I


    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  14. Supported Employment in Spain. (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador


    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  15. Test Reviewing in Spain (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa


    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  16. Career Development in Spain. (United States)

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  17. Spain country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Ines [Iberdrola Ingenieria Y Construccion Sau, Avenida Burgos, 8, Edificio Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)


    Nuclear in Spain: - Generation of the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants: Electricity nuclear share: 17,6% (Decrease by 8,4%); Installed Capacity in Spain is 90.026 MW, Nuclear share: 8,6%; During 2007, electricity consumption in Spain grew by 4%. - Nuclear equipments: 1 Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology, 8 Nuclear Power Plants for electricity production. - Reactor types: BWR (2 units), PWR (6 units), 1 Nuclear Components Factory, 1 Nuclear Fuel Factory. - Public acceptance: 'What is your opinion about NPP?' Study Nov 07: 1.000 persons interviewed by phone call (16 minutes). - Energy policy - Uncertain future for nuclear power: No nuclear power plants will be build in Spain in a short time, Doubts over the official permission for life extensions in operating plants (Garona). - Nuclear waste management policy: ENRESA, State-run public enterprise in charge of radioactive waste management; Low and intermediate level activity wastes: Centralized storage in El Cabril (Cordoba) managed by ENRESA; Spent fuel Proposal: Centralized temporary storage repository for 100 years (ENRESA proposed and Government has accepted); Information campaign to accept site location (Citizen against); Today: Pools that have been filled can make re-racking of its spent fuel pool or build an individual storage. - Nuclear Research: CIEMAT (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology); Areas of Activity: Environment, Technology, Basic Research, Energy, Fusion by Magnetic Confinement, Scientific use of the Stellarator 'Heliac flexible TJ- II' device, Safety and Decommissioning, Radiation Protection. - Nuclear competences challenge in Spain: Education: Increased number of students selecting nuclear specialities in Engineering High School, 3 Masters in Nuclear Technology, CIEMAT + 2 Universities in Madrid (Science and Poly-technical), Short courses on nuclear technology. Training: The industry is preparing for the future. Training on the job Maintenance

  18. Application of stable isotopes (δ{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4}, δ{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4,} δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}, δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}) to determine natural background and contamination sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña, E-mail: [Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Vadillo-Pérez, Iñaki; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo [Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Soler, Albert [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Fac. Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Sánchez-García, Damián; Carrasco-Cantos, Francisco [Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain)


    The integrated use of isotopes (δ{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4}, δ{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4,} δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}, δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}), taking into account existing hydrogeological knowledge of the study area (mainly hydrochemical), was applied in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain) to characterise SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} sources, and to quantify natural background levels (NBLs) in groundwater bodies. According to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and, more recently, Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC, it is important to determine NBLs, as their correct assessment is the first, essential step to characterising groundwater bodies, establishing threshold values, assessing chemical status and identifying trends in pollutant concentrations. In many cases, NBLs are high for some parameters and types of groundwater, making it difficult to distinguish clearly between factors of natural or human origin. The main advantages of using stable isotopes in a complex area like the Guadalhorce River Basin that exhibits widely varying hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions and longstanding anthropogenic influences (mainly agriculture, but also many others) is accurate determination of pollution sources and precise quantification of NBLs. Since chemical analyses only provides the concentration of pollutants in water and not the source, three isotopic sampling campaigns for sulphates (δ{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4}, δ{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4}) were carried out, in 2006, 2007 and 2012, and another one was conducted for nitrates (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}, δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}), in 2009, in groundwater bodies in order to trace the origins of each pollutant. The present study identified different pollution sources of dissolved NO{sub 3}{sup −} in groundwater using an isotopic composition and quantified the percentage of natural (lithology, chemical and biological processes) and anthropogenic (fertilisers, manure and sewage) SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and matched a concentration

  19. The NeXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  20. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in the Common raven (Corvus corax) in the Northeast of Spain (United States)

    In recent years, multiple cases of aggressive behaviour of Common ravens (Corvus corax) have been reported by farmers in Catalonia (NE Spain), including attacking of newborn animals and consumption of dead foetuses. In the present study, seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was d...

  1. World Support Base: Spain (United States)


    Bonifacio Echevarria) Management Mr. D. Bonifacio Guiasoia Echeverria, President; Mr. Inak1 De Subinas Guisasola, Director General; Mr. Jose Ignacio major production faci I Ity in Marquina (Vizcaya), Spain with a sales office in Panama. EC IA only produces metal parts. All load, assemble...Gabilondo y Cia., S.A.) Management Mr. Jose Ignacio Lecue, Director General and Mr. Carlos Zarceno. Genera I Llama is a privately owned small

  2. Spain: NATO or Neutrality, (United States)


    elements fled the coun- try generally through France, often staying in that country permanently. Indeed, France and Mexico were the largest recipients...discussion of the aspect of Spain’s future which concerns us--its secur- ity options--by a brief look at its past. " Historia no facit saltum", quotes...guerra espanoles (1971-1976). Madrid: Editorial San Martin, 1977. Alonso, Josd Ramon. Historia politica del ejdrcito espainol. Madrid: Editora Nacional

  3. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic. (United States)

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans


    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone - East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of syn-rift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of: (i) thermo-mechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf-progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle-to-late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the East and West Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate-motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.

  4. [Resident foreigners in Spain]. (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A


    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema


    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  6. Agricultural Irrigation Water Use in a Closed Basin  and the Impacts on Water Productivity: The Case of  the Guadalquivir River Basin (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Expósito


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the agricultural irrigation water use in a closed basin and the impacts on water productivity, and examines how they have affected the ‘closure’ process of the Guadalquivir river basin observed in recent decades. Following a period of expansion in irrigation, an administrative moratorium was declared on new irrigated areas in 2005. Since then, the main policy measure has been aimed at the modernisation of irrigated agriculture and the implementation of water conservation technologies. The analysis carried out in this paper shows a significant increase in mean irrigation water productivity in the pre‐moratorium period (1989–2005, driven by the creation of new irrigated areas devoted to high value crops and with a dominant use of deficit irrigation strategies, while a second phase (2005–2012 is characterised by slower growth in terms of the mean productivity of irrigation water, primarily as a result of a significant reduction in water use per area. Findings show that productivity gains seem to have reached a ceiling in this river basin, since technological innovations (such as new crops, deficit irrigation, and water‐saving and conservation technologies have reached the limits of their capacity to create new value.

  7. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierro, F.J.; Hilgen, F.J.; Krijgsman, W.; Flores, J.A.


    A high-resolution integrated stratigraphy is presented for the Abad marls of the Sorbas and Nijar basins in SE Spain (preevaporitic Messinian of the Western Mediterranean). Detailed cyclostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of partially overlapping subsections were needed to overcome stratigr

  8. Regional consequences of the way land users respond to future water availability in Murcia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Temansen, M.; Hubacek, K.; Reed, M.S.


    Agricultural development in the Murcia autonomous region, Spain, has led to overexploitation of groundwater resources, and climate change will further increase pressures. Policy options to tackle the current unsustainable situation include the development of inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) schemes

  9. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Sedimentological study of the Meirama Tertiary basin - an example of a sedimentary basin over a strike-slip fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge Ganuzas, C.


    The sedimentary basin of Meirama (Coruna, N.W. Spain), is developed over a strike slip fault of regional extent, whose movements controlled in the past the character and sedimentation processes there and determined the basin morphology and the deformation suffered by the sediments. The sedimentary register at Meirama is represented by one essentially lignitiferous unit and three other terrigenous-detrital. The nature and facies shown by the sediments are not constant within one unit and depend fundamentally on the source area for each unit, either the metasediments of Ordes (Ordenes) Serie (S-Se marginal basin) or the granodiorite of Xalo unit (N-NW marginal basin).

  11. Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., neófito de la flora Española


    Navarro Andrés, Florentino; Sánchez Rodríguez, Juan Antonio


    [ES] Se denuncia por vez primera la presencia en España de Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., neófito poco conocido en Europa occidental. Así mismo se estudia su corologia y su comportamiento ecológico. Finalmente se discuten sus caracteres diferenciales con respecto a otras especies anuales próximas y se describe. [EN] The presence in Spain of Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb. is announced for the first time and the plant is described. This is a neophyte wich is rather in Western Europe. Its co...

  12. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael


    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  13. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto;


    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...... of Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C...... led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description...

  14. Los roedores y lagomorfos del Neógeno de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.


    Full Text Available The studies made since the middle of the last century by many authors about the Spanish micromammal faunas of many sites have given rise at present to a good knowledge of the fossil record of the Spanish Neogene. The former synthesis works on Neogene mammals made by López et al. (1987 and Calvo et al. (1993, of the rodents by Sesé (1988 and of the lagomorphs by López (1989 shows the extraordinary fossil richness of the several Spanish geographical areas and basins (Ebro, Tajo, Calatayud-Teruel, Duero, Vallés-Penedés, Levante, Béticas. In the present work it is made a review and update synthesis on the Spanish Neogene (Miocene and Pliocene rodents (order Rodentia and lagomorphs (order Lagomorpha, mainly of the peninsula where there are more findings, but also of some findings made in the islands. They have been analysed, mainly from the systematical and biostratigraphical point of view, the faunas of the Neogene sites that have characteristical taxa of their asigned age. The order of the presentation of the analysis is, at a first level, by the stages or mammal ages, giving their most important characteristics, and, at a second level, analysing the most characteristical features of the faunas of each biozone that belong to each stage. These stages are: in the Miocene, the Early Lower Miocene, Ramblian, Aragonian, Vallesian and Turolian, and, in the Pliocene, the Ruscinian (Alfambrian and Villanian. Regarding the zones, for the Miocene we follow the local biozonation more used in Spain that comprises the zones named from X to Y and from A to M, correlating them with the MN zones of the Mediterranean Neogene biozonation (Mein, 1975 that is the most used in Europe; and in the Pliocene, we used the MN 14 to MN 17 zones. They have been summarized the dates made in many sites, zones and stages, mainly since the last decade. It is pointed out the biogeographical differentiation between the Ibero-Central and the Ibero-Levant provinces during the

  15. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  16. He and Ne isotopic ratios along the Terceira Rift: implications for the Azores mantle source (United States)

    Madureira, P.; Moreira, M. A.; Nunes, J.; Lourenco, N.; Carvalho, M.; Mata, J.; Pinto de Abreu, M.


    Noble gas data (He and Ne) on olivine phenocrysts obtained from Azores’ lavas sampled along the Terceira Rift will be presented in this work. The Terceira Rift is considered as one of the slowest spreading system in the world (Vogt & Jung, 2004). Lava samples were collected inland at S. Miguel, Terceira, Graciosa, Pico and Faial Islands as well at sea at D. João de Castro Bank and south Hirondelle basin, the latter being sampled by the ROV cruises in 2008 and 2009. Noble gas data were analyzed in the Noblesse mass spectrometer housed at the IPGP. The most primitive He isotopic ratios were obtained from Pico, Terceira and Hirondelle olivines. Most Ne isotopic ratios are similar to the present-day atmosphere, but distinct 20Ne/22Ne ratios were found for the majority of submarine samples and also Pico and Faial Islands, defining mixing lines with the atmospheric end-member with slopes greater than that defined from MORB lavas. The He-Ne systematics shows that most of the new noble gas data fit in a mixing model between a dominant MORB-type mantle source and a relatively primitive mantle source related with the regional Azores component. However, data from the D. João de Castro Bank argue for the presence of a radiogenic He end-member distinct from MORB. References: Vogt, P. & Jung W. (2004). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 218: 77 90.

  17. Tectonic controls on the petroleum geology of NE Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, M.L. [Emerald Energy plc, Epsom (United Kingdom); Massoud, M.S. [University of Kuwait (Kuwait). College of Science


    During the Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic, the NE sector of the African craton remained an entire, integral part of Gondwanaland. It experienced two episodes of intracratonic sagging and marginal cratonic rifting, linked to episodes of strike-slip affecting both the craton interior and its northern margins. Source kerogens accumulated during Palaeotethyan highstands within these sags, across which reservoir clastics prograded during the corresponding lowstands. Such source-reservoir associations are known from the Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous. The fragmentation of the NE African margin with Mesotethys took place over the period Mid Triassic-Bathonian. From Palestine to Cyrenaica, a rift propagated westwards, detaching crustal terranes along shears that later formed Asia Minor. Deep marine shales within this rift have some proven oil-generating potential. The final phase of `Syrian Arc` tectonics was linked to the opening of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez Basins, and transtension along the Gulf of Aqaba in the Early Miocene. Falling Miocene sea levels then permitted the accumulation of the restricted `Globigerina Marls` facies within the active graben system of the Gulf of Suez. (author)

  18. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  19. Development of a stream-aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas-Pla, Josep, E-mail: [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Font, Eva [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Astui, Oihane [Agencia Catalana de l' Aigua, Barcelona (Spain); Mencio, Anna; Rodriguez-Florit, Agusti [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Folch, Albert [Unitat de Geodinamica Externa i Hidrogeologia Dept. de Geologia, Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona (Spain); Brusi, David [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Dept. de Ciencies Ambientals, Universitat de Girona (Spain); Perez-Paricio, Alfredo [Agencia Catalana de l' Aigua, Barcelona (Spain)


    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbucies River basin (116 km{sup 2}) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbucies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  20. Middle Jurassic shear zones at Cap de Creus (eastern Pyrenees, Spain) : a record of pre-drift extension of the Piemonte–Ligurian Ocean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Wilkinson, Camilla M.; Ganerød, Morgan


    The Cap de Creus peninsula in NE Spain consists of greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metasediments and granitoid bodies of the Variscan Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, overprinted in the north by anastomosed greenschist-facies shear zones. Current tectonic interpretations ascribe these shear zones to t

  1. News from KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Ulrich F., E-mail: [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (Germany); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration


    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  2. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics (United States)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang


    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  3. The role of strain partitioning on intermontane basin inception and isolation, External Western Gibraltar Arc (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, A.; Expósito, I.; Balanyá, J. C.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.; Barcos, L.


    The intermontane Ronda Basin, currently located in the Western Betics External Zones, started as an embayment of the Betic foreland basin during the Tortonian. We have characterized a post-Serravallian, basin-related deformation event that overprinted the former fold-and-thrust belt. Updated structural and kinematic maps allow us to identify NW-SE basinward-dipping normal faults at the southwestern and northeastern boundaries of the basin and NE-SW shortening structures (large-scale folds and reverse faults) affecting both the outcropping basement and partially the basin infill. In order to test the possible tectonic activity of these structures during the last 5 Ma, exhaustive geomorphologic analyses in the Ronda Basin area have been done. This included the qualitative study of relief and drainage network, together with the characterization of quantitative indices (SLk, Smf, Vf and HI). These results obtained from this analysis are coherent with structural data and suggest that the identified post-Serravallian structures were active up to at least 5 Ma. We also conclude that the Ronda Basin was generated by along strike segmentation of the relief in the Western Betics induced by NE-SW (arc-parallel) stretching accompanied with NW-SE shortening. In the NW basin boundary, the strain was partitioned into ENE-WSW dextral strike-slip faults and NE-SW shortening structures, which gave rise to a Messinian transpressive structural high that disconnected the former Ronda Basin from its parental foreland basin.

  4. Geoelectrical prospecting of glauberite deposits in the Ebro basin (Spain)


    Guinea, Ander; Playà, Elisabet; Rivero, Lluís; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria


    Glauberite (Na2Ca[SO4]2) is an evaporitic mineral which is used in the industries of detergents, paper, glass, pharmacy, etc. Glauberite rocks are seldom found cropping out because they are very sensitive to weathering processes; for this reason their prospection is conducted by means of boreholes. Nowadays, geophysical techniques are not used to support the characterization of glauberite deposits due to the lack of knowledge of their physical properties. In this study geoelectrical method...

  5. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))


    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  6. 塔里木盆地东北缘敦煌群的形成和演化:锆石U-Pb年代学和Lu-Hf同位素证据%Evolution and formation of the Dunhuang Group in NE Tarim basin, NW China: Evidence from detrital-zircon geochronology and Hf isotope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁聪; 张建新; 相振群; 于胜尧; 李金平


    -bearing paragneiss and pegmatite-vein of the Dunhuang Group, which belong to metamorphic basement of NE marginal Tarim basin by the LA-MC-ICP-MS. Magmatic detrital zircon207Pb/206Pb age span are between ca. 1545 ~756Ma, mostly with ca. 1200 ~ 1000 Ma from muscovite quartz schist indicating Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic magmatic events in the erosion source areas and start sediment of strata after ca 756Ma. Divided two group εHf(t) values of zircons from muscovite quartz schist, positiveεHf(t) values with 1.2~10.1 and tDM = 1.09 ~ 1. 66Ga; other group with negative εHf(t) = -1~-16 and tDM2 = 1. 91 ~ 2. 42Ga,that suggesting exist Paleoproterozoic recycled crust and Mesoproterozoic juvenile crust in the source. Ages of two xenosrystal zircon grains from garnet amphibolite are 2272Ma and 1208Ma, εHf(t) values are-3 and 14, tDM2 and tDM are 2.82Ga and 1. 1Ga, respectively. This indicating exist Mesoarchean recycled crust and later Mesoproterozoic juvenile crust in the passage area. Th/U ratio with 0. 02~0.42 and 206Pb/238U ages with 441 ±5 Ma of zircons from garnet amphibolite implying occur metamorphism time of volcanic-clastic rocks. Character of detrital-zircons from gamet-bearing paragneiss and inherited zircons from pegmatite-vein is similarity, their ages are three peak spane; 2.2~2. 1Ga, 1.8~1.6Ga,l.2 ~0.8Ga, relevant εHf(t) values are -9~4,-5~15,-27~20; tDM=3.1 ~2.4Ga,2.6~ 1.4Ga, 3. 1 ~ 1.7Ga, respectively. That indicated zircons from recycled Neoarchean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic crust and maximal deposit time of strata is Neoproterozoic. Early Plaeozoic metamorphic zircons exist in these rocks with 206Pb/238U ages are 464~422Ma is likely to presentation of metamorphic time. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition on detrital zircons reflected variety of rocks in source and segment of Dunhuang Group is not Precambrian metamorphic basement, only one of later cover above. Then Early Paleozoic orogenic event impacted the

  7. Travertines associated with the Alhama-Jaraba thermal waters (NE, Spain): Genesis and geochemistry (United States)

    Asta, Maria P.; Auqué, Luis F.; Sanz, Francisco J.; Gimeno, Maria J.; Acero, Patricia; Blasco, Mónica; García-Alix, Antonio; Gómez, Javier; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Mandado, Juan


    Freshwater carbonates are interesting archives in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. However, more studies of those systems are needed to fully understand past environments. In this work the actively-forming travertines of the Alhama-Jaraba thermal system were studied for the first time in order to evaluate the relationship between the geochemical and mineralogical composition and the environmental conditions during their formation. With that aim, a combination of petrographical, mineralogical, geochemical and stable isotope analyses were carried out. These carbonates provide a natural laboratory for the study of the effect of different variables (natural and anthropogenic) on carbonate precipitation. The results showed that there is a close relationship between the mineralogy of the solid precipitates and the formation temperature, and only the samples formed from overheated waters (40-60 °C) show significant concentrations of aragonite. Aragonite-bearing samples show higher concentrations in Sr, Ba and U while calcitic solids are enriched in Mg. These differences could be attributed to mineralogy, temperature or different precipitation rates. The geochemical evaluation of the chemistry of both the solids and their parental waters suggests that differences in the rate of CO2-degassing and, in some cases, evaporation are the primary environmental controls on isotopic compositions. In addition, the results show that, if strong evaporation and CO2-degassing are involved, calcite precipitation occurs under conditions of isotopic disequilibrium with its parental water. The results of our study are useful to interpret old depositional environments and palaeotemperatures.

  8. A statistical approach to bioclimatic trend detection in the airborne pollen records of Catalonia (NE Spain). (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Alvaro; Belmonte, Jordina; Delgado, Rosario; De Linares, Concepción


    Airborne pollen records are a suitable indicator for the study of climate change. The present work focuses on the role of annual pollen indices for the detection of bioclimatic trends through the analysis of the aerobiological spectra of 11 taxa of great biogeographical relevance in Catalonia over an 18-year period (1994-2011), by means of different parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Among others, two non-parametric rank-based statistical tests were performed for detecting monotonic trends in time series data of the selected airborne pollen types and we have observed that they have similar power in detecting trends. Except for those cases in which the pollen data can be well-modeled by a normal distribution, it is better to apply non-parametric statistical methods to aerobiological studies. Our results provide a reliable representation of the pollen trends in the region and suggest that greater pollen quantities are being liberated to the atmosphere in the last years, specially by Mediterranean taxa such as Pinus, Total Quercus and Evergreen Quercus, although the trends may differ geographically. Longer aerobiological monitoring periods are required to corroborate these results and survey the increasing levels of certain pollen types that could exert an impact in terms of public health.

  9. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)


    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long-term sustainability of mountain wetlands and agriculture. • {sup 137}Cs was applied for estimation of soil redistribution in a complex catchment. • A tracer derived sediment budget identified main sources causing lake siltation. • Fallout tracer and GIS provided information useful for wetland preservation. • Vegetation strips around fields would reduce siltation from tillage erosion.

  10. Modelling runoff depth and connectivity in commercial vineyards (DO Somontano, Huesca, NE Spain) (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel, , Dr.; Navas, Ana, , Dr.


    Surface runoff, soil redistribution and sediment delivery are non-linear processes that depend on many parameters, and thus, numerical simulation of overland flow, sediments and other solutes connectivity is a complex and non-solved task. Additionally, man-made landscape linear elements (LLEs: unpaved and paved trails, roads, land levelling, irrigation ditches, stone walls, dams, etc.) modify the natural patterns of connectivity. Mediterranean soils have been cultivated for hundreds and thousands of years and landscapes appear intensively modified. Vineyards are one of the most ancient crops in Mediterranean countries and recently in other countries around the World. In this study, we run the IC model of connectivity (Borselli et al., 2008, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2008.07.006) and the water balance DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model (López-Vicente et al., 2014, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.08.025; software freely downloaded at in a vineyard (26.4 ha) composed by four fields (6.2 ha) and their upslope drainage area. These commercial fields belong to a winery included in the Somontano certificate of origin. All input maps are generated at 5 x 5 m of cell size and the digital elevation model is based on LIDAR technology. The map of connectivity showed the typical spatial pattern of overland flow though values of connectivity varied along the whole map. The average value was -2.65 (sd = -0.62) and within the four vineyards was -2.46 (sd = -0.65). High connectivity appeared in bare soil areas, in the unpaved trail and within some sections of the main pathways. The lowest connectivity appeared in the forest and in small areas within the vineyards. The effective rainfall (ER) that reaches the soils, was 88% on average (384 mm) from the total rainfall depth (436 mm yr-1) and the average initial runoff, before overland flow processes, was 382 mm yr-1 (sd = 31 mm). The ER within the vineyards was 81%. The effective runoff (CQeff) ranged from 0.5 until 985.5 mm yr-1 with an average value of 51.4 mm and 52.4 mm within the vineyards. The corresponding map showed numerous disruptions along the hillslope due to the presence of LLEs and topographic changes. The total depth of annual runoff corresponds to only 28.3% of the total effective rainfall (TER) and 24.9% of the total rainfall depth (TR). Within the vineyards these percentages were of 21.6 and 17.5%. The remaining water associated with the runoff and rainfall events (Waa) meant 71.7% and 63.2% of the TER and TR, respectively, and 78.4 and 63.2% within the vineyards. The average values of Waa were 130 and 189 mm for the whole study area and within the vineyards. The map of the Waa presented a different spatial pattern where the land uses play a more important role than the processes of cumulative overland flow. The highest values of CQeff appeared in April, September, October and November. The joint analysis of the results and the correlation between the predicted values with the IC and DR2 models adds valuable information about the processes of surface water dynamics in hillslopes with cultivated and forested soils.

  11. First report of Mycoplasma conjunctivae from wild Caprinae with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ballesteros, Cristina; Bischof, Daniela F; Lavín, Santiago; Vilei, Edy M


    Frequent outbreaks of infectious keratoconjunctivitis have been reported in wild Caprinae in Europe. While etiologic studies in the Alps indicate that the main etiologic agent is Mycoplasma conjunctivae, there are few reports from other mountain areas, such as the Pyrenees, where M. conjunctivae has never been reported. In 2006 and 2007, five adult Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica; two males and three females) and one adult male European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) were studied; they exhibited clinical symptoms of infectious keratoconjunctivitis such as blindness, corneal opacity, and ulceration. In three of the five chamois tested, and in the mouflon, Mycoplasma conjunctivae was identified from conjunctival swabs by means of a TaqMan(R) polymerase chain reaction based on the lipoprotein gene lppS. Cluster analysis indicated that the three southern chamois isolates form a cluster that is distinct from the mouflon isolate. This is the first report of M. conjunctivae in Pyrenean chamois, and it supports the hypothesis that M. conjunctivae also could be the main cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in areas other than the Alps, such as the Pyrenees.

  12. Development of a stream-aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin. (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Font, Eva; Astui, Oihane; Menció, Anna; Rodríguez-Florit, Agustí; Folch, Albert; Brusi, David; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo


    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km(2)) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  13. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.


    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was

  14. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei


    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  15. [Intensive medicine in Spain]. (United States)


    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Jurassic history of the Pieniny/Outer Carpathian basins reflects the evolution of the Circum-Tethyan area, especially its Alpine Tethys part. The Alpine Tethys that is Ligurian, Penninic Oceans and Pieniny/Magura Basin constitute the extension of the Central Atlantic system. The synrift stage lasted in the Pieniny/Magura Basin from late Early Jurassic to Tithonian (the Magura Unit constitutes the southernmost part of the Outer Flysch Carpathians. The Pieniny rift opened during Pliensbachian – Aalenian. The central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys went into a drifting stage during the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian history of the Pieniny/Magura Basin reflects strongest facial differentiation within sedimentary basin where mixed siliceous-carbonate sedimentation took place. Greatest deepening effect is indicated by widespread Oxfordian radiolarites, which occur in the all basinal successions, whereas the shallowest zone is completely devoid of siliceous intercalations at that time (sedimentation from Ammonitico Rosso facies up to coral reef limestone. The southern part of the North European Platform, north from the Pieniny/Magura realm, started to be rifted during Late Jurassic time and Silesian Basin in the Outer Western Carpathians and Sinaia Basin in the Eastern Carpathians, with black, mainly redeposited marls have been created. The outer sub-basins were differentiated during the latest (Hauterivian-Barremian phase of basinal development. The connection of Silesian Basin with Sinaia and Southern Carpathian Severin areas suggests the NW-SE direction of the basinal axis while the orientation of the Pieniny Klippen Belt/Magura Basin was SW-NE so, two Outer Carpathian perpendicular directions are possible within the basins. Major reorganization happened during the Tithonian-Berriasian time. It was reflected by both paleoceanographical and paleoclimatical changes. The Neo-Cimmerian tectonic events as well as main phase

  17. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.


    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  18. Humane mlečne banke


    Ćosić, Ana


    Humane mlečne banke zbirajo, nadzorujejo, obdelujejo, shranjujejo in razdeljujejo darovano mleko. Namenjene so nedonošenčkom in bolnim novorojenčkom, katerih matere nimajo mleka. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti osveščenost mater o pomembnosti humanih mlečnih bank. Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo raziskovanja. Ugotovili smo, da so matere osveščene o pomembnosti humanih mlečnih bank in zato tudi posledično čimprejšnja ustanovitev humane mlečne banke v Sloveniji.

  19. Presenting SAPUSS: Solving Aerosol Problem by Using Synergistic Strategies in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto


    Full Text Available This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB during September–October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations – both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively. SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the urban Mediterranean environment. This is well achieved only because of both the three dimensional spatial scale and the high sampling time resolution used. During SAPUSS different meteorological regimes were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant regional ones. The different meteorology of such regimes is herein described. Additionally, we report the trends of the parameters regulated by air quality purposes (both gaseous and aerosol mass concentrations; and we also compare the six monitoring sites. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night-time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3 were up to double compared to ground level ones. The examination of the vertical profiles clearly shows the predominant influence of NOx on ozone

  20. Presenting SAPUSS: solving aerosol problem by using synergistic strategies at Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto


    Full Text Available This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the Marie Curie Action FP7-EU SAPUSS project carried out in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB from 20 September–20 October 2010. The experiment involved concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously. The key objective is to deduce point aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations. The unique approach is the large variety of instrumentation deployed simultaneously in six monitoring sites in Barcelona (NE Spain and around the city, including: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two tower sites (150 m and 545 m a.s.l., 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively. The SAPUSS experiment allows us to interpret the variability of aerosols levels and composition in an Urban Mediterranean, an environment not well characterized so far. During SAPUSS different air mass scenarios were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant Regional ones and presenting different local meteorology and boundary layer conditions. Analysis of part of the data collected allows us to compare the monitoring sites as well as to draw scientific conclusions about relevant air quality parameters. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3 were up to double than ground level ones. Particle number concentrations (N>5: 9980 ± 6500 cm−1, average of all measurements were generally traffic dependent, although a contribution from two different types of nucleation events was also found

  1. Hydrogeophysics and Water Balance of Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico (United States)

    Yutsis, V.; de León Gómez, H.; Masuch Oesterreich, D.; Izaguirre, F.


    The geographical location of the State of Nuevo Leon, due to its physiographic features, has temperate and arid climate; undeveloped drainage, low precipitations, and high evapotranspiration rates, as well as rapid demographic growth. The hydrological data of the Pablillo basin, registered in the hydrometric station Cerro Prieto, showed an annual precipitation from 415 up to 1130 mm/a , the mean evaporation of 705 mm/a (up to 2460 mm/a in 1996). The maximum water storage of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is 395 millions m3 which corresponds to a water level of 295 meters. However, this level was reached only three times after the dam's construction. By the end of June 2006 the water level was at 276.2 m which corresponds to a water volume of about 127,806,300 m3 which is less than a third of maximum storage. Analysis of hydrological data showed sufficient misbalance between water recharge (by rain, river flow) and loss due to evaporation, filtration, extraction, discharge, etc. 160 gravity reading points, 400 onshore magnetic field readings as well as about 250 offshore magnetic points were carried out. The standard corrections as instrumental drift, latitude, elevation, IGRF, etc. were applied to obtained data. Data procession includes Fourier transformation, wavelength filters, upward continuation, vertical and horizontal derivates, etc. As a result a 2D geological-geophysical models and 3D maps were elaborated. The general trend of the magnetic field reduced to a pole is NW - SE on which background anomalies of northeast trend are obviously traced. The general trend of the gravity field received as a result of our works is the same. However, local magnetic and residual gravity anomalies have mosaic character and, being morphologically extended in a NE direction, grouped in chains of northwest trend. Potential data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NE direction, perpendicular (NW-SE) to the general deep fault. The

  2. Mini Networked Screens (MiNeS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.A.; Maris, M.; Breen, P.C.; Versteeg, N.; Terwisga, P.F. van; Ort, C.M.; Blok, J.J.


    The forward areas for an LPD in littoral waters can be full of surprises. A novel concept is presented for a networked screen consisting of elements of increasing capability to provide a progressive response to the threat. This MiNeS concept substantially improves the capability of the LPD as an aut

  3. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of n

  4. Thermodynamics and equilibrium structure of Ne38 cluster: quantum mechanics versus classical. (United States)

    Predescu, Cristian; Frantsuzov, Pavel A; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A


    The equilibrium properties of classical Lennard-Jones (LJ38) versus quantum Ne38 Lennard-Jones clusters are investigated. The quantum simulations use both the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and the recently developed variational-Gaussian wave packet Monte Carlo (VGW-MC) methods. The PIMC and the classical MC simulations are implemented in the parallel tempering framework. The classical heat capacity Cv(T) curve agrees well with that of Neirotti et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10340 (2000)], although a much larger confining sphere is used in the present work. The classical Cv(T) shows a peak at about 6 K, interpreted as a solid-liquid transition, and a shoulder at approximately 4 K, attributed to a solid-solid transition involving structures from the global octahedral (Oh) minimum and the main icosahedral (C5v) minimum. The VGW method is used to locate and characterize the low energy states of Ne38, which are then further refined by PIMC calculations. Unlike the classical case, the ground state of Ne38 is a liquidlike structure. Among the several liquidlike states with energies below the two symmetric states (Oh and C5v), the lowest two exhibit strong delocalization over basins associated with at least two classical local minima. Because the symmetric structures do not play an essential role in the thermodynamics of Ne38, the quantum heat capacity is a featureless curve indicative of the absence of any structural transformations. Good agreement between the two methods, VGW and PIMC, is obtained. The present results are also consistent with the predictions by Calvo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7312 (2001)] based on the quantum superposition method within the harmonic approximation. However, because of its approximate nature, the latter method leads to an incorrect assignment of the Ne38 ground state as well as to a significant underestimation of the heat capacity.

  5. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.


    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its...

  7. Environmental engineering education in Spain. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I


    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  8. Transverse fold evolution in the External Sierra, southern Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Anastasio, David J.; Holl, James E.


    Fault-slip data are used to reconstruct varying tectonic regimes associated with transverse fold development along the eastern and southern margins of the Jaca basin, southern Pyrenees, Spain. The Spanish Pyrenean foreland consists of thrust sheets and leading-edge décollement folds which developed within piggyback basins. Guara Formation limestones on the margins of the Jaca basin were deposited synchronously with deformation and are exposed in the External Sierra. Within the transverse folds, principal shortening axes determined from P and T dihedra plots of fault-slip data show a shift from steep shortening in stratigraphically older beds to NNE-SSW horizontal shortening in younger beds. Older strata are characterized by extensional faults interpreted to result from halotectonic (salt tectonics) deformation, whereas younger strata are characterized by contraction and strike-slip faults interpreted to result from thrust sheet emplacement. The interpretation of the timing for the shortening axes in the younger strata is supported by the observation that these axes are parallel to shortening axes determined from finite strain analysis, calcite twins, and regional thrusting directions determined from fault-related folds and slickenlines. This study shows that fault population analysis in syntectonic strata provides an opportunity to constrain kinematic evolution during orogeny.

  9. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt


    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  10. Helical industrial chimneys in Spain


    López Patiño, Mª Gracia


    The industrial chimney has been the symbol of the Industrial Revolution par excellence. Transcending both regionalism and traditional forms of construction, some specimens found in Spain, dating mainly from the early twentieth century, follow unique schools of construction with regard to the mastery with which the brick is handled. All this was achieved without being endorsed by famous architects; rather they were the product of master masons, skilled in their craft and relishing ...

  11. [History of microscopy in Spain]. (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D


    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  12. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  13. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  14. Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Heather L.; /Los Alamos


    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  15. Role of structural inheritances and major transfer fault-zones in the tectonic history of the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Comas, Menchu; Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Balanya, Juan Carlos


    reorganization (N-S shortening) of the basin, which encompass wrench tectonics, margin rotations, sub-basin inversions, bending of former extensional structures, and further shale-tectonics. The recent NW-SE and NE-SW trending conjugate wrench-fault system that bound the actual structural domains observed offshore locates over major transfer-faults zones from the Miocene extension. The rotated segments of basin-margins and concomitant structural bending, as well as changes in the tectonic regimen of the transfer-fault systems are expressive of the aftermath of superimposed extensional and compressional processes in the Alboran Basin. The spatial and temporary evolution of the tectonic deformation documented by geological and geophysical observables in the Alboran Sea basin provides new insights into the critical role of the tectonic heritage and major transfer fault-zones in the geodynamic history of the GAS. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by projects RNM-3713, RNM-215, CTM2009-07715 and CGL2009-11384 (MINECO, JA, and FEDER founds, Spain).

  16. Studying the NE Eridania sedimentary sequence through the Mars 2020 rover (United States)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Coradini, M.; McBride, K. S.


    The landing sites we are proposing for the next Mars 2020 rover span between 28°29'30"S-28°53'0"S Latitude and 178°56'30"W°178°28'0"W Longitude, i.e. on the NE floor of a 1.1×106 km2 closed drainage basin [1]. This area, see Fig. 1, belongs to the bigger (3×106 km2) Eridania basin that gave birth to the Ma'adim Vallis through catastrophic overflow, and presenting a water table between 950 and 1250 m [1,2,3]. The crater counting chronology for this area gives an age between Early to Middle Noachian [4]. By means of OMEGA [5] and CRISM [6] data, a large clay-bearing sedimentary unit has been identified over almost the entire margin of the Eridania basin [7]. On our specific site, i.e. the NE margin of the Eridania basin, sequences of aqueous minerals are observed. Such sedimentary minerals are accessible through erosional windows into the first several tens of meters of the sedimentary sequence. The top-down mineral sequence identified on the landing sites area presents an unaltered capping unit that is overlying an Al-rich clay stratum (see Fig. 2) akin to Al-smectite and/or kaolins with a 3.8 Ga) during which liquid water was durably stable at the surface. The most valuable candidates for ancient Martian microbial life sustainability and preservation are longlasting environments, characterized by the presence of ponding water [10,11,12]: hence, the proposed site presents a high exobiological potential that is just waiting to be unveiled. Besides that, when putting into context the future results on Eridania Basin, i.e. the Ma'adim Vallis source, together with those obtained from the Spirit rover inside Gusev Crater (see Fig. 1), i.e. the Ma'adim Vallis mouth, a wide understanding of this intriguing canyon and of the Mars megaflooding age is foreseen. Besides the above scientific analysis showing than the NE side of the Eridania region fulfills entirely the Mars 2020 scientific requirements [13], the location of the proposed landing sites widely meets all the

  17. Anatomy of molecular structures in $^{20}$Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, E F; Li, Z P; Meng, J; Ring, P


    We present a beyond mean-field study of clusters and molecular structures in low-spin states of $^{20}$Ne with a multireference relativistic energy density functional, where the dynamical correlation effects of symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shapes fluctuation are taken into account with projections on parity, particle number and angular momentum in the framework of the generator coordinate method. Both the energy spectrum and the electric multipole transition strengths for low-lying parity-doublet bands are better reproduced after taking into account the dynamical octupole vibration effect. Consistent with the finding in previous antisymmetrized molecular dynamics studies, a rotation-induced dissolution of the $\\alpha+^{16}$O molecular structure in $^{20}$Ne is predicted and this peculiar phenomenon is partially attributed to the special deformation-dependent moment of inertia.

  18. Flash floods in Mediterranean ephemeral streams in Valencia Region (Spain) (United States)

    Camarasa-Belmonte, Ana M.


    Ephemeral streams are typical Mediterranean fluvial systems with high risk of flash flooding, and few data are available about these systems in most locales. However, the SAIH network (Automatic Hydrological Information Systems) of the Jucar River Water Authority has been providing detailed information about ephemeral streams in Spain every 5 min since 1988. Using these data, we evaluated the processes of rainfall-runoff conversion and flood generation in five Mediterranean ephemeral streams ranging in size from 25 to 450 km2. To provide a general framework for hydrological analysis, the study included 142 flash flood events registered between 1989 and 2007. A more detailed analysis was conducted for the Carraixet Basin under the dry antecedent moisture condition (AMC I) to evaluate the influence of rainfall on the basin's response. A simple index called Momentum of Maximum Intensity (MMI) was developed to describe the influence of rainfall intensity on hydrograph. Correlations between the main indicators of precipitation and flow also were assessed. Results showed that flash floods were generally generated by average accumulated rainfall of around 100 mm at high intensities that could exceed 300 mm/h. Initial abstractions and average water losses during the rainfall-runoff conversion processes were very important (runoff coefficients of 6% and runoff thresholds of 62 mm). No correlation was found between initial abstractions (Ia) calculated from the basin characteristics and runoff thresholds (P0) empirically obtained, which create some doubts about the validity of Ia method for predicting floods in ephemeral streams. Accumulated rainfall was very important for flood volume, peak flow and water balance indicators, whereas intensity indicators were more related to the response times of the basins. Rainfall intensity variables influenced lag time. Accumulated rainfall, in combination with high reduced mean intensity and low persistence, were a good predictor for

  19. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE (United States)

    Lucherini, V.


    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  20. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.


    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  1. Prezident na bombardirovshtshike - ne sensatsija / Viktor Juzbashev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juzbashev, Viktor


    Lääne pressis kommenteeriti Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini sõitu strateegilisel pommilennukil Tu-160 kui Venemaa surveavaldust naaberriikidele, samas viibivad ka teised riigijuhid aeg-ajalt sõjalistel objektidel ja taktikaõppustel. Autor küsib, kuidas Vene ja Hiina sõdurite ühisõppus saab olla tõsine hoiatus USA-le. Raketist X-555

  2. The Finuda Experiment on DAΦNE (United States)

    Lucherini, Vincenzo

    FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of Λ-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  3. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin


    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  4. 海拉尔盆地火山岩的锆石 U-Pb 年龄及其地质意义%Zircon U-Pb Chronology of Volcanic Rocks in the Hailaer Basin, NE China and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈崇阳; 高有峰; 吴海波; 瞿雪姣; 刘志文; 白雪峰; 王璞臖


    The Hailaer basin is located in the west of the Great Xing'an Range,and there are many sets of volcanic sedimentary rocks in the basin.Determining the age of the formation of volcanic rocks can provide reliable evidence for the stratigraphic cor-relation of the basin and the Great Xing'an Range,and the tectonic evolution in Northeast China as well.LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating for 4 volcanic rock samples from coring well in the Hailaer basin (HB)is presented in this paper.Their formation time and tectonic setting focusing on the intra-/inter-basinal stratigraphic correlation are discussed.The dating results show that volcanic rocks with ages of Late Triassic-early Early Jurassic (214.4±4.3 Ma)do exist in the HB.And the whole volcanic succession in the region can be subdivided into 4 stages of eruption including Middle-Late Carboniferous (320-290 Ma),Late Triassic-early Early Jurassic (224-197 Ma),Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (152-138 Ma),and late Early Cretaceous (128-117 Ma).Combined with geochemical characteristics,temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the magma in the Great Xing'an Range area,as well as the characteristics of the seismic profile of the basin,it is suggested that the Middle-Late Carboniferous magmatic rocks (320-290 Ma)were probably formed in a post-collision extensional setting related to the collision and merging of the Songnen and Ergun-Xing'an blocks.The Late Triassic-early Early Jurassic volcanic rocks (224-197 Ma)were probably formed in a post-collision extensional setting related to the closure of Paleo-Asian Ocean,which indi-cates Paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic domain affects the Great Xing'an Range area extended to the early Early Jurassic at least and the collision of the Mongolia Okhotsk Ocean possibly started in the early Jurassic at the earliest.The Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (152-138 Ma)and the Late Early Cretaceous (128 -117 Ma)volcanic rocks were probably formed in a post-collision extensional setting

  5. Use of Seasonal Forecasts for Dams Management in Spain (United States)

    Voces, Jose; Sanchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto


    This presentation describes the potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water management in Spain. Given the low skill provided by seasonal forecasting systems based on the current operational models, and after analyzing the response to the climate drivers at different time scales for selected river basins in Spain, a two steps empirical forecasting technique has been developed and tested as a pilot study in the framework of the Euporias project. In the first step the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index is forecasted from the observed Eurasian Snow Advance Index in October taking advantage of the high correlation between them. Then, a synthetic probability distribution function is generated to sample the NAO index in order to assess the forecasting uncertainty. In the second step, a KNN algorithm is used to retrieve a set of reservoir inflows associated with each of the NAO index samples. The final result is an ensemble of possible scenarios (reservoir inflows) which are used as input for the water allocation decision support models.

  6. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  7. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon


    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  8. Digital Economy and Management in Spain. (United States)

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.


    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  9. Latin radio in Spain. Media for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Santos Diez


    Full Text Available Spain has become one of the top destinations for immigration from Latin America. This phenomenon involves the creation of new media to satisfy their needs for information and entertainment. In this paper we analyze creation and the programming grips of the FM radio stations forLatinos arising in Spain.

  10. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  11. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.


    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  12. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors


    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  13. Needle exchange programs in prisons in Spain. (United States)

    Menoyo, C; Zulaica, D; Parras, F


    On 11 July 2000, at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, yet another country--Spain--presented evidence that needle exchange programs in prisons work. We reproduce here the text of the presentation entitled "Needle Exchange Program at the Bilbao Prison, Spain: Two Years of Experience (1997-1999)."

  14. Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective

    CERN Document Server

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez


    Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.



    Kos, Ivan; PRKAČIN, INGRID


    Dijabetička nefropatija vodeći je uzrok završne faze kronične bubrežne bolesti u većini razvijenih zemalja s učestalosti do 50 %. Visoka učestalost dijabetičke nefropatije posljedica je kontinuiranog povećanja prevalencije dijabetesa tipa 2 u općoj populaciji. Neregulirana glikemija, hipertenzija i genetska predispozicija glavni su čimbenici rizika za razvoj dijabetičke nefropatije. Ostali čimbenici su povišeni serumski lipidi, pušenje i povišen unos proteina. Za nastanak dijabetičke nefropat...

  16. Proterozoic Tectonic History of Borborema Province, NE Brazil: Implications For Assembly of West Gondwana (United States)

    van Schmus, W. R.; Brito Neves, B. B.

    The Borborema Province of NE Brazil comprises the west-central part of a wide Pan- African - Brasiliano continental collision belt that formed during ca. 600 Ma assembly of West Gondwana. Our studies over the past decade, in collaboration with many other workers, demonstrate a complex Proterozoic history that created or modified crustal domains at 2.1, 1.7, 1.0, 0.8, and 0.6 Ga. Although NE Brazil contains a few small Archean domains included within early Paleoproterozoic orogens, the first major event was formation of extensive continental crust about 2.35 to 2.1 Ga, before and during the so-called Transamazonian orogeny. We believe that this occurred in conjunction with formation of a larger Paleoproterozoic continent about 2.05 Ga that included present-day West African, Amazonian, Congo, and São Francisco cratons. Incipient extension within this continent occurred in Brazil about 1.8 to 1.7 Ga, resulting in intracratonic sedimentation and bimodal volcanism, but equivalent rocks are less well known in Africa. A successful breakup occurred before or about 1.1 Ga, resulting in separation of parts of this continent into two major stable masses containing (a) the Amazon-West African craton, and (b) the São Francisco-Congo (SF/C) craton. The break-up also created many smaller fragments between these two large masses, particularly in the east (present-day NE Brazil and Saharan Africa) and including the Ceará-Rio Grande do Norte (CE/RN) craton in NE Brazil. About 1.0 Ga a magmatic arc more than 700 km long (Cariris Velhos orogen) developed in NE Brazil, possibly as a result of convergence between the CE/RN and SF/C cratons; eastward extension of the 1.0 Ga Cariris Velhos orogen into West Africa is presently unknown. About 850 to 700 Ma several extensional basins developed in NE Brazil, with intraplate bimodal volcanism and clastic sedimentation; coeval basins may have formed in west-central Africa. From 700 to 600 Ma plate convergence among the CE/RN craton, SF

  17. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain) (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores


    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  18. Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯希杰; 戴王强


    Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin is a popular phenomenon and its characteristics are also typical.Taking the activity migrations of Wangshun Mountain piedmont fault toward Lishan piedmont fault and Weinan platform front fault, Dabaopi-Niujiaojian fault toward Shenyusi-Xiaojiazhai fault, among a serial of NE-trending faults from Baoji city to Jingyang County as examples, their migration time and process are analyzed and discussed in the present paper. It is useful for further understanding the structure development and physiognomy evolution history of Weihe basin.

  19. Tectonic Features and Its Control Over Oil and Gas in Beibuwan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Dianzhong


    @@ Main part of Beibuwan Basin located in Beibuwan Bay, South China Sea, is a Cenozoic basin with mainly of Tertiary sedimentation. It is dissected into tectonic framework of interchange of multi-sag and multiuplift units by two groups of big riff with NE and NW trend. The fault sags resulted from the fault dissection are Weixinan, Wushi, Maichen, Fushan (on Hainan Island )etc. (Fig. 1).

  20. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain]. (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma


    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  1. Spain. Women in the world. (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N


    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  2. Geological and environmental implications of the evaporite karst in Spain (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Cardona, F.; Ortí, F.; Durán, J. J.; Garay, P.


    In Spain, evaporite outcrops cover approximately 7% of the total area of the country. Most of the evaporitic formations are made up of Ca-sulfates (gypsum/anhydrite) or Ca-sulfates and halite. Certain Paleogene marine evaporites also contain K-Mg-chlorides, and some Tertiary continental formations bear substantial amounts of Na-sulfates in the subsurface (glauberite and thenardite). Mesozoic evaporitic formations commonly wedge out towards the ground surface, passing into condensed sequences and dissolution-collapse breccias. Some of these highly porous breccias constitute major regional aquifers. In several areas, interstratal karstification of the evaporites has given rise to gravitational deformations such as basin structures, monoclines, and collapse structures covering several square kilometers that record a cumulative subsidence in excess of 200 m (Teruel and Calatayud Grabens). A widespread consequence of evaporite dissolution processes in Spain is the hydrochemical degradation of surface waters. Some of the largest and most outstanding lake systems, from an environmental perspective, occur in karstic depressions developed in evaporitic formations (Fuente de Piedra, Gallocanta, Bujaraloz, and Bañolas lakes). Sinkhole activity is a major geohazard in several evaporite karst areas. The sinkhole risk has a particularly high impact in sectors where Tertiary evaporites are overlain by Quaternary alluvial aquifers (Calatayud, Zaragoza, and Madrid areas). Some of the detrimental effects of subsidence include severe damage to historical monuments (Calatayud), the demolition of a whole village (Puilatos), or the derailment of a freight train (Zaragoza area). The deepest gypsum caves are found in Triassic diapiric structures (El Sumidor Cave, 210 m deep), and the longest ones are developed in horizontally lying Neogene sequences (Sorbas caves, and Estremera maze cave). The Cardona diapir hosts salt caves up to 4,300 m long whose genesis is related to flooding of mine

  3. Controls of Nazca ridge subduction on the Amazonian foreland basin geometry (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Martinod, J.; Bolaños, R.


    In the central Andes, the Nazca ridge subduction imprints can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The western part of the Amazonian basin is currently an atypical foreland basin because the Amazonian foreland basin 3-D geometry does not follow the foreland basin system model of DeCelles and Giles [1]. The Amazonian foreland basin consists of two main subsiding basins separated by the NE-SW trending structural/morphologic Fitzcarrald Arch. Geomorphic and lithospheric data provide evidence that the large wavelength Fitzcarrald Arch uplift at 750 kilometers ahead of the trench results from the Nazca ridge flat subduction. The flexure of the South American lithosphere is overcompensated by the buoyancy of the Nazca ridge impeaching a four-component foreland basin system. The recent deformations of the Amazon basin are characterized by vertical motions as recorded by the radial modern drainage network and the deformation of Pliocene to recent fluvial deposits on both sides of the arch, according to the kinematics of the Nazca ridge subduction. In addition, analogue lithospheric experiments similarly show that the ridge buoyancy induces uplift above the flat-slab segment in the foreland basin separating two subsiding sub-basins resulting from the flexure of the continental lithosphere. [1] DeCelles, P.G., and Giles, K.A.(1996)Foreland basin systems: Basin Research, 8, 105-123.

  4. DA{phi}NE Upgrade Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesini, David; Biagini, Maria Enrica; Biscari, Caterina; Boni, Roberto; Boscolo, Manuela; Bossi, Fabio; Buonomo, Bruno; Clozza, Alberto; Delle Monache, Giovanni; Demma, Theo; Di Pasquale, Enrico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Drago, Alessandro; Gallo, Alessandro; Ghigo, Andrea; Guiducci, Susanna; Ligi, Carlo; Marcellini, Fabio; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, Catia [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)


    The DA{phi}NE {phi}-factory at INFN-LNF has been upgraded in the second half of 2007 with the scope of testing a recently proposed scheme of crab waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, fabricated and installed to realize the new configuration. The ring injection systems have been also modified with the installation of new stripline fast injection kickers. Moreover the old bellows have been substituted by the new ones and all ion clearing electrodes in the electron ring have been removed. In the talk we describe the new layout as well as several experimental results obtained during the new run.

  5. Čelične tunelske oplate


    Andrić, Ante; Tešović, Snježana


    Opisano je postrojenje za betoniranje sekundarne tunelske obloge. Postrojenje ima tri dijela: plašt, transporter s vlastitim pogonom i sustav opskrbe betonom. Uz tehničke karakteristike i funkcije postrojenja opisana je i tehnologija rada te problematika konstruiranja, projektiranja i prenamjene za trotračnu i četverotračnu oplatu. Opisana je i prikazana konstrukcija oplate portala, čelne oplate i tunelske niše te montaža dvotračne oplate po fazama kao i distribucija betona.

  6. Use of passive seismic data to characterize sedimentary basins, an example from the Vienna Basin, Austria. (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, N.; Bianchi, I.


    The analysis of passive seismic data leads a deeper understanding of the basin features in those areas that have been less explored via direct drilling. In this study, we use the Receiver Functions technique that constrain the presence of impedance contrasts at depth, caused by lithology changes, and seismic anisotropy, possibly related to fluid-filled cracks or alignment of orientated mineral grains. We present some examples from broadband seismic stations located in the Vienna basin, on the horst structures and in the deep depocenters, which characterize the sedimentary basin. Preliminary analysis of the high frequency (4Hz) RF data-set, show the presence of two close impedance contrasts, which presumably are related to the occurence of a thick sedimentary layer overlying a thinner limestone layer. Seismic anisotropy is recognized around the interface between sediments and limestones; the anisotropy is NE directed reflecting the NE alignment of the strike-slip fault system, which characterizes the area. The comparison of passive seismology with direct exploration improves the knowledge of the subsurface and adds new constraints on its geodynamical interpretation.

  7. The impact of poplar tree plantations for biomass production on the aquifer water budget and base flow in a Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folch, Albert, E-mail: [Hydrogeology Group (UPC-CSIC), Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Ferrer, Núria [Hydrogeology Group (UPC-CSIC), Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona (Spain)


    Poplar plantations are used for biomass production in many countries. These plantations are often located in areas where the tree roots can reach the water table of shallow aquifers to reduce irrigation costs and increase evapotranspiration, mainly during the summer. This study aims to assess the effects of these plantations on an aquifer water budget and on the stream flow of a Mediterranean basin (Santa Coloma River, 321.3 km{sup 2} NE Spain). A numerical flow model was constructed to simulate shallow aquifers and to simulate the stream–aquifer interaction for a period of 9 years. Once the model was calibrated, different land use scenarios, such as deciduous forests, dry farming and irrigated farming, were simulated for comparison. The mass balance shows that poplar extracts an average of 2.40 hm{sup 3} from the aquifer, i.e., approximately 18% of the average recharge of the modelled area. This effect reduces the groundwater flow to the main stream and increases the infiltration from the stream to the aquifer. As a result, there is an average reduction in the main stream flow by 46% during the summer, when the lowest flow occurs and when the river is most sensitive. The results indicate that these impacts should be considered in basin management plans and in evaluating the benefits of this type of biomass production. - Highlights: • Poplar plantations can evapotranspirate aquifer groundwater in semiarid areas • A groundwater flow model is presented to quantify poplars’ impact on the water budget • 20% of the aquifer recharge is consumed by poplars • The main stream flow is reduced up to 46% during summer due to plantations uptake • Biomass production impacts must be considered for evaluating water resources planning.

  8. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H


    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  9. Water Yield and Sediment Yield Simulations for Teba Catchment in Spain Using SWRRB Model: Ⅱ.Simulation Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Simulated results of water yield, sediment yield, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, peak flow, evapotranspiration, etc., in the Teba catchment, Spain, using SWRRB (Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins) model are presented and the related problems are discussed. The results showed that water yield and sediment yield could be satisfactorily simulated using SWRRB model The accuracy of the annual water yield simulation in the Teba catchment was up to 83.68%, which implied that this method could be effectively used to predict the annual or inter-annual water yield and to realize the quantification of geographic elements and processes of a river basin.``

  10. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.


    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  11. Electron-impact excitation of Ne4+ (United States)

    Griffin, D. C.; Badnell, N. R.


    We present the results of extensive close-coupling calculations of electron-impact excitation of the C-like ion, Ne4+. We first compare effective collision strengths determined from a 20-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculation with those obtained from a 20-level intermediate-coupling frame transformation (ICFT) R-matrix calculation. The ICFT method was also employed to perform two much larger calculations; we compare the effective collision strengths determined from these calculations with each other and with those obtained from the 20-level calculations in order to assess the effects of increasing both the size of the configuration-interaction expansion of the target and the size of the close-coupling expansion. Our final calculation, with 130 terms and 261 levels in the configuration-interaction expansion of the target and 66 terms and 138 levels in the close-coupling expansion, provides improved data for excitation between the levels of the 2s22p2, 2s2p3 and 2p4 configurations and the first close-coupling results for excitation to the levels of the 2s22p3ℓ configurations in Ne4+.

  12. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  13. Examination of the Feynman-Hibbs Approach in the Study of NeN-Coronene Clusters at Low Temperatures. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cantano, Rocío; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Hernández, Marta I; Campos-Martínez, José; González-Lezana, Tomás; Villarreal, Pablo; Hernández-Rojas, Javier; Bretón, José


    Feynman-Hibbs (FH) effective potentials constitute an appealing approach for investigations of many-body systems at thermal equilibrium since they allow us to easily include quantum corrections within standard classical simulations. In this work we apply the FH formulation to the study of NeN-coronene clusters (N = 1-4, 14) in the 2-14 K temperature range. Quadratic (FH2) and quartic (FH4) contributions to the effective potentials are built upon Ne-Ne and Ne-coronene analytical potentials. In particular, a new corrected expression for the FH4 effective potential is reported. FH2 and FH4 cluster energies and structures-obtained from energy optimization through a basin-hopping algorithm as well as classical Monte Carlo simulations-are reported and compared with reference path integral Monte Carlo calculations. For temperatures T > 4 K, both FH2 and FH4 potentials are able to correct the purely classical calculations in a consistent way. However, the FH approach fails at lower temperatures, especially the quartic correction. It is thus crucial to assess the range of applicability of this formulation and, in particular, to apply the FH4 potentials with great caution. A simple model of N isotropic harmonic oscillators allows us to propose a means of estimating the cutoff temperature for the validity of the method, which is found to increase with the number of atoms adsorbed on the coronene molecule.

  14. Examination of the Feynman-Hibbs Approach in the Study of Ne$_N$-Coronene Clusters at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Cantano, R; Bartolomei, M; Hernández, M I; Campos-Martínez, J; González-Lezana, T; Villarreal, P; Hernández-Rojas, J; Bretón, J


    Feynman-Hibbs (FH) effective potentials constitute an appealing approach for investigations of many-body systems at thermal equilibrium since they allow us to easily include quantum corrections within standard classical simulations. In this work we apply the FH formulation to the study of Ne$_N$-coronene clusters ($N=$ 1-4, 14) in the 2-14 K temperature range. Quadratic (FH2) and quartic (FH4) contributions to the effective potentials are built upon Ne-Ne and Ne-coronene analytical potentials. In particular, a new corrected expression for the FH4 effective potential is reported. FH2 and FH4 cluster energies and structures -obtained from energy optimization through a basin-hoping algorithm as well as classical Monte Carlo simulations- are reported and compared with reference path integral Monte Carlo calculations. For temperatures $T> \\approx 4$ K, both FH2 and FH4 potentials are able to correct the purely classical calculations in a consistent way. However, the FH approach fails at lower temperatures, especia...

  15. Hydrological dynamics of a Mediterranean catchment in a global change context. (Romanyac catchment, Cap de Creus, Girona, Spain) (United States)

    Latron, J.; Pardini, G.; Gispert, M.; Llorens, P.


    Mediterranean regions are characterized by unevenly distributed water resources, and consequently a more precise knowledge of the main hydrological processes and their variability and changes is crucial for a better management of water resources. However, the lack of hydrological information and data in most areas of the Mediterranean basin greatly difficult the analyses of changes in water resources at relevant scales. In this context, the Soil Science Unit GRCT48 from the University of Girona is conducting an integrated study of hydrological response, soil erosion and soil degradation processes in fragile Mediterranean areas undergoing changes in use and management. The study area is located in the Cap de Creus Peninsula (NE Spain), where land abandonment has been the outstanding characteristic over the last decades. The area is covered by terraced soils, most of them abandoned, and stands for a representative Mediterranean environment. Current land cover is a mosaic of areas with different shrubs according to wildfire occurrence. Residual patches of cork and pine trees are also present as well as small extensions of pastures. Finally some localized areas of vineyards and olive trees are still cultivated. The approach is based on the complementary use of plot and catchment scales to assess the effect of land cover and land use change on physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil quality and on rainfall-runoff-erosion relationships. Along the study period, observed rainfall-runoff response at the plot scale was highly variable among sites but also for a given environment, depending on antecedent wetness conditions and rainfall characteristics. Overall, surface runoff responses were low in all environments. Soil loss associated to rainfall-runoff events showed very large variations among sites, and also for a given site, between the different rainfall events. At the catchment scale, preliminary results obtained from the monitoring, of three catchments of

  16. A new species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous of Spain: phylogenetic and paleobiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco


    Full Text Available Background. The Late Cretaceous is a keystone period to understand the origin and early radiation of Crocodylia, the group containing all extant lineages of crocodilians. Among the taxa described from the latest Cretaceous of Europe, the genus Allodaposuchus is one of the most common but also one of the most controversial. However, because of its fragmentary record, several issues regarding its phylogenetic emplacement and its ecology remain unsolved or unknown. The discovery of a single specimen attributed to Allodaposuchus, represented by both cranial and postcranial remains, from the Casa Fabà site (Tremp Basin, NE Spain in the lower red unit of the Tremp Fm. (early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous offers a unique opportunity to deepen in the phylogenetic relationships of the group and its ecological features.Methods. The specimen is described in detail, and CT scan of the skull is performed in order to study the endocranial morphology as well as paratympanic sinuses configuration. In addition, myological and phylogenetic analyses are also carried out on the specimen for to shed light in ecological and phylogenetic issues, respectively.Results. The specimen described herein represents a new species, Allodaposuchus hulki sp. nov., closely related to the Romanian A. precedens. The CT scan of the skull revealed an unexpected paratympanic sinuses configuration. Allosaposuchus hulki exhibits an “anterodorsal tympanic sinus” not observed in any other extant or extinct crocodilian. The caudal tympanic recesses are extremely enlarged, and the expanded quadratic sinus seems to be connected to the middle-ear channel. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the emplacement of the informal taxonomic group ‘Allodaposuchia’ at the base of Crocodylia, being considered the sister group of Borealosuchus and Planocraniidae.Discussion. Although this is a preliminary hypothesis, the unique paratympanic configuration displayed by A. hulki suggests that it could

  17. Prospects for antineutrino running at MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wascko, M.O.; /Louisiana State U.


    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  18. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei


    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  19. Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: example from the Pico del Aguilla anticline, Sierras Exteriores, Southern Pyrenees, Spain. (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Huyghe, Damien; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Emmanuel, Laurent; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Ouanhon, Laure


    This study presents a reconstruction of fold-fracture-fluid evolution at the Pico del Aguila Anticline, located on the southwestern front of the Jaca piggy-back basin, Southern Pyrenees, Spain. The kinematic evolution of the Pico del Aguila anticline is related to the successive development of N-S ramps and reactivation of E-W striking basement thrusts that occurred coevally with sedimentation in the foreland basin. Consequently, this anticline offers an ideal frame to assess the evolution of the fluid system during the syn-depositional deformation at the front of a fold-thrust belt. Eight fracture sets (joints or faults) observed at fold-scale compose the fracture sequence defined by field and micro-scale chronological relationships. This fracture sequence reflects the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene tectonic events and the progressive rotation of some fracture sets from NE-SW to E-W witnesses the clockwise rotation that occurred during folding. ∂18O and ∂13C values from vein cements suggest a fluid system buffered by host rocks in most cases. Fluid inclusion microthermometry measurements indicate a fluid entrapment temperature <50°C, supporting that the fluid system reflects strata burial during the main part of strata history. Small-scale vertical migrations from reservoir to reservoir are triggered by fractures related to strata-curvature, both during foreland flexure/forebulge and fold development. After folding, fractures developing in shallow sub-continental to continental strata triggered downward migration of surficial fluids, likely of meteoric origin. This phenomenon is poorly developed in early marine deposits but strongly influenced the fluid system recorded in the late continental deposits. The case study of the Pico del Aguila supports recent finding that fold-fluid systems seem to exhibit a common behavior during folding, with development of curvature-related joints triggering vertical migration of fluids from a reservoir to another. It also

  20. Controls of {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O in dissolved sulphate: Learning from a detailed survey in the Llobregat River (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Neus [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grup d' Hidrogeoquimica, Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The S and O isotopic composition of dissolved SO{sub 4}, used as a tracer for SO{sub 4} sources, was applied to the water of the Llobregat River system (NE Spain). The survey was carried out at 30 sites where surface water was sampled on a monthly basis over a period of 2a. The concentration of dissolved SO{sub 4} varied from 20 to 1575 mg L{sup -1}. Sulphur isotopic compositions clustered in two populations: one - 93% of the samples - had positive values with a mode of +9 per mille ; the other had negative values and a mode of -5 per mille . Data for {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}} showed a mean value of +11 per mille , with no bi-modal distribution, though lower values of {delta}{sup 18}O corresponded to samples with negative {delta}{sup 34}S. These values can not be explained solely by the contribution of bedrock SO{sub 4} sources: that is, sulphide oxidation and the weathering of outcrops of sulphates, though numerous chemical sediments exist in the basin. Even in a river with a high concentration of natural sources of dissolved SO{sub 4}, such as the Llobregat River, the {delta}{sup 34}S values suggest that dissolved SO{sub 4} is controlled by a complex mix of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The main anthropogenic sources in this basin are fertilizers, sewage, potash mine effluent and power plant emissions. Detailed river water sampling, together with the chemical and isotopic characterisation of the main anthropogenic inputs, allowed determination of the influence of redox processes, as well as identification of the contribution of natural and anthropogenic SO{sub 4} sources and detection of spatial variations and seasonal changes among these sources. For instance, in the Llobregat River the input of fertilisers is well marked seasonally. Minimum values of {delta}{sup 34}S are reported during fertilization periods - from January to March - indicating a higher contribution of this source. The dual isotope approach, {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O

  1. Organic geochemistry, stable isotopes, and facies analysis of the Early Aptian OAE—New records from Spain (Western Tethys)


    Quijano López, María Luisa; Castro Jiménez, Jose Manuel; Pancost, Richard D.; Gea Guillén, Ginés Alfonso; Najarro, María; Aguado Merlo, Roque; Rosales, Idoia; Martín Chivelet, Javier


    The Early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a) is a time interval characterized by increased organic carbon accumulation in marine sediments, notable sedimentary and biotic changes, and abrupt carbon-isotope excursions indicative of significant major palaeoenvironmental changes linked to a perturbation in the global carbon cycle. Here we present the study of four sections recording the OAE1a (Early Aptian) in Spain, which are located in two broad basins respectively located in the ...

  2. Lifetime of 19Ne*(4.03 MeV)

    CERN Document Server

    Kanungo, R; Andreyev, A N; Ball, G C; Chakravarthy, R S; Chicoine, M; Churchman, R; Davids, B; Forster, J S; Gujrathi, S; Hackman, G; Howell, D; Leslie, J R; Morton, A C; Mythili, S; Pearson, C J; Ressler, J J; Ruiz, C; Savajols, H; Schumaker, M A; Tanihata, I; Walden, P L; Yen, S


    The Doppler-shift attenuation method was applied to measure the lifetime of the 4.03 MeV state in 19Ne. Utilizing a 3He-implanted Au foil as a target, the state was populated using the 20Ne(3He,alpha)19Ne reaction in inverse kinematics at a 20Ne beam energy of 34 MeV. De-excitation gamma rays were detected in coincidence with alpha particles. At the 1 sigma level, the lifetime was determined to be 11 +4, -3 fs and at the 95.45% confidence level the lifetime is 11 +8, -7 fs.

  3. Flood risk trends in coastal watersheds in South Spain: direct and indirect impact of river regulation (United States)

    Egüen, M.; Polo, M. J.; Gulliver, Z.; Contreras, E.; Aguilar, C.; Losada, M. A.


    Spain is one of the world's countries with a large number of reservoirs per inhabitant. This intense regulation of the fluvial network during the 20th century has resulted in a decrease in flood events, a higher availability of water resources, and a high development of the irrigated crop area, even in the drier regions. For decades, flood perception was reduced since the development of reservoirs protected the floodplains of river; this resulted in later occupation of soil by urban, agricultural and industrial uses. In recent years, an increasing perception of flood events is observed, associated to the higher damage associated to extreme events in the now occupied areas, especially in coastal watersheds. This work shows the change on flood risk in the coastal areas of three hydrographic basins in Andalusia (South Spain) during the reservoir expansion period: the Guadalete, Guadalquivir and Guadalhorce river basins. The results differentiate the impact of the regulation level on both the cumulative distribution functions of the fluvial discharge near the river mouth, for different time scales, and the associated damage related to the enhanced soil occupation during this period. The different impact on the final medium and long term flood risk is also assessed in terms of the storage capacity per unit area throughout the basins, the effective annual runoff/precipitation index, the frequency of sea storms, and the human factor (change in social perception of floods), for different intervals in the flood extreme regime. The implications for adaptation actions is also assessed.

  4. Microscopic cluster study of the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, P


    We investigate the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne neutron-rich nuclei by using the Generator Coordinate Method. The wave functions are defined by a sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n and sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n + n cluster structure, respectively. The binding energies of both systems are studied with different parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and are shown to be similar. Assuming the particle stability of sup 3 sup 2 Ne, the sup 3 sup 1 Ne nucleus is therefore predicted to be stable with respect to neutron decay. Spectroscopic properties (r.m.s. radii and E2 transition probabilities) are presented for both nuclei.

  5. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, K.V.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Krishna, K.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    The marine magnetic data acquired from offshore Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, eastern continental margin of India (ECMI), brought out a prominent NE-SW trending feature, which could be explained by a buried structural high formed by volcanic...

  6. The Mousterian site of Zafarraya (Andalucia, Spain): dating and implications on the palaeolithic peopling processes of Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontugne, M.; Reyss, J.L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre des Faibles Radioactivites; Hublin, J.J. [Musee de l`Homme, 75 - Paris (France); Ruiz, C.B.; Lara, P.M. [Junta de Andalucia, Malaga (Spain)


    The site of Zafarraya, near the NE boundary of the province of Malaga (spain), yielded a typical Mousterian assemblage with extended Levallois debitage and little or no Upper Palaeolithic influence. The human remains unearthed from the lower deposits display an indisputable Neanderthal morphology. Reliable {sup 14}C and Th/U dating of the site indicate the persistence of Neanderthals at least after 35 ka BP and of Mousterian industries after 30 ka BP in the south-western extremity of Europe. (authors). 18 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.


    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project ( (Author) 56 refs.

  8. An assessment of Spain's Programa AGUA and its implications for sustainable water management in the province of Almería, southeast Spain. (United States)

    Downward, Stuart R; Taylor, Ros


    Spain's Programa AGUA was proposed in 2004 as a replacement for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan and represented a fundamental policy shift in national water management from large inter-basin water transfers to a commitment to desalination. Twenty-one desalination facilities are planned for six provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast to supplement their water needs. These include the province of Almería that for the last 30 years has endured a net water abstraction overdraft leading to serious reservoir depletion and groundwater imbalances. Rising water use is a result of increasing demand to support irrigated agriculture (e.g. greenhouse horticulture) and for domestic needs (e.g. rapid urban growth and tourism development), which has led observers to question Almería's long-term water sustainability. Desalinated water alone is unlikely to be sufficient to make up these water deficits and water-users will have to accept a move to full-price water recovery by 2010 under the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive of which Spain is a signatory. Anticipated water efficiencies resulting from higher water tariffs, increasing water reuse and water infrastructure improvements (including inter-basin transfers), in conjunction with increasing use of desalinated water, are expected to address the province's current water overdraft. However, Almería will need to balance its planned initiatives against long-term estimates of projected agricultural and domestic development and the environmental consequences of adopting a desalination-supported water future.

  9. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  10. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E


    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of sources and meteorology on particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: An overview of the DAURE campaign (United States)

    Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jorba, O.; Day, D.; Ortega, A.; Cubison, M. J.; Comerón, A.; Sicard, M.; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pey, J.; Baldasano, J. M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Drooge, B. L.; Artiñano, B.; Di Marco, C.; Nemitz, E.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Hansel, A.; Lorente, J.; Ng, S.; Jayne, J.; Szidat, S.


    DAURE (Determination of the Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the Western Mediterranean) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at investigating the sources and meteorological controls of particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). Measurements were simultaneously performed at an urban-coastal (Barcelona, BCN) and a rural-elevated (Montseny, MSY) site pair in NE Spain during winter and summer. State-of-the-art methods such as 14C analysis, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry were applied for the first time in the WMB as part of DAURE. WMB regional pollution episodes were associated with high concentrations of inorganic and organic species formed during the transport to inland areas and built up at regional scales. Winter pollutants accumulation depended on the degree of regional stagnation of an air mass under anticyclonic conditions and the planetary boundary layer height. In summer, regional recirculation and biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation mainly determined the regional pollutant concentrations. The contribution from fossil sources to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol concentrations were higher at BCN compared with MSY due to traffic emissions. The relative contribution of nonfossil OC was higher at MSY especially in summer due to biogenic emissions. The fossil OC/EC ratio at MSY was twice the corresponding ratio at BCN indicating that a substantial fraction of fossil OC was due to fossil SOA. In winter, BCN cooking emissions were identified as an important source of modern carbon in primary organic aerosol.

  12. Tectonosedimentary evolution model of an intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin for paleoclimatic research (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Wang, Jiuyi; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Song, Chunhui; Yan, Maodu; Appel, Erwin; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Fuli; Yang, Yibo; Lu, Yin


    Intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin sediments are now frequently used as archives for detailed paleoclimatic and sedimentary environmental reconstruction, fossil and stratigraphic correlation, and tectonic evolution and uplift of basin and orogen. However, sedimentologic characteristics vary considerably in time-space with the evolution of flexural basin, apt to cause misinterpretation of climatic change and stratigraphic correlation. Based on high resolution fossil mammal and magnetostratigraphic constraints and sedimentary facies analysis, here we took the Linxia Basin at the front of the NE Tibetan Plateau as a case to demonstrate and figure out a model how sedimentology and stratigraphy vary temporospatially with the evolution of such flexural basin. The results show that the Linxia Basin is a type intracontinental foreland basin subjected to two phases of flexural deformation exerted by the West Qin Ling (Mts.) and NE Tibetan Plateau to the south. Phase I began latest at the beginning of the Miocene (23.3 Ma), indicated by a balanced fast flexural subsidence and mostly fine sediment infilling giving rise to the early underlying unconformity. It manifests as an obvious sediment wedge with high filling rate, thickening toward mountains and an occurrence of a mountains-parallel big river - shallow lake system along the foredeep, suggesting a less high mountain topography. In the late Phase I, from ~ 13 Ma to 8 Ma, the subsidence and thickening rates began to decrease, accompanied by faults and deformation propagating gradually into the basin, causing gradual basinward migration of the foredeep and its accompanying river-lake system. Since ~ 8 Ma in Phase II, the West Qin Ling and NE Tibetan began to uplift rapidly and thrust/load onto the Linxia Basin, causing strong mountain erosion, thrust-fold belt propagation and basin overfilling. This forced the mountains-parallel river - lake system to turn to the mountains-perpendicular alluvial - braided river

  13. Polyphase tectonic subsidence evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from quantitative subsidence analysis of the northern and central parts (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Wagreich, Michael


    The Vienna Basin is a tectonically complex Neogene basin situated at the Alpine-Carpathian transition. This study analyzes a detailed quantification of subsidence in the northern and central parts of the Vienna Basin to understand its tectonic subsidence evolution. About 200 wells were used to arrange stratigraphic setting, and wells reaching the pre-Neogene basement were analyzed for subsidence. To enhance the understanding of the regional subsidences, the wells were sorted into ten groups based on their position on major fault blocks. In the Early Miocene, subsidence was slow and along E-W to NE-SW trending axis, indicating the development of thrust-controlled piggyback basins. During the late Early Miocene data show abruptly increasing subsidence, making the initiation of the Vienna pull-apart basin system. From the Middle Miocene, the tectonic subsidence curves show regionally different patterns. The tectonic subsidence during the Middle Miocene varies laterally across the Vienna Basin, and the differential subsidence can be related to the changing tensional regime of weakening transtension and strengthening extension toward the late Middle Miocene. From the late Middle Miocene to the Late Miocene, the tectonic subsidence occurred dominantly along the regional active faults, and corresponds to the axis of E-W trending extension of the western parts of the Pannonian Basin system. In the Quaternary the Vienna Basin has been reactivated, and resulted in subsidence along the NE-SW trending Vienna Basin transfer fault system.

  14. Analysing surface runoff and erosion responses to different land uses from the NE of Iberian Peninsula through rainfall simulation (United States)

    Regüés, David; Arnáez, José; Badía, David; Cerdà, Artemi; Echeverría, María Teresa; Gispert, María; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Lasanta, Teodoro; León, Javier; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Pardini, Giovanni


    the highest rainfall intensities were applied in the most natural areas with a dense vegetation cover, the most intense responses were produced in the most altered environments (badlands, born forest, vineyard, pasture and stony soils). These results agreed with the cause-effect relationships observed in some antecedent studies, which compare the hydrological and erosive response in different land uses (Badía et al., 2008; García-Ruíz et al., 2008; García-Ruíz and Lana-Renault, 2011). This has been mainly associated with variations of soil chemical, physical and hydrological properties (Pardini et al., 2004, Emran et al., 2012; Regüés et al., 2012). Likewise, this analysis has provided comparable information for various contrasted land uses, allowing estimate proportionality factors between them. This information favours the classification of certain environments according to its relative trends to surface runoff and erosion. References Badía, D.; Martí, C.; Aguirre, J., Echeverría, M.T., Ibarra, P. (2008). Erodibility and hydrology of arid burned soils: soil type and revegetation effects. Arid Land Research and Management, 22: 286-295. Cerdà, A. (1998). The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. y Bodí, M.B. (2009). Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. Doi: 10.1002/esp.1889. Emran, M., Gispert, M., Pardini, G. (2012). Comparing measurements method of carbon dioxide fluxes in a soil sequence under land cover change in North Eastern Spain. Geoderma 170, 176-185. Doi. 10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.11.013. García-Ruíz, J.M., Regüés, D., Alvera, B., Lana-Renault, N., Serrano-Muela, P., Nadal-Romero, E., Navas, A., Latron, J., Martí-Bono, C., Arnáez, J. (2008). Flood generation and

  15. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang


    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  16. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain]. (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J


    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  17. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.


    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  18. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy


    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  19. Exploring Neutrino Interactions with MicroBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Miceli, Tia


    Recently, MiniBooNE observed an electromagnetic excess at low energy. What is the nature of this excess? What about the nature of the low-energy excess at LSND 20 years ago? The MicroBooNE detector will see neutrinos from the same Booster beam at Fermilab as used by MiniBooNE. MicroBooNE's design will enable us to discriminate photons from electrons elucidating the MiniBooNE and LSND low-energy electromagnetic excesses. MicroBooNE is a 170 ton liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) capable of imaging neutrino interactions with the detail of a bubble chamber, but with electronic data acquisition and processing. In addition to shining light on the low-energy excesses and measuring low-energy neutrino cross sections, MicroBooNE is leading the way for a more extensive short-baseline neutrino physics program at Fermilab and it also serves as a R&D project towards a long-baseline multi-kiloton scale LArTPC detector.

  20. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)


    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  1. Study of the structure of borromean nucleus 17Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fei; HUA Hui; YE Yan-Lin; LI Zhi-Huan; JIANG Dong-Xing; MA Li-Ying; GE Yu-Cheng; ZHENG Tao; SONG Yu-Shou; LI Xiang-Qing; Qureshi Faisal-Jamil


    The 17Ne nucleus is a possible candidate with a two-proton borromean halo structure. Since the theoretical model is difficult to handle the three-body system, it is difficult to determine the two-proton halo structure in 17Ne. In the present research, we try to study the breakup reaction of 17Ne. For the Borromean nuclei, one-proton knockout results in an unstable nucleus which is decaying further by proton emission. This process will result in an angular correlation between the direction of the aligned recoiling unstable nucleus and its decay products. The angular correlations can give us information about the configuration of the valence proton in the 17Ne. Furthermore, theoretical calculations indicate that the momentum distributions of 16F c.m are sensitive to the structure of the halo in 17Ne. Thus the measurement of momentum distributions of 16F c.m may also give us conclusive information on the structure of 17Ne. The present experiment has been done at IMP in Lanzhou using the radioactive beam 17Ne at 30.8 MeV/u on a 43mg/cm2 12C target. The data analysis is under procedure and the primary results are provided.

  2. Deep Learning MicroBooNE (United States)

    Genty, Victor; Terao, Kazuhiro; Wonjirad, Taritree


    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) technology provides a high resolution image of ionizing particle trajectories raising a need for new event reconstruction techniques based on pattern recognition. The traditional bottoms-up reconstruction approach to extract physics involves a complex sequence of signal waveform processing, 2D and/or 3D geometrical pattern recognition, calorimetry, and finally particle identification before a neutrino interaction can be identified in an event. We present a top-down reconstruction approach using a machine learning algorithm called Deep Learning which uses convolutional neural networks to find a neutrino interaction in a LAr TPC image. We trained our network on images of simulated single particles and neutrinos overlaid on cosmic-ray background data taken from the MicroBooNE detector. In this talk, we present our result that shows convolutional networks can successfully learn LAr TPC images to perform particle identification, neutrino event selection, and localization of a neutrino interaction vertex in a large LAr TPC image.

  3. Uses of plasma in Spain. (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L


    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  4. Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES Campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean basin (United States)

    MONTES (“Woodlands”) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Wester...

  5. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences (United States)

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise


    The cosmogenic radionuclides, in particular 10Be, have found use in modern sediments as a way of determining the erosion rate of river catchments. Cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz is easier and faster to measure than 10Be and has the potential to record erosion rates back 10s million years. However the routine use of cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz sand is hampered by ubiquitous nucleogenic 21Ne. When the eroding lithology can be identified it is possible to measure the nucleogenic in samples that are shielded from cosmic rays and correct for it in exposed bedrock [1]. However, identifying the lithologies that contributes quartz sand in large river catchments, and determining precise nucleogenic contributions is more problematic. The North and South Platte rivers drain early Prototerozoic lithologies of the Laramie and Front Ranges in the high Rockies of Wyoming. They have deposited several km of coarse clastic fluvial deposits on the Great Plains of Nebraska and Colorado up to 200 km from the mountain front. Quartz from shielded samples of granite and gneiss - the dominant quartz-bearing rocks - has high concentrations of nucleogenic 21Ne (60-140 e6 atoms/g). The 21Ne concentration in modern sand from the river (n=10) overlaps that measured in the shielded granite and gneiss. The sand data rarely lie on the air-spallation mixing line in the Ne three isotope plot indicating that it is dominantly derived from the granite and gneiss and has no resolvable cosmogenic 21Ne. Building on previous studies of cosmogenic 21Ne in pebbles [2] we have started a programme of analysis of pebbles derived from the Medicine Bow quartzite that are abundant throughout the Cenozoic alluvial sequence. Nucleogenic 21Ne in shielded quartzite is lower than granites (3-7 e6 atoms/g, n=4) and the data tend to lie on the air-spallation mixing line. All pebbles (n=14) from modern sediments analysed so far contain 2-80 times more excess 21Ne than the highest shielded quartzite suggesting that cosmogenic 21

  6. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.


    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.



    Hosta, Anja


    Diplomsko delo obravnava konstruiranje in modeliranje ženske poročne obleke. V ta namen je podan zgodovinski pregled ženskih poročnih oblek in zbrani predlogi za primernost kroja ženskih obleke glede na različne postave teles. Predstavljene so poročne obleke znanih osebnosti skozi obdobja in tekstilni materiali, ki se običajno uporabljajo za izdelavo poročnih oblek. Podano je konstruiranje temeljnega kroja ženske obleke in metode modeliranja oprijetih zgornjih delov ženskih oblek, kar je pred...

  8. Origin of a thick, redeposited carbonate bed in Eocene turbidites of the Hecho Group, south-central Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Johns, D. R.; Mutti, E.; Rosell, J.; Séguret, M.


    Large-scale carbonate beds interbedded in basin-plain turbidites of the Eocene Hecho Group, northern Spain, are interpreted as giant turbidity-current deposits because of their internal organization and lateral extent. One such bed, the Roncal Unit, has been traced down the axis of the basin for 75 km and commonly reaches thicknesses in excess of 100 m. Internally, the Roncal Unit displays an overall upward decrease in grain size, from a basal megabreccia with large slabs of carbonate platform debris to a calcareous mudstone. The Roncal Unit was probably deposited from a highly mobile and competent sediment gravity flow generated by an earthquake shock, which led to the catastrophic collapse and subsequent transport of the upper part of a carbonate platform flanking the basin. *Present addresses: (Johns) Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk, Netherlands; (Mutti) Istituto di Geologia, Universitá di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

  9. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain). (United States)

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E


    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic.

  10. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain. (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón


    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  11. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  12. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor


    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  13. Surrounding the Void: Samuel Beckett and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Francisco Fernández Sánchez


    Full Text Available A study of the relationship between Samuel Beckett and Spain poses some striking questions which are relevant in understanding the cultural inclinations of one of the most important dramatists of the 20th century. Beckett consciously abstained from having direct contact with Spanish culture and never visited Spain, despite showing an interest in the politics of the country at different periods of his life. As a result of this state of affairs a no-go area emerges which calls for a reconceptualization of Beckett’s ideas on travel, politics and even his own country. This article tries to approach the matter of Beckett and Spain from different angles, in an attempt to achieve a full panoramic view. The opinions of one of Beckett’s Spanish friends, Manolo Fandos, are recorded here for the first time.

  14. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach


    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  15. Groundwater in steppe environments: "El Hito" Lagoon wetland as a case of study (Cuenca; Spain) (United States)

    Sastre-Merlín, A.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Molina-Navarro, E.


    El Hito Lagoon wetland, located in the interfluve of the upper basins of the Cigüela and Záncara rivers (Guadiana Basin, central Spain), configures an important element of geo-environmental heritage of Castilla-LaMancha (Natural Reserve), as well as being an area recognized as Ramsar Site and integrated in the Natura 2000 Network. It has an extension around 290 ha in the periods of maximum flooding and it is embedded in an endorheic basin of 42 Km2. The area that includes it has an arid appearance in a landscape dominated by extensive agriculture, being catalogued as "without aquifers" under its unfavorable geo-hydrological substrate. Thereby, the manifestation of the wetland has been attributed to the simple accumulation of precipitation water in the rainy periods. However, studies to date show the contribution of groundwater to the dynamics of this geo-system, showing how the lake basin behaves itself like a diffuse discharge area of groundwater flow to the endorheic in which it is located. This paper shows the most relevant data to understand the functioning of this wetland of great scientific and environmental importance, as it support interesting halophytic plant communities as well as large number of waterflow and steppe birds.

  16. SROF12: NE Lau Basin on Scripps Research Vessel Roger Revelle between 20120909 and 20120926 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 cruise will use the University of Bremen Quest 4000 remotely operated vehicle to locate, map and sample hydrothermal sites at...

  17. Noćne more Carlosa Fuentesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Krizmanić Ožegović


    Full Text Available U Iraku se zvao Salim Abdul Husain i radio je za općinu kao čistač, u skupini kojoj je upravitelj dodijelio zadatak čišćenja nakon eksplozija. Umro je 2009. u Nizozemskoj pod drugim imenom: Carlos Fuentes. Salim i njegovi kolege, puni dosade i gnušanja, kao i svakoga drugog jadnog dana, čistili su tržnicu nakon što je eksplodirao tegljač s gorivom, zapalivši piliće, voće, povrće i pokojeg čovjeka. Meli su pažljivo i polako od straha da ne pokupe neki zaostali komad ljudskoga tijela. Uvijek su tražili netaknutu lisnicu ili možda zlatni lanac, prsten ili sat koji je još pokazivao vrijeme. U potrazi za posmrtnim dragocjenostima Salim nije imao sreće kao njegovi kolege. Trebao mu je novac za vizu kako bi otišao u Nizozemsku i pobjegao iz ovog vatrenoga užasa prepunoga smrti. Samo mu se jedanput posrećilo pa je našao prst s dragocjenim srebrnim prstenom, vrlo lijepim. Salim je poklopio prst stopalom, pažljivo se sagnuo i skinuo prsten s gađenjem. Prsten je završio na Salimovoj ruci, zadivljeno je promatrao dragi kamen i na kraju odustao od pomisli da ga proda. Može li se reći da je osjetio duboku duhovnu povezanost s prstenom?

  18. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec


    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  19. Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, P.T.


    Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation is considered theoretically, including explicitly the laser oscillator properties. Experiments reported previously by us and other authors are in agreement with our analysis.

  20. Reconstructing Michel Electrons in the MicroBooNE Detector (United States)

    Caratelli, David


    MicroBooNE is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detector located in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab which began collecting neutrino data in October 2015. MicroBooNE aims to explore the low-energy excess in the νe spectrum reported by MiniBooNE as well as perform ν-Ar cross-section measurements. In this talk, we present the current status of reconstructing Michel electrons from cosmic ray muons in the MicroBooNE detector. These Michel electrons are distributed uniformly inside the detector, and serve as a natural and powerful calibration source to study the detector's response for low energy (10s of MeV) interactions as a function of position. We have developed a reconstruction software tool to successfully identify such Michel electrons which could be of benefit to LArTPC experiments generically.

  1. Study of the Structure of Borromean Nucleus 17^Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩宏; 华辉; 卢飞; 叶沿林; 李智焕; 江栋兴; 李湘庆; 葛愉成; 郑涛; 宋玉收


    In the present research, we used the 17^Ne beam at 30.8 MeV/u to bombard the 43 mg/cm^2 12^C target and measured the angular correlations between the fragments and emitted proton. In the break-up reaction of 17^Ne, one-proton knockout would result in an unstable nu- cleus 16^F, which would further decay by the proton emission. The measured angular correlation between the 16^F momentum and the relative momentum of its decay products was compared with theoretical calculations and indicated that the valence proton in 17^Ne has the most probability to be situated in the s1/2 orbital with a small admixture of the d5/2 orbital. The present results suggest that 17^Ne has a halo structure.

  2. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit


    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  3. On the New Puzzling Results from MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Syed Afsar


    We look into the recent puzzlng results from MiniBooNE and contrast their results with that from NOMAD. A pictuire which provides consistent decscriptiobn of both is discussed here. This also points to future directions in neutrino studies.

  4. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... rulemaking filed by Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln,...

  5. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), the licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln, Nebraska, requesting... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  6. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  7. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be...

  8. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain (United States)


    ... Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  9. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  10. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain (United States)


    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  11. Trauma care systems in Spain. (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V


    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  12. Multiple Feldspar replacement in Hercynian granites of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain) (United States)

    Fàbrega, Carles; Parcerisa, David; Gómez-Gras, David


    The core of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges) is mainly composed by late-Hercynian granitoids (leucogranites and granodiorites) intruded within Cambrian to Carnoniferous metasediments. The granites are unconformably covered by Triassic (Buntsandstein) and Paleocene red beds at the western boundary, preserving a continuous outcrop of the Permo-Triassic unconformity for about 20 km. In the southwestern Montseny-Guilleries Massif the granites are covered by the Buntsandstein red sandstones that overlain a peneplain paleorelief called the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface. Beneath the palaeosurface the granite displays a characteristic pink colouration. This pink alteration is characterized by precipitation of minute heamatite crystals and albitization of pristine plagioclases (mostly labradorite). The secondary albite is pseudomorphic (mono- or polycrystalline), optically continuous, non-luminiscent, contains widespread microporosity and displays compositions about Ab98. These features are typical of low temperature replacive feldspars (Kastner and Siever, 1979). Albitization of plagioclases is almost total close to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface and progressively decreases towards depth, displaying a 150-200 m thick alteration profile. The formation of this profile was controlled by fluid circulation along macro- and microfractures and crystal boundaries. Inside the plagioclase crystals fluid pathways were microfractures, twinning and cleavage planes and crystalline defects. The secondary albite holds widespread unconnected micron-size porosity often filled by Fe-oxides. The reaction front is sharp and displays an abrupt composicional change (Ab65 to Ab98) at micron scale. Porosity only appears to be connected at this reaction front surface. The geometrical arrangement of this alterations suggest that albitization was a shallow process related with Na-rich descending fluids linked to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface, in a similar way to albitization profiles described in the Morvan Massif (northern France) by Parcerisa et al. (2010). In some places, the granites of the uppermost part of the albitization profile show microfracturation infilled by a K-feldspar cement post-dating albitization. The secondary albite crystals in contact or close to these fractures are replaced by K-feldspar. The degree of replacement decreases moving away from the K-feldspar cemented fractures. As the secondary albite, the replacive K-feldspars show pseudomorphism, optical continuity, lack of luminescence, widespread unconnected microporosity and compositions close to K end-member. In the overlying Buntsandstein red sandstones K-feldspar has also been described as an early cement due to circulation of shallow marine or saline brines (Gómez-Gras, 1993). Considering that K-feldspar cementing the Buntsandstein sandstones and K-feldspar filling fractures in the Permo-Triassic paleosurface are the same, the relationship between secondary K-feldspar and albite indicates that albitization occurred prior to Buntsandstein sedimentation as a paleoalteration profile related with the Permo-Triassic landscape. Gómez-Gras, D. (1993). El Permotría de la Cordillera Costero Catalana: Facies y Petrología Sedimentaria (Parte I). Boletín geológico y minero, 104(2), 115-161. Kastner, M., & Siever, R. (1979). Low temperature feldspars in sedimentary rocks. American Journal of Science, 279(4), 435-479. Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., & Schmitt, J. M. (2010). Albitisation related to the Triassic unconformity in igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif (France). International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsch), 99, 527-544.

  13. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain) (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana


    Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems are prone to soil loss mainly due to the accelerated erosion as a consequence of human induced changes from agriculture and grazing practices over the last centuries and the climatic conditions (i.e. irregular and scarce precipitations and drought periods). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation inducing the loss of soil functions. The progressive decline of soil functions thereof soil quality is associated to a decrease of soil productivity and can threat the sustainability of cultivated soils. The use of fallout 137Cs as a soil movement tracer provides useful data to identify areas where loss and gain of 137Cs occurs and that of soil. This study aims to address soil movement and soil nutrient dynamics closely related to the status of soil degradation. A rain-fed cereal field (1.6 ha) representative of Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscapes (42°25'41''N 1°13'8''W) was selected to examine the effects of soil redistribution processes on the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) and their relationships with soil properties and topographic characteristics. From the hydrological point of view, the field is isolated due to the effect of landscape features and man-made structures. Climate is continental Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and soils are Calcisols. The reference inventories of 137Cs and soil nutrients were established from 21 soil samples collected in nearby undisturbed areas under typical Mediterranean vegetation cover. A total of 156 bulk soil samples (30-50 cm depth) and 156 topsoil samples (5 cm) were collected on a 10 m grid. 137Cs and soil nutrients loss and gain areas were identified by comparing the reference inventories with the values of inventories at the sampling points. A new approach to characterize and measure active (ACF) and stable (SCF) carbon fraction contents by using a dry combustion method based on the oxidation temperature of carbon fractions to analyze the SOC pool dynamics is presented in this study. A detailed field topographic survey and mapping of the spatial variability of soil properties and nutrient contents from soil analyses displayed similar spatial patterns of 137Cs and soil nutrients that also were directly and significantly correlated (p≤0.01). As much as 70% of the surface of the study field had lower values of 137Cs inventory indicating a predominance of soil loss linked to a generalized loss of soil nutrients. SOC gain was found in less than 1% of the study field and there was a large loss of SON compared to the undisturbed reference site. Higher and significant (p≤0.01) contents of soil nutrients were found in topsoil samples than in the bulk ones. Furthermore, there was an enrichment of the relative contribution of ACF to total SOC in sampling points where there was a 137Cs gain in both bulk and topsoil samples. Understanding patterns of soil nutrients can be useful for developing and implementing land management strategies to preserve soil quality in Mediterranean agricultural areas.

  14. Palaeoflood response to climate and landuse changes in a Mediterranean river (Castellón, NE Spain) (United States)

    Benito, Gerardo; Machado, Maria; Rico, MarÍa Teresa; Sánchez-Moya, Yolanda; Sopeña, Alfonso


    The Rambla de la Viuda (drainage area of 1500 km2) is a Mediterranean ephemeral river, dry most of the year. The fluvial geomorphology of the rambla is dominated by transversal bars typical of short-lived flows. The short-lived and occasionally large floods, are produced by mesoscale convective systems fed by humidity from the Mediterranean sea during autumn months. For the past 120 years the largest floods recorded took place in: 1920, 1962 y 2000. The study rambla has recorded an excellent palaeoflood archive from which hydrological and environmental history (landuse and landcover) can be reconstructed. The methodology used in the study of the palaeohydrological and palaeolandscape changes during the last 500 yrs (sedimentary records timespan) involved: 1) Reconstruction of palaeoflood records ( Stratigraphic description of slack-water flood deposits, Geochronology of individual floods with Radiocarbon and Optically Stimulated Luminescence, and the estimation of discharges associated with the different flood units/features by computing the water surface profiles using one-dimensional hydraulic modeling (HEC-RAS); and 2) Reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions (Edaphological characterization of the soil horizons developed on flood units as well as the textural, geochemical and biomineralogical analysis of all sedimentary units). Four hydro/environmental phases were identified during the last 500 years, corresponding to different flood magnitud and frequency periods, associated to climate and/or land-use conditions. A high frequency and high magnitude palaeoflood period took place during the 15th-middle 16th century (Phase I) which seems to correlate in time with general wetter conditions and three main soil development episodes. Another important hydrological period took place until early 18th century (Phase III), though with a low frequency/ high magnitude floods, correlating in time with geochemical evidences of important changes on land use (deforestation and grazing). Poorer developed soils can be found at upper stratigraphic sequences (19th century), culminating sequences (sets) of slackwater flood units.

  15. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.; Gilbert, O.; Bernat, X.; Valhondo, C.; Kock-Schulmeyer, M.; Huerta-Fontela, M.; Colomer, M. V.


    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  16. Polyphase evolution of the Chaîne des Matheux frontal thrust (Haiti) (United States)

    Wessels, Richard; Ellouz-Zimmermann, Nadine; Rosenberg, Claudio; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Hamon, Youri; Deschamps, Remy; Battani, Anne; Leroy, Sylvie; Momplaisir, Roberte


    The NW - SE trending Haitian fold-and-thrust belt (HFTB) is located in the western part of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. It covers the suture between the Cretaceous Caribbean island arc in the north and the Late Cretaceous thickened oceanic crust in the south. The HFTB is bounded to the north and south by the left-lateral Septentrional (SFZ) and Enriquillo-Plantain Garden (EPGFZ) fault zones, respectively. Compressional deformation on the HFTB commenced as early as Eocene times. It was followed by transpressional deformation from the early Miocene onwards, with in sequence progressive stacking of thrust sheets towards the SW. Seismicity at the junction between the HFTB and the EPGFZ is recorded by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake. Surface mapping did not reveal a rupture, as the main activity occurred on the steep NNW dipping oblique transpressional Léogâne fault, while aftershocks documented motion on a shallow SW dipping thrust segment. The structural style of deformation of the HFTB, either the stacking of thrust sheets on basement heterogeneities or basement-involved thrusting, has not been studied in detail. Also lacking are conceptual models addressing the amount of convergence between the northern and southern domains, and describing how convergence was accommodated. To address these problems we conducted a detailed fieldwork on the southernmost thrust sheet, known as the Chaîne des Matheux front. Using stratigraphy, geological mapping, cross sections, kinematic fault slip data, analysis of mineralizations and fluid inclusions, and geochemical analysis of fluid seeps, we decipher the evolution of this anticlinal structure. Stratigraphic data reveal stable Eocene platform sedimentation over the whole region, which preceded deepening of the basin throughout Oligocene and early Miocene times. A diachronous evolution is evident from the middle Miocene onwards. The NE flank displays a shallowing upwards trend and clastic sedimentation, while the

  17. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  18. Excited states of Ne isoelectronic ions: SAC-CI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A.K.; Ehara, M.; Nakatsuji, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Excited states of the s, p, and d symmetries up to principal quantum number n = 4 are studied for the first eight members of Ne isoelectronic sequence (Ne to Cl{sup 7+}) by the SAC-CI (symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction) method. The valence STO basis sets of Clementi et al. and the optimized excited STO are used by the STO-6G expansion method. The calculated transition energies agree well with the experimental values wherever available. (orig.)

  19. Design and construction of the MicroBooNE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Aparicio, A.; Aponte, S.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Ayoub, N.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Barger, R.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Biery, K.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bocean, V.; Boehnlein, D.; Bogert, V. D.; Bolton, T.; Bugel, L.; Callahan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Fernandez, R. Castillo; Cavanna, F.; Chappa, S.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chi, C. -Y.; Chiu, C. S.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Cornele, J.; Cowan, P.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crutcher, G.; Darve, C.; Davis, R.; Tutto, M. Del; Devitt, D.; Duffin, S.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Erickson, D.; Sanchez, L. Escudero; Esquivel, J.; Farooq, S.; Farrell, J.; Featherston, D.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Genty, V.; Geynisman, M.; Goeldi, D.; Goff, B.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Green, J.; Greene, A.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, T.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Haenni, R.; Hamilton, P.; Healey, P.; Hen, O.; Henderson, E.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Hill, K.; Himes, L.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huffman, D.; Ignarra, C. M.; James, C.; James, E.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jaskierny, W.; Jen, C. -M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Kalousis, L. N.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kellogg, P.; Ketchum, W.; Kilmer, J.; King, B.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Klein, E.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Krull, R.; Kubinski, R.; Lange, G.; Lanni, F.; Lathrop, A.; Laube, A.; Lee, W. M.; Li, Y.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Lukhanin, G.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Mahler, G.; Majoros, I.; Makowiecki, D.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Markley, D.; Marshall, J.; Caicedo, D. A. Martinez; McDonald, K. T.; McKee, D.; McLean, A.; Mead, J.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Miner, W.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Moss, Z.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Norris, B.; Norton, N.; Nowak, J.; O' Boyle, M.; Olszanowski, T.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Pelkey, R.; Phipps, M.; Pordes, S.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Radeka, V.; Rafique, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Rechenmacher, R.; Rescia, S.; Rochester, L.; Rohr, C. Rudolf von; Ruga, A.; Russell, B.; Sanders, R.; III, W. R. Sands; Sarychev, M.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Scott, R.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoun, M.; Sinclair, J.; Sippach, W.; Smidt, T.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Solano-Gonzalez, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Sondericker, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; John, J. St.; Strauss, T.; Sutton, K.; Szelc, A. M.; Taheri, K.; Tagg, N.; Tatum, K.; Teng, J.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Tillman, J.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Utes, M.; de Water, R. G. Van; Vendetta, C.; Vergani, S.; Voirin, E.; Voirin, J.; Viren, B.; Watkins, P.; Weber, M.; Wester, T.; Weston, J.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Wu, K. C.; Yang, T.; Yu, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.; Zuckerbrot, M.


    This paper describes the design and construction of the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber and associated systems. MicroBooNE is the first phase of the Short Baseline Neutrino program, located at Fermilab, and will utilize the capabilities of liquid argon detectors to examine a rich assortment of physics topics. In this document details of design specifications, assembly procedures, and acceptance tests are reported.

  20. NE ·TIGER 2013 Haute Couture Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    NE.TIGER opened China International Fashion Week in style. A host of celebrities and prominent figures from the fashion industry followed NE.TIGER's roar, and gathered in Beijing Hotel's famous Banquet Hall to see China's premier luxury brand opening the China Fashion Week for the 12th time in a row. The theme of the new 2013 Spring-Summer collection is HUA SONG,

  1. Dating of the Reocin MVT Deposit, Spain, by Paleomagnetism (United States)

    Symons, D. T.; Lewchuk, M. T.; Kawasaki, K.; Velasco, F.; Leach, D. L.


    Located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin of northernmost Spain, the Reocin mine exploited one of the worldfs largest known Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits (˜62 Mt at 8.7% Zn and 1.0% Pb) for >100 years. The sphalerite-galena and ferroan dolomite mineralization is in a karst system in 116±1 Ma Urgonian carbonates along the southeastern limb of the Santillana syncline that was formed by late Oligocene and mid Miocene pulses of the Pyrenean Orogeny. Paleomagnetic results from 22 sites (274 specimens) in ore-grade and marginal mineralization isolated a post-folding mid Miocene characteristic remanence (ChRM) direction. Mineral magnetics tests on mineralization, Zn concentrate and tailings show that the ChRM is carried both in sphalerite and ferroan dolomite by pyrrhotite mainly with minor magnetite. We suggest that the deposit was formed in the mid Miocene by fluids flowing from the Pyrenean highlands, ˜50 km SSW of Reocin, that scavenged the metals enroute to Reocin from the Paleozoic basement and/or Mesozoic clastic sediments below the deposit that were derived from the basement.

  2. Evidence for oceanic crust in the Herodotus Basin (United States)

    Granot, Roi


    Some of the fundamental tectonic problems of the Eastern Mediterranean remain unresolved due to the extremely thick sedimentary cover (10 to 15 km) and the lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data. I have collected 7,000 km of marine magnetic profiles (2012-2014) across the Herodotus and Levant Basins, Eastern Mediterranean, to study the nature and age of the underlying igneous crust. The towed magnetometer array consisted of two Overhauser sensors recording the total magnetic anomaly field in a longitudinal gradiometer mode, and a fully oriented vector magnetometer. The total field data from the Herodotus Basin reveal a newly detected short sequence of long-wavelength NE-SW lineated anomalies that straddle the entire basin suggesting a deep two-dimensional magnetic source layer. The three components of the magnetic vector data indicate that an abrupt transition from a 2D to 3D magnetic structure occurs east of the Herodotus Basin, along where a prominent NE-SW gravity feature is found. Altogether, these new findings confirm that the Herodotus Basin preserves remnants of oceanic crust that formed along the Neotethyan mid-ocean ridge system. The continuous northward and counterclockwise motion of the African Plate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic allow predicting the evolution of remanent magnetization directions, which in-turn dictate that shape of the anomalies. The shape of the Herodotus anomalies best fit Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (300±20 Myr old) magnetization directions. Finally, I will discuss the implications of these results on the tectonic architecture of the region as well as on various geodynamic processes.

  3. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An


    complicated thrust and fold, the previous uniifed Ordos-North China Basin was separated by the northeast-oriented Great Xing’an Range and Taihang Mountain uplifted linearment. The differential evolution of basins and sedimentary palaeoge-ography between eastern and western North China was initiated, and was interpreted to result in the closure of Okhotsk Ocean and the subduction of Palaeo-Paciifc Plate (late stage 2). During the Late Jurassic (the early phase of stage 3), a variety of faulted basins occurred in the Yanshan and Yinshan areas in the northeastern North China. In Yanshan area, basins were iflled with thickened intermediate volcanic rocks and purple-red coarse-grained clastic rocks. In contrast, only thick layered sedimentary rocks with rare volcanic rocks developed in the Yinshan faulted basins, the Ordos Basin and basins in sourthern North China. XMOB was the main provenance of the Early Mesozoic basins in the North China, while the Ordos Basin and the Hefei Basin were partly supplied by the northern Qinling Orogenic Belt. During the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (the late phase of stage 3), the north-ern and northeastern North China experienced extensional movement after the subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate, the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and the subsequent Yanshanian orogeny. At the same time, a NE-oriented, giant rift basin system (NE Asia Rift) extended from the Yanshan to the western Great Xing’an Range, where rift basins were iflled with the regional, NE-oriented, thick coarse-grained clastic rocks and a belt of volcanic rocks. In the meantime, the eastern and northeastern China and most areas of NCC were presented as highland terrains. During the middle-late Early Cretaceous (stage 4), rift basins developed and accumulated alluvial sediments and interbedded alkaline volcanic rocks in the western and northern North China, including Yingen, Ejinaqi and Erlian regions. Basins were formed on both sides of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone

  4. Historical upscaling of the socio-hydrological cycle: Three cases from the Mediterranean Spain (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sanchis-Ibor, Carles


    Understanding the co-evolution between hydrological and socio-economic systems is vital to assess how anthropogenic and natural systems will evolve and interact in the future. Examining past socio-hydrological changes is therefore important to produce knowledge able to develop socio-hydrological models for predicting the future hydrology and society evolution patterns. As noticeable climate changes leading to higher water stress are expected in the Mediterranean Europe, socio-hydrological processes are likely to suffer considerable modifications in the XXI century, driving to potential conflicts as water demand increases while water resources fall. The goal of this contribution is to identify the hydro-social processes that have caused water conflicts, and how they have been solved in the Mediterranean Spain. The method is based in the analysis of historical documents, available since the Middle Ages. Once historical water conflicts (always well-documented) were located, a socio-hydrological "causal loop" is formulated, determining what caused that conflict, what factors or chain of factors were involved, and how it was addressed. Repeating that process for all the reported water conflicts allow us to gain insight into their driving forces, the socio-hydrological relationships linked to those, and the successful (and unsuccessful) strategies employed to address them. Three cases were selected from the Mediterranean Spain: the Mijares, the Turia and the Jucar river basins. All of them share similar documental sources (the Royal Archives, courts' archives, municipal archives and farmers' archives), similar climate and similar socio-economic backgrounds. Moreover, all of them are predicted to suffer similar climate change impacts. Irrigation is their major water demand. In these three rivers, during the last millennia, successive waterscapes have been constructed by different societies, in a prolonged process of institutional and environmental up-scaling, from the

  5. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain


    Nguyen, Tra My


    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  6. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain. (United States)

    Gilmore, David D


    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  7. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)


    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  8. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez


    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  9. Small hydro policy and potential in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spain has 662 small hydro installations, as registered in the “Speciaf Regimen” of 31 December 1999, with 1,271,573 kW of instaffed power producing the equivalent of the electricity consumed by 1.1 million families, avoiding emissions of 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 per year and substituting 250,000 toe.

  10. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain. (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa


    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  11. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;


    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  12. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.


    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  13. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.


    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  14. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.


    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  15. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN (United States)

    Samsonyan, A. L.


    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  16. Shape evolution of Ne isotopes and Ne hypernuclei: The interplay of pairing and tensor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li A.


    Full Text Available We study tensor and pairing effects on the quadruple deformation of neon isotopes based on a deformed Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model with BCS approximation for the pairing channel. We extend the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock formalism for the description of hypernuclei adopting the recently-proposed ESC08b hyperon-nucleon interaction. It is found that the interplay of pairing and tensor interactions is crucial to derive the deformations in several neon isotopes. Especially, the shapes of 26,30Ne are studied in details in comparisons with experimentally observed shapes. Furthermore the deformations of the hypernuclei are compared with the corresponding neon isotopic cores in the presence of tensor force. We find the same shapes with somewhat smaller deformations for single Λ-hypernuclei compared with their core deformations.

  17. Significance of fine-grained microfabrics from a Cretaceous stromatolite bed (Muñecas Fm, late Turonian, Northern Iberian Ranges, Spain) (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Reitner, Joachim; Gil, Javier; García-Hidalgo, José; Segura, Manolo


    A fine-grained stromatolite bed of great lateral continuity (km scale) and small synoptic relief (from 15 cm up to 40 cm) is registered in the Muñecas Formation (Floquet et al., 1982), of the Northern Iberian Ranges. Muñecas Fm is mainly composed of thin-bedded limestones and marls deposited during the late Turonian. At this time, the Iberian microplate was located in subtropical palaeolatitudes (20°N-30°N according Dercourt et al., 2000) and shallow-water carbonate platform facies were deposited in a wide and shallow seaway, along a NW-SE trending, intracratonic basin (Upper Cretaceous Iberian basin), between the emergent areas of the Hesperian massif to the W and the Ebro massif to the NE (Segura et al 2002). The stromatolite bed (facies 2.1) overlies heterolithic facies (facies 1.1) composed of marls and thin-bedded, massive mudstones with micritic intraclasts, ostracods and reworked sponges, and bearing quartz-silt and bioclastic-rich wavy bands. The coeval facies, laterally equivalent to the stromatolite bed, consist of an oolite-rich, sheet-like deposit (facies 2.2). Packstone and grainstone of radial-fibrous oolites overlie burrowed bioclastic mudstone-wackestones (facies 1.2) with bivalve fragments, gastropods, foraminifers, and sponges. The stromatolite bed is capped by ostracod-rich limestones (facies 3) and marls. The stromatolite posses a stratiform to LLH macrostructure, and in some places domed bioherms up to 1 m width occur. Internally, mesostructure is composed by planar, wavy to hemispherical stromatoids. They display a broad spectrum of microestructures: dense micrite, peloids (microbial as well as bahamite peloids), clotted microfabrics, irregular micritic-wall tubes and dendroid-arborescent microframeworks (filamentous cyanobacteria?). The microfacial study of the vertical arrangement of the stromatolite laminae reveals different growth stages probably related with environmental changes. In fact, the whole fine-grained stromatolite accretion

  18. Sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios for the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions based on dense seismic arrays (United States)

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua; Lai, Guijuan; Cai, Yan


    The sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios of the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions are estimated by the h- κ stacking and CCP image of receiver functions from the data of 1,317 stations. The horizontal resolution of the obtained results is as high as 0.5° × 0.5°, which can be used for further high resolution model construction in the region. The crustal thicknesses from Airy's equilibrium are smaller than our results in the Sichuan Basin, Qilian tectonic belt, northern Alxa block and Qaidam Basin, which is consistent with the high densities in the mantle lithosphere and may indicate that the high-density lithosphere drags crust down overall. High Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones are found in the mid- and lower crust beneath eastern Qilian tectonic belt and the boundary areas of the Ordos block, indicating that partial melting may exist in these regions. Low Poisson's ratios and low-velocity anomalies are observed in the crust in the NE Tibetan Plateau, implying that the mafic lower crust is thinning or missing and that the mid- and lower crust does not exhibit melting or partial melting in the NE Tibetan Plateau, and weak flow layers are not likely to exist in this region.

  19. The Paleoecology of Vegetation on Pennsylvanian Basin Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy

    on a fluvial megafan under strongly seasonal conditions, gigantic cordaitalean forests dominated the landscape, particularly alongside ephemeral channels.  Floodplains were largely dry and degraded, although pteridosperms, ferns, and lycopsids persisted around poorly drained depressions.  On the Nýrany Member...... braided-river plain (Middle Pennsylvanian, Central and Western Bohemian Basin, Czech Republic), raised channel margins supported long-lived site-occupiers, such as cordaitaleans and pteridosperms.  Pioneering vegetation comprising fast-growing, opportunistic taxa, particularly ferns and sphenopsids......, was common on wetter, shifting substrates of frequently flooded abandoned channels, low-lying floodplains, and lake margins.  In La Magdalena Coalfield (Late Pennsylvanian, Spain), pteridosperms dominated marginal wetlands adjacent to steep basin margins.  Opportunistic ferns were abundant in or adjacent...

  20. North Atlantic Ocean deep-water processes and depositional environments: A study of the Cenozoic Norway Basin (United States)

    Oline Hjelstuen, Berit; Andreassen, Elin V.


    Despite the enormous areas deep-water basins occupy in modern oceans, our knowledge about them remains poor. At depths of greater than 2000 m, the Cenozoic Norway Basin in the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, is one such basin. Interpretation of 2D multichannel seismic data suggests a three-stage evolution for the Norway Basin. (1) Eocene-Pliocene. This time period is characterised by deposition of ooze-rich sediments in a widening and deepening basin. (2) Early-Middle Pleistocene. A significant shift in sedimentary processes and depositional environments took place in the Early Pleistocene. Mass failures initiated on the Norwegian continental slope, and three Early and Middle Pleistocene slide debrites, with maximum thicknesses of 600 m and sediment volumes of up to 25000 km3, were deposited. With ages estimated at c. 2.7-1.7 Ma, 1.7-1.1 Ma and 0.5 Ma, these slide deposits are among the largest identified worldwide, and among the oldest mapped along the entire NE Atlantic continental margin. (3) Late Pleistocene-Present. Since c. 0.5 Ma the Norway Basin has been effected by glacigenic debris flows, the Storegga Slide and hemipelagic-glacimarine sedimentation. These sedimentary processes were active during a time of repeated shelf-edge ice advances along the NE Atlantic continental margin. This study shows that deep-water basins represent dynamic depositional environments reflecting regional tectonic and climatic changes trough time.

  1. Status of the KM3NeT project

    CERN Document Server

    Margiotta, A


    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily....

  2. Scientific Drilling of the Terrestrial Cretaceous Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrestrial Scientific Drilling of the Cretaceous Songliao Basin Science Team


    Full Text Available Investigations of critical climate changes during the Cretaceous have the potential to enhance our understanding of modern global warming because the extreme variances are the best-known and most recent example of a greenhouse Earth (Bice et al., 2006. Marine Cretaceous climate archives are relatively well explored by scientific ocean drilling programs such as the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP and its predecessors. However, Cretaceous terrestrial climate records are at best fragmentary (Heimhofer et al., 2005. The long-lived Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China is an excellent candidate to fill this gap and provide important ocean-continent linkages in relation to environmental change (Fig. 1. This basin, located within one of the largest Cretaceous landmasses (Scotese, 1988, acted for about 100 million years as an intra-continental sediment trap; the present-day area of the basin is about 260,000 km2. It provides an almost complete terrestrial sedimentary recordfrom the Upper Jurassic to the Paleocene (Chen and Chang, 1994. Large-scale geological and geophysical investigations of lacustrine sediments and basin structures demonstrate that a rich archive of Cretaceous paleoclimate proxies exists. For example, the basin includes the Jehol Biota, a terrestrial response to the Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs, and a potential K/T boundary (Qiang et al., 1998. An ongoing drilling program is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and by the Daqing Oilfield. It allowed for recovering of nearly complete cores from Upper Albian to the Uppermost Cretaceous in two boreholes (SK-I, SK II; commenced in 2006, Fig. 1. However, the older Cretaceous sedimentary record of Songliao Basin has not yet been cored. For that reason, a scientific drilling program has been proposed to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP to sample the deeper sedimentaryrecord of the Songliao Basin through a new drill hole

  3. Implementation of a hydrologic model and GIS for estimating Wadi runoff in Dernah area, Al Jabal Al Akhadar, NE Libya (United States)

    El Osta, M. M.; Masoud, M. H.


    This study has investigated the relationship between rainfall-runoff in Dernah area, Al Jabal Al Akhadar, NE Libya. It provides flash flood hazard warnings for ungauged basins using geographic information system (GIS). The study examined the morphometric parameters of four Wadis (Wadi Dernah, Wadi Bum Safer, Wadi Al Nagah and Wadi Bir Al Yajur) with emphasis on their implication for hydrologic processes through the integration analysis between morphometric parameters and GIS techniques. Data for this study were obtained from ASTER data for digital elevation model (DEM) with 30 m resolution, topographic map (1:50,000), geological maps (1,250,000) which were checked during the field work. About 36 morphometric parameters were measured and calculated and interlinked to produce nine effective parameters for evaluating the flash flood hazard degree of the study area. The study basins are classified according to their hazards into three groups; Basins of low hazard degree (Wadi Al Nagah and Wadi Bir Al Yajur); Basins of medium hazard degree (Wadi Dernah); Basins of high hazard degree (Bum Safer). Software (SMADA 6) is applied to generate the hydrograph of subbasins of both medium and high hazard degrees. As a result of the model applied to Wadi Dernah, rainfall events of a total of 60, 70, 90, 110 and 120 mm of return periods 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years produce a discharge volume of 9.1 × 106, 13.5 × 106, 22.3 × 106, 34.0 × 106 and 39.7 × 106 m3 respectively. While in case of Wadi Bum Safer the discharge volume is 22.1 × 106, 30.5 × 106, 46.1 × 106, 65.6 × 106 and 74.8 × 106 m3.

  4. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin (United States)

    Campos, P.


    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private owne