WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin natural production

  1. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Jesse D.M.; Contor, Craig C.; Hoverson, Eric (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2005-10-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). UBNPMEP is coordinated with two ODFW research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. Our project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 19000500, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 198902401, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects comprehensively monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. Table 1 outlines relationships with other BPA supported projects. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan (ODFW and CTUIR 2004), the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (Schwartz & Cameron Under Revision). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPPC 2004). The need for monitoring the natural production of salmonids in the Umatilla River

  2. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-07-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website http://www.umatilla.nsn.us. This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

  3. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  4. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project from September 30, 1992 to September 29, 1993. Examinations of historical flow and water temperature records and current physical habitat, indicate that the streams in the Umatilla River Basin vary in condition from extremely poor to good. Reduced flows and high water temperatures prevented salmonid production in the lower Umatilla River below river mile 75 during the summer and early fall. This was also true in the lower reaches of many tributaries. Isolated springs provided limited refuges in the mid Umatilla River and lower Meacham Creek. Suitable habitat for salmonids was found in the upper reaches of the mainstem and tributaries.

  5. The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project : Progress Report, 1999-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-06-02

    The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. Chapter One also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Walla Walla River Basin. Objectives are outlined below for the statements of work for the 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 contract years. The same objectives were sometimes given different numbers in different years. Because this document is a synthesis of four years of reporting, we gave objectives letter designations and listed the objective number associated with the statement of work for each year. Some objectives were in all four work statements, while other objectives were in only one or two work statements. Each objective is discussed in a chapter. The chapter that reports activities and findings of each objective are listed with the objective below. Because data is often interrelated, aspects of some findings may be reported or discussed in more than one chapter. Specifics related to tasks, approaches, methods, results and discussion are addressed in the individual chapters.

  6. A Study on the Biodiversity of Natural Food Production to Support Community Upstream of Chi Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pramuk Srichaiwong; Luckhana Kwewjai; Patarapong Kroeksakul

    2013-01-01

    This biodiversity study of natural food production to supporting the communities upstream of Chi River Basin aims at collecting the name and species of natural food plants in the forest around the upstream areas of Chi River Basin. This is a phenomenal study of species and potential benefits of forest food. Qualitative methodology was mainly used to collect data; the study relied on the knowledge of the local people had to recall the local data, which significantly focused on the species of n...

  7. Umatilla Basin natural production monitoring and evaluation. Annual report 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities of the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME) from September 30, 1995 to September 29, 1996. This program was funded by Bonneville Power Administration and was managed under the Fisheries Program, Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. The goal was to evaluate the implementation of the Umatilla River Basin fisheries restoration plan with respect to natural production, adult passage, and tribal harvest. An estimated 56.1 river miles (RM) of habitat was inventoried on the lower Umatilla River (RM 0--56.1) from June 4, to August 1, 1996. The majority of the lower River was found to be too polluted and physically altered to provide suitable rearing or migration habitat for salmonids during the summer. High water temperatures, irrigation withdrawals, altered channels, and urban and agricultural pollution all contributed to degrade the lower Umatilla River. Small springs provided cooler waters and created small areas that were suitable for salmonid rearing. The river below the mouth of Mckay Creek (RM 27.2 to 50.6) was also cooler and more suitable to salmonid rearing when water was released from Mckay Dam. Two hundred sixty-three of 1,832 (14.4%) habitat units were electrofished from June 19 to August 29, 1996. The number of natural juvenile salmonids captured between RM 1.5--52.4 follow: (1) 141 juvenile steelhead (including resident rainbow trout; Oncoryhnchus mykiss), (2) 13 mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni, including adults), (3) four chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and (4) two coho salmon (O. kisutch). The expanded population estimate for the areas surveyed was 2,445 salmonids. Mean density was 0.147 salmonids/100 square meter. Mean density of fast water habitat types was 4.5 times higher than slow water types (0.358 and 0.079 s/100 m2)

  8. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Kissner, Paul; Volkman, Jed [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME) from September 30, 1995 to September 29, 1996. This program was funded by Bonneville Power Administration and was managed under the Fisheries Program, Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. The goal was to evaluate the implementation of the Umatilla River Basin fisheries restoration plan with respect to natural production, adult passage, and tribal harvest. An estimated 56.1 river miles (RM) of habitat was inventoried on the lower Umatilla River (RM 0--56.1) from June 4, to August 1, 1996. The majority of the lower River was found to be too polluted and physically altered to provide suitable rearing or migration habitat for salmonids during the summer. High water temperatures, irrigation withdrawals, altered channels, and urban and agricultural pollution all contributed to degrade the lower Umatilla River. Small springs provided cooler waters and created small areas that were suitable for salmonid rearing. The river below the mouth of Mckay Creek (RM 27.2 to 50.6) was also cooler and more suitable to salmonid rearing when water was released from Mckay Dam. Two hundred sixty-three of 1,832 (14.4%) habitat units were electrofished from June 19 to August 29, 1996. The number of natural juvenile salmonids captured between RM 1.5--52.4 follow: (1) 141 juvenile steelhead (including resident rainbow trout; Oncoryhnchus mykiss), (2) 13 mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni, including adults), (3) four chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and (4) two coho salmon (O. kisutch). The expanded population estimate for the areas surveyed was 2,445 salmonids. Mean density was 0.147 salmonids/100 square meter. Mean density of fast water habitat types was 4.5 times higher than slow water types (0.358 and 0.079 s/100 m{sup 2}).

  9. Umatilla Basin natural production monitoring and evaluation. Annual progress report, 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities of the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME) from September 30, 1994 to September 29, 1995. This program was funded by Bonneville Power Administration and was managed under the Fisheries Program, Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. An estimated 36.7 km (22.6 miles) of stream habitat were inventoried on the Umatilla River, Moonshine, Mission, Cottonwood and Coonskin Creeks. A total of 384 of 3,652 (10.5%) habitat units were electrofished. The number of juvenile fish captured follows: 2,953 natural summer steelhead (including resident rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss), one hatchery steelhead, 341 natural chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), 163 natural coho salmon (O. kisutch), five bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), 185 mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and six northern squawfish (Ptychoicheilus oregonensis). The expanded population estimate for the areas surveyed was 73,716 salmonids with a mean density of 0.38 fish/m2. Relative salmonid abundance, seasonal distribution and habitat utilization were monitored at index sites throughout the basin. During index site monitoring, the following species were collected in addition to those listed above: american shad (Alosa sapidissima), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and chiselmouth (Acrocheilus alutaceus). Thirty-nine sites were electrofished during the spring and summer seasons, while 36 sites were sampled in the fall season. A study of the migration movements and homing requirements of adult salmonids in the Umatilla River was conducted during the 1994-95 return years. Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the movements of adult salmonids past diversion dams in the lower Umatilla River and to determine migrational movements of salmonids following upstream transport

  10. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    uplift and erosion, causing gas leakage and a marked reduction in fluid pressure. Most future natural-gas production in the Clinton/Medina sandstones is anticipated to come from the basin-center accumulation. The Tuscarora Sandstone has additional gas resources but typically low reservoir porosity and permeability, and the likelihood of low-energy (in British thermal units) gas reduce the incentive to explore for it.

  11. Comparison of facility-level methane emission rates from natural gas production well pads in the Marcellus, Denver-Julesburg, and Uintah Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, M.; Li, X.; Sullivan, M.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The boom in shale natural gas (NG) production, brought about by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, has yielded both economic benefits and concerns about environmental and climate impacts. In particular, leakages of methane from the NG supply chain could substantially increase the carbon footprint of NG, diminishing its potential role as a transition fuel between carbon intensive fossil fuels and renewable energy systems. Recent research has demonstrated significant variability in measured methane emission rates from NG production facilities within a given shale gas basin. This variability often reflect facility-specific differences in NG production capacity, facility age, utilization of emissions capture and control, and/or the level of facility inspection and maintenance. Across NG production basins, these differences in facility-level methane emission rates are likely amplified, especially if significant variability in NG composition and state emissions regulations are present. In this study, we measured methane emission rates from the NG production sector in the Marcellus Shale Basin (Pennsylvania and West Virginia), currently the largest NG production basin in the U.S., and contrast these results with those of the Denver-Julesburg (Colorado) and Uintah (Utah) shale basins. Facility-level methane emission rates were measured at 106 NG production facilities using the dual tracer flux (nitrous oxide and acetylene), Gaussian dispersion simulations, and the OTM 33A techniques. The distribution of facility-level average methane emission rate for each NG basin will be discussed, with emphasis on how variability in NG composition (i.e., ethane-to-methane ratios) and state emissions regulations impact measured methane leak rates. While the focus of this presentation will be on the comparison of methane leak rates among NG basins, the use of three complimentary top-down methane measurement techniques provides a unique opportunity to explore the

  12. Quantification of Methane and VOC Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Two Basins with High Ozone Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, R.; Robertson, A.; Snare, D.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2005, the Uintah Basin of Utah and the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming frequently exceeded the EPA 8-hour allowable ozone level of 75 ppb, spurring interest in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during oil and gas production. Debate continues over which stage of production (drilling, flowback, normal production, transmission, etc.) is the most prevalent VOC source. In this study, we quantify emissions from normal production on well pads by using the EPA-developed Other Test Method 33a. This methodology combines ground-based measurements of fugitive emissions with 3-D wind data to calculate the methane and VOC emission fluxes from a point source. VOC fluxes are traditionally estimated by gathering a canister of air during a methane flux measurement. The methane:VOC ratio of this canister is determined at a later time in the laboratory, and applied to the known methane flux. The University of Wyoming Mobile Laboratory platform is equipped with a Picarro methane analyzer and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer, which provide real-time methane and VOC data for each well pad. This independent measurement of methane and VOCs in situ reveals multiple emission sources on one well pad, with varying methane:VOC ratios. Well pad emission estimates of methane, benzene, toluene and xylene for the two basins will be presented. The different emission source VOC profiles and the limitations of real-time and traditional VOC measurement methods will also be discussed.

  13. Natural radiogenic heat production in the northeastern part of the North German Basin; Natuerliche radiogene Waermeproduktion im Nordostdeutschen Becken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullner, H.A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The radiogenic heat-production rate is a parameter that affects the thermal structure in the sedimentary cover. The parameter is important to warrant an extensive study. The first results gained in the northeastern part of the North German Basin show values in the range between 2.2 and 2.6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Permian mudstones in the Peckensen borehole and in the Bonese borehole (Altmark area). Comparable results were obtained in mudstones from a {gamma}-ray log measured in the Rheinsberg borehole (Brandenburg area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung der thermischen Struktur des nordostdeutschen Beckens erfordert Kenntnisse ueber die radiogene Waermeproduktion der in zahlreichen Bohrungen aufgeschlossenen Sedimente. Die erste Ergebnisse eines am GFZ Postdam begonnenen Messprogrammes zeigen Waermeproduktionsraten im Bereich 2,2 bis 2,6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Tonsteinen des Perm in den Bohrungen Peckensen und Bonese (Altmark). Eine vergleichbare Waermeproduktion wurde anhand eines {gamma}-ray-Logs in Tonsteinen in der Bohrung Rheinsberg (Brandenburg) ermittelt. (orig.)

  14. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  15. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  16. Natural Gas Exploration in Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Guangcan

    1995-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Basin located in the eastern part of Sichuan province, is a structural basin with obvious boundaries . It is also a geographic basin and covers an area of about180×103 km2. The basin is surrounded by mountains with altitudes of 1000-3000m above sea level. The western part of the basin is the Chengdu Plain.The middle part of the basin is hills with altitudes of300-600m above sea level. The eastern part of the basin is featured by bar anticlinal hills with a northeast-southwest trend and are separated in the middle by open flatlands .The hills have an altitude of 700-800m above sea level.

  17. Natural Products for Antithrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is considered to be closely related to several diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricemia, and various inflammatory conditions. More and more studies have been focused on understanding the mechanism of molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation as well as preventing thrombosis for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. In reality, there is considerable interest in the role of natural products and their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis related disorders. This paper briefly describes the mechanisms of thrombus formation on three aspects, including coagulation system, platelet activation, and aggregation, and change of blood flow conditions. Furthermore, the natural products for antithrombosis by anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, and fibrinolysis were summarized, respectively.

  18. Natural products as photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. PMID:25582033

  19. NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The topic of natural products as pesticides is reviewed, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a natural product-based strategy for pesticide discovery. Current and past natural product and natural product-based herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, molluscicides, rodent...

  20. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  1. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have

  2. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purpos...

  3. A Natural Love of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, David G. I.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on the chemistry of natural products from the author’s group that led to the receipt of the ACS Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products is reviewed. REDOR NMR and synthetic studies established the T-taxol conformation as the bioactive tubulin-binding conformation, and these results were confirmed by the synthesis of compounds which clearly owed their activity or lack of activity to whether or not they could adopt the T-taxol conformation. Similar studies wit...

  4. Combinatorial synthesis of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    2002-01-01

    increase in application of natural products in combinatorial chemistry and vice versa. The therapeutic areas of infectious disease and oncology still dominate but many new areas are emerging. Several complex natural products have now been synthesised by solid-phase methods and have created the foundation......Combinatorial syntheses allow production of compound libraries in an expeditious and organized manner immediately applicable for high-throughput screening. Natural products possess a pedigree to justify quality and appreciation in drug discovery and development. Currently, we are seeing a rapid...... for preparation of combinatorial libraries. In other examples, natural products or intermediates have served as building blocks or scaffolds in the synthesis of complex natural products, bioactive analogues or designed hybrid molecules. Finally, structural motifs from the biologically active parent molecule have...

  5. Natural Ecological Processes Affecting the Nulhegan Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of current understanding of the environmental forces which were responsible for the natural vegetation patterns in northeastem Vermont....

  6. Paleo stress contribution to fault and natural fracture distribution in the Cooper Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Khair, H.; Cooke, D.; Hand, M.

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of the unconventional reservoirs to the global oil and gas production made it important to address the main factors that control high production from these reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing that intersect natural fractures results in a high stimulated rock volume and high production. Over a decade of effort to use elastic dislocation and different types of restoration to predict fracture network didn't succeed fully in addressing this factor. We used image log fractures and fault network within an iterative boundary element method (iBEM3D) to predict the paleo-tectonic events and the fracture network in the Cooper Basin. The methodology was able to predict only the major tectonic events that occurred after the deposition of the Cooper Basin sediments and contributed to the formation of the natural fractures. As the methodology does not include fault elastic properties, fracture orientations near the faults showed unrealistic results and should not be considered as indicative for the actual natural fractures. The main trend of the Cooper Basin fractures was attributed to post Triassic inter-seismic relaxation after major tectonic compressional events, which resulted in a normal fault stress regime. However, the current day stress regime is believed to be also a major factor in forming some of the natural fractures. Hunter Bowen orogeny in the Late Triassic contributed less to the existing fractures. Whereas, Cainozoic compressional forces played no role in the formation of the Cooper Basin natural fractures.

  7. Mardels, natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this 'environmental catastrophe'. The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  8. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  9. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Hoang Nguyen

    2003-05-31

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  10. Natural gas generation model and its response in accumulated fluids in the Yinggehai basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝芳; 邹华耀; 黄保家

    2003-01-01

    The natural gases found in the Yinggehai basin have nitrogen gas content ranging from 3.5% to 35%, and carbon dioxide content ranging from 0.1% to 93%. The nitrogen and CO2 contents show a wide variation even in the same gas field. The natural gas generation and evolution model has been established based on the relationship among the contents of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon gases in the discovered gas fields, and the results of simulation experiments. The thickness of the Tertiary and Quaternary in the Yinggehai basin is over 17 km, and gas generation stages from diagenesis (microbial methane) to metamorphism have been developed. Nitrogen in this basin is organic in origin, and has been generated mainly in the catagenetic stage, roughly synchronous with hydrocarbon gases. Carbon dioxide is mainly inorganic in origin, and has been generated from high-temperature decomposition of carbonates in the metamorphic stage. The Dongfang gas field shows strong inter-reservoir compositional heterogeneities, and different gas reservoirs have recorded the products of gas generation at different stages. It has been confirmed that the complexity in natural gas composition in the Yinggehai basin is the combined results of multi-stage natural gas generation and multi-stage gas injection and accumulation.

  11. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  12. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  13. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2)/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO2/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  14. System of Natural Health Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The safety of vitamin K antagonists (VKA use can be compromised by many popular herbal supplements taken by individuals. The literature reports that 30% of warfarin-treated patients self-medicates with herbs. Possible interactions represent an health risk. We aimed to identify all herbs-oral anticoagulants interactions collected in the Italian database of suspected adverse reactions to “natural health” products. Methods. The Italian database of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions to natural products was analyzed to address herb-VKAs interactions. Results. From 2002 to 2009, we identified 12 reports with 7 cases of INR reduction in patients treated with warfarin (n=3 and acenocoumarol (n=4, and 5 cases of INR increase (all warfarin associated. It was reported 8 different herbal products as possibly interacting. Discussion. Our study confirms the risk of interactions, highlighting the difficulty to characterize them and their mechanisms and, finally, prevent their onset. The reported data underline the urgent need of healthcare providers being aware of the possible interaction between natural products and VKA, also because of the critical clinical conditions affecting patients. This is the first step to have the best approach to understand possible INR alterations linked to herb-VKA interaction and to rightly educate patients in treatment with VKA.

  15. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  16. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  17. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: An Economic Measure of Regional Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). GNRP is equal to aggregate consumption minus the depreciation of man-made and natural capital. We measure the move...

  18. Simulation of natural flows in major river basins in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alexandria M.; García, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Water Resources (OWR) in the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs (ADECA) is charged with the assessment of the State’s water resources. This study developed a watershed model for the major river basins that are within Alabama or that cross Alabama’s borders, which serves as a planning tool for water-resource decisionmakers. The watershed model chosen to assess the natural amount of available water was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Models were configured and calibrated for the following four river basins: Mobile, Gulf of Mexico, Middle Tennessee, and Chattahoochee. These models required calibrating unregulated U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gaging stations to estimate natural flows, with emphases on low-flow calibration. The target calibration criteria required the errors be within the range of: (1) ±10 percent for total-streamflow volume, (2) ±10 percent for low-flow volume, (3) ±15 percent for high-flow volume, (4) ±30 percent for summer volume, and (5) above 0.5 for the correlation coefficient (R2). Seventy-one of the 90 calibration stations in the watershed models for the four major river basins within Alabama met the target calibration criteria. Variability in the model performance can be attributed to limitations in correctly representing certain hydrologic conditions that are characterized by some of the ecoregions in Alabama. Ecoregions consisting of predominantly clayey soils and (or) low topographic relief yield less successful calibration results, whereas ecoregions consisting of loamy and sandy soils and (or) high topographic relief yield more successful calibration results. Results indicate that the model does well in hilly regions with sandy soils because of rapid surface runoff and more direct interaction with subsurface flow.

  19. The role of Natural Flood Management in managing floods in large scale basins during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; ODonnell, Greg; Nicholson, Alex; Hetherington, David

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong evidence database showing the negative impacts of land use intensification and soil degradation in NW European river basins on hydrological response and to flood impact downstream. However, the ability to target zones of high runoff production and the extent to which we can manage flood risk using nature-based flood management solution are less known. A move to planting more trees and having less intense farmed landscapes is part of natural flood management (NFM) solutions and these methods suggest that flood risk can be managed in alternative and more holistic ways. So what local NFM management methods should be used, where in large scale basin should they be deployed and how does flow is propagate to any point downstream? Generally, how much intervention is needed and will it compromise food production systems? If we are observing record levels of rainfall and flow, for example during Storm Desmond in Dec 2015 in the North West of England, what other flood management options are really needed to complement our traditional defences in large basins for the future? In this paper we will show examples of NFM interventions in the UK that have impacted at local scale sites. We will demonstrate the impact of interventions at local, sub-catchment (meso-scale) and finally at the large scale. These tools include observations, process based models and more generalised Flood Impact Models. Issues of synchronisation and the design level of protection will be debated. By reworking observed rainfall and discharge (runoff) for observed extreme events in the River Eden and River Tyne, during Storm Desmond, we will show how much flood protection is needed in large scale basins. The research will thus pose a number of key questions as to how floods may have to be managed in large scale basins in the future. We will seek to support a method of catchment systems engineering that holds water back across the whole landscape as a major opportunity to management water

  20. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Natural Gas Facilities in the Denver-Julesburg Basin, the Uintah Basin and the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Omara, M.; Sullivan, M.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas has been widely considered as a "bridge" fuel in the future. Because of the rapid advancement of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques, the production of crude oil and natural gas in US increased dramatically in recent years; and currently natural gas contributes to about 25% of total US energy consumption. Recent studies suggest that shale gas extraction facilities may emit Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which could contribute to the formation of ozone and affect regional air quality, public health and climate change. In this study we visited 37 natural gas facilities in Denver-Julesburg and Uintah Basins from March to May, 2015. VOCs and methane concentrations were measured downwind of individual facilities with our mobile lab. In total 13 VOCs, including benzene and toluene, were measured by a SRI 8610C Gas Chromatograph. Similar measurements will be conducted in the Marcellus Shale in late August 2015. Preliminary results show that VOC emissions from individual shale gas facilities are variable, which suggests that a single VOC profile may not characterize all natural gas production facilities, though there may be some common characteristics. Measured VOC concentrations will be normalized to concurrently-measured methane emissions, and coupled with methane emission rates measured at these facilities, used to obtain VOC emission factors from natural gas production. This presentation will also compare VOC emission rates from the Marcellus shale with that from the Denver-Julesburg and Uintah basins.

  1. Exploration Area and Potential of Natural Gas in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haibo; Chen Lei; Qian Yongxin; Li Chen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Junggar Basin, located in Northern Xinjiang between Altai and Tianshan Mountains, is the second largest basin in China with its sedimentary area being about 130,000square kilometers. A group of caprocks are developed over Carboniferous of the basin, including the Permian,Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene,among which the biggest sedimentary caprock is 15,000meters thick. The formation and accumulation of oil and gas in the basin can be characterized by multistage and multisource after undergoing multiperiod structural movements such as Late Hercynian, Indosinian,Yanshanian, and Himalaya, etc.

  2. Present Situation and Exploration Potentialities of Natural Gas Resources in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin is the second largest sedimentary basin in China, with an area of 370 thousand km2. Since the first onshore oil well was drilled successfully in northern Shaanxi of China, there has been a century of oil and gas exploration in the basin, and it may be said that the oil exploration has a long history, but for natural gas exploration, it still may be regarded as a new area, because large-scale research, exploration, and development of natural gas in the basin have relatively lagged. The four big gas fields of Jingbian, Sulige, Yulin, and Uxin Banner with respective reserves of more than one hundred giga cubic meters were discovered since 1990s[1]. Therefore,the basin has a great resources potential of natural gas and a low discovery ratio of gas reserves. The natural gas industry has broad prospects of development.

  3. Genesis of Marine Carbonate Natural Gas in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qu; TENGER; MENG Qingqiang; QIN Jianzhong; JIANG Qigui; ZHENG Lunju

    2008-01-01

    Sichuan Basin is one of the structurally stable and gas-rich basins, being regarded as one of China's important natural gas industry bases. Puguang and Jiannan gas fields, located in the eastern Sichuan Basin are two large fields with gas derived from Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate. The genesis of marine carbonate natural gas was examined using carbon isotope composition and hydrocarbon components of natural gas samples from the eastern and western Sichuan Basin, and compared with that of acidolysis gas derived from marine source rock in the eastern Sichuan Basin. It is concluded that the natural gas in the marine carbonate reservoir originated from pyrolysis of the earlier crude oil and light-oil, and then mixed with kerogen pyrolysis gas of the Permian and Lower Silurian source rock.

  4. Tectonic evolution of Tethyan tectonic field, formation of Northern Margin basin and explorative perspective of natural gas in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing the characteristics of the Tethyan tectonic field, the authors think that the Tethyan tectonic field underwent three evolutional stages: closing of Paleo-Tethys and rifting of Neo-Tethys from early Permian to late Triassic, subduction of Neo-Tethys and collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasia plate from Jurassic to early of low Tertiary, and collision between the Arab plate and the Eurasia plate and the A-type subduction of Indian plate from late of low Tertiary to the present. Combining the evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt with the characteristics of the Northern Margin basin, it is suggested that the sedimentary and tectonic characteristics and types of the Northern Mar-gin basin are controlled by the formation and evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt and the ingression of Tethys. The evolution of Northern Margin basin can be divided into three development stages: back-arc foreland basin from late Permian to Triassic, the back-arc fault subsidence and depression from Jurassic to the early of low Tertiary, and the reactive foreland basin from the late of low Tertiary to the present. The Northern Margin basin in the Tethyan tectonic field is an important region for natural gas accumulation, and the Tarim Basin is a part of this region.

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  6. Accounting Of Products Collected From Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gökgöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Products from nature can be classified as “production” or “collection from nature” within agricultural production. Products collected from nature vary in type and can sum up to important quantities. Thyme, mushroom, chestnut, sage, linden, saffron from plant origin can be given as examples to products from nature as well as fish, mussel, octopus, birds from animal origin. This study covers the accounting area of products obtained from nature. The evaluation of collection of these products from nature in terms of agricultural operation poses great importance for accounting issues. Thus, special care will be given to issues of accounting of these products within the scope of Turkish Tax Legislation and Turkish Accounting Standards

  7. Natural gas leakage of Mizhi gas reservoir in Ordos Basin, recorded by natural gas fluid inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Abundant natural gas inclusions were found in calcite veins filled in fractures of Central Fault Belt across the centre of Ordos Basin. Time of the calcite veins and characteristics of natural gas fluid inclusion were investigated by means of dating of thermolum luminescence (TL) and analyzing stable isotope of fluid inclusion. Results show that natural gas inclusion formed at 130―140℃ with salinity of 5.5 wt%―6.0 wt% NaCl. It indicates that natural gas inclusion is a kind of thermal hydrocarbon fluid formed within the basin. Method of opening inclusion by heating was used to analyze composition of fluid inclusion online, of which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content of fluid inclusion contained in veins is 2.4219 m3/t rock and the maximal C1/Σci ratio is 91%. Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was used to analyze chemistry of individual fluid inclusion in which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content is 91.6% compared with little inorganic composition. Isotope analysis results of calcite veins show that they were deposited in fresh water, in which the δ13CPDB of calcite veins is from -5.75‰ to 15.23‰ andδ18OSMOW of calcite veins is from 21.33‰ to 21.67‰. Isotope results show thatδ13C1 PDB of natural gas fluid inclusion is from -21.36‰ to -29.06‰ and δDSMOW of that is from -70.89‰ to -111.03‰. It indicates that the gas of fluid inclusion formed from coal source rocks and it is the same as that of natural gas of Mizhi gas reservoir. Results of TL dating show that time of calcite vein is (32.4±3.42)×104 a, which is thought to be formation time of gas inclusion. It indicated that natural gas inclusion contained in calcite veins recorded natural gas leakage from Mizhi gas reservoir through the Central Fault Belt due to Himalayan tectonic movement.

  8. Counting on natural products for drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    Natural products and their molecular frameworks have a long tradition as valuable starting points for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recently, there has been a revitalization of interest in the inclusion of these chemotypes in compound collections for screening and achieving selective target modulation. Here we discuss natural-product-inspired drug discovery with a focus on recent advances in the design of synthetically tractable small molecules that mimic nature's chemistry. We highlight the potential of innovative computational tools in processing structurally complex natural products to predict their macromolecular targets and attempt to forecast the role that natural-product-derived fragments and fragment-like natural products will play in next-generation drug discovery.

  9. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins. PMID:25300487

  10. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  11. Natural Connections on Riemannian Product Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    A Riemannian almost product manifold with integrable almost product structure is called a Riemannian product manifold. In the present paper the natural connections on such manifolds are studied, i.e. the linear connections preserving the almost product structure and the Riemannian metric.

  12. TARGETABLE MARKET SEGMENTS FOR NATURAL PORK PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Grannis, Jennifer L.; Thilmany, Dawn D.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of consumers established willingness to pay for natural pork products. Probit estimation was used to define targetable market segments for ham and pork chops. High-income, frequent pork consumers, and those most concerned about the use of growth hormones and antibiotics, are most likely to purchase natural pork products.

  13. Direction and Potential of Exploration for Natural Gas in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Qaidam Basin is a large Meso-Cenozoic interior basin, which is surrounded by Qilianshan Mountains,Altun Mountains, and Kunlun Mountains, and with its geographical area, area of sedimentary rock, and maximal sedimentary thickness being 250 thousand km2, 121 thousand km2, and 17.2 thousand meters respectively. The natural gas resources is sufficiently abundant in the basin.It is estimated that the total oil and gas resources is 4.65 billion tons at present, of which natural gas resources is 2500 billion m3.

  14. Synthetic studies applied to polyketide natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Polyketide natural products are valuable components of the modern pharmacopea. These secondary metabolites have a diverse range of structures and activities. Studies of their biosynthesis and activity will help to provide access to better medicinal compounds. To this end, directly probing these mechanisms with derivatives of natural products is an important goal. Synthetic organic chemistry allows production of a greater variety of compounds than can be accessed by manipulation of isolated na...

  15. Natural products: Hunting microbial metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eric W.

    2015-05-01

    Symbiotic bacteria synthesize many specialized small molecules; however, establishing the role these chemicals play in human health and disease has been difficult. Now, the chemical structure and mechanism of the Escherichia coli product colibactin provides insight into the link between this secondary metabolite and colorectal cancer.

  16. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  17. Natural products that inhibit carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Davis, Rohan A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical diversity, binding specificity and propensity to interact with biological targets has inspired many researchers to utilize natural products as molecular probes. Almost all reported carbonic anhydrase inhibitors comprise a zinc binding group in their structure of which the primary sulfonamide moiety (-SO2NH2) is the foremost example and to a lesser extent the primary sulfamate (-O-SO2NH2) and sulfamide (-NH-SO2NH2) groups. Natural products that comprise these zinc binding groups in their structure are however rare and relatively few natural products have been explored as a source for novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. This chapter will highlight the recent and growing interest in carbonic anhydrase inhibitors sourced from nature, demonstrating that natural product chemical space presents a rich source of potential alternate chemotypes for the discovery of novel drug-like carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. PMID:24146386

  18. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Teixeira, de, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is marked by socio-eco¬nomic disparities and environmental vulnerabilities. Water managers in the semi-arid region of the basin are faced with several challenges, such as competition among different wate...

  19. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insik Jeon

    2006-12-12

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  20. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  1. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  2. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  3. Zonality of sulfur content of natural gas. [Caspian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the genesis of hydrogen sulfide under conditions of high temperatures and pressures existing in the deep levels of the sedimentary mass. The processes of hydrogen sulfide formation are viewed with regard for the geological and geochemical conditions which are inherent to the subsaline deposits of the Caspian. A number of criteria are indicated which can be used to predict the dissemination of H/sub 2/S both in the peripheral parts of the basin, and in its inner regions where the subsaline deposits have not yet been stripped by deep drilling. Especial attention was focused on the geochemical conditions which are characteristic for the upper levels of the section and governed by vertical migration of H/sub 2/S from the subsaline deposits. An attempt was made to make a quantitative forecast of the H/sub 2/S concentrations in the bed fluids of the subsaline deposits of the Caspian basin.

  4. GEOCHEMISTRY AND TECTONIC ENVIRONMENT AND RESERVOIR FORMATION OF MANTLE-DERIVED NATURAL GAS IN THE SONGLIAO BASIN, NORTHEASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zian; GUO Zhanqian; BAI Zhenguo; LIN Ge

    2004-01-01

    During several decades of exploration, a number of mantle-derived natural gas pools have been discovered in the vicinities of deep faults in the Songliao Basin, northeastern China. The natural gas in these pools has a δ 13C1 value of-16.5‰ to -24.2‰, a reversed arrangement in the amount of carbon isotopes in methane and its endogamous products (namely, Δ13c1 >Δ13c2 >Δ13c3 >Δ13c4 ), a 3He/4He value of 1.97 to 2.34× 10-6, and an 40Ar/36Ar value of 1063 to 1949. This indicates a mantle source for the natural gas. The trace elements Cd, In, Te and Re, never found in organic-sourced hydrocarbons, are highly enriched in certain crude oils from the Basin; respectively, concentrations of these elements were found to be 751, 28, 16 and 323 times the average crustal values in China, and this also supports a mantle-derived natural gas origin. The characteristics of mantled-derived magmatic rocks,hydrothermal fluids and gaseous fractions distributed in and near the deep Songliao Basin faults indicate that rifting tectonics is providing the mechanisms for this outgassing of the mantle. Deep extensional(normal) faults provide pathways for upward movement of these materials, and in the Songliao Basin,these deep riff fault zones are associated with reservoir occurrence and cap rock seals, forming good sites for accumulation of mantle-derived natural gas. Furthermore, a layer of low velocity, low density and high conductivity in the deep crust has been identified as a potential reservoir for mantle-derived natural gas.

  5. Natural Products and Ion Channel Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerated rate of natural-product discovery is critical for the future of ion channel pharmacology. For the full potential of natural products to be realized, an interdisciplinary initiative is required that combines chemical ecology and ion channel physiology. A prime source of future drug leads targeted to ion channels is the vast assortment of compounds that mediate biotic interactions in the marine environment. Many animals have evolved a chemical strategy to change the behavior of t...

  6. Discoveries and diversions in natural product synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Reisman, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Our lab. seeks to discover, develop, and study new chem. reactions within the context of natural product total synthesis. The chem. synthesis of natural products enables the study of their biol. properties, and can provide access to synthetic derivs. with improved therapeutic properties or that can serve as mechanistic probes. Importantly, these synthetic undertakings often highlight shortcomings of the existing state-of-the-art and inspire the discovery of new chem. Our lab. has ...

  7. Engineering microbial hosts for production of bacterial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzi M; Wang, Yajie; Ang, Ee Lui; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-08-27

    Covering up to end 2015Microbial fermentation provides an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis for the production of structurally complex natural products. In most cases, however, production titers are low and need to be improved for compound characterization and/or commercial production. Owing to advances in functional genomics and genetic engineering technologies, microbial hosts can be engineered to overproduce a desired natural product, greatly accelerating the traditionally time-consuming strain improvement process. This review covers recent developments and challenges in the engineering of native and heterologous microbial hosts for the production of bacterial natural products, focusing on the genetic tools and strategies for strain improvement. Special emphasis is placed on bioactive secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. The considerations for the choice of host systems will also be discussed in this review. PMID:27072804

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  9. Influence of natural and human factors on pesticide concentrations in surface waters of the White River Basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.

    1996-01-01

    Pesticide concentrations in surface waters of the White River Basin are affected by natural and human factors. For example, concentrations of atrazine, a herbicide widely used on corn in the White River Basin, tended to be higher in an agricultural basin with permeable, welldrained soils, than in an agricultural basin with less permeable, more poorly drained soils. Concentrations of butylate, another herbicide used on corn, were substantially higher in an agricultural basin in the southern part of the White River Basin than in an agricultural basin in the central part of the White River Basin, corresponding to the higher use of this compound in southern Indiana. Concentrations of diazinon were substantially higher in a predominantly urban basin than in two predominantly agricultural basins, corresponding to the common use of this insecticide on lawns and gardens in urban areas.

  10. Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research considered that gas source rocks and TSR are the key cause of gas enrichment of marine strata. High-quality argillaceous and coal measure hydrocarbon rocks are distributed widely in the Palaeozoic marine strata, which have been in highly matured phase in the present. The argillaceous source rock generally contains various sulfates that could accelerate crude oil cracking to gas for TSR occurrence, and coal measure source rock mainly generates gas, so Chinese marine basin gives priority to accumulating gas. Marine strata have not founded oil reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin, and they consist mainly of dry gas. Marine natural gases are the mixed gases of oil cracking gas and coal-formed gas in a general way,oil cracking gases contain usually some H2S and CO2. Hydrocarbon carbon isotopes are very complicated, and methane and ethane isotopic values bear apparent reversal caused by thermal evolution and mixing among different genetic types of natural gas. Coal-formed gases are the main component of Chinese marine natural gas. The Upper Permian of the Sichuan Basin and the Carboniferous-Permian of the Ordos Basin coal measure hydrocarbon source rock present large hydrocarbon generation potential, which are the prospecting highlight of marine natural gas hereafter. Oil cracking gas exploration will be paid much attention to in the Tarim Basin because of the lack of coal measure hydrocarbon source rock.

  11. Evolution Stages of Oasis Economy and Its Dependence on Natural Resources in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xuning; YANG Degang; ZHANG Xinhuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines spatio-temporal characteristics of an oasis economy and its relationship with water and mineral resources in the Turim River Basin from 1965 to 2005. A spatial autocorrelation model, the center of gravity model, and index system of the regional central city are used to probe the evolution laws of spatial structure of oasis economy. The study finds that: 1) The economic centre of gravity, whose variation track during this period follows linear rote law, was moving from headstream to middle reaches of the Tarim River. 2) Positive spatial autocorrelation which showed a waving and ascending trend of regional economy was significant and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was strengthened continuously. 3) The regional economic centre was located in Hotan City before 1980, moved to Aksu City during the 1980s and to Korla City after 1990. We conclude that above all, during the recent four decades the evolution of the oasis economy in this region has gone through three stages: a traditional agriculture stage (before 1980), oasis agriculture and agricultural product processing stage (1980-1990) and oasis energy industry stage (after 1990). Furthermore, the dependence degree of the oasis economy on natural resources in different stages are studied by using dominance index, regression model, and grey relation method, which shows that an oasis economy highly depends on water resources in the oasis agriculture and agricultural product processing stage while it depends more on mineral resources such as oil and natural gas during the oasis energy industry stage.

  12. Microbial production of natural raspbery ketone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Sibbesen, O.; Broekgaarden, M.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for natural raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is extreme

  13. Natural gas origins of large and medium-scale gas fields in China sedimentary basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China sedimentary basins present abundant natural gas resource thanks to its unique geological settings.Marine highly-matured hydrocarbon source rocks,widespread coal-measure strata and low temperature Quaternary saline strata,etc.,indicate the wide foreground of China natural gas resources. Up to now,most of the petroliferous basins have been discovered to have wholesale natural gas accumulation from Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic in the east,the central,the west and the coast of China.These large and medium-scale gas reservoirs are mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas with big dry coefficient,tiny non-hydrocarbon,wide carbon isotope distribution and varying origin types,the hydrocarbon gas includes coal-formed gas,oil-formed gas,biogenic gas and inorganic gas, etc.Coal-formed gas is the main type of China natural gas resources,in particular several explored large-scale gas fields(>100 billion cubic meter)of Kela 2,Sulige and Daniudi,etc.,they all belong to coal-formed gas fields or the gas fields consisting mostly of coal-formed gas.Oil-formed gas is also abundant in China marine basins,for example marine natural gas of Sichuan Basin generated from crude oil cracking gas.Primary and secondary biogenic gas fields were discovered respectively in the Qaidam Basin and Western Slope of Songliao Basin.In addition,inorganic gases are mainly distributed in the eastern China,in particular the Songliao Basin with abundant carbon dioxide accumulation,indicating that the eastern China present large exploration potential of inorganic gas.

  14. Protected Areas legislation and the conservation of the Colombian Orinoco Basin natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has shown a strong commitment to the achievement of the CBD´s biodiversity target, by promoting the conservation of at least 10% of its natural ecosystems. Protected Area categories in Colombia are undergoing a standardization process that should enhance the country´s capacity to protect its natural ecosystems. In this study we use a spatial analysis to examine how the legislation and the civil society´s initiatives help in the conservation of natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. We found that differentiation in use restriction legislation limits the conservation potential of some Protected Area categories. The only fully Protected Areas in Colombia are the Natural National Parks System Areas, which protect only 10% of the area of natural ecosystems and less than 50% of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. Indigenous Reserves help significantly in the conservation of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin, but are not a Protected Area category, making it difficult for indigenous groups to aid in the accomplishment of conservation goals in Colombia.A small percentage of ecosystems of the Colombian Orinoco Basin fall outside of any Protected Area or Indigenous Reserve and urgent actions may be needed to protect them. Future similar studies should use current and updated information on Protected Areas and take into account changes in land cover, for a better understanding of the role of different categories of Protected Areas in the achievement of conservation objectives in Colombia.

  15. Natural product discovery: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Baltz, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms have provided abundant sources of natural products which have been developed as commercial products for human medicine, animal health, and plant crop protection. In the early years of natural product discovery from microorganisms (The Golden Age), new antibiotics were found with relative ease from low-throughput fermentation and whole cell screening methods. Later, molecular genetic and medicinal chemistry approaches were applied to modify and improve the activities of important chemical scaffolds, and more sophisticated screening methods were directed at target disease states. In the 1990s, the pharmaceutical industry moved to high-throughput screening of synthetic chemical libraries against many potential therapeutic targets, including new targets identified from the human genome sequencing project, largely to the exclusion of natural products, and discovery rates dropped dramatically. Nonetheless, natural products continued to provide key scaffolds for drug development. In the current millennium, it was discovered from genome sequencing that microbes with large genomes have the capacity to produce about ten times as many secondary metabolites as was previously recognized. Indeed, the most gifted actinomycetes have the capacity to produce around 30-50 secondary metabolites. With the precipitous drop in cost for genome sequencing, it is now feasible to sequence thousands of actinomycete genomes to identify the "biosynthetic dark matter" as sources for the discovery of new and novel secondary metabolites. Advances in bioinformatics, mass spectrometry, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and gene expression are driving the new field of microbial genome mining for applications in natural product discovery and development. PMID:26739136

  16. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques. PMID:26456468

  17. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques.

  18. Geology and natural gas occurrence, western Williston Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrae, R.O.; Swenson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    The W. Williston Basin has produced gas since a 1913 discovery at Cedar Creek anticline, but during the past decade nearly all the gas found has been in solution in oil. In a sedimentary rock section averaging 10,000 ft in thickness, about one-third of the material, in approx. the lower half of the section, consists of carbonate and evaporites. The rest of the beds are principally sandstone and shale of shallow-marine deposition. All commercial gas in Paleozoic rocks is in solution in oil. Small gas reserves have been found in fractured siltstones of the Cretaceous Colorado shale at Hardin, and in the Shannon sandstone at Pumpkin Creek. Most of the gas in the W. Williston Basin is in nonassociated accumulations in and adjacent to the Cretaceous Judith River and Eagle formations. The trapping is related partly to folding, but also is at the extreme seaward limits of sandstone tongues. Porosity of less than 10% and low permeability values are characteristic of the reservoirs and fracturing is regarded as important in improving overall permeability of the reservoirs. At Cedar Creek anticline, 6 million cu ft a day of 90% nitrogen gas was treated in a Cambrian sandstone.

  19. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14°-20°N), western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    and modelled gravity and magnetic anomalies for determining nature of the crust. Basement of the Laxmi Basin includes numerous highs, which make the basement uneven and shallower compared to the Western Basin. The Laxmi Basin is characterised by a broad gravity...

  20. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is m

  1. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-01-01

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in ...

  2. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  3. Natural products and ion channel pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2010-05-01

    An accelerated rate of natural-product discovery is critical for the future of ion channel pharmacology. For the full potential of natural products to be realized, an interdisciplinary initiative is required that combines chemical ecology and ion channel physiology. A prime source of future drug leads targeted to ion channels is the vast assortment of compounds that mediate biotic interactions in the marine environment. Many animals have evolved a chemical strategy to change the behavior of their prey, predators or competitors, which appears to require a large set of ion channel-targeted compounds acting in concert. Some of these compounds (e.g., ziconotide [Prialt(®)]) have already found important biomedical applications. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms mediating biotic interactions should yield a rich stream of potent and selective natural products for the drug pipeline. PMID:21426200

  4. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  5. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  6. Preliminary Study of Natural Radioactivity in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Adu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in water from Lake Bosumtwi and bore-holes in selected towns around the Bosumtwi basin of the Ashanti region of Ghana have been determined. The concentrations were determined for water samples from 24 boreholes and 12 points across the lake using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe (γ-ray spectrometry. The water samples from the lake were found to contain acceptable levels of radionuclides with mean activity concentrations of 7.9, 89.7 and 0.6 mBq/L for 238U, 40K, and 232Th, respectively. The water samples from the boreholes recorded mean activity concentrations of 7.7, 85.5, and 3.3 mBq/L for 238U, 40K and 232Th, respectively. The annual effective dose calculated for the lake varied from 0.244 to 1.121 μSv with an average of 0.763 μSv and that calculated for the boreholes varied from 0.296 to 2.173 μSv with an average of 1.166 μSv. The radionuclides concentrations in water from the bore-holes and that of the lake, which serve as sources of water supply to the surrounding communities are negligible and pose no radiological hazards to the public.

  7. Origin of Natural Gas in Kekeya Field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dujie; Xiao Zhongyao; Tang Youjun; Zhu Junzhang; Li Xianqing

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly concentrated on the geochemical characteristics and origin of gas of Kekeya field in the Tarim basin, NW China. This study shows that Permian mudstone is the main source rock of oil and gas. Based on the carbon isotopes of C1-C4, the carbon isotope of gas in Kekeya field is a little heavier than that in the typical marine-derived gas. The relationship between carbon isotopes of methane and ethane is coincident with Faber equation of gas derived from organic matter Ⅰ/Ⅱ. The majority of gas maturity is estimated, based on the formula, at 1.8 %-2.2 % besides K2 and K18 wells. In addition, the gas derived from 0.9 %-1.2 % Ro source rocks may also be mixture. 40Ar/36Ar and 3He/4He ratios from the gas samples also support the mixing process. Moreover, the gas in this region is mainly generated from more mature source rocks although the low mature gas exists.

  8. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synt

  9. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as fragran

  10. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja;

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  11. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  12. Computational approaches to natural product discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Fischbach, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the earliest Streptomyces genome sequences, the promise of natural product genome mining has been captivating: genomics and bioinformatics would transform compound discovery from an ad hoc pursuit to a high-throughput endeavor. Until recently, however, genome mining has advanced natura

  13. The harmony between the natural and anthropogenic environments within the natural parks. Case study- The Viseu river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SIMA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By definition a natural park is a protected area designed to protect and conserve the natural environment in which the interaction between human activities and nature createda unique area, of significant environmental and cultural value and with great biodiversity.The main purpose of these natural parks is to maintain the harmony between humans and nature by protecting the biological diversity of the habitats and the environment. In recent years both the natural and anthropic areas of the Vişeu Basin have been greatly damaged by extreme hydric phenomenon caused by the chaotic deforestation of the area, increased precipitation, high pluvio-nival regime and the accentuated asymmetry of the basin itself. By developing certain hydrographical installations and conserving the protected areas a balance can be reached between the natural harmony and the strict necessities of the anthropic habitats. The first priority of this developing is theenvironmental legislation and biodiversity protection.

  14. Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M. (El Paso Production Company, Houston, TX); Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F. (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM); Knight, Connie D. (Consulting Geologist, Golden, CO); Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt (Devon Energy Corporation, Oklahoma City, OK); Holm, Gus (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Engler, Thomas W. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Lorenz, John Clay

    2004-10-01

    Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

  15. Automated genome mining for natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajkowski James

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new medicinal agents from natural sources has largely been an adventitious process based on screening of plant and microbial extracts combined with bioassay-guided identification and natural product structure elucidation. Increasingly rapid and more cost-effective genome sequencing technologies coupled with advanced computational power have converged to transform this trend toward a more rational and predictive pursuit. Results We have developed a rapid method of scanning genome sequences for multiple polyketide, nonribosomal peptide, and mixed combination natural products with output in a text format that can be readily converted to two and three dimensional structures using conventional software. Our open-source and web-based program can assemble various small molecules composed of twenty standard amino acids and twenty two other chain-elongation intermediates used in nonribosomal peptide systems, and four acyl-CoA extender units incorporated into polyketides by reading a hidden Markov model of DNA. This process evaluates and selects the substrate specificities along the assembly line of nonribosomal synthetases and modular polyketide synthases. Conclusion Using this approach we have predicted the structures of natural products from a diverse range of bacteria based on a limited number of signature sequences. In accelerating direct DNA to metabolomic analysis, this method bridges the interface between chemists and biologists and enables rapid scanning for compounds with potential therapeutic value.

  16. Natural product as potential of radioprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Hosseinimehr, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSince exposure to irradiation in radiotherapy or unwanted radiation, induces side effects to health, it is important to makear effort to protect humans against side effects induced by irradiation. In these cases, radioprotective drugs could be used to reduce or delay the side effects and the mortality induced by irradiation. Although, thiol compounds were early compounds in these categories, administration of these agents have induced serious side effects and is limited to use clinically. The search for less-toxic radiation protectors has spurred interest in the development of natural products. Natural products have mainly antioxidant and immunostimulant activity. Cytokines and androsetendiol have immunomudulatory effects in the prevention of mortality induced by gamma irradiation in animal model. Many studies have showed herbal medicine has good radioprotective effects. Flavonoids are one of the main chemical compositions in herbal medicine with antioxidant activity. Although, these natural products had low efficacy in comparison to thiol compounds, they have low toxicity. This review focused on recent radioprotective agents with natural origin that have more potential effects.

  17. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  18. Applications of Natural Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Defects in Quartz to Exploration in Sedimentary Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Y M; Botis S; Nokhrin S

    2006-01-01

    Quartz grains in contact with uranium-bearing minerals or fluids are characterized by natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects (e. G. , oxygen vacancy centers, silicon vacancy centers, and peroxy radicals), which are amenable to study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.These natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects, except for the oxygen vacancy centers, in quartz are concentrated in narrow bands penetrated by α particles: (1) in halos around U- and Th-bearing mineral inclusions and (2) in outer rims or along fractures. The second type of occurrence provides information about uranium mineralization or remobilization (I. E. , sources of uranium, timing of mineralization or remobilization, pathways of uranium-bearing fluids). It can also be used to evaluate sedimentary basins for potential of uranium mineralization. In particular, the peroxy radicals are stable up to 800℃and, therefore, are useful for evaluating metasedimentary rocks (e. G. , Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences in the central zone of the North China craton). EPR study of the Changcheng Series can focus on quartz from the sediment-basement unconformity and faults to determine the presence and types of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects, with which to identify and prioritize uranium anomalies. Other potential applications of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in quartz include uranium-bearing hydrocarbon deposits in sedimentary basins. For example, the Junggar, Ordos, and Tarim basins in northwestern China all contain important oil and natural gas fields and are well known for elevated uranium concentrations, including economic sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. Therefore,systematic studies on the distribution of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in quartz from host sedimentary sequences are expected to provide information about the migration of oil and natural gas in those basins.

  19. Organic matter production and preservation in the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) and Pliensbachian climatic hot snaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo L.; Duarte, Luís V.

    2015-08-01

    The Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) hemipelagic carbonate series of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) are of major importance as this basin is located at a key position between the Tethyan and Boreal (North European) realms. One of the most conspicuous features of this basin is the organic-rich nature of most of the Margaritatus Chronozone hemipelagic deposits, with the occurrence of several well-defined regional black shales. The analysis of selected redox sensitive elements (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo, and U) from the worldwide reference section of Peniche indicates that in this basin most of the organic-rich facies of the Ibex-Margaritatus chronozones were deposited under an oxic-dysoxic regime, while the rare centimetre thick well-defined black shales were deposited and preserved under suboxic-anoxic, intermittently euxinic conditions. Based on the integration of sedimentological, biostratigraphical, geochemical, and organic petrographic evidence we suggest that these basinwide black shales, corresponding to widespread mucilage and microbial outbreaks, were driven by extreme climate warming coupled with high oceanic productivity and intermittently stratified epeiric seas. Regionally, these "hot snaps" may have promoted the observed rapid but short-lived expansion of Tethyan ammonites into Boreal domains or led to decrease benthic diversity. Ensuing cooling during the Margaritatus Chronozone was accompanied by southwards influx of northwards ammonite fauna or radiation of cyst forming dinoflagellates. Worldwide preservation of organic matter during the Late Pliensbachian seems to have resulted in decreased atmospheric CO2 levels through geological storage of carbon, triggering and/or amplifying the Spinatum Chronozone icehouse event. Ultimately, this cooling event may have led to the occurrence of permafrost and/or methane gas hydrates in locations easily disturbed by the subsequent Early Toarcian warming, or/and volcanic activity driven by crustal unloading due to

  20. In silico Design of "Un-Natural" Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucko; J. ...(et al.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides represent a large class of structurally diverse natural products much studied over recent years because the enzymes that synthesise them, the modular polyketide synthases (PKSs and the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs, share striking architectural similarities that can be exploited to generate "un-natural" natural products. PKS and NRPS proteins are multifunctional, composed of a co-linear arrangement of discrete protein domains representing each enzymic activity needed for chain elongation using either carboxylic acid or amino acid building blocks. Each domain is housed within larger modules which form the complex. Polyketide and peptide antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, cytostatics, immunosuppressants, antihypertensives, antidiabetics, antimalarials and anticholesterolemics are in clinical use. Of commercial importance are also polyketide and peptide antiparasitics, coccidiostatics,animal growth promoters and natural insecticides.Polyketides are assembled through serial condensations of activated coenzyme-A thioester monomers derived from simple organic acids such as acetate, propionate and butyrate. The choice of organic acid allows the introduction of different chiral centres into the polyketide backbone. The active sites required for condensation include an acyltransferase (AT, an acyl carrier protein (ACP and a ß-ketoacylsynthase (KS. Each condensation results in a ß-keto group that undergoes all, some or none of a series of processing steps. Active sites that perform these reactions are contained within the following domains; ketoreductase (KR, dehydratase (DH and an enoylreductase (ER. The absence of any ß-keto processing results in the incorporation of a ketone group into the growing polyketide chain, a KR alone gives rise to a hydroxyl moiety, a KR and DH produce an alkene, while the combination of KR, DH and ER domains lead to complete reduction to an alkane. Most often, the last

  1. Characteristics of helium isotopes in natural gas and its tectonic implication in Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Weiwei; DAI Jinxin; YANG Shufeng; CHEN Hanlin

    2006-01-01

    Analysis on helium isotopes in natural gas in Bohai Bay Basin showed their mantle-origin indicated by high 3He/4He ratio. The span of 3He/4He ratio increased from west to east. This pattern implied a close relationship to the local tectonic setting. Bohai Bay Basin experienced intensive neo-tectonic activities in the Cenozoic. Widespread faulted-depressions and strong volcanic eruptions manifested its extensional tectonics. Abiogenic natural gas could be released from magmas and migrate upward through deep faults during the extension. Tectonic conditions in the area would favor upward invasion and reservation of mantle-originated helium. Furthermore, with decrease of convergence rate between the Pacific and the Eurasia Plate, the subduction slab of the Pacific Plate rolled back and became steeper, resulting in mantle flow and other tectonic activities migrating from west to east in nature, and caused the variation in isotopic helium ratios.

  2. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  3. (+-Discodermolide: A Marine Natural Product Against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Viníus Nora De Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available (+-Discodermolide was isolated in 1990 by Gunasekera et al. from the deep-water Caribbean sponge Discodermia dissoluta. It attacks cancer cells in a similar way to the successful cancer drug Taxol® that has become the best-selling anticancer drug in history. Taxol is also the first natural product described that stabilizes the microtubules involved in many aspects of cellular biology and that represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. However, (+-discodermolide appears to be far more potent than Taxol® against tumors that have developed multiple-drug resistance, with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range. Due to these excellent results, this natural product was licensed to Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation in early 1998. The present review covers the history, biological activity, total synthesis, and synthetic analogs of (+-discodermolide.

  4. (+)-discodermolide: a marine natural product against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Marcus Vinícius Nora

    2004-06-11

    (+)-discodermolide was isolated in 1990 by Gunasekera et al. from the deep-water Caribbean sponge Discodermia dissoluta. It attacks cancer cells in a similar way to the successful cancer drug Taxol that has become the best-selling anticancer drug in history. Taxol is also the first natural product described that stabilizes the microtubules involved in many aspects of cellular biology and that represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. However, (+)-discodermolide appears to be far more potent than Taxol against tumors that have developed multiple-drug resistance, with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range. Due to these excellent results, this natural product was licensed to Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation in early 1998. The present review covers the history, biological activity, total synthesis, and synthetic analogs of (+)-discodermolide.

  5. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  6. Mass spectrometry in natural product chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, E; Hill, H C; Reed, R I

    1966-01-01

    Some mass spectrometric techniques are described which seem applicable to investigating problems in natural product chemistry. One example is of a sample of 5 mcg of a compound being identified by comparison with an authentic sample of prostaglandin derivative. Compared were mass, ion content, and structure. In the prostaglandin/unknown substance comparison, high-resolution mass spectrometry resolved a quandary: apparent additional ions present in the unknown substance were shown to be an impurity. PMID:12262324

  7. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  8. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering. PMID:27313083

  9. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  10. Countercurrent Separation of Natural Products: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, J. Brent; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the current instrumentation, method development, and applications in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), collectively referred to as countercurrent separation (CCS). The article provides a critical review of the CCS literature from 2007 since our last review (J. Nat. Prod. 2008, 71, 1489–1508), with a special emphasis on the applications of CCS in natural products research. The current state of CCS is reviewed in regard to thr...

  11. Chitin elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    on glucose-based medium. The different phenotypic responses to a natural growth substrate may reflect different niche-adaptations or ecological functions of the compounds produced and it represents a fruitful approach for elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria.......Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria.1 Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far...... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. As part of a new project on ecology-driven drug discovery at the Technical University of Denmark, we investigate the use of chitin to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria. Within our large collection of Gram...

  12. Comparison of the Surface and Underground Natural Gas Occurrences in the Tazhong Uplift of the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jun; CHEN Junqing; JIAO Jiao; PANG Xiongqi

    2010-01-01

    The oil,gas and water volumes revealed by the productivity of exploratory wells do not reflect the actual underground situations.Under the geologic conditions,a certain amount of dissolved natural gas is stored in oil or water.Based on the production test data of exploratory wells in the Tazhong uplift of the Tarim basin,this paper discusses in detail the differences in occurrence and distribution featrues between the surface and underground natural gases;presents a restoration of the surface gas occurrence to actual underground geologic conditions according to the dissolubility of natural gas under different temperature,pressure and medium conditions;and classifies the natural gas into three states,i.e.the oversaturated,saturated and undersaturated,according to its relative content underground.Through a comparative analysis of the differences in surface and underground occurrences of natural gas,it discusses the hydrocarbon reservoir formation mechanism and distribution rules,thereby providing guidances as new methods and technologies for the prediction of potential natural gas reservoir distribution in the study area.

  13. Natural and Heterologous Production of Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, and their use as natural and nontoxic food preservatives has been the source of considerable interest for the research community. In addition, bacteriocins have been investigated for their potential use in human and veterinary applications and in the animal production field. In the native bacterial strain, most bacteriocins are synthesized as biologically inactive precursors, with N-terminal extensions, that are cleaved concomitantly during export of the bacteriocin by dedicated ABC transporters, or the general secretory pathway (GSP) or Sec-dependent pathway. However, a few bacteriocins are synthesized without an N-terminal extension, and others are circularized through a head-to-tail peptide bond, complicating the elucidation of their processing and transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. The high cost of synthetic bacteriocin synthesis and their low yields from many natural producers recommends the exploration of recombinant microbial systems for the heterologous production of bacteriocins. Other advantages of such systems include production of bacteriocins in safer hosts, increased bacteriocin production, control of bacteriocin gene expression, production of food ingredients with antimicrobial activity, construction of multibacteriocinogenic strains with a wider antagonistic spectrum, a better adaptation of the selected hosts to food environments, and providing antagonistic properties to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starter, protective, or probiotic cultures. The recombinant production of bacteriocins mostly relies on the use of expression vectors that replicate in Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts, whereas the production of bacteriocins in heterologous LAB hosts may be essentially based on the expression of native biosynthetic genes, by exchanging or replacing leader peptides and/or dedicated processing and secretion systems (ABC transporters

  14. Physical variables, nutrient status and primary productivity of Kyoga Basin lakes of Lemwa, Omunuo, Gawa, Adois and Owapet

    OpenAIRE

    Ochieng, H.; Ochaya, H.; Anguzu, A.; Magezi, G.

    2007-01-01

    The review report on Kyoga basin lakes (NAFIRRI 2007) described Kyoga basin lakes as important natural resource for the communities within the basin and the surrounding areas. Fisheries of the basin provide a source of protein, income, and employment to generally poor communities in the area. The lakes also generate revenue to the local Governments within the catchment. This indicates that the fisheries of Kyoga basin lakes are a key instrument in poverty eradication and food security. The la...

  15. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  16. An Improved Synthesis of the Natural Product Isorhapontigenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed an alternative route to synthesize the natural product, isorhapotogenin . The synthetic product was characterized by IR and 1H-NMR in comparison with the corresponding natural product.

  17. Integrating geophysics and geochemistry to evaluate coalbed natural gas produced water disposal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Brian Andrew

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coalbeds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. More than 4.1 billion barrels of water have been produced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) since 1997. Infiltration impoundments, which are the principal method used to dispose CBNG water, contribute to the recharge of underlying aquifers. Airborne electromagnetic surveys of an alluvial aquifer that has been receiving CBNG water effluent through infiltration impoundments since 2001 reveal produced water plumes within these aquifers and also provide insight into geomorphologic controls on resultant salinity levels. Geochemical data from the same aquifer reveal that CBNG water enriched in sodium and bicarbonate infiltrates and mixes with sodium-calcium-sulfate type alluvial groundwater, which subsequently may have migrated into the Powder River. The highly sodic produced water undergoes cation exchange reactions with native alluvial sediments as it infiltrates, exchanging sodium from solution for calcium and magnesium on montmorillonite clays. The reaction may ultimately reduce sediment permeability by clay dispersion. Strontium isotope data from CBNG wells discharging water into these impoundments indicate that the Anderson coalbed of the Fort Union Formation is dewatered due to production. Geophysical methods provide a broad-scale tool to monitor CBNG water disposal especially in areas where field based investigations are logistically prohibitive, but geochemical data are needed to reveal subsurface processes undetectable by geophysical techniques. The results of this research show that: (1) CBNG impoundments should not be located near streams because they can alter the surrounding hydraulic potential field forcing saline alluvial groundwater and eventually CBNG water into the stream, (2) point bars are poor impoundment locations because they are essentially in direct hydraulic communication with the associated stream and because plants

  18. Phylogenetic approaches to natural product structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemert, Nadine; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms. Molecular phylogenetics uses sequence data to infer these relationships for both organisms and the genes they maintain. With the large amount of publicly available sequence data, phylogenetic inference has become increasingly important in all fields of biology. In the case of natural product research, phylogenetic relationships are proving to be highly informative in terms of delineating the architecture and function of the genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases provide model examples in which individual domain phylogenies display different predictive capacities, resolving features ranging from substrate specificity to structural motifs associated with the final metabolic product. This chapter provides examples in which phylogeny has proven effective in terms of predicting functional or structural aspects of secondary metabolism. The basics of how to build a reliable phylogenetic tree are explained along with information about programs and tools that can be used for this purpose. Furthermore, it introduces the Natural Product Domain Seeker, a recently developed Web tool that employs phylogenetic logic to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains based on established enzyme architecture and biochemical function.

  19. Anti-infective Natural Products from Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are a promising yet underexplored source for novel natural products with potent biological activities. While predominantly cytotoxic compounds have been isolated from cyanobacteria in the past, there are also a significant number of compounds known that possess anti-infective activities. As the need for novel anti-infective lead compounds is high, this manuscript aims at giving a concise overview on the current knowledge about anti-infective secondary metabolites isolated from cyanobacteria. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, and molluscicidal activities are discussed. Covering up to February 2015.

  20. Natural Gas Resource in Jurassic, Y Faulted Subbasin of Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haibo; Hu Yutao; Wei Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    Y faulted depression is located in the southeast of Songliao basin, which is another important area explored for natural gas in deep Formation after Xujiaweizi. But it is lowly explored and is not likely to make a major breakthrough in nature gas exploration for shallow and medium layers. The data on the geochemistry and geology indicate that the deep source rocks, especially the Jurassic mudstone bas great potentials of natural gas generation. Based on this, the paper examines the conditions of natural gas generation and further points out the favorable prospective gas - bearing area. The results show that the amount of natural gas generated from the Jurassic mudstone in the Y faulted depression is 8.42 × 1012m3 and the favorable gas - generating area is the body of the faulted depression.

  1. Geochemical Signature of Natural Water Recharge in the Jungar Basin and Its Response to Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yu, Jingjie; Rioual, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the physico-chemical characteristics of natural waters in a drainage system of the Jungar Basin, northwestern China to identify chemical evolution and recharge mechanisms of natural waters in an arid environment. The waters studied are different in mineralization, but are typically carbonate rivers and alkaline in nature. No Cl-dominated water type occurs, indicating an early stage of water evolution. Regolith and geomorphological parameters controlling ground-surface temperature may play a large role in the geological evolution of the water. Three main morphological and hydrological units are reflected in water physico-chemistry. Climate influences the salinization of natural waters substantially. Direct recharge from seasonal snow and ice-melt water and infiltration of rain to the ground are significant recharge processes for natural waters, but recharge from potential deep groundwater may be less important. The enrichment of ions in lakes has been mainly caused by evaporation rather than through the quality change of the recharged water.

  2. Natural products as radiation response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Protection of cells and organisms against low doses of radiation is a complex issue which must be considered at the level of cells, tissues and organisms. 'Protection' at one level, for example, prevention of cell death, may be adverse at another level, if it allows a damaged cell to survive and form a malignant tumour. Conversely, death of a cell carrying damage can be protective for the organism if it eliminates a damaged cell. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in protection against radiation damage at several hierarchical levels. The use of natural products as radiation response modifiers is very attractive. Many of these compounds are readily available and their function and pharmacology is well understood. Some derive from venoms or natural defenses and are currently used in medicine, others include vitamins, antioxidants or cofactors, which are tried and tested nutritional supplements. Radiation effects may be targeted or untargeted. Radiation may interact directly within a cell causing a direct DNA lesion or it may elicit a bystander response from the irradiated cell. A bystander effect is produced when the irradiated cell apparently exhibits no damage from the radiation, but passes on a biochemical signal which induces neighbouring cells to apoptose or undergo a number of other responses usually associated with irradiation such as mutation induction, transformation, induction of ROS responses etc.. Effects induced in progeny of non-targeted cells in receipt of bystander signals include genetic instability, mini and microsatellite mutations and carcinogenesis. A key characteristic of these non targeted effects is that they occur at very low acute doses (of the order of 5mGy) and saturate so that effective prevention requires an agent which can effectively shut off the mechanism. While the mechanism is not fully known, it is thought to involve signals from irradiated cells communicating via

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  4. Feasibility of high-helium natural gas exploration in the Presinian strata, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helium in China highly depends on import at present, so the most practical way to change the situation is searching for medium-to-large natural gas fields with high helium content. Therefore, the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism and the helium origin of the Weiyuan high-helium natural gas reservoir have been analyzed to find out the feasibility of finding natural gas field with high helium content in the Presinian strata of the Sichuan Basin. Based on twelve outcrop sections and drilling data of four wells encountering the Presinian strata, the petrological features, sedimentary facies and source rocks of Presinian strata were systematically analyzed, which shows that the sedimentary formation developed in the Presinian is the Nanhua system, and the stratigraphic sequence revealed by outcrop section in the eastern margin includes the Nantuo, Datangpo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms, and it is inferred that the same stratigraphic sequence may occur inside the basin. The Nantuo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms are mainly glacial deposits of glutenite interbedded with mudstone; the Datangpo Fm is interglacial deposits of sandstone and shale, the lower part shale, rich in organic matter, is fairly good source rock. Further study showed that the Nantuo coarse-grained clastic reservoir, Datangpo source rock and the intruded granite “helium source rock” make up a good high-helium gas system. Controlled by the early rift, the thick Presinian sedimentary rocks occur primarily inside the rift. The distribution of sedimentary rocks and granite in the basin was predicted by use of the seismic data, which shows that the feasibility of finding high-helium gas reservoirs in Ziyang area of the Sichuan Basin is great.

  5. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences.

  6. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  7. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  8. Consumers of natural health products: natural-born pharmacovigilantes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Zubin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural health products (NHPs, such as herbal medicines and vitamins, are widely available over-the-counter and are often purchased by consumers without advice from a healthcare provider. This study examined how consumers respond when they believe they have experienced NHP-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs in order to determine how to improve current safety monitoring strategies. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve consumers who had experienced a self-identified NHP-related ADR. Key emergent themes were identified and coded using content analysis techniques. Results Consumers were generally not comfortable enough with their conventional health care providers to discuss their NHP-related ADRs. Consumers reported being more comfortable discussing NHP-related ADRs with personnel from health food stores, friends or family with whom they had developed trusted relationships. No one reported their suspected ADR to Health Canada and most did not know this was possible. Conclusion Consumers generally did not report their suspected NHP-related ADRs to healthcare providers or to Health Canada. Passive reporting systems for collecting information on NHP-related ADRs cannot be effective if consumers who experience NHP-related ADRs do not report their experiences. Healthcare providers, health food store personnel, manufacturers and other stakeholders also need to take responsibility for reporting ADRs in order to improve current pharmacovigilance of NHPs.

  9. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  10. Stochastic model for simulating Souris River Basin precipitation, evapotranspiration, and natural streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolars, Kelsey A.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Ryberg, Karen R.

    2016-02-24

    The Souris River Basin is a 61,000-square-kilometer basin in the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the State of North Dakota. In May and June of 2011, record-setting rains were seen in the headwater areas of the basin. Emergency spillways of major reservoirs were discharging at full or nearly full capacity, and extensive flooding was seen in numerous downstream communities. To determine the probability of future extreme floods and droughts, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission, developed a stochastic model for simulating Souris River Basin precipitation, evapotranspiration, and natural (unregulated) streamflow. Simulations from the model can be used in future studies to simulate regulated streamflow, design levees, and other structures; and to complete economic cost/benefit analyses.Long-term climatic variability was analyzed using tree-ring chronologies to hindcast precipitation to the early 1700s and compare recent wet and dry conditions to earlier extreme conditions. The extended precipitation record was consistent with findings from the Devils Lake and Red River of the North Basins (southeast of the Souris River Basin), supporting the idea that regional climatic patterns for many centuries have consisted of alternating wet and dry climate states.A stochastic climate simulation model for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration for the Souris River Basin was developed using recorded meteorological data and extended precipitation records provided through tree-ring analysis. A significant climate transition was seen around1970, with 1912–69 representing a dry climate state and 1970–2011 representing a wet climate state. Although there were some distinct subpatterns within the basin, the predominant differences between the two states were higher spring through early fall precipitation and higher spring potential evapotranspiration for the wet compared to the dry state.A water

  11. Two accumulation modes of marine-origin natural gas in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hetianhe gas field, Lungudong gas field and Tazhong gas field are marine marine-origin natural gas reservoirs in the craton area in the Tarim Basin. The natural gas is generated from Cambrian source rocks. The simulation experiment indicated that the cracking of the dispersedly dissoluble organic matter remaining in the source rocks is the main origin of marine natural gas. There are two modes to form gas reservoirs, one is the dry gas reservoir such as Hetianhe gas field, in which gas accumulated on the fault belt with violent tectonic movement, the other is condensate gas reservoir formed on the inheriting uplift such as Lunnan and Tazhong gas fields. The hybrid simulation experiment of cracking gas and crude oil indicated that crude oil accumulated on a large scale in those uplift belts at the early stage, and natural gas filled the ancient oil reservoir at the late stage, and the gas reservoirs were formed after the gas mixed with the crude oil.

  12. Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Bunn, Paul (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-12-01

    This report covers the following 3 parts of the Project: Part 1--Monitoring age composition of wild adult spring and summer Chinook salmon returning to the Snake River basin in 2003 to predict smolt-to-adult return rates Part 2--Development of a stock-recruitment relationship for Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon to forecast natural smolt production Part 3--Improve the precision of smolt-to-adult survival rate estimates for wild steelhead trout by PIT tagging additional juveniles.

  13. Application of Fluid Inclusions in the Study of Natural Gas Geology in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ai-ping; YANG Ren-chao; FENG Qiao; LIU Yi-qun; HAN Zuo-zhen

    2006-01-01

    The new recently demonstrated reserves of oil and gas in the Ordos basin are found at the top of petroliferous basins in China. Gas pools discovered in recent years in the Permian system have become the main natural gas resource in the basin. Therefore, synthetic research on fluid inclusions should be done in order to ascertain the pool-forming stage, the maturity of organic matters and the properties of Paleo-fluids. The main types of fluid inclusions in the Permian system in the basin include brine inclusions, carbon dioxide inclusions and organic inclusions. Homogenization temperatures (HT) of brine inclusions can be divided into four intervals: 66-83 ℃, 86-108 ℃, 112-138 ℃ and 142-153 ℃. The fluid inclusions in the interval of 112-138 ℃ are much more than that of other intervals, indicating that the second stage of hydrocarbon migration associated with the third temperature interval is the most important stage of gas pool formations. The fluid inclusion has extensive applications in the study of gas geology, not only in ascertaining the formation stage of gas pools, but also in estimating the maturity of organic matter and restoring Paleo-fluids. The result of testing the HT of brine inclusions shows that there are two stages of gas pool formations in the Permian system occurring ±150 Ma and ±100 Ma. The maturity of organic matter is moderate to high, a conclusion based on the color of fluid inclusions (radiated by fluorescence). The high salinity of Paleo-fluids of the NaCl-H2O and CaCl2-H2O systems shows good preservation conditions of the Paleo-fluids. Two stages of reservoir filling, high maturity of organic matter and good preservation conditions are factors favorable for the formation and preservation of large-scale gas pools in the Permian system in the Ordos basin.

  14. Assessment of anthropogenic vegetation productivity decline in the Volta basin from 1982 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlek, Quang Bao Le, Lulseged Tamene, Paul L. G.

    2009-04-01

    Primary productivity decline is causing loss of ecosystem services which in turn influences not only the water cycle, but also the livelihoods of millions of inhabitants worldwide. Climate change or other natural events may be responsible for land degradation, but the phenomenon is mainly due to human actions. Therefore, it would be important to identify those areas in which the pressure on land needs to be alleviated. In this study, we conducted a step-wise analysis using a series of databases to identify the extent of land under anthropogenic threats. We processed time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) products for the period 1982 - 2003 to analyse long-term trends in biomass productivity changes over the Volta basin. To distinguish human-induced biomass trends from climate-driven vegetation dynamics, we excluded those areas that had shown a strong biomass response to inter-annual rainfall variation. Pixels with NDVI changes in accordance with rainfall (positive correlation) were considered due to climate change or variation. Pixels not affected by rainfall (no or negative correlation) are those where green biomass change could be interpreted to reflect areas with strictly human induced land degradation. Spatial data of soil constraints, land-use/cover and population density within the study period were used to interpret possible underlying factors of land productivity decline. The results of the study show that about 31 thousands km2 (8% of the basin land mass), which is the living space of over 1.3 million people, was land that is losing its ability to produce green biomass due to human actions. The degradation areas for the various land cover types are 12.2 thousands km2 for woodland, 8.3 thousands km2 for agriculture, 7.3 thousands km2 for shrubland, and 1.6 thousands km2 for evergreen forest. The relatively low population density in the degraded areas (averagely 43 pers.km-2) would suggest that these are marginal areas with limited

  15. The automation of natural product structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, C

    2001-05-01

    The last two or three years have seen exciting developments in the field of computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) with a number of programs becoming commercially or freely available. This was the conditio sine qua non for CASE to be widely applied in the daily work of bench chemists and spectroscopists. A number of promising applications have been published in the area of structure generators, deterministic and stochastic CASE tools and property predictions, including the automatic distinction between natural products and artificial compounds, as well as the determination of 3-D structure from a connection table based on IR spectroscopy. Advancements in coupling techniques between chromatographic and spectroscopic methods demonstrate progress towards a fully automated structure elucidation or identification process starting at the earliest steps of obtaining crude extracts.

  16. Synthetic studies toward complex Schisandraceae and zoanthamine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Derek A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural products, or secondary metabolites of plants and animals, have proven invaluable to humanity. We have used them for myriad reasons throughout history, including non- essential purposes such as dyes for textiles and paints. Less trivial uses, such as those related to food and health better demonstrate the importance of natural products. We have made use of toxic natural products to bolster hunting efficiency (e.g. poison tipped darts), and insect pheromones and natural products with an...

  17. Origin of CO2 in natural gas from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation of Northeast Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural gas from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation of Northeast Sichuan Basin contains high H2S whereas relatively low CO2 concentrations and the CO2 display high δ13C values (ranging from -5.81‰ to 3.3‰ (PDB)). This seems to contradict the conventional wisdom that TSR should be a primary source of CO2 in natural gas from the Feixianguan Formation. In contrast, many authigenic calcite samples from these sites display very low δ13C values (ranging from -18.4‰ to -10.3‰ (PDB)). This suggests that the carbon from TSR source dominated the formation of calcite whereas the carbon from inorganic source came into CO2 in natural gas. In order to assess the origin of CO2 from these H2S-rich sites, we have calculated the relative contributions of organic and inorganic carbon sources to the CO2 and authigenic calcite. The organic carbon source possibly originated from TSR, whereas the inorganic one might be generated from marine carbonates dissolution. This calculation is based on the carbon isotopic compositions of CO2 and authigenic calcite as well as an isotopic mass balance. The results show that the contribution of organic carbon source to the CO2 is only 2%, whereas that to authigenic calcite is as high as 43% on average. Such results combined with thermodynamic evidence indicate that the isotopically light CO2 produced by TSR process may contribute to authigenic calcite precipitation during burial diagenesis. Distinguishable from Ordovician reservoir of Tarim Basin, Feixianguan reservoir of Northeast Sichuan Basin experienced rapid tectonic uplift due to Yanshanian movement after TSR occurred. Such tectonic event could induce temperature decrease and further promote carbonates dissolution. During these processes, secondary porosity has developed in Feixianguan carbonate reservoirs. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the structural highs in search of high quality carbonate reservoirs.

  18. Estimating the Agricultural Water Productivity of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xue, Baolin; Yu, Jingshan; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River basin. This research use NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and the relevant crop water productivity values in the Yellow River basin. The validation of the method is performed by comparing the results with the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate cr...

  19. Coal Bed Methane Production in the Münsterland Basin, Germany - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösle, B.; Kukla, P.; Stollhofen, H.; Preuße, A.

    2009-04-01

    Growing demands on energy and high energy prices have lead to a re-evaluation of the coal bed methane (CBM) potential in Germany. For research reasons the Technical University of Aachen is holding a concession area in NW Germany, located in the Münsterland Basin. This concession covers an area of about 3460 km2. The southern part of the concession area involves one of the most developed, densely populated mining districts in Western Europe, the Ruhr Area. The Upper Carboniferous coal measures there are covered by northward thickening Cretaceous strata which not only limits the coal mining activity to the south of the basin but also represents a challenge to CBM production technology. This is currently restricted to a depth of about 1200 m. Mine gas has been successfully produced in the Ruhr Area for decades. With the successive closure of coal mines, gas production rates will decrease and consequently production of CBM will become more important. The Münsterland Basin contains a large portion of known Carboniferous coals in western Germany and the production of mine gas proofs that there is a significant resource of natural gas in place. Estimates of the amount of gas in place are at about 3 Trillion m3 in Germany's mining districts of which 2 Trillion m3 are expected to occur in the Ruhr Area alone. First exploration efforts on CBM were made by a consortium of Ruhrgas AG and Conoco-Phillips Inc. in the 1990s. Because of low production rates, relatively high exploration and production costs, and the low gas prices at that time this project was stopped. The present study investigates the reservoir quality and geometry in order to better estimate the potential gas content for a general economic benefit assessment. The structural inventory of the study area comprises NE-SW trending folds and thrusts which are crossed obliquely by faults. Potential gas accumulations may be found in anticlinal structures paired with thrusts. However, these gas accumulations will add

  20. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fraud Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ...

  1. Measurement of VOCs Using Passive Sorbent Tubes near Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in Colorado and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    A U.S. EPA team, consisting of the Office of Research and Development and Region 6 (Dallas) and Region 8 (Denver), deployed passive-diffusive sorbent tubes as part of a method evaluation study around one oil and natural gas production pad in both the Barnett Shale Basin in Texas ...

  2. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    Natural products are defined as secondary metabolites produced by plants and form a vast pool of compounds with unlimited chemical and functional diversity. Many of these secondary metabolites are high value added chemicals that are frequently used as ingredients in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals...... and other consumer products. Therefore, process technology towards industrial scale production of such high value chemicals from plants has significant value. Natural products can be obtained in pure form via synthetic or semi-synthetic route, but due to their complicated nature these methods have not been...... developed to the extent of industrial production for majority of natural products. Thus, isolation and purification of such natural products from plants is the most viable way to obtain natural products in pure form. This PhD project is mainly concerned with the design of separation process to isolate...

  3. Natural Products That Target Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselhy, Jim; Srinivasan, Sowmyalakshmi; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2015-11-01

    The cancer stem cell model suggests that tumor initiation is governed by a small subset of distinct cells with stem-like character termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs possess properties of self-renewal and intrinsic survival mechanisms that contribute to resistance of tumors to most chemotherapeutic drugs. The failure to eradicate CSCs during the course of therapy is postulated to be the driving force for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Recent studies have focused on understanding the unique phenotypic properties of CSCs from various tumor types, as well as the signaling pathways that underlie self-renewal and drug resistance. Natural products (NPs) such as those derived from botanicals and food sources may modulate vital signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of CSC phenotype. The Wingless/Integrated (WNT), Hedgehog, Notch and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways have all been associated with quiescence and self-renewal of CSCs, as well as execution of CSC function including differentiation, multidrug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies evaluating NPs against CSC support the epidemiological evidence linking plant-based diets with reduced malignancy rates. This review covers the key aspects of NPs as modulators of CSC fate. PMID:26503998

  4. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the global ban of application of organotin-based marine coatings by International Maritime Organization in 2008, there is a practical and urgent need of identifying environmentally friendly low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening efforts. To meet various needs, a variety of bioassay systems have been developed and/or adopted in both research and commercial laboratories. In this chapter, we provide a brief outline of common bioassay procedures for both antimicrofouling and antimacrofouling assays, which can serve as a general guideline for setting up bioassay systems in laboratories engaged in antifouling compound screening. Some bioassay procedures currently practiced in various laboratories are not included in this book chapter for various reasons. Individual laboratories should modify bioassay protocols based on their research interests or needs. Nevertheless, we highly recommend the research laboratories to adapt high-throughput assays as much as possible for preliminary screening assays, followed by more complex bioassay processes using multiple target species. We argue strongly for studies in mode-of-action of antifouling compounds against settling propagules, which shall lead to discovery of molecular biomarkers (genes, proteins, receptors, or receptor system) and will allow us to design more targeted bioassay systems.

  5. Structure and Function of Macroalgal Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M; Schoenrock, Kathryn M; von Salm, Jacqueline L; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J

    2015-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of marine phyco-derived secondary metabolites in the 1950s there has been a rapid increase in the description of new algal natural products. These metabolites have multiple ecological roles as well as commercial value as potential drugs or lead compounds. With the emergence of resistance to our current arsenal of drugs as well as the development of new chemotherapies for currently untreatable diseases, new compounds must be sourced. As outlined in this chapter algae produce a diverse range of chemicals many of which have potential for the treatment of human afflictions.In this chapter we outline the classes of metabolites produced by this chemically rich group of organisms as well as their respective ecological roles in the environment. Algae are found in nearly every environment on earth, with many of these organisms possessing the ability to shape the ecosystem they inhabit. With current challenges to climate stability, understanding how these important organisms interact with their environment as well as one another might afford better insight into how they respond to a changing climate. PMID:26108497

  6. Natural radionuclides concentration in agricultural products and water from the Monte Alegre region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements to determine the content of natural radionuclides were performed in agricultural products in the brazilian Central Amazon Basin Monte Alegre region, for the soil-plant transfer calculation. these measurements were concentrated in the Ingles de Souza agricultural settlement, were several uranium and thorium occurrences exist in geological formations called Monte Alegre and Faro. The values obtained in foodstuff cultivated in the anomalous region are 10 times higher than those ones observed in the Alenquer region, which is the chosen region due to its low level natural radioactivity and its proximity to the anomalous region. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  7. 300-Myr-old magmatic CO2 in natural gas reservoirs of the west Texas Permian basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C J; Schoell, M; Coleman, D; Cain, B A

    2001-01-18

    Except in regions of recent crustal extension, the dominant origin of carbon dioxide in fluids in sedimentary basins has been assumed to be from crustal organic matter or mineral reactions. Here we show, by contrast, that Rayleigh fractionation caused by partial degassing of a magma body can explain the CO2/3He ratios and delta13C(CO2) values observed in CO2-rich natural gases in the west Texas Val Verde basin and also the mantle 3He/22Ne ratios observed in other basin systems. Regional changes in CO2/3He and CO2/CH4 ratios can be explained if the CO2 input pre-dates methane generation in the basin, which occurred about 280 Myr ago. Uplift to the north of the Val Verde basin between 310 and 280 Myr ago appears to be the only tectonic event with appropriate timing and location to be the source of the magmatic CO2. Our identification of magmatic CO2 in a foreland basin indicates that the origin of CO2 in other mid-continent basin systems should be re-evaluated. Also, the inferred closed-system preservation of natural gas in a trapping structure for approximately 300 Myr is far longer than the residence time predicted by diffusion models. PMID:11201738

  8. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF RIVER NEAJLOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Doinea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with acute problems of pollution sources and the pressures that these put on the natural environment ina traditionally degraded area due to the development of polluting industries and agricultural activities that operate withoverused and outdated equipment.The case study presents an overview of the hydrographic river basin Neajlov by describing its characteristics and anassessment of the consequences caused by intensive development of agriculture and the industry of oil extraction andprocessing on the structure and function of ecological systems in the basin.The grave pollution of the Dambovnic, a tributary river to Neajlov river, is emphasized as a consequence of thedischarge of wastewater containing high concentrations of pollutants created by the industry of the area, but alsoproduced by accidental pollution. This greatly impacts the ecological status of the water system Dâmbovnic.This paper is a first evaluation in finding solutions for the environmental damage created in the past, to ensuresustainable use of natural resources in the future.

  9. Measurement of natural radioactivity in soil from Peshawar basin of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity in the environment may change with time due to human activities, chemical and biological changes. From the view of radiation risk to population, the knowledge of natural radioactivity levels and the measurement of collective radiation dose received by the population is very vital. Radiological constraints on soil of thickly populated Peshawar basin in northern Pakistan were assessed through radiometric assay. Soil samples collected from different locations of four districts of this basin were analysed using an HPGe gamma spectrometer. Activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in these samples was 648 ± 121 (421-996), 45 ± 7 (32-60) and 59 ± 7 (46-72) Bq kg-1, respectively that followed lognormal distribution. The average concentrations of primordial radionuclides were found to be higher than that reported for the worldwide soil. Radium equivalent activity and gamma index derived from these activity concentrations were lesser than their respective limits. The average absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose for both indoor and outdoor cases were found to be higher than the values given in the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The results of the present study were compared with those for other locations of Pakistan along with that for the world. The radiological impact of the measured data was evaluated using hazard assessment models. A thoughtful discussion of the above mentioned evaluation is also given. (author)

  10. Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity and Comparative Genomics of the Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Elke; Gugger, Muriel; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a prolific source of natural products with intricate chemical structures and potent biological activities. The bulk of these natural products are known from just a handful of genera. Recent efforts have elucidated the mechanisms underpinning the biosynthesis of a diverse array of natural products from cyanobacteria. Many of the biosynthetic mechanisms are unique to cyanobacteria or rarely described from other organisms. Advances in genome sequence technology have precipitated a deluge of genome sequences for cyanobacteria. This makes it possible to link known natural products to biosynthetic gene clusters but also accelerates the discovery of new natural products through genome mining. These studies demonstrate that cyanobacteria encode a huge variety of cryptic gene clusters for the production of natural products, and the known chemical diversity is likely to be just a fraction of the true biosynthetic capabilities of this fascinating and ancient group of organisms.

  11. Pharmaceuticals from natural products: current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER R. SEIDL

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of products extracted from plants for medicinal purposes can be traced to the beginnings of civilization and up until the end of the nineteenth century natural products were the principal source of medicines. Since then their relative importance has oscillated according to the strategies of large pharmaceutical companies. Now that these strategies are changing, there are new opportunities for countries like Brazil, in which a large proportion of the world's biodiversity is located. There are, however, new circumstances that must be taken into consideration: material must be collected by groups which are formally authorized to do so and under the conditions of the Convention of Biological Diversity, the discovery process is being successively outsourced to smaller specialized firms and there is a growing integration with producers of cosmetics and phytomedicines.O uso de produtos extraídos de plantas para fins medicinais pode ser tracejado aos inícios da civilização e até o fim do século XIX, os produtos naturais constituíram a principal fonte de medicamentos. Desde então, a importância relativa dos produtos naturais tem oscilado de acordo com as estratégias de grandes companhias farmacêuticas. Agora que estas estratégias vêm mudando, há novas oportunidades para países como o Brasil, no qual está localizada uma vasta proporção da biodiversidade mundial. Há, entretanto, novas circunstâncias que devem ser levadas em consideração: o material deve ser coletado por grupos que estão formalmente autorizados para tal, com a coleta sendo feita sob as condições da Convenção de Diversidade Biológica, o processo de descoberta está sendo sucessivamente terceirizado no sentido de firmas especializadas menores e há uma integração crescente como produtores de cosméticos e fitomedicamentos.

  12. Computational methods in natural product chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular mechanics and density functional theory methods have been applied on variety of natural products for the structural characterization especially for the determination of absolute configuration (AC). First, time dependent density functional theory using three density functionals (B3PW91 , PBE0 , B3LYP) and three basis sets [TZVP, SVP, 6-31G (d)] were applied on the four possible configurations [(R,R), (R,S), (S,R), (S,S)] of loliolides to predict the chiroptic properties. Based on the result of these studies B3PW91/TZVP was selected for the successful assignment of AC of 10 eremophilane sesquiterpenes from Petasites hybridus by comparison of experimental and calculated circular dichroism spectra. An important result of these investigation was the observation of a concentration dependence of both CD and NMR spectra of certain derivatives which indicates that simply relying on the experimental determination of the CD spectra at a single concentration could be misleading. B3PW91/TZVP was also successfully applied on 14 derivatives of 4-methyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one to determine the AC as R and [B3LYP/6-31G(d)] was used to calculate interconversion barriers between conformation of benzodiazepins. A comparison of Auto-, DHPLcy2k and DCXplorer calculated thermodynamic data generated by DHPLC with theoretically calculated data was also performed for four axially chiral biscarbostyrils. For cpd2 both programs delivered similar values of 90 and 93 kJ/mol which are in good agreement with the calculated [B3LYP/6-31G (d)] value, G = 99 kJ/mol. (author)

  13. The HC generative subsystems of productive Mexican basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holguin, Noel; Galindo, Federico; Serrano, Emrique; Romero, Anunziata; Sosa, Alejandro; Martinez, Gustavo; Roman, Rogelio [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    There are six hydrocarbon producing basins in Mexico, these are from north to south: Sabinas, Burgos, Tampico-Misantla, Veracruz, Sureste, and Sierra de Chiapas. Better understanding and greater new insight into the petroleum systems of Mexico have been gained from extensive field research - more than 40,000 samples have been analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and, then the data interpreted; added to the information obtained from chromatography and, to a lesser degree from carbon isotope testing, biological marker and other types of analytical testing - made it possible not only to characterize the source rocks, but also determine with a high degree of exactness the origins of many of the hydrocarbons HC in Mexico, and also allowed a better understanding of the petroleum systems in Mexico. (author). 2 refs

  14. Division of Gas Accumulation System and Laws Controlling Distribution of Natural Gas in Typical Petroliferous Basins of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Considering the existing problems of the petroleum system, this paper brings forward the concept of natural gas accumulation system and presents the dividing principles. Then detailed statistics on the accumulation factors of the 32 typical natural gas accumulation systems in China and studies on the laws controlling distribution of gas are collected. The research shows that the petroleum accumulation system is the basic unit controlling petroleum generation, migration and accumulation. Generating intensity, generating amount, accumulating efficiency and migration distance plays an important role in the distribution of natural gas. Through analysis on results of resources evaluation, discovered reserves and residual reserves, potential areas in middle-scaled petroliferous basins in China are forecasted in this paper. Ordos, Sichuan, Tarim and Qaidam basins are found out to be the main basins developing and enriching gas accumulation systems.

  15. Ready for a comeback of natural products in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since the late 1990s and the rapid expansion of monoclonal antibodies and synthetic protein kinase inhibitors in oncology, anticancer natural products fell out of fashion with the pharmaceutical industry. But in 2007 with the approval of three new drugs derived from natural products, the emergence of promising antitumor compounds from microorganisms (e.g. alvespimycin, salinosporamide) and the growing importance of new formulations of known natural product-derived drugs (n...

  16. Dearomatization Strategies in the Synthesis of Complex Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Stéphane P.; Porco, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution in the field of the total synthesis of natural products has led to exciting developments over the last decade. Numerous chemo-selective and enantioselective methodologies have emerged from total syntheses, resulting in efficient access to many important natural product targets. This Review highlights recent developments concerning dearomatization, a powerful strategy for the total synthesis of architecturally complex natural products wherein planar, aromatic scaffolds are converted ...

  17. Natural health products and cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Doreen Oneschuk; Jawaid Younus

    2011-01-01

    Complementary therapies, notably natural health products such as herbs and vitamins, are frequently used by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is much controversy as to whether these natural health products should be taken during conventional cancer treatments. Supporters of this practice cite beneficial effects of the antioxidant properties, while opponents are concerned about the potential for natural health product-chemotherapy/radiation related negative in...

  18. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  19. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  20. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM. PMID:26026234

  1. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  2. Natural health products and cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Oneschuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Complementary therapies, notably natural health products such as herbs and vitamins, are frequently used by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is much controversy as to whether these natural health products should be taken during conventional cancer treatments. Supporters of this practice cite beneficial effects of the antioxidant properties, while opponents are concerned about the potential for natural health product-chemotherapy/radiation related negative interactions. This involves understanding the role and effect on metabolizing enzymes. This review will highlight the present evidence for both the beneficial and negative consequences of the use of natural health products during chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  3. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  4. Understanding climate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin: utility and limitations for natural resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. E. Gallant

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocean-atmosphere processes causing variations in the climate of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB occur on time scales from days to centuries, all are important, and none are likely to act in isolation. Instead, interactions between all hydroclimatic drivers, on multiple time scales, are likely to have caused the variations observed in MDB instrumental records. The source and relative importance of each climate driver varies due to the geographic spread of the Basin from the subtropics to the middle latitudes. Such differences were highlighted during the period from 1997–2010 when the southern MDB experienced prolonged and severe dry conditions, while decadal-scale rainfall in the northern MDB remained close to normal. Although recent studies have provided insights into possible mechanisms, the cause of this recent drying is still uncertain. To this end, this paper addresses the current state of knowledge about the processes causing climate variations in the MDB and the utility and limitations of this knowledge for natural resources management.

  5. Governance of nontimberforest products in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.

    2012-01-01

    Non-timber forest product value chains The processes involved as non-timber forest products (NTFPs)1 are harvested, processed, sold and used create what is known as a value chain. A chain perspective allows the impacts of governance arrangements to be assessed. High levels of forest cover in the Con

  6. Effects of Climate Change on Natural and Regulated Flood Risks in the Skagit River Basin and Prospects for Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, S.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Based on global climate model (GCM) scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) and subsequent hydrologic modeling studies for the Pacific Northwest, the impacts of climate change on flooding in Western Washington are likely to be substantial. Many rivers draining to Puget Sound show timing shifts of peak flows from spring to winter and increases in the simulated natural 100-year flood (Q100) of 20-30% by the mid-21st century. A regional climate model (RCM) scenario, which provides greatly improved representation of mountain topography and important feedback mechanisms, is also used in this study. Preliminary results based on a RCM scenario (Echam5 A1B) for the 2050s also show substantial increases in future flood risk in many Pacific Northwest River basins. In comparison with GCM scenarios, a RCM scenario shows more apparent timing shifts of peak flows from spring to fall/winter. To assess the combined effects of increasing natural flood risks and dam operations that determine impacts to regulated flow, a new integrated daily time step reservoir operations model was built for the Skagit River Basin. The model simulates current operating policies for historical flow conditions and for projected flow for the 2040s and 2080s associated with the Echam5 A1B scenario (a global climate model scenario which approximates the average conditions simulated by all models). By simulating alternative reservoir operating policies that provide increased flood storage and starting flood evacuation one month earlier, prospects for the adaptation are considered. Preliminary results from daily time step reservoir operations modeling (based on a single climate change scenario) suggest that the regulated 100-year flood will increase substantially in the future in comparison with historical baselines (20% by the 2040s and 24% by the 2080s). Proposed increases in flood storage are simulated to decrease the magnitude of the regulated 100

  7. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  8. Artificial Post mining lakes - a challenge for the integration in natural hydrography and river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhammel, Petra; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In terms of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), post mining lakes are artificial water bodies (AWB). The sustainable integration of post mining lakes in the groundwater and surface water landscape and their consideration in river basin management plans have to be linked with various (geo)hydrological, hydro(geo)chemical, technological and socioeconomic issues. The Lower Lusatian lignite mining district in eastern Germany is part of the major river basins of river Elbe and river Oder. Regionally, the mining area is situated in the sub-basins of river Spree and Schwarze Elster. After the cessation of mining activities and thereby of the artificially created groundwater drawdown in numerous mining pits, a large number of post mining lakes are evolving as consequence of natural groundwater table recovery. The lakes' designated uses vary from water reservoirs to landscape, recreation or fish farming lakes. Groundwater raise is not only substantial for the lake filling, but also for the area rehabilitation and a largely self regulated water balance in post mining landscapes. Since the groundwater flow through soil and dump sites being affected by the former mining activities, groundwater experiences various changes in its hydrochemical properties as e.g. mineralization and acidification. Consequently, downstream located groundwater fed running and standing water bodies will be affected too. Respective the European Water Framework Directive, artificial post mining lakes are not allowed to cause significant adverse impacts on the good ecological status/potential of downstream groundwater and surface water bodies. The high sulphate concentrations of groundwater fed mining lakes which reach partly more than 1,000 mg/l are e.g. damaging concrete constructures in downstream water bodies thereby representing threats for hydraulic facilities and drinking water supply. Due to small amounts of nutrients, the lakes are characterised by oligo¬trophic to slightly

  9. Genetic Relationship between Natural Gas Dispersal Zone and Uranium Accumulation in the Northern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Huajun; XIAO Xianming; LU Yongchao; JIN Yongbin; TIAN Hui; LIU Dehan

    2007-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is well-known for the coexistence of oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. However, there has been little research to discuss the genetic relationship between them. In this paper, a case study of the Zaohuohao area in Dongsheng, Inner Mongolia, China, is conducted to investigate the genetic relationship between the natural gas and the uranium accumulation. Fluid inclusion data from the uranium-bearing sandstone samples indicate that the fluid inclusions formed in a gas-water transition zone. Using the homogeneous temperatures of aqueous inclusions coeval with hydrocarbonbearing inclusions, combined with the buried history and paleo-temperature data, the gas-water transition zone reached the area at about 110 Ma. On the basis of this, the contents of Uranium (U)and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) of the samples were analyzed, and there was no obvious relation between them. With regard to the available data from both publications and this study, it is found that the U mineralization has a spatiotemporal accordance with the gas-water dispersal zone. Thus, it is believed that the natural gas in the gas-water zone is an effective reducer to the U-bearing ground water abundant in oxygen, which is the main factor to U accumulation. This result can be used as the reference to the U mines predicting and prospecting.

  10. Nature of the uppermost mantle below the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland: new insights from seismic refraction and gravity data modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, M.; Watremez, L.; Chen, C.; O'Reilly, B.; Minshull, T. A.; Reston, T. J.; Wagner, G.; Gaw, V.; Klaeschen, D.; Shannon, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a tongue-shaped basin SW of Ireland formed during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Its history of sedimentation reveals several rifting and subsidence phases during the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, with a particular major rift phase occurring in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Previous work, focused on seismic and gravity data, suggest the presence of major crustal faulting and uppermost mantle serpentinization in the basin. Serpentinization is a key factor in lithospheric extension since it reduces the strength of mantle rocks, and hence, influences the tectonics of the lithosphere. Besides reducing the seismic velocity of the rock, serpentinization decreases mantle rock density favoring isostatic rebound and basin uplift, thus affecting the tectonic and thermal evolution of the basin. Here we characterize the deep structure of the Porcupine Basin from wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity data, with especial emphasis on the nature of the underlying mantle. The WAS data used were acquired along a 300 km long transect across the northern region of the basin. We used a travel time inversion method to model the data and obtain a P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the crust and uppermost mantle, together with the geometry of the main geological interfaces. The crustal structure along the model reveals a maximum stretching factor of ~5-6. These values are well within the range of crustal extension at which the crust becomes entirely brittle allowing the formation of major crustal faulting and serpentinization of the mantle. To further constrain the seismic structure and hence the nature of the mantle we assess the Vp uncertainty of the model by means of a Monte Carlo analysis and perform gravity modeling to test different interpretations regarding mantle rock nature. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Petroleum Studies Group (ISPSG) of the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme Group 4.

  11. Rapid Growth in China Natural Gas Demand and Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas production will exceed 35 billion cubic meters in 2003,more than 7 percent up from last year,according to the estimation by the related department. There are now more than 60 enterprises engaged in natural gas production in China.

  12. China Ranks 15th for 2001 Natural Gas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas output totaled 30.302 billion cubic meters in 2001, an 11 percent increase as compared with the previous year. However, China ranked 15th in the world for its natural gas production last year while Malaysia jumped to the 12th place in the ranking since the country saw a considerable increase in gas production.

  13. Marinopyrroles: Unique Drug Discoveries Based on Marine Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products provide a successful supply of new chemical entities (NCEs) for drug discovery to treat human diseases. Approximately half of the NCEs are based on natural products and their derivatives. Notably, marine natural products, a largely untapped resource, have contributed to drug discovery and development with eight drugs or cosmeceuticals approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, and ten candidates undergoing clinical trials. Collaborative efforts from drug developers, biologists, organic, medicinal, and natural product chemists have elevated drug discoveries to new levels. These efforts are expected to continue to improve the efficiency of natural product-based drugs. Marinopyrroles are examined here as a case study for potential anticancer and antibiotic agents. PMID:26332654

  14. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  15. Recent Advances in Separation of Bioactive Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任其龙; 邢华斌; 鲍宗必; 苏宝根; 杨启炜; 杨亦文; 张治国

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are a main source of new drugs, functional foods and food additives. The separation of bioactive natural products plays an important role in transformation and use of biomass. The isolation and purification of bioactive principle from a complex matrix is often inherent bottleneck for the utilization of natural products, so a series of extraction and separation techniques have been developed. This review covers recent advances in the separation of bioactive natural products with an emphasis on their solubility and diffusion coeffi-cients, recent extraction techniques and isolation techniques. This overview of recent technological advances, dis-cussion of pertinent problems and prospect of current methodologies in the separation of bioactive natural products may provide a driving force for development of novel separation techniques.

  16. Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product phorboxazole A

    OpenAIRE

    Tornos, James A.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes synthetic studies towards the marine natural product phorboxazole A. This unprecedented compound was recently isolated from an Indian Ocean sponge and displays extraordinary levels of cytostatic activity against a broad range of human cancer cell lines. The Introduction summarises a variety of different natural products which have been targeted as anti-cancer agents, and compares their mode of action with that of phorboxazole A. A review of structurally related natural pr...

  17. Collective synthesis of natural products by means of organocascade catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Spencer B.; Simmons, Bryon; Mastracchio, Anthony; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2011-01-01

    Organic chemists are now able to synthesize small quantities of almost any known natural product, given sufficient time, resources and effort. However, translation of the academic successes in total synthesis to the large-scale construction of complex natural products and the development of large collections of biologically relevant molecules present significant challenges to synthetic chemists. Here we show that the application of two nature-inspired techniques, namely organocascade catalysi...

  18. Classification and origin of natural gases from Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gases discovered up to now in Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin,differ greatly in gaseous compositions,of which hydrocarbon gases amount to 2%―94%while non-hydrocarbon gases are dominated by CO2.Their hydrocarbon gases,without exception,contain less than 90%of methane and over 10%of C2 + heavier hydrocarbons,indicating a wet gas.Carbon isotopic analyses on these hydrocarbon gases showed thatδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 are basically lighter than-44‰,-29‰and-26‰, respectively.The difference in carbon isotopic values between methane and ethane is great,suggesting a biogenic oil-type gas produced by the mixed organic matter at peak generation.δ13C CO2 values of nonhydrocarbon gases are all heavier than-10‰,indicating a typical abiogenic gas.The simulation experiment on hydrocarbon generation of organic matter in a closed gold-tube system showed that the proportion of methane in natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit is obviously higher than that in natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit,consequently the proportion of heavier hydrocarbons of the former is remarkably lower than that of the latter.Moreover, δ13C 1 values of natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit are about 5‰heavier than those of natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit whileδ13C 2 andδ13C 3 values of the former are over 9‰heavier than those of the latter.Currently the LS36-1 oil-gas pool is the only commercial oil-gas reservoir in Lishui Sag,where carbon isotopic compositions of various hydrocarbon components differ greatly from those of natural gases produced by the Lingfeng Formation organic matter but are very similar to those of natural gases derived from the Yueguifeng Formation organic matter,therefore,natural

  19. Rural landscape and preservation of natural environment: Opinions and attitudes of examinees resident within Krka river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilić Šime

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the presentations of development perspectives of the villages along the right bank of the Krka river that are within, or on the edge of the Krka National park and the results of empirical research of the opinions and attitudes of the local population regarding the preservation and protection of the environment in this area. Using the survey method, we examined the opinions of the adult population of Krka river basin in the rural area of Skradin hinterland. The questions focused on a number of issues regarding preservation and/or threat to the environment. The research is a part of the project "Titius: Krka river basin - heritage and socio-cultural development", which is conducted by the Department of Sociology, University of Split. The results of the survey show that great majority of respondents think that the environment in their region is entirely or mostly preserved, and in the same time more than half of respondents agrees with the statement that the soil is contaminated with artificial additives and that the agricultural products are increasingly less natural, as a result of the technologies used in farming. Also, almost three quarters of the respondents consider that the rivers and water are not polluted, and one quarter argues that the illegal dumps, especially of plastic materials and bulky waste spread everywhere, and that the cars and the local industry have polluted the air in their living area. Attitudes and opinions are discussed in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and their level of education.

  20. Earth Observation Based Assessment of the Water Production and Water Consumption of Nile Basin Agro-Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim G.M. Bastiaanssen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition for water resources requires a better understanding of flows, fluxes, stocks, and the services and benefits related to water consumption. This paper explains how public domain Earth Observation data based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Second Generation Meteosat (MSG, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM and various altimeter measurements can be used to estimate net water production (rainfall (P > evapotranspiration (ET and net water consumption (ET > P of Nile Basin agro-ecosystems. Rainfall data from TRMM and the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS-NET RainFall Estimates (RFE products were used in conjunction with actual evapotranspiration from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop and ETLook models. Water flows laterally between net water production and net water consumption areas as a result of runoff and withdrawals. This lateral flow between the 15 sub-basins of the Nile was estimated, and partitioned into stream flow and non-stream flow using the discharge data. A series of essential water metrics necessary for successful integrated water management are explained and computed. Net water withdrawal estimates (natural and humanly instigated were assumed to be the difference between net rainfall (Pnet and actual evapotranspiration (ET and some first estimates of withdrawals—without flow meters—are provided. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems withdraw large volumes of groundwater, which exceed water withdrawals for the irrigation sector. There is a strong need for the development of more open-access Earth Observation databases, especially for information related to actual ET. The fluxes, flows and storage changes presented form the basis for a global framework to describe monthly and annual water accounts in ungauged river basins.

  1. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimicry and Cradle to Cradle, two Nature-Inspired Design Strategies, have already been implemented in product design practice and in curricula of higher education. But how are these strategies applied, ...

  2. Geochemical characteristics and origin of Sinian-Lower Paleozoic natural gas in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guoqi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition and isotopic values of natural gas in the Sinian Dengying Fm, Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, Longwangmiao Fm and Xixiangchi Fm in the Sichuan Basin exhibit different features in different tectonic position, causing controversy over its origin and sources. The geochemical features of the natural gases in this area were compared based on previous research results and large amounts of drilling data of new exploration wells. The results show: (1 The natural gas is typical dry gas on the whole, with hydrocarbon gas in dominance, and a methane content of 74.85%–97.35%, mostly 83.0%–96.0%; due to different clay contents in source rocks, the difference in non-hydrocarbon gas mainly lies in N2 and He content, with gas in Weiyuan and Ziyang areas having high contents of N2 and He, while gas in Gaoshiti and Moxi areas having low N2 and He. (2 Natural gases in different regions differ greatly in carbon isotope value (δ13C1 and δ13C2. The δ13C1 of natural gas in Cambrian system of Ziyang area is the lightest, from −38.0‰ to −35.5‰, and that in other regions is from −33.9‰ to −32.0‰, indicating different capture stages of natural gases. For example, gas captured in early stage is relatively light in carbon isotope; the carbon isotope value (δ13C2 of gas from Sinian and Cambrian system in Weiyuan is from −36.5‰ to −32.7‰; that from the Longwangmiao Fm in Gaoshiti and Moxi is from −33.6‰ to −31.8‰, but that in the Dengying Fm in Gaoshiti-Moxi area is from −29.1‰ to −26.8‰, quite different from the above natural gases, which mainly shows the differences in kerogen types. (3 Light hydrocarbons of C6–C7 mainly consist of cyclanes and isomerization alkanes, which is the feature of oil cracking gas.

  3. Geochemical Characteristics and Origin of Natural Gases in the Qaidam Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-five natural gas samples were collected from 19 oil-gasfields in the Qaidam basin, China. The chemical composition and carbon isotope values of the samples were measured, and the geochemical characteristics and origin of the natural gases were studied. The gases can be divided into biogenic gases, sapropelic oil-type gases, mixed type oil-type gases, coal-type gases and mixed gas. The δ13C1 values of the biogenic gases are very small and the C2+ contents of them are very low, ranging from -68.2‰ to -61.8‰ and 0.06% to 0.20% respectively. They have heavy δD and δ13CCO2, showing a CO2 reduction pathway. They are distributed in the East depression region and derived from the Quaternary source rocks. The sapropelic oil-type gases have small δ13C2 values and high C2+ ranging from -36.6‰ to -28.6‰ and from 33.01% to 47.15% respectively. The mixed type oil-type gases have δ13C2 values and C2+ contents varying from -28.6‰ to -24.8‰ and from 4.81% to 26.06% respectively. Both sapropelic oil-type gases and mixed type oil-type gases are associated with oil-type oils, distributed in the West depression region and derived from the Tertiary saltwater lacustrine sapropelic source rocks and humic source rocks respectively. The δ13C2 values of the coal-type gases are extremely high and the C2+ contents are very low, changing from -23.3‰ to -12.5‰ and from 0.06% to 18.07% respectively. The coal-type gases in the Nanbaxian gasfield and the Lenghu oil-gasfields in the North fault block belt are derived from the Middle Jurassic coal-measures source rocks, whereas those in the West depression region are derived from the Tertiary saltwater lacustrine humic source rocks. Compared with some other basins in China, the natural gases there have obviously heavier δ13C due to the heavier δ13C of different types of kerogens of the Tertiary saltwater lacustrine source rocks in the West depression region of the basin. The mixing of natural gases is common in the West

  4. Understanding hydroclimate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin for natural resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. E. Gallant

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolating the causes of extreme variations or changes in the hydroclimate is difficult due to the complexities of the driving mechanisms, but it is crucial for effective natural resource management. In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, ocean-atmosphere processes causing hydroclimatic variations occur on time scales from days to centuries, all are important, and none are likely to act in isolation. Instead, interactions between all hydroclimatic drivers, on multiple time scales, are likely to have caused the variations observed in MDB instrumental records. A simplified framework is presented to assist natural resource managers in identifying the potential causes of hydroclimatic anomalies. The framework condenses an event into its fundamental elements, including its spatial and temporal signal and small-scale evolution. The climatic processes that are potentially responsible are then examined to determine possible causes. The framework was applied to a period of prolonged and severe dry conditions occurring in the southern MDB from 1997–2010, providing insights into possible causal mechanisms that are consistent with recent studies. The framework also assists in identifying uncertainties and gaps in our understanding that need to be addressed.

  5. THE GEOLOGIC RISK IN THE LAKE KIVU BASIN AREA PRODUCTED BY EARTHQUAKES. Case of the February 3th 2008 earthquake. By: L.M.Bagalwa(1), F.Lukaya(1), M.Burume(2), J.Moeyerson(3) (1): Goma Volcano Observatory, D.R.Congo (2): Naturals Sciences Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagalwa Rukeza, Montfort

    2010-05-01

    The eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is prone to earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 4 on the Richter scale. The western edge of Lake Kivu, the most populated part of the region is no exception to the solicitation of these earthquakes. Since 1997, the western basin of Lake Kivu is experiencing intense seismicity, several earthquakes of great intensity, magnitude greater than or equal to 4 develop major destructive phenomena. These include the 1997 earthquake (M = 4.7) 2000 (M = 4.6 and 5.4), 2002 (M = 4.9, 5.2, 6.1 and 24 October 2002 M = 6.2) of February 3rd 2008 (M = 6). Earthquakes of Kalehe on October 24th 2002 and Birava, February 3rd 2008 have resulted deformations of soil, human and material damage. This latest natural disaster ever known in the south-western basin of Lake Kivu has attracted our scientific curiosity we go there to inquire into its causes and consequences in this region. The basin of Lake Kivu is affected by transform faults emerging (MUKONKI & CHOROWICZ, 1980, quoted by K.S.KAVOTHA & ali, 1990) that delimit the Rift were intersecting at the level of Lake Kivu. We Consider the seismicity, volcanism and uplift of the basin of Lake Kivu as a sign of fracturing under way to delimit a plate tectonics formed (Wong and Von Herzen, 1974, quoted by KSKAVOTHA et al, 1990). The physiography of Lake Kivu is dominated by the fault which borders the western shore and one which intersects the island of Idjwi. The telemetry data of Goma Volcano Observatory added to those of the seismographic station of Lwiro have always revealed a pattern of epicenters clearer in Lake Kivu. In correlation with the faults of the region, earthquakes affect mainly the western edge of Lake Kivu and the island of Idjwi with increasing density from north to south (K.S.KAVOTHA et al, 1990). The great earthquake of Lake Kivu basin on February 03rd 2008, of magnitude 6 on the Richter scale occurred at 07 hours 34 minutes 12 seconds GMT, about 20 km north of Bukavu

  6. Fungi as a source of natural coumarins production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tania Maria; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; de Oliveira, Débora

    2016-08-01

    Natural coumarins and derivatives are compounds that occur naturally in several organisms (plant, bacteria, and fungi) consisting of fused benzene and α-pyrone rings. These compounds show high technological potential applications in agrochemical, food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Therefore, the need for bulk production of coumarins and the advancement of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries led to the development of synthetic coumarin. However, biotransformation process, synthetic bioengineering, metabolic engineering, and bioinformatics have proven effective in the production of natural products. Today, these biological systems are recognized as green chemistry innovation and business strategy. This review article aims to report the potential of fungi for synthesis of coumarin. These microorganisms are described as a source of natural products capable of synthesizing many bioactive metabolites. The features, classification, properties, and industrial applications of natural coumarins as well as new molecules obtained by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi are reported in order to explore a topic not yet discussed in the scientific literature.

  7. Fungi as a source of natural coumarins production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tania Maria; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; de Oliveira, Débora

    2016-08-01

    Natural coumarins and derivatives are compounds that occur naturally in several organisms (plant, bacteria, and fungi) consisting of fused benzene and α-pyrone rings. These compounds show high technological potential applications in agrochemical, food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Therefore, the need for bulk production of coumarins and the advancement of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries led to the development of synthetic coumarin. However, biotransformation process, synthetic bioengineering, metabolic engineering, and bioinformatics have proven effective in the production of natural products. Today, these biological systems are recognized as green chemistry innovation and business strategy. This review article aims to report the potential of fungi for synthesis of coumarin. These microorganisms are described as a source of natural products capable of synthesizing many bioactive metabolites. The features, classification, properties, and industrial applications of natural coumarins as well as new molecules obtained by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi are reported in order to explore a topic not yet discussed in the scientific literature. PMID:27364626

  8. Plant Natural Products Targeting Bacterial Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura Nunes; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Macedo, Alexandre José; Trentin, Danielle Silva

    2016-08-24

    Decreased antimicrobial efficiency has become a global public health issue. The paucity of new antibacterial drugs is evident, and the arsenal against infectious diseases needs to be improved urgently. The selection of plants as a source of prototype compounds is appropriate, since plant species naturally produce a wide range of secondary metabolites that act as a chemical line of defense against microorganisms in the environment. Although traditional approaches to combat microbial infections remain effective, targeting microbial virulence rather than survival seems to be an exciting strategy, since the modulation of virulence factors might lead to a milder evolutionary pressure for the development of resistance. Additionally, anti-infective chemotherapies may be successfully achieved by combining antivirulence and conventional antimicrobials, extending the lifespan of these drugs. This review presents an updated discussion of natural compounds isolated from plants with chemically characterized structures and activity against the major bacterial virulence factors: quorum sensing, bacterial biofilms, bacterial motility, bacterial toxins, bacterial pigments, bacterial enzymes, and bacterial surfactants. Moreover, a critical analysis of the most promising virulence factors is presented, highlighting their potential as targets to attenuate bacterial virulence. The ongoing progress in the field of antivirulence therapy may therefore help to translate this promising concept into real intervention strategies in clinical areas. PMID:27437994

  9. College of Natural Resources to offer Forest Products Marketing Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Marketing has been called the backbone of successful forest products companies, yet many small businesses struggle with the marketing concept. Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources continues its service to the forest products industry by presenting the fourteenth annual workshop on Forest Products Marketing, Oct. 23 through Oct. 24, at The Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center.

  10. Farm Production Growth in the Upper and Middle Parts of the Yellow River Basin, China, During 1980-1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-lian; LUO Yu-zhou; GAO Qiong; DONG Suo-cheng; YANG Xiu-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of inputs on farm production growth was evaluated by analyzing the economic data of the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin,China for the period of 1980-1999.Descriptive statistics were employed to characterize the temporal trends and spatial patterns in farm production and five pertinent inputs of cultivated cropland,irrigation ratio, agricultural labor,machinery power and chemical fertilizer.Stochastic frontier production function was applied to quantify the dependence of the farm production on these inputs.The growth of farm production was decomposed to reflect the contributions by input growths and change in total factor productivity,The change in total factor productivity was further decomposed into the changes in technology and in technical efficiency.The gross value of farm production in the region of study increased by 1.6 fold during 1980-1999.Among the five selected farm inputs,machinery power and chemical fertilizer increased by 1.8 and 2.8 fold,respectively.The increases in cultivated cropland,irrigated cropland,and agricultural labor were all less than 0.16 fold.The growth in the farm production was primarily contributed by the increase in the total factor productivity during 1980-1985,and by input growths after 1985.More than 80%of the contributions by input growths were attributed to the increased application of fertilizer and machinery.In the change of total factor productivity,the technology change dominated over the technical efficiency change in the study period except in the period of 1985-1990,implying that institution and investment played important roles in farm production growth.There was a decreasing trend in the technical efficiency in the region of study,indicating a potential to increase farm production by improving the technical efficiency in farm activities.Given the limited natural resources in the basin,the results of this study suggested that,for a sustainable growth of farm production in the area

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Water and Agricultural Production in Ten Large River Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-xia; HUANG Ji-kun; YAN Ting-ting

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this paper is to examine impacts of climate change on water supply and demand balance and their consequences on agricultural production in ten river basins in China. To realize this goal, China Water Simulation Model (CWSM) is used to analyze three alternative climate scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2). The results show that the impacts of climate change on water supply and demand balance differ largely among alternative scenarios. While significant impacts of climate change on water balance will occur under the A1B scenario, the impacts of climate change under the A2 and B2 scenarios will be marginal. Under the A1B scenario, the water shortage in the river basins located in the northern China will become more serious, particularly in Liaohe and Haihe river basins, but the other river basins in the southern China will improve their water balance situations. Despite larger impacts of climate change on water balance in the northern China, its impacts on total crops’ production will be moderate if farmers would be able to reallocate water among crops and adjust irrigated and rainfed land. The paper concludes with some policy implications.

  12. Natural fracturing of rocks: application to the Ahnet basin (Algeria); Fracturation naturelle des roches: application au bassin de l`Ahnet (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badsi, M.

    1998-07-06

    In the Ahnet basin, the production seems to be unrelated to lithological variations in the reservoirs. In these large anticline structures, located in the central Ahnet basin, the presence of gas has been proven, but only a few production wells have been moderately successful. This inconsistency is probably related to the spatial distribution of fracturing throughout the reservoir. In order to investigate several hypothesis, we used several approach to solve problems posed by the interpreter: namely understanding the deformation process, predicting the fractured zones and building the discrete model of fracture network. This approach combines several methods, including sand box modelling, numerical modelling and Statistics rules, often related with fractal behaviour of faults families, have been used for extrapolating observations from seismic or from wells. The numerical tools and sand box analysis have allowed us to answer to the questions related to the formation of this large anticlines in the Ahnet basin and suggest a probable origin of the variation in the spatial distribution of natural fractures. The deterministic predictions of small-scale faults use probabilistic approaches for spatial interpolation assuming implicitly relationship between detected large faults and unresolved small faults. The statistical modelling is used to carry out analysis of the spatial variation of mean fracture attributes at the global scale (a few kilometers) and a 3D stochastic modelling of the fracture system at the local scale (a few ten of meters). (author) 139 refs.

  13. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hessle, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  14. Dereplication of Microbial Natural Products by LC-DAD-TOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Månsson, Maria; Rank, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Dereplication, the rapid identification of known compounds present in a mixture, is crucial to the fast discovery of novel natural products. Determining the elemental composition of compounds in mixtures and tentatively identifying natural products using MS/MS and UV/vis spectra is becoming easier...... with advances in analytical equipment and better compound databases. Here we demonstrate the use of LC-UV/vis-MS-based dereplication using data from UV/vis diode array detection and ESI+/ESI– time-of-flight MS for assignment of 719 microbial natural product and mycotoxin reference standards. ESI+ was...

  15. Genetic regulation and manipulation for natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Qihao; Hawas, Usama W; Wang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Natural products are an important source of modern medical development, e.g., antibiotics, anticancers, immune modulators, etc. and will continue to be a powerful driving force for the discovery of novel potential drugs. In the heterologous hosts, natural products are biosynthesized using dedicated metabolic networks. By gene engineering, pathway reconstructing, and enzyme engineering, metabolic networks can be modified to synthesize novel compounds containing enhanced structural feature or produce a large quantity of known valuable bioactive compounds. The review introduces some important technical platforms and relevant examples of genetic regulation and manipulation to improve natural product titers or drive novel secondary metabolite discoveries.

  16. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic characteristics of natural gases from the Luliang and Baoshan basins in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yongchang; LIU; Wenhui; SHEN; Ping; WANG; Wanchun; WANG; Xiaofeng; Tenger; YAN; Yaomin; LIU; Ruobin

    2006-01-01

    The Luliang and Baoshan basins of Yunnan Province are two small-sized continental oil/gas-bearing sedimentary basins, which were developed at the bases of the Carboniferous and Devonian systems during the Late Tertiary, covering an area of 325 km2 and 254 km2, respectively.Since the 1990s, there have been discovered small-sized natural gas pools in these two basins. The natural gases are composed mainly of hydrocarbon gases, with nonhydrocarbons accounting for less than 2%. Of the hydrocarbon gases, methane accounts for more than 99%, and the components above C2 account for less than 0.2%. On the basis of previous studies of geological background, the composition of natural gases and their carbon isotopic composition, it has been defined that these two gas pools are of bacterial origin. In this work we have comprehensively measured the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of natural gases from these two basins and have gone into the details of the mechanism of gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Luliang Basin are within the range of -72.1‰--73.3‰, and the δDcH4 values, -242‰--234‰, indicating that the bacterial gas generation is dominated by the way of CO2 reduction. It has been evidenced that under continental-facies fresh water conditions there did occur the CO2 reduction as a process of bacterial gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Baoshan Basin are within the range of -62.5‰--63.5‰, and the δDCH4 values, -252‰--260‰. These isotopic characteristics are fallen into transitional phase of acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction as defined by Whiticar et al. (1986).An important discovery in the Luliang Basin is the carbon isotopic composition of ethane of purely biogenetic origin, i.e., its δ13C2 values are within the range of -61.2‰--66.0‰. These carbon isotopic values have been reported for the first time in China. As compared to the δ13C2 values of less than -55‰ for the two cases

  17. Structure-based synthesis from natural products to drug prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-Ray crystallographic data available from complexes of natural and synthetic molecules with the enzyme thrombin has aided to the design and synthesis of truncated and hybrid molecules exhibiting excellent inhibition in vitro. The vital importance of natural products for the well-being of man has been known lor millennia. Their therapeutic benefits to alleviate pain or cure diseases continue to rank natural products among the primary sources of potential drugs. Great advances have been made in the methods of isolation, identification, and structure elucidation of some of the most complex natural products in recent years. The advent of molecular biology and genetic mapping has also aided in our understanding of the intriguing biosynthetic pathways leading to various classes of therapeutically relevant antibiotic, anticancer, and related natural products. Elegant and practical methodology has been developed leading to the total synthesis of virtually every class of medicinally important natural product. In some cases, natural products or their chemically modified congeners have been manufactured by total synthesis on an industrial level which is a testament to the ingenuity of process chemists. In spite of their potent activities HI enzymatic ox receptor-mediated assays, not all natural products are amenable to being developed as marketable drags. In many instances unfavorable pharmacological effects cannot be overcome without drastic structural and functional modifications, which may also result in altered efficacy. Structure modification through truncation, functional group variations, isosteric replacements, and skeletal rigidifications aided by molecular modeling, X ray crystallography of protein targets, or NMR data are valid objectives in the context of small molecule drug discovery starting with bioactive natural products. A large proportion of these pertain to chemotherapeutic agents against cancer

  18. Biodiesel production through transesterification over natural calciums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Nunthasanti, Pramwit; Tanachai, Sithikorn; Bunyakiat, Kunchana [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Transesterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) with methanol over various natural calciums, including limestone calcite, cuttlebone, dolomite, hydroxyapatite, and dicalcium phosphate, has been investigated at 60 C and 1 atm. The study showed that dolomite, mainly consisting of CaCO{sub 3} and MgCO{sub 3}, is the most active catalyst. The calcination temperature largely affected the physicochemical properties, as evidenced by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, TGA, SEM and XRD, and the transesterification performance of the resultant catalysts. It was found that the calcination of dolomite at 800 C resulted in a highly active mixed oxide. CaO was suggested to be the catalytically active site responsible for the methyl ester formation. Under the suitable reaction conditions, the amount of dolomite calcined at 800 C = 6 wt.% based on the weight of oil, the methanol/oil molar ratio = 30, and the reaction time = 3 h, the methyl ester content of 98.0% can be achieved. The calcined dolomite can be reused many times. The analyses of some important fuel properties indicated that the biodiesel produced had the properties that meet the standard of biodiesel and diesel fuel issued by the Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy, Thailand. (author)

  19. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  20. Natural radionuclides content and associated dose rates in fine-grained sediments from Patras-Rion sub-basins, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H V; Chourdakis, G; Vakalas, J

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in soil samples collected from the Patras-Rion sub-basins (Southern Greece) and were found to be 28, 27, 30 and 483 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values compare well with the average Greek and worldwide values for crustal soil and sedimentary rocks. The mean (226)Ra/(238)U activity ratio was close to 1, implying secular radioactive equilibrium in the uranium series. All soil samples have Ra(eq) values lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), indicating their safe use in brick production. The average annual terrestrial absorbed dose rate in air was 51±14 nGy h(-1), and the average annual effective dose 0.06±0.02 mSv y(-1), which is consistent with the average worldwide exposure to external terrestrial radiation outdoors (0.07 mSv y(-1)). Non-significant differences between soils with different age and depositional environments were found, which could be attributed to a common source of sediments. PMID:21059742

  1. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  2. Research on forecasting models of cost of natural uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forecasting model is established for the product cost of long term or short term on the basis of the history data of natural uranium, focusing on the relationship between the factors such as the ore grade, excavate rate, digging depth and ore properties, and the product cost of natural uranium. Another forecasting model is founded for sub-product cost using symbolic statistical linear regression method. The models described above are applied to the product cost of some uranium mine corporation. The method is easy, practical and reliable with reference value. (authors)

  3. The location and nature of the Telemzan High Ghadames basin boundary in southern Tunisia based on gravity and magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.; Mickus, K. L.; Zouari, H.; Turki, M. M.

    2006-03-01

    Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to add constraints on the location and nature of the Telemzan-Ghadames boundary (TGB) and structure of the Ghadames basin in southern Tunisia. TGB is the boundary between the thick sedimentary cover of the intracratonic Ghadames basin to the south and the thin sedimentary cover of the Saharan platform to the north. The upward continuation of the Bouguer gravity anomalies showed that the TGB is a regional geophysical feature that may have controlled the amount of sediment being deposited both north and south of the boundary and the tectonic environment in the region since Paleozoic time. To emphasize the shorter wavelength gravity and magnetic anomalies, a series of gray scale images of the directional horizontal gradients were constructed that determined a series of previously unknown east-west-trending gravity and magnetic anomalies south of 31.6°N that correspond to lineaments seen on a Landsat 7 image and the location of the TGB. Also, an edge-enhancement analysis illustrated the same linear gravity anomalies and showed the subbasins and uplifts within the Ghadames basin had source depths of between 0.5 and 3.4 km. A north-south trending gravity model showed that the TGB is a relatively gradual feature (possibly basement stepped down by relatively low-displacement faulting) controlling the subsidence of the main Ghadames basin and confirms the edge-enhancement analysis that subbasin S3 and uplift U1 are the main structural features within the Ghadames basin. The knowledge of basement architecture of the Ghadames basin is important for future petroleum exploration within this intracratonic basin.

  4. Primary emissions and secondary formation of volatile organic compounds from natural gas production in five major U.S. shale plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Lui, R.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Murphy, S. M.; Alvarez, S. L.; Lefer, B. L.; Min, K. E.; Brown, S. S.; Roberts, J. M.; Osthoff, H. D.; Hatch, C. D.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    According to the U.S. Energy and Information Administration (EIA), domestic production of natural gas from shale formations is currently at the highest levels in U.S. history. Shale gas production may also result in the production of natural gas plant liquids (NGPLs) such as ethane and propane as well as natural gas condensate composed of a complex mixture of non-methane hydrocarbons containing more than ~5 carbon atoms (e.g., hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene). The amounts of natural gas liquids and condensate produced depends on the particular reservoir. The source signature of primary emissions of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere within each shale play will therefore depend on the composition of the raw natural gas as well as the industrial processes and equipment used to extract, separate, store, and transport the raw materials. Characterizing the primary emissions of VOCs from natural gas production is critical to assessing the local and regional atmospheric impacts such as the photochemical formation of ozone and secondary formation of organic aerosol. This study utilizes ground-based measurements of a full suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in two western U.S. basins, the Uintah (2012-2014 winter measurements only) and Denver-Julesburg (winter 2011 and summer 2012), and airborne measurements over the Haynesville, Fayetteville, and Marcellus shale basins (summer 2013). By comparing the observed VOC to propane enhancement ratios, we show that each basin has a unique VOC source signature associated with oil and natural gas operations. Of the shale basins studied, the Uintah basin had the largest overall VOC to propane enhancement ratios while the Marcellus had the lowest. For the western basins, we will compare the composition of oxygenated VOCs produced from photochemical oxidation of VOC precursors and contrast the oxygenated VOC mixture to a "typical" summertime urban VOC mixture. The relative roles of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and cycloalkanes as

  5. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Smith, Melinda D.; Seabloom, Eric; Andelman, Sandy J.; Meche, Gayna; Weiher, Evan; Allain, Larry K.; Jutila, Heli; Sankaran, Mahesh; Knops, Johannes; Ritchie, Mark; Willig, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where c

  6. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Protect Yourself Health Fraud Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  7. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting ... Fraud Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products Share ...

  8. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  9. Total synthesis and development of bioactive natural products

    OpenAIRE

    TATSUTA, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis and development of a variety of bioactive natural products have been accomplished by using carbohydrates as a chiral source. In addition, practically useful intermediates have been created, analogs of natural products have been prepared, their structure-activity relationships studied, and the large-scale preparations of medicinally useful compounds established. The key target molecules have been the “Big Four” antibiotics (macrolides, aminoglycosides, β-lactams and t...

  10. Covalent interaction of ascorbic acid with natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Kesinger, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Jan F.

    2009-01-01

    While ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is mostly known as a cofactor for proline hydroxylase and as a biological antioxidant, it also forms covalent bonds with natural products which we here refer to as ‘ascorbylation’. A number of natural products containing an ascorbate moiety has been isolated and characterized from a variety of biological sources, ranging from marine algae to flowering plants. Most of these compounds are formed as a result of nucleophilic substitution or addition by ascorbate, e...

  11. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  12. Journals on Traditional Medicine and Natural Products Published in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Wei-hong; CHEN Ke-ji

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to better understanding of traditional medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and natural products, there are increasing findings in these fields.In order to facilitate the findings to be known widely and timely by readers, here this article showed researchers some journals on traditional medicine, complementary and alternative medicine,and natural products, published in English and tracked by Thomson Reuters (ISI) in 2009, as well as some influential journals untracked by ISI.

  13. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Agents of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyan; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Lishu; Ma, Shurong; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    This review, with 42 references, presents the fascinating area of anti-enterovirus 71 natural products over the last three decades for the first time. It covers literature published from 2005-2015 and refers to compounds isolated from biogenic sources. In total, 58 naturally-occurring anti-EV71 compounds are recorded. PMID:26370955

  14. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Agents of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review, with 42 references, presents the fascinating area of anti-enterovirus 71 natural products over the last three decades for the first time. It covers literature published from 2005–2015 and refers to compounds isolated from biogenic sources. In total, 58 naturally-occurring anti-EV71 compounds are recorded.

  15. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    then selected and identified. The POU area was then totaled by water right for primary and supplemental water rights. The maximum annual volume (acre-feet) allowed under each water right also was calculated using the POU area and duty (allowable annual irrigation application in feet). In cases where a water right has more than one designated POD, the total volume for the water right was equally distributed to each POD listed for the water right. Because of this, mapped distribution of diversion rates for some rights may differ from actual practice. Water-right information in the map products was from digital datasets obtained from the Oregon Water Resources Department and was, at the time acquired, the best available compilation of water-right information available. Because the completeness and accuracy of the water-right data could not be verified, users are encouraged to check directly with the Oregon Water Resources Department where specific information on individual rights or locations is essential. A dataset containing streamflow statistics for 72 subbasins in the study area was created for the study area. The statistics include annual flow durations (5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 95-percent exceedances) and 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) and 7-day, 2-year (7Q2) low flows, and were computed using regional regression equations based on measured streamflow records in the region. Daily streamflow records used were adjusted as needed for crop consumptive use; therefore the statistics represent streamflow under more natural conditions as though irrigation diversions did not exist. Statistics are provided for flow rates resulting from streamflow originating from within the entire drainage area upstream of the subbasin pour point (referring to the outlet of the contributing drainage basin). The statistics were computed for the purpose of providing decision makers with the ability to estimate streamflow that would be expected after water conservation techniques have been implemented or a

  16. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

  17. Natural Product Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: Mentha Monoterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, H S; Tait, S; Jervis, A; Ní Cheallaigh, A; Humphreys, L; Takano, E; Gardiner, J M; Scrutton, N S

    2016-01-01

    The era of synthetic biology heralds in a new, more "green" approach to fine chemical and pharmaceutical drug production. It takes the knowledge of natural metabolic pathways and builds new routes to chemicals, enables nonnatural chemical production, and/or allows the rapid production of chemicals in alternative, highly performing organisms. This route is particularly useful in the production of monoterpenoids in microorganisms, which are naturally sourced from plant essential oils. Successful pathways are constructed by taking into consideration factors such as gene selection, regulatory elements, host selection and optimization, and metabolic considerations of the host organism. Seamless pathway construction techniques enable a "plug-and-play" switching of genes and regulatory parts to optimize the metabolic functioning in vivo. Ultimately, synthetic biology approaches to microbial monoterpenoid production may revolutionize "natural" compound formation. PMID:27417932

  18. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  19. Monetization non associated natural gas offshore reserve in the Espirito Santo Basin; Monetizacao de uma reserva 'offshore' de gas natural nao associado na Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, Jose Ricardo; Barbosa, Leonardo Alcantara [BG Group, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cintra, Marcos Antonio Lins da Costa [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brunet, Patricia Lima [Anadarko Exploracao e Producao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Longo, Rafael Rodrigo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes, from the perspective of a new player in the Brazilian market, the opportunities and the challenges to monetize a non-associated natural gas offshore resource, located in the Espirito Santo Basin. The fictitious exploration block 'BM-ES-07', located in shallow waters, near to the coast of Linhares, in Espirito Santo, was a hundred percent acquired, by an international independent oil and gas company during the fourth bid round of the ANP, occurred in 2002. With 10 (ten) billion cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of recoverable gas, the field will initiate its production in 2012, also producing condensate (C5+). The total investments are estimated (based in 2006 prices) in R$420 millions, including exploration, development and production costs. Considering the assumptions presented, the article describes the project development, presenting the economics results, and also discusses the alternatives for natural gas marketing. (author)

  20. 黄河流域径流变化%Natural runoff changes in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春晖; 杨志峰

    2004-01-01

    The driving factors of runoff changes can be divided into precipitation factor and non-precipitation factor, and they can also be divided into natural factor and human activity factor. In this paper, the ways and methods of these driving factors impacting on runoff changes are analyzed at first, and then according to the relationship between precipitation and runoff, the analytical method about impacts of precipitation and non-precipitation factors on basin's natural runoff is derived. The amount and contribution rates of the two factors impacting on natural runoff between every two adjacent decades during 1956-1998 are calculated in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). The results show that the amount and contribution rate of the two factors impacting on natural runoff are different in different periods and regions. For the YRB, the non-precipitation impact is preponderant for natural runoff reduction after the 1970s. Finally, by choosing main factors impacting on the natural runoff, one error back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN) model has been set up, and the impact of human activities on natural runoff reduction in the YRB is simulated. The result shows that the human background of 1956-1979.

  1. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  2. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimic

  3. Application of earth observation products for hydrological modeling of the Oum Er Rbia river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, Patricia; Strohmeier, Stefan; Haddad, Mira; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Karrou, Mohammed; Sterk, Geert; Schellekens, Jaap; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The increasing water demand over recent decades together with the climate change impacts on water resources lead to a growing shortage of water availability. Investigating and developing novel strategies to assess and manage water resources have turned into a key issue, leading to increasing efforts to enhance and improve hydrological models and datasets. Despite campaigns to increase the quality and the temporal and spatial availability of ground-based hydro-meteorological data, many river basins around the world still have a limited number of in-situ observations. This in turn limits the application of hydrological models. Recently developed global earth observation products may unlock a greater capability of basin scale hydrological modeling for advanced water management. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of earth observation products for hydrological model simulation in comparison with in-situ data for water resources management and water allocation of the Moroccan Oum Er Rbia river basin. Two different hydrological models (SWAT and PCR-GLOBWB) were applied to inter-compare various combinations of in-situ and global earth observation data. Global earth observation products were obtained from various sources including meteorological data from the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data, remotely sensed ESA CCI surface soil moisture Soil Water Index combined product and evapotranspiration data from the FLUXNET global monitoring network. The daily data were provided for the time period from 1979 to 2012. Due to the insufficient in-situ discharge observations available in the basin, local calibration of both hydrological models was based on global evapotranspiration and soil moisture data, covering additional aspects of the hydrological cycle to further reduce modeling uncertainty. Preliminary results indicate that even though significant differences in model estimates were found between SWAT and PCR-GLOBWB, the remotely

  4. Natural Products Towards the Discovery of Potential Future Antithrombotic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Asiful; Alam, Fahmida; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Globally, thrombosis-associated disorders are one of the main contributors to fatalities. Besides genetic influences, there are some acquired and environmental risk factors dominating thrombotic diseases. Although standard regimens have been used for a long time, many side effects still occur which can be life threatening. Therefore, natural products are good alternatives. Although the quest for antithrombotic natural products came to light only since the end of last century, in the last two decades, a considerable number of natural products showing antithrombotic activities (antiplatelet, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic) with no or minimal side effects have been reported. In this review, several natural products used as antithrombotic agents including medicinal plants, vegetables, fruits, spices and edible mushrooms which have been discovered in the last 15 years and their target sites (thrombogenic components, factors and thrombotic pathways) are described. In addition, the side effects, limitations and interactions of standard regimens with natural products are also discussed. The active compounds could serve as potential sources for future research on antithrombotic drug development. As a future direction, more advanced researches (in quest of the target cofactor or component involved in antithrombotic pathways) are warranted for the development of potential natural antithrombotic medications (alone or combined with standard regimens) to ensure maximum safety and efficacy. PMID:26951101

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for Natural Products as Novel Antituberculosis Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shrouq I; Abdelrahman, Abd Almonem; North, E Jeffrey; Chauhan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Current tuberculosis (TB) treatment suffers from complexity of the dosage regimens, length of treatment, and toxicity risks. Many natural products have shown activity against drug-susceptible, drug-resistant, and latent/dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen responsible for TB infections. Natural sources, including plants, fungi, and bacteria, provide a rich source of chemically diverse compounds equipped with unique pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties. This review focuses on natural products as starting points for the discovery and development of novel anti-TB chemotherapy and classifies them based on their chemical nature. The classes discussed are divided into alkaloids, chalcones, flavonoids, peptides, polyketides, steroids, and terpenes. This review also highlights the importance of collaboration between phytochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and physical chemistry, which is very important for the development of these natural compounds. PMID:26565779

  7. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  8. Nature-Based Tourism Product and its Development : Case Safartica

    OpenAIRE

    Sinitsyn, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the phenomenon of nature-based tourism in Finnish Lapland and to analyse what the possible ways of developing nature-based tourism products can be. The field of nature-based tourism grows rapidly, so does the number of researches about it. In this thesis an emphasis was made on the understanding of the overall subject of nature-based tourism, a significance of a cultural aspect in it as well as the role of tourist behaviour and motivation. ...

  9. Radiogenic heat production in sedimentary rocks of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, T.E.; Sharp, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiogenic heat production within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of heat. Radiogenic heat should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic heat may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface heat-flow density for an area in south Texas. Based on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we calculate radiogenic heat production for Stuart City (Lower Cretaceous) limestones, Wilcox (Eocene) sandstones and mudrocks, and Frio (Oligocene) sandstones and mudrocks from south Texas. Heat production rates range from a low of 0.07 ?? 0.01 ??W/m3 in clean Stuart City limestones to 2.21 ?? 0.24??W/m3 in Frio mudrocks. Mean heat production rates for Wilcox sandstones, Frio sandstones, Wilcox mudrocks, and Frio mudrocks are 0.88, 1.19, 1.50, and 1.72 ??W/m3, respectively. In general, the mudrocks produce about 30-40% more heat than stratigraphically equivalent sandstones. Frio rocks produce about 15% more heat than Wilcox rocks per unit volume of clastic rock (sandstone/mudrock). A one-dimensional heat-conduction model indicates that this radiogenic heat source has a significant effect on subsurface temperatures. If a thermal model were calibrated to observed temperatures by optimizing basal heat-flow density and ignoring sediment heat production, the extrapolated present-day temperature of a deeply buried source rock would be overestimated.Radiogenic heat production within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of heat. Radiogenic heat should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic heat may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface heat-flow density for an area in south Texas. Based on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we

  10. Horizontal degasification and characterization of coals in the Sabinas Sub-basin, Mexico: implications for CBM production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T.; Murray, K.; Klinger, R.; Santillan, M. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The Sabinas sub-basin in northern Mexico contains gassy coals in the Upper Cretaceous Los Olmos Formation, based on both historical evidence and current desorption testing. The 'Double Seam' coal is present at shallow depth (< 500 m), has high vitrinite content (> 86 vol%), is well-cleated, shows high diffusivity (average tau) value is 56 hours) and has high natural fracture permeability (> 30 mD) in the minesites. The coal averages 2.2 m in thickness but has a high ash content (32 wt%). A tonstein band is present in the middle of the Double Seam, consisting of vitrinite and inertinite embedded in a matrix of fine clays and quartz. Average desorbed gas content of this medium-volatile bituminous coal (Ro{sub max} = 1.30%) is highest in Mine V (Esmeralda Mine at > 9.0 cm{sup 3}/g). Maximum methane adsorption at an equivalent depth of 300 m is 15 cm{sup 3}/g (as-received basisarb). Coal bed methane is mainly methane (98%) with heating value of 38.21 MJ/m{sup 3} (1026 Btu/ft{sup 3}). The coal is under-pressured and reported to be dry, with possibly free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence of discrete mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior to longwall mining has resulted in the significant reduction of in-situ gas contents and in an increase of mined coal production per shift. The Sabinas sub-basin coals are suitable for a full-scale coal bed methane (CBM) development using in-seam single horizontal and multi-lateral horizontal drilling. Similarities, but also differences, exist between the Sabinas coals in Mexico and the same coals in the Maverick Basin, Texas.

  11. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Anderson, T.M.; Smith, M.D.; Seabloom, E.; Andelman, S.J.; Meche, G.; Weiher, E.; Allain, L.K.; Jutila, H.; Sankaran, M.; Knops, J.; Ritchie, M.; Willig, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where competitive feedbacks and complex environmental influences affect diversity-productivity relationships. In this study, we evaluated diversity-productivity relationships while statistically controlling for environmental influences in 12 natural grassland ecosystems. Because diversity-productivity relationships are conspicuously nonlinear, we developed a nonlinear structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology to separate the effects of diversity on productivity from the effects of productivity on diversity. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the SEM findings across studies. While competitive effects were readily detected, enhancement of production by diversity was not. These results suggest that the influence of small-scale diversity on productivity in mature natural systems is a weak force, both in absolute terms and relative to the effects of other controls on productivity. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

  13. Scaling up food production in the Upper Mississippi river basin: modeling impacts on water quality and nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.; Yan, E.; Demissie, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural production imposes significant environmental stress on the landscape, both in the intensity and extent of agricultural activities. Among the most significant impacts, agriculture dominates the natural reactive nitrogen cycle, with excess reactive nitrogen leading to the degraded quality of inland and coastal waters. In the U.S., policymakers and stakeholders nationwide continue to debate strategies for decreasing environmental degradation from agricultural lands. Such strategies aim to optimize the balance among competing demands for food, fuel and ecosystem services. One such strategy increasingly discussed in the national debate is that of localizing food production around urban areas, developing what some have recently called “foodsheds”. However, the environmental impacts of localizing food production around population centers are not well-understood given the hard-to-generalize variety seen in management practices currently employed among local farms marketing food crops directly to consumers. As a first, landscape level study of potential impacts from scaling up this type of agriculture, we use the USDA Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to quantify environmental impacts from developing foodsheds for all population centers in the Upper Mississippi river basin. Specifically, we focus on nutrient cycling and water quality impacts determining direct greenhouse gas emissions and changes to nutrient runoff from increased food production in this watershed. We investigate a variety of scenarios in which food production is scaled up to the regional level using different types of farm management practices, ranging from conventional production of fruits and vegetables, to production of these products from small-scale, diversified systems integrating conservation easements. In addition to impacts on nutrient cycling and water quality, we also characterize relative levels of productivity in conjunction with overall demand for food associated

  14. Origin and Accumulation of Natural Gases in the Upper Paleozoic Strata of the Ordos Basin in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yangming; WANG Jibao; LIU Xinse; ZHANG Wenzheng

    2009-01-01

    The natural gases in the Upper Paleozoic strata of the Ordos basin are characterized by relatively heavy C isotope of gaseous alkanes with δ13C1 and δ13C2 values ranging mainly from-35‰ to -30‰ and-27‰ to-22‰,respectively,high δ13C excursions (round 10)between ethane and methane and predominant methane in hydrocarbon gases with most C1/(C1-C5)ratios in excess of 0.95, suggesting an origin of coal-derived gas.The gases exhibit different carbon isotopic profiles for C1.C4 alkanes with those of the natural gases found in the Lower Paleozoic of this basin.and believed to be originated from Carboniferous-Permian coal measures.The occurrence of regionally pervasive gas accumulation iS distinct in the gently southward-dipping Shanbei slope of the central basin.It is noted that molecular and isotopic composition changes of the gases in various gas reservoirs are associated With the thermal maturities of gas source rocks.The abundances and δ13C values of methane generally decline northwards and from the basin center to its margins.and the effects of hydrocarbon migration on compositional modification seem insignificant.However, C isotopes of autogenetic calcites in the vertical and lateral section of reservoirs show a regular variation,and are as a whole depleted upwards and towards basin margins.Combination with gas maturity gradient, the analysis could be considered to be a useful tool for gas migration.

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  16. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  17. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rebekah Watkins,1,2,* Ling Wu,1,* Chenming Zhang,3–5 Richey M Davis,3,5,6 Bin Xu1,3 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Program in Nanoscience, 3Center for Drug Discovery, 4Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 5Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. Keywords: natural products, nanomedicine, drug delivery, bioavailability, targeting, controlled release

  18. New evidence for the origin of natural gas in Ordos Basin from hydrocarbons of oil water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the controversy origin of natural gas in the Ordos Basin by using the hydrocarbons of oil water. New evidence has been found: There is relatively high content of light hydrocarbons and low content of heavy components in the hydrocarbons fraction of oil water in the middle gas field of the Majiagou Formation, Ordovician reservoir. The hydrocarbons of oil water in Well Shan 12 and Well Shan 78 have relatively high abundance of tricyclic terpane. Tricyclic terpane/hopane of the two samples are 1.48 and 0.36, respectively. They also show that pregnane and hompregnane are in relatively high abundance with lower hopane/sterane ratio. Pr/Ph is less than 2.0. These characteristics reflected the source input of marine carbonate sedimentary environment. In contrast, the hydrocarbon of Well Shan 81 is lack of tricyclic terpane series and pregnane. It has a high hopane/sterane ratio and Pr/Ph is 3.27. These parameters are typical character of terrestrial organic matter. Furthermore, the hydrocarbons of oil water in Well Shan 37 and Well Shan 34 is between the two typical situations. They have little content of tricyclic terpanes. They may be derived from a mixing source of marine carbonate and terrestrial organic matter input. Similarly, the maturity parameters approve this suggestion. The samples of Well Shan 12 and Well Shan 78 which derived from marine carbonate have relatively high maturity and samples derived from terrestrial organic matter have lower maturity. The maturity of the hydrocarbons of mixing source is between these two situations. The suggestion coincides with the geological background and source rocks distribution.

  19. An Innovative Methodology of Product Design from Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-I Wen; Shu-jun Zhang; Kevin Hapeshi; Xiao-feng Wang

    2008-01-01

    Nature is an information sourcebeok of behaviour, function, colour and shape which can inspire visual design and invention. Studying the form and functional characteristics of a natural object can provide inspiration for product design and help to improve the marketability of manufactured products. The inspiration can be triggered either by direct observation or captured by threo-dimensional (3D) digitising techniques to obtain superficial information (geometry and colour). An art designer often creates a concept in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) sketch while engineering methods lead to a point cloud in 3D. Each has its limitations in that the art designer commonly lacks the knowledge to build a final product from a 2D sketch and the engineering designer's 3D point clouds may not be very beautiful. We propose a method for Product Design from Nature (PDN),coupling aesthetic intent and geometrical characteristics, exploring the interactions between designers and nature's systems in PDN. We believe that this approach would considerably reduce the lead time and cost of product design from nature.

  20. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules. PMID:26586404

  1. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. PMID:27136524

  2. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules.

  3. Potential antimalarials from African natural products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Malaria remains an overwhelming infectious disease with significant health challenges in African and other endemic countries globally. Resistance to antimalarial drugs has become one of the most momentous challenges to human health and thus has necessitated the hunt for new and effective drugs. Consequently, few decades have witnessed a surfeit of research geared to validate the effectiveness of commonly used traditionally medicines against malaria fever. The present review work focuses on documenting natural products from African whose activity has been reported in-vivo or invi-tro against malaria parasite. Methods: Literature was collected using electronic search of published articles (Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Sciencedirect, Science domain that report on antiplasmodial activity of natural products from differernts Africa region. Results: A Total of 652 plant taxa from 146 families, 134 isolated antimalarial compounds from 39 plants species, 2 herbal formulations and 4 insect/products were found to be reported in literature from 1996 to 2015. Plants species from family Asteraceae (11.04%, Fababceae (8.128%, Euphorbiaceae (5.52%, Rubiaceas (5.52% and Apocyanaceae (5.214%, have received more scientific validation than others. Conclusion: African natural products possess remarkable healing properties as revealed in the various citations as promising antimalarial agents. Some of these natural products from Africa demonstrate high, promising or low activities against plasmodium parasite. This study also shows that natural products from Africa have a huge amount of novel antimalarial compounds that could serve as a leads for the development of new and effective antiplasmodial drugs. However, in a view of bridging the gap in knowledge, clinical validation of these natural products is of paramount importance. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 318-343

  4. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers - v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC is presented, with the description of the regions and the wells, the techniques with artificial tracers and the results and conclusion, based in field campaign realized till february/82. (author)

  5. Gravity inversion predicts the nature of the amundsen basin and its continental borderlands near greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard;

    2014-01-01

    largely unknown in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean to the north of Greenland. In this contribution, we show that the tectono-physiographic evolution of the oceanic Amundsen Basin, the continental Lomonosov Ridge and the Morris Jesup Rise were all affected by significant Eurekan compression. We present the...... results of 3-D gravity inversion for predicting the sediment thickness and basement geometry within the Amundsen Basin and along its borderlands. We use the recently published LOMGRAV-09 gravity compilation and adopt a process-oriented iterative cycle approach that minimizes misfit between an Earth model...... in the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland. Our preferred result, using a C25 breakup scenario of the Amundsen Basin, correlates well with seismic observations along existing and several new marine seismic profiles. Breakup-related rift basins are predicted along the Lomonosov Ridge and a broad...

  6. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs

  7. Disequilibrium study of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in cores and briny groundwaters from Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series are reported in several cores and in ten deep and five shallow briny groundwaters from various formations in the Palo Duro Basin (PDB). The natural radionuclide data in cores suggest that the radionuclides have not migrated or been leached for at least a period of about 1 million years, indicating geological stability of the PDB site. Relative to the U and Th concentrations in cores, the brines are depleted by a factor of 104 to 105, indicating extremely low solubility of U and Th in brines. 48 refs.; 15 figs.; 11 tabs

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  9. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  10. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  11. Natural radionuclide distribution in phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained data on the natural radionuclide distribution by phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production process stages testify to phosphate fertilizer enrichment 2-4 times in relation to initial ore, depending in the raw material used. In this case uranium and thorium series element concentration value (in equilibrium with their decomposition products), proposed as a regulating one in phosphorus-containing fertilizers, is not achieved. However, the fact of lurichment as it is and the enrichment factor, stated in the course of the work, should be taken into account for evaluation of phosphorite new deposit raw material with higher concentrations of natural radionuclides. Natural radionuclide separation in the enrichment process and superphosphate production is not revealed

  12. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-fang ZHOU; Yue-wei GUO

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades,the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists.Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges,soft corals,and mollusks),resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins.Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities,including cytotoxic,antibacterial,and enzyme inhibitory effects- By describing representative studies,this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade.Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  13. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  14. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  15. Divergent Pathways in the Biosynthesis of Bisindole Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Katherine S.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Two molecules of the amino acid L-tryptophan are the biosynthetic precursors to a class of natural products named the “bisindoles.” Hundreds of these bisindole molecules have been isolated from natural sources, and many of these molecules have potent medicinal properties. Recent studies have clarified the biosynthetic construction of six bisindole molecules, revealing novel enzymatic mechanisms and leading to combinatorial synthesis of new bisindole compounds. Collectively, these results prov...

  16. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  17. Comparison of long-term geochemical interactions at two natural CO{sub 2}-analogues : Montmiral (Southeast Basin, France) and Messokampos (Florina Basin, Greece) case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaus, I.; Le Guern, C.; Pauwels, H. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France); Pearce, J.; Shepherd, T. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hatziyannis, G.; Metaxas, A. [Inst. of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Athens (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage is considered to be a viable strategy to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. When assessing the feasibility of current or future CO{sub 2} storage projects, mineral trapping within a reservoir is considered as a key mechanism for the permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. There are many occurrences worldwide, where natural CO{sub 2} has been trapped in geological reservoirs. These natural CO{sub 2} analogues provide a unique opportunity to study the reactivity, due to CO{sub 2} interactions, which occurred in the reservoirs over a geologic timeframe. Therefore, the study of analogous natural CO{sub 2}-rich reservoirs, which act as long-term laboratories, are an important part of the assessment of the long-term geochemical effects of geological CO{sub 2} storage. This paper referred to 2 natural CO{sub 2} sites studied under the Natural Analogues for the Storage of CO2 in the Geological Environment (NASCENT) Project. The Montmiral reservoir in France's Southeast Basin is a high-temperature and high-pressure reservoir at great depth (100 degrees C and 36 MPa). The Messokampos reservoir in Greece's Florina Basin is a shallow, low temperature and low-pressure reservoir (25 degrees C and 0.5 MPa). Both are sandstone reservoirs, and feldspar alteration is the key interaction in both cases between dissolved CO{sub 2}, the formation water and the reservoir rock. Both natural analogues were studied in detail petrographically and through geochemical modelling in order to characterize and explain the water-rock-gas interactions in the different geological contexts. The purpose was to assess the consequences of these interactions on CO{sub 2} storage capacity and porosity of the host rock. It was concluded that the reservoir's temperature and pressure conditions determine the impact of CO{sub 2} interactions, with elevated temperatures significantly increasing the reaction rates of

  18. Exposures from consumption of agricultural and semi-natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocesium, was investigated in selected study sites in Ukraine and Russia. Food products from semi-natural ecosystems are major contributors to the individual internal dose to rural population in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At the selected study sites it is estimated in 1995 that foods from private farms and forests contribute on average 35% to 60%, to the individual internal dose, variation relating to soil types and implemented countermeasures. The importance of food products from private farms and particularly forest products increases with time since Cs concentration in some of the natural food products have longer ecological half life than food products from agricultural systems. A significant relationship was observed between consumption of mushrooms and whole body content of radiocesium in rural people. The contribution to the collective dose of food products produced in the semi-natural ecosystems is less than the contribution to the individual internal dose for the local rural population

  19. The impact of natural products upon modern drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A

    2008-06-01

    In the period 1970-2006, a total of 24 unique natural products were discovered that led to an approved drug. We analyze these successful leads in terms of drug-like properties, and show that they can be divided into two equal subsets. The first falls in the 'Lipinski universe' and complies with the Rule of Five. The second is a 'parallel universe' that violates the rules. Nevertheless, the latter compounds remain largely compliant in terms of logP and H-bond donors, highlighting the importance of these two metrics in predicting bioavailability. Natural products are often cited as an exception to Lipinski's rules. We believe this is because nature has learned to maintain low hydrophobicity and intermolecular H-bond donating potential when it needs to make biologically active compounds with high molecular weight and large numbers of rotatable bonds. In addition, natural products are more likely than purely synthetic compounds to resemble biosynthetic intermediates or endogenous metabolites, and hence take advantage of active transport mechanisms. Interestingly, the natural product leads in the Lipinski and parallel universe had an identical success rate (50%) in delivering an oral drug.

  20. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Solida; Sousa, Emília; Kijjoa, Anake; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds. PMID:27399665

  1. SCHEMES OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL GAS HYDRATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑霞; 陈月明; 杜庆军

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are a kind of nonpolluting and high quality energy resources for future, the reserves of which are about twice of the carbon of the current fossil energy (petroleum, natural gas and coal) on the earth. And it will be the most important energy for the 21st century. The energy balance and numerical simulation are applied to study the schemes of the natural gas hydrates production in this paper,and it is considered that both depressurization and thermal stimulation are effective methods for exploiting natural gas hydrates, and that the gas production of the thermal stimulation is higher than that of the depressurization. But thermal stimulation is non-economic because it requires large amounts of energy.Therefore the combination of the two methods is a preferable method for the current development of the natural gas hydrates. The main factors which influence the production of natural gas hydrates are: the temperature of injected water, the injection rate, the initial saturation of the hydrates and the initial temperature of the reservoir which is the most important factor.

  2. Summary of Natural Community and Flora Findings for the Nulhegan Basin of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and Blueberry Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the survey efforts of natural communities and rare plants for the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and...

  3. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1catchment of selected Major River Basins...

  4. A natural product based DOS library of hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ganesh; Agarwal, Shalini; Sharma, Vijeta; Madurkar, Sanjay M; Munshi, Parthapratim; Singh, Shailja; Sen, Subhabrata

    2015-05-01

    Here we described a natural product inspired modular DOS strategy for the synthesis of a library of hybrid systems that are structurally and stereochemically disparate. The main scaffold is a pyrroloisoquinoline motif, that is synthesized from tandem Pictet-Spengler lactamization. The structural diversity is generated via "privileged scaffolds" that are attached at the appropriate site of the motif. Screening of the library compounds for their antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive 3D7 cells indicated few compounds with moderate activity (20-50 μM). A systematic comparison of structural intricacy between the library members and a natural product dataset obtained from ZINC(®) revealed comparable complexity. PMID:25794788

  5. Benthic macrofaunal production for a typical shelf-slope-basin region in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heshan; Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Kun; He, Xuebao; Lin, Junhui; Huang, Yaqin; Zhang, Shuyi; Mou, Jianfeng; Zheng, Chengxing; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Secondary production by macrofaunal communities in the western Arctic Ocean were quantified during the 4th and 5th Chinese Arctic Scientific Expeditions. The total production and P/B ratio for each sector ranged from 3.8 (±7.9) to 615.6 (±635.5) kJ m-2 yr-1 and 0.5 (± 0.2) to 0.7 (± 0.2) yr-1, respectively. The shallow shelves in the western Arctic Ocean exhibited particularly high production (178.7-615.6 kJ m-2 yr-1), particularly in the two "hotspots" - the southern and northeastern (around Barrow Canyon) Chukchi Sea. Benthic macrofaunal production decreased sharply with depth and latitude along a shelf-slope-basin transect, with values of 17.0-269.8 kJ m-2 yr-1 in slope regions and 3.8-10.1 kJ m-2 yr-1 in basins. Redundancy analysis indicated that hydrological characteristics (depth, bottom temperature and salinity) and granulometric parameters (mean particle size, % sand and % clay) show significant positive/negative correlations with total production. These correlations revealed that the dominant factors influencing benthic production are the habitat type and food supply from the overlying water column. In the Arctic, the extreme environmental conditions and low temperature constrain macrofaunal metabolic processes, such that food and energy are primarily used to increase body mass rather than for reproduction. Hence, energy turnover is relatively low at high latitudes. These data further our understanding of benthic production processes and ecosystem dynamics in the context of rapid climate change in the western Arctic Ocean.

  6. Coccolithophore export production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California: response to climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Thunell, R. C.

    The flux and taxonomic composition of coccolithophores has been determined for sediment trap samples collected over a two-year period from Guaymas Basin, central Gulf of California. The Gulf of California is a subtropical marginal sea with exceptionally high rates of primary productivity. The annual biogenic sediment fluxes are largely dominated by silica, with diatoms as the major contributor to the opal flux. For the July 1990 through November 1992 study period, the total coccolithophore export production in Guaymas varied in response to the strength of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Coccolithophore production follows the general surface primary productivity pattern with relatively high fluxes from late fall to late winter, and low production in the summer when the water column is highly stratified and nutrient depleted. High fluxes of up to 10 9 coccoliths m -2 day-1 and 3×10 6 coccospheres m -2 day-1 indicate that coccolithophores are an important component of the phytoplankton population in Guaymas Basin. The intensification of ENSO conditions during 1992 altered the typical hydrography of the Gulf of California by increasing SST and reducing the strength of spring upwelling. This is reflected in reduced opal and diatom fluxes during this period. Conversely, these more oligotrophic conditions resulted in higher total coccolithophore fluxes during spring and summer 1992. Gephyrocapsa oceanica is present in the Gulf throughout the study period, but is dominant during weak or non-ENSO times. Emiliania huxleyi and, to a lesser degree, Florisphaera profunda are abundant during strong ENSO periods. Two major coccolithophore signals are indicative of strong ENSO conditions and could be used as paleo-ENSO indicators in the Gulf of California: (a) the switch in dominance between G. oceanica and E. huxleyi and (b) high abundances of the deep dwelling species F. profunda. The abundance of this latter species shows a strong inverse relationship with opal fluxes. A

  7. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from different sea areas.

  8. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Campagna; A. Nardoni; R. Cavallina

    2010-01-01

    Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from differe...

  9. Comparison and evaluation of satellite derived precipitation products for hydrological modeling of the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cohen Liechti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the African Dams ProjecT (ADAPT, an integrated water resource management study in the Zambezi Basin is currently under development. In view of the sparse gauging network for rainfall monitoring, the observations from spaceborne instrumentation currently produce the only available rainfall data for a large part of the basin.

    Three operational and acknowledged high resolution satellite derived estimates: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission product 3B42 (TRMM 3B42, the Famine Early Warning System product 2.0 (FEWS RFE2.0 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Prediction Centre (NOAA/CPC morphing technique (CMORPH are analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal repartition of the precipitations. They are compared to ground data for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2009 on a point to pixel basis at daily, 10-daily and monthly time steps and on a pixel to pixel basis for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2007 at monthly time steps.

    The general North-South gradient of precipitation is captured by all the analyzed products. Regarding the spatial heterogeneity, FEWS pixels are much more inter-correlated than TRMM and CMORPH pixels. For a rainfall homogeneity threshold criterion of 0.5 global mean correlation coefficient, the area of each subbasin should not exceed a circle of 2.5° latitude/longitude radius for FEWS and a circle of 0.75° latitude/longitude radius for TRMM and CMORPH considering rectangular mesh.

    In terms of reliability, the correspondence of all estimates with ground data increases with the time step chosen for the analysis. The volume ratio computation indicates that CMORPH is overestimating by nearly 1.5 times the rainfall. The statistics of TRMM and FEWS estimates show quite similar results.

    Due to the its lower inter-correlation and longer data set, the TRMM 3B42 product is chosen as input for the hydraulic-hydrologic model of the basin.

  10. Using singlet oxygen to synthesize polyoxygenated natural products from furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnon, Tamsyn; Tofi, Maria; Vassilikogiannakis, Georgios

    2008-08-01

    [Reaction: see text]. Singlet oxygen is a powerful tool in the armament of the synthetic organic chemist and possibly in that of nature itself. In this Account, we illustrate a small selection of the many ways singlet oxygen can be harnessed in the laboratory to aid in the construction of the complex molecular motifs found in natural products. A more philosophical question is also addressed: namely, how much do singlet oxygen oxidations influence the biogenesis of these natural products? All the synthetic examples surveyed in this Account can be characterized as belonging to the same class because they all involve the oxidation of a substituted furan nucleus by singlet oxygen. Readily accessible and relatively simple furans can be transformed into a host of complex motifs present in a diverse range of natural products by the action of singlet-oxygen-mediated reaction sequences. These reactions are highly advantageous because they frequently deliver a rapid and dramatic increase in molecular complexity in high yield. Furthermore, an unusually wide structural diversity is exhibited by the molecular motifs obtained from these reaction sequences. For example, relatively minor modifications to the starting substrate and to the reaction conditions may lead to products as variable as spiroketal lactones, 3-keto-tetrahydrofurans, various types of bis-spiroketals, 4-hydroxy cyclopentenones, or spiroperoxylactones. In addition, two more specialized examples are discussed in this Account. The core of the prunolide molecules and the chinensine family of natural products were rapidly synthesized using effective and short singlet oxygen mediated strategies; this adds weight to the assertion that singlet oxygen is a very effective moderator of complex cascade reaction sequences. We also show how our synthetic investigations have provided evidence that these same strategies might be used in the biogenesis of these molecules. In the cases of the chinensines and the

  11. Effect of Bed Deformation on Natural Gas Production from Hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on modelling studies in an axisymmetric framework. The thermal stimulation of hydrated sediment is taken to occur by a centrally placed heat source. The model includes the hydrate dissociation and its effect on sediment bed deformation and resulting effect on gas production. A finite element package was customized to simulate the gas production from natural gas hydrate by considering the deformation of submarine bed. Three sediment models have been used to simulate gas production. The effect of sediment deformation on gas production by thermal stimulation is studied. Gas production rate is found to increase with an increase in the source temperature. Porosity of the sediment and saturation of the hydrate both have been found to significantly influence the rate of gas production.

  12. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring : Annual Report 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1991-01-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) habitat improvement projects, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject (Part 1) are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density data from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) management and research activities. Primary objectives of the intensive monitoring subproject (Part 2) are to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and to develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Field work began in 1987 in the upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). 22 refs., 10 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Abnormal overpressure distribution and natural gas accumulation in foreland basins, Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Abnormal overpressure occurs in the foreland basins of Kuqa, South Junggar and West Sichuan in China. The pressure coefficients are high. Overpressure exists in wide areas and various strata. The layers of overpressure have a very close relationship with lithology, and the area of overpressure is controlled by the piedmont depression. The mechanisms of overpressure formation in the Kuqa and South Junggar Depression include disequilibrium compaction and tectonic compression; the importance of these two factors varies in different basins and in different stages of the same basin. Different models of gas accumulation are established to explain the relationship between overpressure distribution and gas pool formation, and the influence of overpressure on the gas pools. These models include: (ⅰ) the violent tectonic movement leads to the pool formation in overpressure belt (Kela-2 gas field in Kuqa); (ⅱ) the pressure releases at shallow part and the gas pool forms in late time (Hutubi gas field in southern Junggar Basin); (ⅲ) through the pressure transfer the gas migrates and accumulates (Xinchang gas field in Western Sichuan Basin).

  14. The EROI of Conventional Canadian Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Freise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada was the world’s third largest natural gas producer in 2008, with 98% of its gas being produced by conventional, tight gas, and coal bed methane wells in Western Canada. Natural gas production in Western Canada peaked in 2001 and remained nearly flat until 2006 despite more than quadrupling the drilling rate. Canada seems to be one of many counter examples to the idea that oil and gas production can rise with sufficient investment. This study calculated the Energy Return on Energy Invested and Net Energy of conventional natural gas and oil production in Western Canada by a variety of methods to explore the energy dynamics of the peaking process. All these methods show a downward trend in EROI during the last decade. Natural gas EROI fell from 38:1 in 1993 to 15:1 at the peak of drilling in 2005. The drilling intensity for natural gas was so high that net energy delivered to society peaked in 2000–2002, while production did not peak until 2006. The industry consumed all the extra energy it delivered to maintain the high drilling effort. The inability of a region to increase net energy may be the best definition of peak production. This increase in energy consumption reduces the total energy provided to society and acts as a contracting pressure on the overall economy as the industry consumes greater quantities of labor, steel, concrete and fuel. It appears that energy production from conventional oil and gas in Western Canada has peaked and entered permanent decline.

  15. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N.Z. [Univ. of Central Florida, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    It is universally accepted that in the next few decades hydrogen production will continue to rely on fossil fuels (primarily, natural gas). On the other hand, the conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming) are complex multi-step processes. These processes also result in the emission of large quantities of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere that produce adverse ecological effects. One alternative is the one-step thermocatalytic cracking (TCC) (or decomposition) of natural gas into hydrogen and carbon. Preliminary analysis indicates that the cost of hydrogen produced by thermal decomposition of natural gas is somewhat lower than the conventional processes after by-product carbon credit is taken. In the short term, this process can be used for on-site production of hydrogen-methane mixtures in gas-filling stations and for CO{sub x}-free production of hydrogen for fuel cell driven prime movers. The experimental data on the thermocatalytic cracking of methane over various catalysts and supports in a wide range of temperatures (500-900{degrees}C) are presented in this paper. Two types of reactors were designed and built at FSEC: continuous flow and pulse fix bed catalytic reactors. The temperature dependence of the hydrogen production yield using oxide type catalysts was studied. Alumina-supported Ni- and Fe-catalysts demonstrated relatively high efficiency in the methane cracking reaction at moderate temperatures (600-800{degrees}C). Kinetic curves of hydrogen production over metal and metal oxide catalysts at different temperatures are presented in the paper. Fe-catalyst demonstrated good stability (for several hours), whereas alumina-supported Pt-catalyst rapidly lost its catalytic activity.

  16. Biosynthesis and Chemical Synthesis of Presilphiperfolanol Natural Products**

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Presilphiperfolanols constitute a family of biosynthetically important sesquiterpenes that can rearrange to diverse sesquiterpenoid skeletons. While the origin of these natural products can be traced to simple linear terpene precursors, the details of the enzymatic cyclization mechanism that form the stereochemically dense tricyclic skeleton have required extensive biochemical, computational, and synthetic investigation. Parallel efforts to prepare the unique and intriguing structures of thes...

  17. The 9th European Conference on Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 9th European Conference on Marine Natural Products (ECMNP in Glasgow follows its predecessors in La Toja (2013, Tjärnö (2011, Porto (2009, Ischia (2007, Paris (2005, Elmau (2002, Santiago de Compostela (1999, and Athens (1997. [...

  18. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  19. Anticancer agent-based marine natural products and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Wei; Wu, Qi-Hao; Rowley, David C; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products constitute a huge reservoir of anticancer agents. Consequently during the past decades, several marine anticancer compounds have been isolated, identified, and approved for anticancer treatment or are under trials. In this article the sources, structure, bioactivities, mode of actions, and analogs of some promising marine and derived anticancer compounds have been discussed. PMID:25559315

  20. Case studies of the synthesis of bioactive cyclodepsipeptide natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Kaiser; Stolze, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclodepsipeptide natural products often display intriguing biological activities that along with their complex molecular scaffolds, makes them interesting targets for chemical synthesis. Although cyclodepsipeptides feature highly diverse chemical structures, their synthesis is often associated with similar synthetic challenges such as the establishment of a suitable macrocyclization methodology. This review therefore compiles case studies of synthetic approaches to different bioactive cyclod...

  1. Towards a Synthesis of Naphthalene Derived Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    R. Barrow; McCulloch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dieckmann-type cyclization reactions have been employed in the synthesis of the alkyl substituted naphthoquinone 11 and the naphthalenes 10 and 12. Various conditions for the benzylic oxidation of these compounds have been investigated with a view towards the synthesis of some naphthalene based natural products.

  2. Using Genomics to Deliver Natural Products from Symbiotic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of some natural products with promising anticancer activity has been limited because they are synthesized by symbiotic bacteria associated with specific animals. Recent research has identified the clusters of bacterial genes responsible for their synthesis, so that the molecules can be synthesized in alternative, easily cultured bacteria.

  3. Solvent-free extraction of food and natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Allaf, Tamara; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This review presents useful and green techniques of solvent-free extraction used in ancient times, such as extraction of olive oil and citrus essential oil, and innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric field, microwave, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, and extrusion. We discuss the devices, their applications, mechanisms, and parameters influencing sample preparation prior to analysis of natural products.

  4. Expedient total synthesis of pyrrothine natural products and analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian; Nielsen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an expedient and straightforward total synthesis of the two pyrrothine natural products holomycin (7 steps, 11% overall) and xenorhabdin I (7 steps, 11% overall) and analogs thereof via a common late-stage intermediate. The pathway proceeds via the pyrrothine hydrochloride...

  5. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  6. Marine Natural Products as Lead Compound for New Drug Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Biao

    2001-01-01

    The study of natural product has long been motivated by a quest for some benefit to man, the discover. Recent years have witnessed growing attention to the isolation, identification and synthesis of the marine natural. Although marine organisms do not have a long history of medicine applications like terrestrial plants, some marine organisms have left an extensive record of hazard to mankind. The isolation and identification of saxtoxin, tetradotoxin and lyngbyatoxin resulted from such reported. The marine biosphere has long held great promise as source of anticancer compounds, while a number of screening efforts has indicated a much higher percentage of antineplastic and antitumor activity than terrestrial plants. Several marine natural products have made their appearance in clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute, such as the didemnis, , bryostatins, This finds marine invertebratehave reinvigorated interest and effort in anticancer agent from marine invertebrate.  ……

  7. Marine Natural Products as Lead Compound for New Drug Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Biao

    2001-01-01

    @@ The study of natural product has long been motivated by a quest for some benefit to man, the discover. Recent years have witnessed growing attention to the isolation, identification and synthesis of the marine natural. Although marine organisms do not have a long history of medicine applications like terrestrial plants, some marine organisms have left an extensive record of hazard to mankind. The isolation and identification of saxtoxin, tetradotoxin and lyngbyatoxin resulted from such reported. The marine biosphere has long held great promise as source of anticancer compounds, while a number of screening efforts has indicated a much higher percentage of antineplastic and antitumor activity than terrestrial plants. Several marine natural products have made their appearance in clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute, such as the didemnis, , bryostatins, This finds marine invertebratehave reinvigorated interest and effort in anticancer agent from marine invertebrate.

  8. Carbon isotope characteristics, origin and distribution of the natural gases from the Tertiary salty lacustrine facies in the West Depression Region in the Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓宝; 胡勇; 马立元; 孟自芳; 段毅; 周世新; 彭德华

    2003-01-01

    The Tertiary in the West Depression Region of the Qaidam Basin has the typical inland salty lacustrine deposits in China. 34 natural gas samples were collected from 13 oil fields in the West Depression Region in the basin, the chemical compositions and carbon isotopes of methane, ethane, propane, and butane were measured. According to the carbon isotope characteristics of natural gases in combination with geochemical characteristics of the source rocks and crude oils, the natural gases can be divided into sapropelic associated gas, mixed organic matter-derived associated gas, coal-derived gas and mixed gas. The carbon isotope characteristics, origin and distribution of the natural gases are considered to be related with the types and distribution of organic inputs in lake environments with different salinities. The lake salinity can regionally forecast the distribution of the different genetic types of natural gas. Compared with the different genetic types of natural gas from other Chinese basins, the carbon isotopes of the heavy hydrocarbons of the natural gas from the Tertiary salt lacustrine facies in the Qaidam Basin are extremely heavier. Therefore, this should be considered when natural gases are genetically classified in the basin.

  9. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains.

  10. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  11. Natural Products as a Source for Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Scotti, Luciana; Ishiki, Hamilton; Ribeiro, Frederico Fávaro; Cruz, Rayssa Marques Duarte da; Oliveira, Michelle Pedrosa de; Mendonça, Francisco Jaime Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are compounds extracted from plants, marine organisms, fungi or bacteria. Many researches for new drugs are based on these natural molecules, mainly by beneficial effects on health, health, efficacy, and therapeutic safety. Leishmaniosis, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness are neglected diseases caused by the Leishmania and Trypanosoma ssp. parasites. These infections mainly affect population of developing countries; they have different symptoms, and may often lead to death. The therapeutic drugs available to treat these diseases are either obsolete, toxic, or have questionable efficacy, possibly through encountering resistance. Discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable molecules is urgently needed. Natural organisms, as marine metabolites, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpene and coumarins provide innumerable molecules with the potential to treat these diseases. This study examines studies of natural bioactive compounds as antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:27682867

  12. Virtual Natural Product Library - full text searchable database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Bose. Kotte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Small molecules occurring in nature have special significance to mankind. They have varied applications from healthcare, food, nutrition, agriculture, personal care and well-being. These natural small molecules are from very diverse sources from the rarest plants to deep sea creatures. Recently they have assumed a lot of significance as pharmaceutical companies is constantly pushing the horizons to make them druggable due to their inherent bioactivities. Though they are not easy to synthesize or isolate, yet their diverse molecular scaffold confers them significance especially given the fact of prevailing resistance to drug scaffolds presently being used in the clinics. Hence its of paramount importance to have a database of diverse natural small molecules through the present effort of creating a Virtual Natural Products Library (VNPL-version 0.15.

  13. Natural products - plenty more where that came from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M.

    1980-12-22

    In this article, natural products and their possible use as renewable resources are reviewed. The fermentation of corn for the production of alcohol for motor fuel is discussed and other crops for this purpose include sugar cane, cassava, sweet potato and Jerusalem artichoke. The hydrolysis of cellulose to sugars based on enzyme hydrolysis is currently being researched in the USA. Also in the USA, Melvin Calvin hopes to breed a rubber-bearing plant whose latex can be easily cracked to motor fuel. Guayule and jojoba rubber-bearing plants are also the focus of research at present. The importance of natural vegetation in the manufacturing of medicines and in the chemical and food industries is stressed. Finally products of the sea, particularly alginates and carragheenins are mentioned, but as yet, the full potential of the sea to yield renewable resources is unknown.

  14. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  15. Metaphor in Natural Resource Gaming: Insights from the RIVER BASIN GAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Bruce; Watson, Drennan

    2007-01-01

    The RIVER BASIN GAME is a dialogue tool for decision makers and water users tested in Tanzania and Nigeria. It comprises a physical representation of a river catchment. A central channel flows between an upper watershed and a downstream wetland and has on it several intakes into irrigation systems. Glass marbles, representing water, roll down the…

  16. Isotopic Geochemistry of Non—hydrocarbons in Natural Gases from the Sanshui Basin,Guangdong Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建国; 刘文汇

    1991-01-01

    This study is focused on geothermal heat flow and the origin of non-hydrocarbons in natural gases in terms of the isotope geochemical characteristics of Ar,He,CO2 and N2 in natural gases from the Sanshui Basin,Guangdong Province,China,3He/4He,ratios are of from the Sanshui Basin,Guangdong Province,China,3He/4He ratios are of (1.60-6.39)×10-6,and 40Ar/36Ar ratios of 450841.The carbon isotopic composition (δ13 C PDB)of carbon dioxide ranges from -20‰to -2‰,δ15N (air) ratios have a wider range of -57‰-+95‰.The isotope geochemical characteristics of non-hydrocarbons indicate that He,Ar and N2 in the gas reservoirs enriched in non-hydrocarbons were derived largely from the upper mantle.Non-hydrocarbons in gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs consist mainly of crustal radiogenic 4He and 40Ar and some mantle-derived He and Ar, as well as of 13C-depleted carbon dioxide and nitrogen generated as a result of thermal decomposition of organic matter in strata.Carbon dioxide enriched in 13C was derived largely from carbonate rocks and partially from the lower crust and upper mantle.Based on the relationship between geothermal heat flor(A)and 3He/4He ration in natural gases,the Q values for the area studied have been calculated.Similar Q values are reported from the upper mantle uplift area(77mWm-2)in Huabei and the Tancheng Lujiang Rift Zone (88mWm-2).More than 60 percent of geothermal heat flow in the Sanshui Basin may haee been derived from the upper mantle.

  17. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  18. Exploiting the potential of marine natural products: structure elucidation and metagenomic approaches to biotechnological production

    OpenAIRE

    Della Sala, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Sponges represent the most prolific producers of novel marine bioactive secondary metabolites. In the last years, several drugs derived from marine natural products have appeared in the market, and others are in clinical trials. The aim of my research project was to exploit the unusual and often surprising chemistry of marine sponges, in the frame of the more general purpose of discovering and developing new drugs from natural products. The research work presented in this PhD Thesis was di...

  19. Assessment of multiple sources of anthropogenic and natural chemical inputs to a morphologically complex basin, Lake Mead, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Lakes with complex morphologies and with different geologic and land-use characteristics in their sub-watersheds could have large differences in natural and anthropogenic chemical inputs to sub-basins in the lake. Lake Mead in southern Nevada and northern Arizona, USA, is one such lake. To assess variations in chemical histories from 1935 to 1998 for major sub-basins of Lake Mead, four sediment cores were taken from three different parts of the reservoir (two from Las Vegas Bay and one from the Overton Arm and Virgin Basin) and analyzed for major and trace elements, radionuclides, and organic compounds. As expected, anthropogenic contaminant inputs are greatest to Las Vegas Bay reflecting inputs from the Las Vegas urban area, although concentrations are low compared to sediment quality guidelines and to other USA lakes. One exception to this pattern was higher Hg in the Virgin Basin core. The Virgin Basin core is located in the main body of the lake (Colorado River channel) and is influenced by the hydrology of the Colorado River, which changed greatly with completion of Glen Canyon Dam upstream in 1963. Major and trace elements in the core show pronounced shifts in the early 1960s and, in many cases, gradually return to concentrations more typical of pre-1960s by the 1980s and 1990s, after the filling of Lake Powell. The Overton Arm is the sub-basin least effected by anthropogenic contaminant inputs but has a complex 137Cs profile with a series of large peaks and valleys over the middle of the core, possibly reflecting fallout from nuclear tests in the 1950s at the Nevada Test Site. The 137Cs profile suggests a much greater sedimentation rate during testing which we hypothesize results from greatly increased dust fall on the lake and Virgin and Muddy River watersheds. The severe drought in the southwestern USA during the 1950s might also have played a role in variations in sedimentation rate in all of the cores. ?? 2009.

  20. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang;

    2013-01-01

    A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract......) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery...

  1. Sustainable biogas production. Learning from nature; Nachhaltige Biogaserzeugung. Was wir von der Natur lernen koennen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichgrebe, Dirk; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Breves, Gerhard [Stiftung Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Strecker, Michael [ARES-Consultants GbR, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The digestion process in the ruminant stomach is nature's most efficient system of cellulose conversion; its recreation as a technical process is the point of departure for improving the efficiency of biogas production in the RUMEN and DAUMEN research processes. (orig.)

  2. Characteristics of bleaching of sandstone in northeast of Ordos Basin and its relationship with natural gas leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; YanPing; LIU; ChiYang; ZHAO; JunFeng; HUANG; Lei; YU; Lin; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    Bleaching of sandstone has significant applications to tracing hydrocarbon pathways and evaluating the scale of natural gas seepage. Bleaching of sandstones in the northeast of Ordos Basin is mainly distributed in the Mesozoic Yan'an Formation. Studying on petrology, major elements, REEs and trace elements of bleached sandstones and comparing with adjacent sandstones, combining with geologic-geochemical evidences of gas seepage in the northeast of the basin, the bleached sandstones are formed in the acid environment and reducing fluids. Characteristics of petrology show that the contents of kaolinite are high and the color of margin of ferric oxide minerals is lighter than that of the center. Major elements of sandstone samples show high contents of Al2O3 and low ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+. The TFe2O3 content of the bleached sandstone is lower than that of red rock. REE data show that bleached sandstones have low ∑REE contents and Eu-depleted and slightly Ce-enriched. Trace elements show that the bleached sandstones enrich in Co, deplete in Sr, and slightly enrich in Zr and Hf which are close to the values for the green alteration sandstones, and slightly lower than ore-bearing sandstones. Geochemical characteristics of oil-bearing sandstone in the northern basin suggest that the oil-shows are formed by matured Carboniferous-Permian coal bed methane escaping to the surface, and natural gas in field could migrate to the north margin of the basin. The δ13C (PDB) andδ18O(PDB) values of calcite cement in the study area range from -11.729‰ to -10.210‰ and -14.104‰ to -12.481‰, respectively. Theδ13C (PDB) values less than -10‰ imply the carbon sources part from organic carbon. Comprehensive study suggests that the gas leakage has occurred in the northeastern basin, which is responsible for bleaching of the sandstone on top of the Yan'an Formation.

  3. Prospects for Strengthening the Security of Ukraine’s Energy Supply through Development of Unconventional Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the American experience in development of natural shale gas in the US, identifies the causes that led to the shale revolution. Its current state is characterized by achieving the peak production simultaneously with shift in the emphasis from natural shale gas to shale oil. The potential technically extracted gas reserves as well as trends in terms of the growth of conventional natural gas reserves and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas are regarded as global preconditions for enlargement of the shale natural gas output. Natural shale gas can be considered as an alternative project only for liquefied natural gas while, compared to pipeline gas, its production is uncompetitive. The national preconditions for development of the industry of nonconventional natural gas production are determined on the basis of the current trends in Ukraine’s gas market. The main obstacles to the realization of this direction are reduction of the gas needs and liberalization of natural gas trade on the basis of European principles. Economic evaluation of the feasibility of natural shale gas production made it possible to forecast its production cost at the wellhead at different depths and estimate its investment attractiveness in different aggregate states. On the basis of the approbation of the presented methodological approach carried out for the Dnieper-Donets and Carpathian shale basins, it was concluded that the investment attractiveness of the first one is higher, given its reservoir properties and the presence of deposits of nonconventional hydrocarbons in different states of aggregation.

  4. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  5. Phenazines and natural products; novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud J.; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1- phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization u...... under alkaline and reducing conditions. Assignments of 1H NMR spectra were achieved by homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D correlations. Double pulsed field gradient spin-echo one-dimensional NOESY proved especially valuable for assignment of aromatic protons....

  6. Phenazines and natural products; Novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1-phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization un...... under alkaline and reducing conditions. Assignments of H-1 NMR spectra were achieved by homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D correlations. Double pulsed field gradient spin-echo one-dimensional NOESY proved especially valuable for assignment of aromatic protons....

  7. Molecular Recognition of Natural Products by Resorc[4]arene Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Ghirga, Francesca; Quaglio, Deborah; Cerreto, Antonella; Ingallina, Cinzia; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This review is aimed at providing an overview of the up-to-now published literature on resorc[4]arene macrocycles exploited as artificial receptors for the molecular recognition of some classes of natural products. A concise illustration of the main synthetic strategies developed to afford the resorc[4]arene scaffold is followed by a report on the principles of the gas-phase investigation of recognition phenomena by mass spectrometry (MS). Emphasis is placed on gas-phase studies of diastereoisomeric complexes generated inside a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer by resorc[4]arene receptors towards a series of natural products, namely amino acids, amphetamine, ethanolamine neurotransmitters, dipeptides, vinca alkaloids and nucleosides. The literature outcomes discussed here, taken largely from our own revisited work, have been completed by references to other studies, in order to draw a broader picture of this rapidly evolving field of research. PMID:26654589

  8. [Proof of the indigenous nature of Populus alba L. in the western Mediterranean Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiron, Paul; Ali, Adam A; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Carcaillet, Christopher; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Around the western Mediterranean Basin, the ecological status of Populus alba, whether indigenous or introduced, is controversial. This note presents new palaeobotanical data based on analyses of leaf imprints from a travertine formation located in southern France. This travertine presents two levels with Populus alba imprints. The oldest level is dated back by 14C to the Early Holocene, i.e., 8890 +/- 70 BP. This demonstrates that Populus alba is an autochthonous species of the southern-France vegetation, removing speculations reporting that its distribution area was greatly influenced by Roman civilization. Finally, we discuss this new data in regard to other Pleistocene and Holocene deposits circum the Mediterranean Basin and in Europe, where this species was identified. PMID:15060983

  9. Natural fractures in a United Kingdom shale reservoir analog, Cleveland Basin, northeast England.

    OpenAIRE

    Imber, Jonathan; Armstrong, Howard; Clancy, Sarah; Daniels, Susan; Herringshaw, Liam; McCaffrey, Ken; Rodrigues, Joel; Trabucho-Alexandre, Joao; Warren, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    Faults and fractures within the well-exposed Lower Jurassic Cleveland Ironstone and Whitby Mudstone formations may provide insights into the tectonic history of gas-prospective, Mississippian shale in northern England. Sub-vertical opening mode fractures occur throughout the Cleveland Basin. Bed-parallel fractures, some of which contain blocky calcite fills, occur preferentially within well-bedded, clay-rich mudstones of the Cleveland Ironstone and Whitby Mudstone formations at Jet Wyke and P...

  10. Sponge Derived Marine Natural Products as Pharmaceutical Leads

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The field of marine natural products continues to produce novel bioactive agents. This work describes the investigation of three different marine sponge species that have yielded interesting new chemistry. Also covered are the isolation and structural characterization techniques used in this study. Two sponge samples from Papua New Guinea, a Suberea sp. and Cosinoderma sp. have yielded the new terpenoid compounds subersin, subersic acid, and a sulfonated terpene, halisulfate 8. These...

  11. Systems Biology Approaches to Understand Natural Products Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Manteca, Angel; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Nielsen, Lars K; Marcellin, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments that impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams, and terpenes are well-known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regul...

  12. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani; Pablo Cruz Morales; Angel eManteca; Francisco eBarona-Gomez; Lars Keld Nielsen; Esteban eMarcellin

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regul...

  13. Marine Natural Products as Inhibitors of Hypoxic Signaling in Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Marine natural products have become a major source of new chemical entities in the discovery of potential anticancer agents that potently suppress various antitumor molecular targets. As a consequence of insufficient vascularization, hypoxic regions form within rapidly growing solid tumor masses. Specific alterations of gene expression in these hypoxic tumor cells help facilitate the survival and metastatic spread of solid tumors. The transcriptional response to cellular hypoxia is primarily ...

  14. Antimicrobial natural products from Arctic and sub-Arcticmarine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Margey

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death world-wide and there is a growing need for new anti-infective agents to combat multi-resistant strains of bacteria and fungi. Marine natural products are promising sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. In the present thesis, an investigation into the antimicrobial metabolites of Arctic and sub-Arctic marine invertebrate species is presented. Extracts of seven ascidian species, six sponge species, a soft-alcyonid coral and a bryozoan species...

  15. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Antiproliferative Natural Products from Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian Thacher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an ongoing search for bioactive natural products from the endemic rainforests and surrounding ocean in Madagascar, a total of four extracts were comprehensively studied and were found to contain novel and/or bioactive compounds. The following dissertation discusses the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivity studies of these isolates. The following compounds from plants of Madagascarâ s rainforest are discussed in the order they were studied: flavonoids and...

  16. Polycyclic Xanthone Natural Products: Structure, Biological Activity and Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Dana K.; Sloman, David L.; Porco, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic xanthone natural products are a family of polyketides which are characterized by highly oxygenated, angular hexacyclic frameworks. In the last decade, this novel class of molecules has attracted noticeable attention from the synthetic and biological communities due to emerging reports of their potential use as antitumour agents. The aim of this article is to highlight the most recent developments of this subset of the xanthone family by detailing the innate challenges of the constr...

  17. Studies for the synthesis of marine natural products*

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David R.; Walsh, Martin J.; Claeboe, Christopher D.; Zorn, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The process of allylic transposition in SE′ reactions is a significant construct for synthesis. The flexibility of a variety of allylation strategies provides for the rational design of pathways to a diverse array of complex targets. Our recent studies of SE′ reactions will examine issues of stereoselectivity and efficiency in the context of applications toward the synthesis of marine natural products such as the xenicane diterpenes, which feature the strained E-cyclononene ring system, and p...

  18. Microscale Methodology for Structure Elucidation of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Molinski, Tadeusz F.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microscale spectroscopic techniques, particularly microcryoprobe NMR, allow discovery and structure elucidation of new molecules down to only a few nanomole. Newer methods for utilizing circular dichroism (CD) have pushed the limits of detection to picomole levels. NMR and CD methods are complementary to the task of elucidation of complete stereostructures of complex natural products. Together, integrated microprobe NMR spectroscopy, microscale degradation and synthesis, are syner...

  19. The C7N aminocyclitol family of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Taifo

    2003-02-01

    This review covers microbial secondary metabolites classified in the family of C7N aminocyclitols, a relatively new class of natural products that is increasingly gaining recognition due to their significant biomedical and agricultural uses. Their discovery and structure determinations, their biosynthetic origin, biological properties, chemical synthesis, as well as their further development for pharmaceutical uses are described. The literature from 1970 to July 2002 is reviewed, with 269 references cited.

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Prado; Altoé, Aline F.; Tatiana C. B. Gomes; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Marize S. Oliveira; Marli B. Ferreira; Gomes, Mateus B.; Fabiano N. Paschoal; Rafael von S. Souza; Daniela A. Silva; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aime...

  1. Five decades in the study of natural products*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Govindachari

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the five-decade long fascinating journey taken by Prof. T R Govindachari towards the study of the natural products of India. A variety of Indian plants were investigated by him for the study of their constituent alkaloids and terpenoids. The concluding part of the paper summarizes the isolation and identification of the constituents of the Neem kernel, which eventually led to the first X-ray structure determination of azadirachtin A.

  2. Can Invalid Bioactives Undermine Natural Product-Based Drug Discovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B.; Friesen, J. Brent; Chen, Shao-Nong; Graham, James; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput biology has contributed a wealth of data on chemicals, including natural products (NPs). Recently, attention was drawn to certain, predominantly synthetic, compounds that are responsible for disproportionate percentages of hits but are false actives. Spurious bioassay interference led to their designation as pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS). NPs lack comparable scrutiny, which this study aims to rectify. Systematic mining of 80+ years of the phytochemistry and biology ...

  3. Evaluation of TRMM Precipitation Product for Meteorological Drought Monitoring in Hai Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to spatial coverage, data availability and cost efficiency, this paper focused on studying the potential to apply the satellite rainfall product to monitor meteorological drought. Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is widely used around the world for research and operational applications on meteorological and agricultural drought monitoring and early warning. SPI was designed to be calculated for any location that has a long-term precipitation record. Therefore, the accuracy of monthly precipitation data of TRMM (the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) 3B43, was firstly investigated through comparison with rainfall data of forty ground stations in Hai Basin from 1998 to 2010. The significant correlations between the two sources were found during different durations of months, seasons and years, and the decision coefficients (R2) are separately 0.84, 0.52–0.82 and 0.60. A single parameterized correction equation was presented to calibrate the TRMM rainfall data to formulate the series rainfall dataset of 30 year from 1981 to 2010. Based on this dataset, the corrected TRMM rainfall data from 2000 to 2004 were used to calculate Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) pixel by pixel for Hai Basin. It was found that 3-month SPI was the best to depict the meteorological drought, which agreed well with the statistical drought information from 2000 to 2004

  4. Natural Products as Source of Potential Dengue Antivirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbson Ricardo Teixeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a neglected disease responsible for 22,000 deaths each year in areas where it is endemic. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for human beings, even though there have been great efforts to accomplish these goals. Several approaches have been used in the search for dengue antivirals such as screening of compounds against dengue virus enzymes and structure-based computational discovery. During the last decades, researchers have turned their attention to nature, trying to identify compounds that can be used as dengue antivirals. Nature represents a vast reservoir of substances that can be explored with the aim of discovering new leads that can be either used directly as pharmaceuticals or can serve as lead structures that can be optimized towards the development of new antiviral agents against dengue. In this review we describe an assortment of natural products that have been reported as possessing dengue antiviral activity. The natural products are organized into classes of substances. When appropriate, structure-activity relationships are outlined. The biological assays used to assess antiviral activity are briefly described.

  5. An overview on the potential of natural products as ureas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia V. Modolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureases, enzymes that catalyze urea hydrolysis, have received considerable attention for their impact on living organisms’ health and life quality. On the one hand, the persistence of urease activity in human and animal cells can be the cause of some diseases and pathogen infections. On the other hand, food production can be negatively affected by ureases of soil microbiota that, in turn, lead to losses of nitrogenous nutrients in fields supplemented with urea as fertilizer. In this context, nature has proven to be a rich resource of natural products bearing a variety of scaffolds that decrease the ureolytic activity of ureases from different organisms. Therefore, this work compiles the state-of-the-art researches focused on the potential of plant natural products (present in extracts or as pure compounds as urease inhibitors of clinical and/or agricultural interests. Emphasis is given to ureases of Helicobacter pylori, Canavalia ensiformis and soil microbiota although the active site of this class of hydrolases is conserved among living organisms.

  6. Automated genome mining of ribosomal peptide natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Kersten, Roland; Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingxun; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-07-31

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), especially from microbial sources, are a large group of bioactive natural products that are a promising source of new (bio)chemistry and bioactivity (1). In light of exponentially increasing microbial genome databases and improved mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic platforms, there is a need for computational tools that connect natural product genotypes predicted from microbial genome sequences with their corresponding chemotypes from metabolomic datasets. Here, we introduce RiPPquest, a tandem mass spectrometry database search tool for identification of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to analyze extensive peptide modifications and compute p-values of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We highlight RiPPquest by connection of multiple RiPPs from extracts of Streptomyces to their gene clusters and by the discovery of a new class III lanthipeptide, informatipeptin, from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 as the first natural product to be identified in an automated fashion by genome mining. The presented tool is available at cy-clo.ucsd.edu.

  7. Antimycobacterial natural products--an opportunity for the Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Juan; Coy, Ericsson David; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that one-third part of the world population is infected with the tubercle bacillus. While only a small percentage of infected individuals will develop clinical tuberculosis, each year there are approximately eight million new cases and two million deaths. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is thus responsible for more human mortality than any other single microbial species. The goals of tuberculosis control are focused to cure active disease, prevent relapse, reduce transmission and avert the emergence of drug-resistance. For over 50 years, natural products have served us well on combating infectious bacteria and fungi. During the 20th century, microbial and plant secondary metabolites have helped to double our life span, reduced pain and suffering, and revolutionized medicine. Colombia is a megadiverse country with enormous potential to offer leads for new antimycobacterial drugs. The principal aim of this article is to show a state of the art on antimycobacterial natural products research in Colombia compared to the rest of the world, in order to develop programs for bioprospecting with a view to determining the biological activity for pharmaceutical and industrial application of natural products in our country.

  8. Natural Products as a Source for Novel Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Mark G

    2016-08-01

    Natural products have historically been of crucial importance in the identification and development of antibacterial agents. Interest in these systems has waned in recent years, but the rapid emergence of resistant bacterial strains has forced their re-evaluation as a route to identify novel chemical skeletons with antibacterial activity for elaboration in drug development. This overview examines the current situation, highlights new natural product systems which have been found, together with re-examination of some old ones, and new technologies for their identification. While natural products certainly have the potential to re-emerge as a key start-point in antibacterial drug discovery, reports of new or reinvestigated structures need to be supported with sufficient quality chemical (solubility, stability), biochemical (including toxicity in particular, along with target information) and microbiological [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and resistance frequency] validation data to assist in the identification of promising hit structures and to avoid wasted effort from trawling over already cultivated territory. This is particularly important in a resource-limited research environment. PMID:27267698

  9. Natural products research in South Africa: 1890–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried E. Drewes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Having spent some 50 years as an organic chemist with an interest in medicinal plant chemistry in South Africa it was relevant now to ask three questions, (1 when were natural products first utilised, (2 who were the people involved, and (3 what is the status quo? Based on older literature published in the South African Journal of Chemistry, information gleaned from attendance at innumerable chemistry conferences, and relevant literature in university archives, a great deal of information was gathered to answer the first two questions. For example, that the first veterinarian to treat cattle diseases caused by poisonous plants in the Eastern Cape was Dr Jotella Soga in the 1890s. Contributions from other prominent scientists such as Marais, Rindl, Rimington and Warren followed. From about 1940 to the 1990s, researchers concentrated mainly on the isolation of new compounds from local plants for which some indigenous knowledge was recorded. Foreign chemists also arrived and did a fair amount of ‘exploitation’ of natural products. Thus, the anti-cancer compound combretastatin was first isolated from the indigenous tree Combretum caffrum. Plant chemistry in South Africa has blossomed in the last decade, with many students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, but with a keen interest in muti or medicinal chemistry, entering the field. Recent findings have rekindled the belief that a major development in natural products would at last emerge from Africa.

  10. Mining and engineering natural-product biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2007-07-01

    Natural products continue to fulfill an important role in the development of therapeutic agents. In addition, with the advent of chemical genetics and high-throughput screening platforms, these molecules have become increasingly valuable as tools for interrogating fundamental aspects of biological systems. To access the vast portion of natural-product structural diversity that remains unexploited for these and other applications, genome mining and microbial metagenomic approaches are proving particularly powerful. When these are coupled with recombineering and related genetic tools, large biosynthetic gene clusters that remain intractable or cryptic in the native host can be more efficiently cloned and expressed in a suitable heterologous system. For lead optimization and the further structural diversification of natural-product libraries, combinatorial biosynthetic engineering has also become indispensable. However, our ability to rationally redesign biosynthetic pathways is often limited by our lack of understanding of the structure, dynamics and interplay between the many enzymes involved in complex biosynthetic pathways. Despite this, recent structures of fatty acid synthases should allow a more accurate prediction of the likely architecture of related polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase multienzymes. PMID:17576425

  11. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO3, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO3, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process slightly enhanced

  12. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchán, D., E-mail: d.merchan@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); Auqué, L.F.; Acero, P.; Gimeno, M.J. [University of Zaragoza — Department of Earth Sciences (Geochemical Modelling Group), C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Causapé, J. [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO{sub 3}, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO{sub 3}, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process

  13. Theory of annual runoff evolution under natural-artificial dual mode and case study of Wuding River basin on the middle Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; WANG Chengming; WANG Jianhua; ZHOU Zuhao; CHEN Yiming

    2004-01-01

    Water cycling process in a river basin becomes more complicated because of the intensified impact by human activities. Study of the law of annual runoff evolution in a river basin is of great significance to quantitative analysis of the water resources condition in varied environment and prediction of the law of the water resources evolution in the future because year-based time span may best reflect the law of the water resources evolution driven by the nature and human activities in the river basin. This paper advances the theory of annual runoff evolution under natural-artificial dual mode based on the dual mode of the water resources evolution, and the theory is applied for the Wuding River Basin on the middle Yellow River as a case study. A thorough analysis of the precipitation-runoff relationship is made in the case of dynamic variation of ground surface conditions of the Wuding River basin, and the concept of water-soil conservation index area that indicates adoption of various measures for water and soil conservation to reflect ground surface conditions. Furthermore, precipitation-runoff empirical model is developed to reflect dynamic variation of the ground surface conditions of the river basin.The study may lay a solid foundation for the integrated theoretical platform of the law of the water resources evolution in the Yellow River basin and the dual model of the evolution.

  14. Possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nahed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model were evaluated in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico, and possible interventions were identified. A multi-criteria organic livestock conversion index (OLCI with 10 indicators comprising 35 variables was used. Information was obtained through participatory workshops, direct observation, and interviews to 91 farmers of 11 different communities in the municipalities of Mazapa de Madero (n = 17, Huitiupán (n = 30, and Tacotalpa (n = 44. Results show higher OLCI values in Mazapa (56.8% and Tacotalpa (56.7% than in Huitiupán (49.0%. The production units evaluated show: (i limitations with respect to indicators ecological weed control in pastures and crops, veterinary prevention and treatment, food safety, and ecological management, and (ii strengths to reach the organic standards are: feed management, sustainable pasture management, soil fertilization, ecological pest and disease control in pastures and crops, breeds and reproduction, and animal well-being. In order to revert the future scenario of conventional livestock production and to transition to organic cattle raising, it is necessary to: (1 train and advice farmers regarding ecological production techniques and management, principally with respect to the limitations pointed out, and (2 implement a policy for development of livestock raising with specific functional and structural changes.

  15. Natural streamflow simulation for two largest river basins in Poland: a baseline for identification of flow alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniewski, Mikołaj

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a previously developed large-scale and high-resolution SWAT model of the Vistula and the Odra basins, calibrated with the focus of natural flow simulation, in order to assess the impact of three different dam reservoirs on streamflow using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA). A tailored spatial calibration approach was designed, in which calibration was focused on a large set of relatively small non-nested sub-catchments with semi-natural flow regime. These were classified into calibration clusters based on the flow statistics similarity. After performing calibration and validation that gave overall positive results, the calibrated parameter values were transferred to the remaining part of the basins using an approach based on hydrological similarity of donor and target catchments. The calibrated model was applied in three case studies with the purpose of assessing the effect of dam reservoirs (Włocławek, Siemianówka and Czorsztyn Reservoirs) on streamflow alteration. Both the assessment based on gauged streamflow (Before-After design) and the one based on simulated natural streamflow showed large alterations in selected flow statistics related to magnitude, duration, high and low flow pulses and rate of change. Some benefits of using a large-scale and high-resolution hydrological model for the assessment of streamflow alteration include: (1) providing an alternative or complementary approach to the classical Before-After designs, (2) isolating the climate variability effect from the dam (or any other source of alteration) effect, (3) providing a practical tool that can be applied at a range of spatial scales over large area such as a country, in a uniform way. Thus, presented approach can be applied for designing more natural flow regimes, which is crucial for river and floodplain ecosystem restoration in the context of the European Union's policy on environmental flows.

  16. Investigations of Natural Products from Sponges and Sponge Associated Marine Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Varoglu, Mustafa

    1996-01-01

    Two areas of marine natural products were explored in this work. The young but established area of sponge natural products was investigated as a source of anticancer secondary metabolites. In addition, the newly emerging field of marine fungal natural products was studied to provide insight on the capacity of marine fungi to produce novel natural products. The possibility that marine fungi are a microbial source of sponge derived natural products was examined through chemical investigations ...

  17. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  18. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  19. Total Synthesis of the Natural Product-Pinosylvin and its Analog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We synthesised a natural product (10) , isolated from G.parvifolium , and its analog. The synthetic product was characterized by elemental analysis and 1H-NMR in comparision with the corresponding natural product.

  20. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Lake Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2013-01-01

    In terminal Pliocene–early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by paleo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7–2.4 Ma or that of 2.0–1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is depauperate and descends from ubiquistic so...

  1. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Terminal Pliocene-Early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by palaeo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7–2.4 Ma or that of 2.0–1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The Modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is poor and descends from ubiquistic S...

  2. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Ni; Fei Tao; Huaiqing Du; Ping Xu

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people’s attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most ...

  3. Polyphenols-rich natural products for treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, S; Andrica, F; Serban, Maria-Corina; Timar, R

    2015-01-01

    Currently, experimental and clinical evidences showed that polyphenols-rich natural products, like nutraceuticals and food supplements, may offer unique treatment modalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), due to their biological properties. Natural products modulate the carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring beta-cells integrity and physiology, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and the glucose using. Sea buckthorn berries, red grapes, bilberries, chokeberries and popular drinks like cocoa, coffee and green tea are all rich in polyphenols and may decrease the insulin response, offer in g a natural alternative of treatment in diabetes. Therefore, researches are now focused on potential efficacies of different types of polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, anthocyans and stilbenes. Animal and human studies showed that polyphenols modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, decrease glycemia and insulin resistance, increase lipid metabolism and optimize oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. It is important to understand the proper dose and duration of supplementation with polyphenols-rich extracts in order to guide effective therapeutic interventions in diabetic patients.

  4. Overcome Cancer Cell Drug Resistance Using Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment methods for cancer. However, failure in chemotherapy is not uncommon, mainly due to dose-limiting toxicity associated with drug resistance. Management of drug resistance is important towards successful chemotherapy. There are many reports in the Chinese literature that natural products can overcome cancer cell drug resistance, which deserve sharing with scientific and industrial communities. We summarized the reports into four categories: (1 in vitro studies using cell line models; (2 serum pharmacology; (3 in vivo studies using animal models; and (4 clinical studies. Fourteen single compounds were reported to have antidrug resistance activity for the first time. In vitro, compounds were able to overcome drug resistance at nontoxic or subtoxic concentrations, in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibiting drug transporters, cell detoxification capacity, or cell apoptosis sensitivity. Studies in vivo showed that single compounds, herbal extract, and formulas had potent antidrug resistance activities. Importantly, many single compounds, herbal extracts, and formulas have been used clinically to treat various diseases including cancer. The review provides comprehensive data on use of natural compounds to overcome cancer cell drug resistance in China, which may facilitate the therapeutic development of natural products for clinical management of cancer drug resistance.

  5. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  6. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  7. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people's attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design. PMID:26329726

  8. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-02

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people's attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design.

  9. Isotopic evidence of TSR origin for natural gas bearing high H2S contents within the Feixianguan Formation of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyou; ZHANG Shuichang; LIANG Yingbo; DAI Jinxing; LI Jian

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern area of Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, is the area with the maximal reserve of natural gas containing higher hydrogen sulphide (H2S) that has been found among the petroliferous basins of China, with the proven and controlled gas reserve of more than 200 billion cubic meters. These gas pools, with higher H2S contents averaging 9%, some 17%, are mainly distributed on structural belts of Dukouhe, Tieshanpo, Luojiazhai, Puguang, etc., while the oolitic-shoal dolomite of the Triassic Feixianguan Fm. (T1f) is the reservoir. Although many scholars regard the plentiful accumulation of H2S within the deep carbonate reservoir as the result of Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR), however, the process of TSR as well as its residual geological and geochemical evidence is still not quite clear. Based on the carbon isotopic analysis of carbonate strata and secondary calcite, etc., together with the analysis of sulfur isotopes within H2S, sulphur, gypsum, iron pyrites, etc., as well as other aspects including the natural gas composition, carbon isotopes of hydrocarbons reservoir petrology, etc., it has been proved that the above natural gas is a product of TSR. The H2S, sulphur and calcite result from the participation of TSR reactions by hydrocarbon gas. During the process for hydrocarbons being consumed due to TSR, the carbons within the hydrocarbon gas participate in the reactions and finally are transferred into the secondary calcite, and become the carbon source of secondary calcite, consequently causing the carbon isotopes of the secondary calcite to be lower (-18.2‰). As for both the intermediate product of TSR, i.e. sulfur, and its final products, i.e. H2S and iron pyrites, their sulfur elements are all sourced from the sulfate within the Feixianguan Fm. During the fractional processes of sulfur isotopes, the bond energy leads to the 32S being released firstly, and the earlier it is released, the lower δ34S values for the generated sulphide (H2S

  10. Estimation of potassium and magnesium flows in animal production in Dianchi Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachika, Yuta; Anzai, Hiroki; Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Irbis, Chagan; Li, Kunzhi; Kumagai, Hajime; Inamura, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate and evaluate potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) budgets and flows of animal production in the basin of Dianchi Lake, China. Feed sampling and farmer interviews were conducted in field surveys. The supplies of K and Mg from local and external feeds and the retention, production and excretion of animals were calculated individually for dairy cows, fattening pigs, breeding sows, and broilers and laying hens. The K and Mg flows on a regional level were estimated using the individual budgets. At the individual level, in dairy cattle, the K and Mg supplied from local feeds accounted for large parts of the total nutrient intakes, whereas in the other animal categories most of the K and Mg in the feeds depended on external resources. Our findings also suggested that excessive Mg intake resulted in high Mg excretion and low use efficiency in dairy cattle and fattening pigs. At the regional level, the K and Mg amounts of manure produced and applied in the area (K: 339 and Mg: 143 t/year) exceeded those used as local feeds. Our results imply the animal production potentially increased the K and Mg loads in the regional agriculture system. PMID:26420449

  11. Marine Natural Product Inhibitors of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are widely recognized to play an important role in acute inflammatory responses, and recent evidence has expanded their role to modulating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal compounds released from neutrophils that are recruited to the site of inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammation-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential for industrial and pharmaceutical application. Marine natural products that inhibit neutrophil activation could be used as drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies investigating marine natural products have reported novel anti-inflammatory agents. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms underlying their actions, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular events occurring in neutrophils, have not been reported in most of the associated research studies. Therefore, in this review, we will present marine products that inhibit neutrophil-associated inflammation. Furthermore, we will be limiting the detailed discussion to agents with well-investigated molecular targets. PMID:27472345

  12. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alex; Mubako, Stanley; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2016-06-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  13. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Damme

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Terminal Pliocene-Early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by palaeo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7–2.4 Ma or that of 2.0–1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The Modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is poor and descends from ubiquistic South-East African taxa and some Malawi Basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as palaeo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species.

  14. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Lake Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2013-09-01

    In terminal Pliocene-early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by paleo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7-2.4 Ma or that of 2.0-1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is depauperate and descends from ubiquistic southeast African taxa and some Malawi basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as paleo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species).

  15. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2012-12-01

    In Terminal Pliocene-Early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by palaeo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7-2.4 Ma or that of 2.0-1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The Modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is poor and descends from ubiquistic South-East African taxa and some Malawi Basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as palaeo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species).

  16. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Lake Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Damme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In terminal Pliocene–early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by paleo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7–2.4 Ma or that of 2.0–1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is depauperate and descends from ubiquistic southeast African taxa and some Malawi basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as paleo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species.

  17. Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and the

  18. Formation Mechanism and Controlling Factors of Natural Gas Reservoirs of the Jialingjiang Formation in the East Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs are distributed widely in the East Sichuan Basin, which are composed mainly of fractured reservoirs. However, natural gas with high concentration of H2S, ranging from 4% to 7%, was discovered in the Wolonghe Gas pool consisting primarily of porous reservoirs, while the other over 20 fractured gas reservoirs have comparatively low, tiny and even no H2S within natural gases. Researches have proved the H2S of the above reservoirs are all from the TSR origin. Most of the Jialingjiang Formation natural gases are mainly generated from Lower Permian carbonate rocks, the Wolonghe gas pool's natural gases are from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation, and the natural gases of the Huangcaoxia and Fuchengzhai gas pools are all from Lower Silurian mudstone. The formation of H2S is controlled by the characteristics and temperature of reservoirs, and is not necessarily related with gas sources. The Jialingjiang Formation in East Sichuan is buried deeply and its reservoir temperature has ever attained the condition of the TSR reaction. Due to poor reservoir potential, most of the gas pools do not have enough room for hydrocarbon reaction except for the Wolonghe gas pool, and thus natural gases with high H2S concentration are difficult to be generated abundantly. The south part of East Sichuan did not generate natural gases with high H2S concentration because the reservoir was buried relatively shallow, and did not suffer high temperature. Hence, while predicting the distribution of H2S, the characteristics and temperature of reservoirs are the necessary factors to be considerd besides the existence of anhydrite.

  19. Principles for an interactive multi-scale assessment of sustainable production limits - lessons from the Limpopo river basin case, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, Jochen; de Cleccq, Willem; Veraart, Jeroen; Vullings, Wies

    2015-04-01

    About 7.2 billion people currently live on the Earth and the population is projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, that growth will be mainly in developing countries, with more than half in Africa (United Nations 2013). Any local extension of irrigated agriculture in a region of scarce natural resources may potentially restrict the possibility to extend land and water use at another location of the same river basin. In order to support, develop and to assess such future interventions, it is important to define limits until which a sustainable production can take place at a given location, taking into account competing claims on natural resources, human welfare and impacts on environmental quality. We define Sustainable production limits as limits for the possible resource use, within which a production can be extended without restricting the growth opportunities at a neighboured location. The more threatened the natural resources become, the more important it is to consider the effect of other upcoming interventions within the same region. As a consequence, interventions for future resource use have to be assessed against the future available natural resources. This is of particular relevance for evaluating possible extensions of irrigation areas within a river basin. Investigating possible limits for extending irrigated agriculture at local scale requires an understanding of the complexity, including boundaries, activities, stakeholders, and opportunities at river basin scale, and more. Switching between the scales in this information, in a participatory process, appears to be a challenge in its own. Within the Limpopo River basin (South Africa), we analysed (i) possible interventions at local scale (transdisciplinary innovation of irrigation by smallholders, launching of PPPs), (ii) restrictions for developing irrigation at the Letaba sub basin scale, and (iii) water balance at the scale of the Limpopo basin. Experiences from the Limpopo case revealed, that

  20. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  1. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  2. NATURAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byadgi P.S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda described certain diseases which mimics Indian Kala-azar namely Visamajwara (Satatajwara, Krimi (Raktaja and Plihodara/Pliha roga are seems to be suitable correlation depending on their etiology, symptomatology, prognosis and treatment. Raktaja Krimi is also responsible for the manifestation Raktaja vyadhi, out of which Pliha roga is one. Plihodara is a syndrome characterized by splenomegally, debility, anorexia, indigestion, retention of stool and urine, thirst, bodyache, lassitude, cough, mild fever, emaciation, pain in belly, reddish or abnormal tinge or appearance of blue, green or yellow streaks on abdomen, severe anaemia etc.Visceral leishmaniasis patient presents at a late stage, with persistent but fluctuating low-grade fever, weight loss giving the appearance of severe starvation, spleno-or hepatosplenomegally. The skin is some times said to be muddy, pale or dark. Non-specific laboratory tests will show marked leucopenia (Pancytopenia, mainly neutropenia, anemia, and raised serum proteins, with reversal of albumin/globulin ratio. Morphology of subtypes of raktaja Krimi namely Jantumataraha mimics the leishmania donovani. Other than fever no other points supports the concept of Krimi with leishmaniasis. Besides this raktaja Krimi also manifests the diseases of blood, in which Pliha roga / Plihodara is one. Most of the clinical features mentioned for Plihodara / Pliha roga are similar with Indian Kala-azar. Besides this epidemiological incidence, etiology, pathogenesis and treatment support strongly to correlate the concept of Kala-azar vis-à-vis Plihodara / Pliha roga. So it may be summarized that Krimighna drugs as well as plihaghna and plihodara management principles are useful in the management of kala-azar. This article gives glimpses of natural products and their antileishmanial activity. It also provides the clue to select drugs from Ayurveda to develop antileishmanial drug. This article also provides the information

  3. Synthesis of New Anti-Cancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wanwan

    2016-01-01

    the synthetic entry into this structurally and biologically interesting class of natural products challenging. To date, there is only the one synthesis publication of the STR family that is developed by our lab, which present research also discussed within this dissertation. The synthetic development......) lactonization. The entire STR project was divided into two stages: stage-1, the semisynthesis of STR-2, -3, -8; stage-2, a method development and application in the synthesis of STR-26. The efficient synthetic entry finally delivered the syntheses of eight STR members included the most cancer disease related...

  4. Marine Vibrionaceae as a source of bioactive natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone;

    that some strains were capable of producing antibacterial compounds when grown on natural substrates such as chitin or seaweed. One Vibrio coralliilyticus strain was capable of producing the antibacterial compound when using chitin as the sole carbon source and in a live chitin model system, suggesting...... an ecological function. Using chemical profiling, vibrio strains were compared on a global scale, revealing that the production of certain compounds is a conserved feature independent of sample locations. Chemical screening techniques such as explorative solid-phase extraction led to the isolation of two novel...

  5. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  6. Production of liquid epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) by photochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled reduction of molecular weight of solid-form epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) by a 17 photochemical technique has been studied. The product would be used for preparing rubber-based resin for radiation curing. The technique studied the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the rate of molecular weight reduction of the solid rubber as well as its combination with reducing agent such as sodium nitrite. Analysis by IR spectroscopic technique suggests the formation of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups as a result of the ring-opening of the epoxy groups of rubber. NMR as well as IR spectra show the possible formation of furan-like species. (Author)

  7. Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in the research area of the community project MIRAGE: 'Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquatic systems' has been reviewed. This programme belongs to a specific research and technical development programme for the European Atomic Energy Community in the field of management and storage of radioactive waste. The review summarizes research progresses in subject areas: complexation with organics, colloid generation in groundwater and basic retention mechanisms in the framework of the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. The subject areas are being investigated by 23 laboratories under interlaboratory collaborations or independent studies. (orig.)

  8. Natural products from Bacillus subtilis with antimicrobial properties☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Yafei Liang; Mianbin Wu; Zhengjie Chen; Jianping Lin; Lirong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bacil us subtilis produces many chemical y-diverse secondary metabolites of interest to chemists and biologists. Based on this, this review gives a detalled overview of the natural components produced by B. subtilis including cyclic lipopeptides, polypeptides, proteins (enzymes), and non-peptide products. Their structures, bioactive ac-tivities and the relevant variants as novel lead structures for drug discovery are also described. The challenging effects of fermentation metabolites, isolation and purification, as wel as the overproduction of bioactive com-pounds from B. subtilis by metabolic engineering, were also highlighted. Systematical y exploring biosynthetic routes and the functions of secondary metabolites from B. subtilis may not only be beneficial in improving yields of the products, but also in helping them to be used in food industry and public medical service on a large-scale.

  9. Tectonic Setting and Nature of the Provenance of Sedimentary Rocks in Lanping Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin: Evidence from Geochemistry of Sandstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志明; 刘家军; 胡瑞忠; 何明勤; 刘玉平; 李朝阳

    2003-01-01

    The geochemical composition of sandstones in the sedimentary basin is controlled mainly by the tectonic setting of the provenance,and it is therefore possible to reveal the tectonic setting of the provenance and the nature of source rocks in terms of the geochemical composition of sandstones. The major elements,rare-earth elements and trace elements of the MesozoicCenozoic sandstones in the Lanping Basin are studied in this paper,revealing that the tectonic settings of the provenance for Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Lanping Basin belong to a passive continental margin and a continental island arc. Combined with the data on sedimentary facies and palaeogeography,it is referred that the eastern part of the basin is located mainly at the tectonic setting of the passive continental margin before Mesozoic,whereas the western part may be represented by a continental island arc. This is compatible with the regional geology data. The protoliths of sedimentary rocks should be derived from the upper continental crust,and are composed mainly of felsic rocks,mixed with some andesitic rocks and old sediment components. Therefore,the Lanping Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin is a typical continental-type basin. This provides strong geochemical evidence for the evolution of the paleo-Tethys and the basin-range transition.

  10. Distribution of natural radioisotopes in industrial products of titanium production technological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of source and decay product nuclides in industrial products of industrial technology is studied to evaluate the radiation factor and examine the possibility of natural uranium and possibility of natural uranium and thorium group radionuclide concentration in separate products and wastes of processes related to ilmenite reprocessing and titanium tetrafluoride production. Determination of gamma-radiating radionuclides is performed by precision gamma spectrometry method, determination of thorium and polonium-210 isotopes - by alpha-spectrometry method using isotope dilution with the participation of polonium-210 and polonium-208. It is ascertained that during ilmenite melting the source radionuclides as well as radium isotopes transfer to a slag fraction, and lead-210 and polonium-210 isotopes get to a dust fraction. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  12. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors.

  13. Use of Natural Products as Chemical Library for Drug Discovery and Network Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangyong Gu; Yuanshen Gui; Lirong Chen; Gu Yuan; Hui-Zhe Lu; Xiaojie Xu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Natural products have been an important source of lead compounds for drug discovery. How to find and evaluate bioactive natural products is critical to the achievement of drug/lead discovery from natural products. METHODOLOGY: We collected 19,7201 natural products structures, reported biological activities and virtual screening results. Principal component analysis was employed to explore the chemical space, and we found that there was a large portion of overlap between natural pr...

  14. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Merkel, David

    2013-10-31

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production

  15. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  16. Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and their exploitation, and the implications for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods. The value chains of nine NTFPs are investigated: (Apiculture products: honey, wax and propolis), pygeum ( ...

  17. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  18. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  19. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  20. Systematic Evaluation of Satellite-Based Rainfall Products over the Brahmaputra Basin for Hydrological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Ratna Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the flow generated in the Brahmaputra river basin is important for establishing an effective flood prediction and warning services as well as for water resources assessment and management. But this is a data scarce region with few and unevenly distributed hydrometeorological stations. Five high-resolution satellite rainfall products (CPC RFE2.0, RFE2.0-Modified, CMORPH, GSMaP, and TRMM 3B42 were evaluated at different spatial and temporal resolutions (daily, dekadal, monthly, and seasonal with observed rain gauge data from 2004 to 2006 to determine their ability to fill the data gap and suitability for use in hydrological and water resources management applications. Grid-to-grid (G-G and catchment-to-catchment (C-C comparisons were performed using the verification methods developed by the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG. Comparing different products, RFE2.0-Modified, TRMM 3B42, and CMORPH performed best; they all detected heavy, moderate, and low rainfall but still significantly underestimated magnitude of rainfall, particularly in orographically influenced areas. Overall, RFE2.0-Modified performed best showing a high correlation coefficient with observed data and low mean absolute error, root mean square error, and multiple bias and is reasonably good at detecting the occurrence of rainfall. TRMM 3B42 showed the second best performance. The study demonstrates that there is a potential use of satellite rainfall in a data scarce region.

  1. Evaluation of environmental adjustment contract for pig production in Pinhal river sub-basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Regina Mulinari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Environmental Adjustment Contract for pig production (EAC in improving the water quality in Pinhal River sub-basin, located in Concordia, west part of Santa Catarina State. The monitoring of water parameters occurred in eight sites of the river, during three years (2006-2009. To assess whether the EAC was efficient, Brazilian Water Law was used. The average annual concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS were: 130.2 mg/L, 137.0 mg/L, and 99.8 mg/L. Turbidity showed the same trend of TDS. Concentrations of nitrate and Total Phosphorus (TP decreased from 2006 to 2009; nitrate from 1.81 mg/L NO3-N to 1.54 mg NO3-N; TP from 0.29 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The same trends occurred for Fecal Coliforms and E. coli. These results show that obligations proposed by EAC had potentially improved water quality. These results can help the government, farmers, and society to establish environmentally sound and sustainable programs for pig production.

  2. Systems Biology Approaches to Understand Natural Products Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Manteca, Angel; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Nielsen, Lars K.; Marcellin, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments that impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams, and terpenes are well-known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed toward a shift in the exploitation of actinomycete’s biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation, and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets. PMID:26697425

  3. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  4. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eMaertens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the aromatic ring umpolung concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol, a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent, fortucine (antiviral and antitumor, erysotramidine (curare-like effect, platensimycin (an antibiotic, and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis. These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  5. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

  6. Assessing regional hydrology and water quality implications of large-scale biofuel feedstock production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Yonas; Yan, Eugene; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    A recent U.S. Department of Energy study estimated that more than one billion tons of biofuel feedstock could be produced by 2030 in the United States from increased corn yield, and changes in agricultural and forest residue management and land uses. To understand the implications of such increased production on water resources and stream quality at regional and local scales, we have applied a watershed model for the Upper Mississippi River Basin, where most of the current and future crop/residue-based biofuel production is expected. The model simulates changes in water quality (soil erosion, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in streams) and resources (soil-water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) under projected biofuel production versus the 2006 baseline year and a business-as-usual scenario. The basin average results suggest that the projected feedstock production could change the rate of evapotranspiration in the UMRB by approximately +2%, soil-water content by about -2%, and discharge to streams by -5% from the baseline scenario. However, unlike the impacts on regional water availability, the projected feedstock production has a mixed effect on water quality, resulting in 12% and 45% increases in annual suspended sediment and total phosphorus loadings, respectively, but a 3% decrease in total nitrogen loading. These differences in water quantity and quality are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The basin responses are further analyzed at monthly time steps and finer spatial scales to evaluate underlying physical processes, which would be essential for future optimization of environmentally sustainable biofuel productions.

  7. Isotopic and sedimentological clues to productivity change in Late Riphean Sea: A case study from two intracratonic basins of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Chakraborty; A Sarkar; S K Bhattacharya; P Sanyal

    2002-12-01

    Enriched 13C/12 ratios with 13C ∼3‰ (w.r.t PDB) of two Late Riphean (∼700-610Ma) intracratonic carbonate successions viz., Bhander Limestone of Vindhyan Basin and Raipur Limestone of Chattisgarh Basin suggest higher organic productivity during this period. This view is supported by sedimentological evidence of higher biohermal growth and consequent increase in depositional relief in the low gradient ramp settings inferred for these basins. Oxygen isotope analysis of these carbonates show distinct segregation between enriched deeper water carbonate mudstone and depleted shallow water stromatolite facies that received fresh water influx. This shows that facies-specific analyses can be useful in understanding the depositional setting of these sediments.

  8. Diverse Natural Products from Dichlorocyclobutanones: An Evolutionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés, Jean-Pierre; Delair, Philippe; Poisson, Jean-François; Kanazawa, Alice; Greene, Andrew E

    2016-02-16

    11-Nor PGE2 was prepared in our laboratory several years ago and used to obtain the corresponding ring-expanded γ-butyrolactam, γ-butyrolactone, and cyclopentanone derivatives. The conversion of a cyclobutanone into a cyclopentanone had relatively little precedent and merited further study. It was soon found that the presence of a single chlorine adjacent to the carbonyl not only greatly accelerated the reaction with ethereal diazomethane, but also substantially enhanced its regioselectivity; not surprisingly, a second chlorine further increased both. The confluence of this finding and the discovery by Krepski and Hassner that the presence of phosphorus oxychloride significantly improved the Zn-mediated dehalogenation procedure for the preparation of α,α-dichlorocyclobutanones from olefins provided the starting point for decades' worth of exciting adventures in natural product synthesis. A wide variety of naturally occurring 5-membered carbocycles (e.g., hirsutanes, cuparenones, bakkanes, guaianolides, azulenes) could thus be prepared by using dichloroketene-olefin cycloaddition, followed by regioselective one-carbon ring expansion with diazomethane. Importantly, it was also found that natural γ-butyrolactones (e.g., β-oxygenated γ-butyrolactones, lactone fatty acids) could be secured through regioselective Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cycloadducts with m-CPBA and that naturally occurring γ-butyrolactam derivatives (e.g., amino acids, pyrrolidines, pyrrolizidines, indolizidines) could be efficiently obtained by regioselective Beckmann ring expansion of the adducts with O-(mesitylenesulfonyl)hydroxylamine (Tamura's reagent). These 5-membered carbocycles, γ-butyrolactones, and γ-butyrolactam derivatives were generally secured in enantiopure form through the use of either intrinsically chiral olefins or olefins bearing Stericol, a highly effective chiral auxiliary developed specifically for this "three-atom olefin annelation" approach. In addition

  9. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  10. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  11. Hydrogen isotope composition of natural gases from the Tarim Basin and its indication of depositional environments of the source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By measuring carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions for C1, C2 and C3 of 74 gas samples, natural gases from the Tarim Basin can be divided into six groups on the basis of their origins: (1) coal-type gas derived from coal measures; (2) coal-type gas generated from the T-J lacustrine mudstones; (3) oil-type gas derived from the Cambrian and low Ordovician marine source rocks; (4) oil-type gas from the source rocks deposited in the marine-transitional facies; (5) mixing gas between gas derived from the Carboniferous transitional source rocks and the Mesozoic humic gas, and (6) mixing gases of thermal genetic gas and little deep gas in the Southwest depression of the Tarim Basin. The δ D values of methane in natural gases originating from different type kerogens are affected by both palaeo-environments of the source rock formation (kerogen types) and thermal maturity, with sedimentary environment (kerogen type) as the main controlling factor. Under the similar thermal maturity, the hydrogen isotope composition of methane is more enriched in deuterium in marine environments than lacustrine one. With the increase of thermal maturity and the increase of carbon atomic numbers of gaseous alkanes, the hydrogen isotopes become enriched in deuterium. The δ D values of ethane and propane (δ D2, δ D3) are controlled mainly by thermal maturity and to a lesser degree by sedimentary environment of the source rock formation. The partial reversal of hydrogen isotopes for gaseous alkanes would be related to the microbial oxidation, mixing of sapropelic and humic gases and / or mixing of gases from similar kerogen sources with various thermal maturities. In the oil-type gas, the sulfate reduction reaction would result in the reversed order of δ D1 and δ D2 (e.g. δ D1>δ D2).

  12. Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

  13. The characteristics and sources of natural gases from Ordovician weath-ered crust reservoirs in the Central Gas Field in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianqing; HU Guoyi; LI Jian; HOU Dujie; DONG Peng; SONG Zhihong; YANG Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    The Central Gas Field is a famous large-sized gas field in the Ordos Basin of China. However, identification of main gas sources of the Ordovician reservoirs in this gas field remains puzzling. On the basis of a lot of geochemical data and geological research on natural gases, the characteristics and sources of natural gases from Ordovician weathered crust reservoirs in the Central Gas Field in the Ordos Basin were studied. The results indicated that natural gases from Ordovician weathered crust reservoirs in the Central Gas Field in the Ordos Basin have similar chemical and isotopic com-positions to highly mature and over-mature dry gases. Both coal-derived gases and oil-type gases coexist in the Central Gas Field in the Ordos Basin. The former was derived mainly from Carboniferous-Permian coal measures and the latter from Lower Paleozoic marine carbonates. It is suggested that coal-derived gases occur in the eastern part of the Central Gas Field while oil-type gases may be pro-duced mainly in the northern, western and southern parts of the Central Gas Field in the Ordos Basin.

  14. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume II. Natural areas of the Lake Michigan drainage basin and endangered or threatened plant and animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, F.; Lindsley, D.

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation are now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endangered or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  15. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting

    2016-03-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering.

  16. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  17. Production of substitute natural gas by biomass hydrogasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffarian, M.; Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    Hydrogen, generated from renewable sources, is likely to play a major role in the future energy supply. The storage and transport of hydrogen can take place in its free form (H2), or chemically bound, e.g. as methane. However, the storage and transport of hydrogen in its free form are more complex, and probably would require more energy than the storage and transport of hydrogen in chemical form. An additional important advantage of the indirect use of hydrogen as energy carrier is, that in the future renewable energy supply, pads of the existing large-scale energy infra- structure could still be used. Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by biomass hydrogasification has been assessed as a process for chemical storage of hydrogen. Thermodynamic analysis has shown the feasibility of this process. The product gas of the process has a Wobbe-index, a mole percentage methane, and a calorific value quite comparable to the quality of the Dutch natural gas. With a hydrogen content below 10 mol%, the produced SNG can be transported through the existing gas net without any additional adjustment. The integrated system has an energetic efficiency of 81% (LHV). In the long term, the required hydrogen for this process can be produced by water electrolysis, with electricity from renewable sources. In the short term, hydrogen may be obtained from hydrogen-rich gases available as by-product from industrial processes. Results of thermodynamic analysis of the process and experimental work, application potentials of the process in the Netherlands, and plans for future development are presented. 21 refs.

  18. NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. El-Baroty

    2014-01-01

    used safely in the edible oil industry and cosmetics to delay its oxidation. It can be applied in other food industries as a natural antioxidant instead of synthetic antioxidants. Further study should be carried out to identify the predominant phenolics responsible for the antioxidant activity of by product extracts.

  19. The relations between natural gas hydrate distribution and structure on Muli basin Qinghai province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Qu, C.; Tan, S.; Zhang, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Muli area is located in a depression area which between middle Qilian and south Qilian tectonic elements. The natural gas hydrate stratum belongs the Jurassic series coal formation stratum, the main lithological character clamps the purple mudstone, the siltstone, the fine grain sandstone and the black charcoal mudstone for the green gray. The plutonic metamorphism is primarily deterioration function of the Muli area coal, is advantageous in forming the coal-bed gas. Cretaceous system, the Paleogene System and Neogene System mainly include the fine grain red clastic rock and clay stone. The distribution of Quaternary is widespread. The ice water - proluvial and glacier deposit are primarily depositional mode. The Qilian Montanan Muli permafrost area has the good gas source condition (Youhai Zhu 2006) and rich water resources. It is advantage to forming the natural gas hydrate. The natural gas hydrate is one kind of new latent energy, widely distributes in the mainland marginal sea bottom settlings and land permanent tundra. Through researching the area the structure ,the deposition carries on the analysis and responds the characteristic analysis simulation in the rock physics analysis and the seismic in the foundation, and then the reflected seismic data carried by tectonic analysis processing and the AVO characteristic analysis processing reveal that the research area existence natural gas hydrate (already by drilling confirmation) and the natural gas hydrate distribution and the structure relations is extremely close. In the structure development area, the fault and the crevasse crack growing, the natural gas hydrate distribution characteristic is obvious (this is also confirmed the storing space of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly crevasse crack). This conclusion also agree with the actual drilling result. The research prove that the distribution of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly controlled by structure control. The possibility of fault

  20. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Populations of anadromous salmonids in the Snake River basin declined precipitously following the construction of hydroelectric dams in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Raymond (1988) documented a decrease in survival of emigrating steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the Snake River following the construction of dams on the lower Snake River during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although Raymond documented some improvements in survival through the early 1980s, anadromous populations remained depressed and declined even further during the 1990s (Petrosky et al. 2001; Good et al. 2005). The effect was disastrous for all anadromous salmonid species in the Snake River basin. Coho salmon O. kisutch were extirpated from the Snake River by 1986. Sockeye salmon O. nerka almost disappeared from the system and were declared under extreme risk of extinction by authority of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1991. Chinook salmon were classified as threatened with extinction in 1992. Steelhead trout were also classified as threatened in 1997. Federal management agencies in the basin are required to mitigate for hydroelectric impacts and provide for recovery of all ESA-listed populations. In addition, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has the long-term goal of preserving naturally reproducing salmon and steelhead populations and recovering them to levels that will provide a sustainable harvest (IDFG 2007). Management to achieve these goals requires an understanding of how salmonid populations function (McElhany et al. 2000) as well as regular status assessments. Key demographic parameters, such as population density, age composition, recruits per spawner, and survival rates must be estimated annually to make such assessments. These data will guide efforts to meet mitigation and recovery goals. The Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (INPMEP) was developed to provide this information to managers. The Snake

  1. The microbial nature of laminated limestones: Lessons from the Upper Aptian, Araripe Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Bruno; Jahnert, Ricardo Jorge; Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Varejao, Filipe Giovanini; Assine, Mario Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Araripe Basin, located in northeastern Brazil, originated during the Gondwana continental break-up responsible for the opening of the South Atlantic during the Early Cretaceous. In the Araripe Basin, the post-rift Aptian sequence corresponds to the Santana Group, which is composed, in upward succession, of mostly clastic continental and rare carbonate layers of the Barbalha, Crato, Ipubi and Romualdo Formations. The laminated limestones of the Crato Formation were deposited in a lacustrine environment preceding the deposition of the Ipubi Formation evaporites. They are age-equivalent to the limestones of the pre-salt interval of the east coast of Brazil, which contains large petroleum reserves. The excellent preservation of its macrofossils has made the Crato Formation known worldwide as a Fossil Lagerstätte. The limestones are macroscopically homogeneous, and their deposition has been previously attributed to chemical precipitation. Although the carbonate laminites are macroscopically undifferentiated, mineralogical variations, microscopic texture and distinctive biotic aspects supported the characterization of four microfacies: planar laminated, crustiform, nodular and rhythmic. The microfacies analysis indicated a strong and pervasive biological activity in the Crato limestone morphogenesis. Organominerals precipitated by the metabolic action of cyanobacteria and/or sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic-oxidizing archea are represented by calcite and pyrite. Calcified coccoid and filaments are common, furthermore, the presence of calcified biofilms composed of exopolymeric substances (EPS) is ubiquitous. The presence of amorphous organic matter (AOM) and gypsum, particularly in the rhythmic microfacies, indicates anoxic/dysoxic conditions and stressful environments during periods of drought and low lake levels which favored the development and preservation of microbial biofilms. Phytoclasts and miospores when present in the succession indicate an

  2. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F; Gomes, Tatiana C B; Leal, Alexandre S; Morais, Vanessa A D; Oliveira, Marize S; Ferreira, Marli B; Gomes, Mateus B; Paschoal, Fabiano N; von S Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E G

    2012-10-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg(-1) and 1.0 µg kg(-1) respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  3. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15, immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1. The results revealed low aflatoxin B1contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination.

  4. Cholesterol overload impairing cerebellar function: the promise of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I H

    2015-05-01

    The cerebellum is the part of the brain most involved in controlling motor and cognitive function. The surface becomes convoluted, forming folia that have a characteristic internal structure of three layers including molecular, Purkinje cell, and granular layer. This complex neural network gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability. Cholesterol is a major constituent, derived by de novo synthesis and the blood-brain barrier. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between neurons and glia-that is, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes-and is essential for normal brain development. The axon is wrapped by myelin (cholesterol, phospholipids, and glycosphingolipids) and made up of membranes of oligodendrocytes, separated by periodic gaps in the myelin sheath, called nodes of Ranvier. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with increased oxidative stress and the development of neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment with natural products has been found to support improved brain function and reduce low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol level. Fish oil is one such product; among the many plant products are: Morus alba leaves, fruit, and bark; pomegranate fruit and peel; Barley β - glucans; date palm; and Allium sativum. The therapeutic potential was discussed in relation with the antilipidemic drugs, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors).

  5. Progress toward the synthesis of the transtaganolide/basiliolide natural products: an Ireland–Claisen approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Hosea M.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts toward the synthesis of the transtaganolide natural product family are described. A highly efficient Ireland–Claisen/Diels–Alder approach has been developed, which rapidly constructs the highly oxygenated and stereochemically rich core of these natural products.

  6. Accessing natural product biosynthetic processes by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, Stefanie B; Kelleher, Neil L

    2008-10-01

    Two important classes of natural products are made by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). With most biosynthetic intermediates covalently tethered during biogenesis, protein mass spectrometry (MS) has proven invaluable for their interrogation. New mass spectrometric assay formats (such as selective cofactor ejection and proteomics style LC-MS) are showcased here in the context of functional insights into new breeds of NRPS/PKS enzymes, including the first characterization of an 'iterative' PKS, the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotics, the study of a new strategy for PKS initiation via a GNAT-like mechanism, and the analysis of branching strategies in the so-called 'AT-less' NRPS/PKS hybrid systems. The future of MS analysis of NRPS and PKS biosynthetic pathways lies in adoption and development of methods that continue bridging enzymology with proteomics as both fields continue their post-genomic acceleration. PMID:18706516

  7. Structure Determination of Natural Products by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    I review laboratory research on the development of mass spectrometric methodology for the determination of the structure of natural products of biological and medical interest, which I conducted from 1958 to the end of the twentieth century. The methodology was developed by converting small peptides to their corresponding polyamino alcohols to make them amenable to mass spectrometry, thereby making it applicable to whole proteins. The structures of alkaloids were determined by analyzing the fragmentation of a known alkaloid and then using the results to deduce the structures of related compounds. Heparin-like structures were investigated by determining their molecular weights from the mass of protonated molecular ions of complexes with highly basic, synthetic peptides. Mass spectrometry was also employed in the analysis of lunar material returned by the Apollo missions. A miniaturized gas chromatograph mass spectrometer was sent to Mars on board of the two Viking 1976 spacecrafts.

  8. Natural Product Discovery through Improved Functional Metagenomics in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hala A; Low-Beinart, Lila; Obiajulu, Joseph U; Brady, Sean F

    2016-08-01

    Because the majority of environmental bacteria are not easily culturable, access to many bacterially encoded secondary metabolites will be dependent on the development of improved functional metagenomic screening methods. In this study, we examined a collection of diverse Streptomyces species for the best innate ability to heterologously express biosynthetic gene clusters. We then optimized methods for constructing high quality metagenomic cosmid libraries in the best Streptomyces host. An initial screen of a 1.5 million-membered metagenomic library constructed in Streptomyces albus, the species that exhibited the highest propensity for heterologous expression of gene clusters, led to the identification of the novel natural product metatricycloene (1). Metatricycloene is a tricyclic polyene encoded by a reductive, iterative polyketide-like gene cluster. Related gene clusters found in sequenced genomes appear to encode a largely unexplored collection of structurally diverse, polyene-based metabolites. PMID:27447056

  9. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Eléna Motuhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs.

  10. From retrospective assessment to prospective decisions in natural product isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kenneth T; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T;

    2011-01-01

    An extract of Carthamus oxyacantha (wild safflower) was investigated using two approaches: a traditional, nontarget fractionation by VLC and HPLC, and the hyphenated technique HPLC-PDA-HRMS-SPE-NMR followed by targeted isolation of selected constituents for inclusion in a screening library of pure...... natural products. While the nontarget fractionation involved considerable time spent on pursuing fractions containing well-known or undesired compounds, the hyphenated analysis was considerably faster and required less solvent and other consumables. The results were used to design and execute an optimized......, HPLC-HRMS-guided, targeted isolation scheme aiming exclusively at a series of identified spiro compounds. Thus, HPLC-PDA-HRMS-SPE-NMR is a dereplication technique of choice, allowing economical acquisition of comprehensive data about compounds in crude extracts, which can be used for rational...

  11. Structure Determination of Natural Products by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du.

    High-field NMR experiments were used to determine the full structures of six new natural products extracted from plants. These are: four saponins (PT-2, P1, P2 and P3) from the plant Alphitonia zizyphoides found in Samoa; one sesquiterpene (DF-4) from Douglas fir and one diterpene derivative (E-2) from a Chinese medicinal herb. By concerted use of various 1D and 2D NMR techniques, the structures of the above compounds were established and complete resonance assignments were achieved. The 2D INADEQUATE technique coupled with a computerized spectral analysis was extensively used. When carried out on concentrations as low as 60 mg of sample, this technique provided absolute confirmation of the assignments for 35 of the possible 53 C-C bonds for PT-2. On 30 mg of sample of E-21, it revealed 22 of 28 possible C-C bonds.

  12. The Complexity of Bioactive Natural Products in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina

    Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive natural products promoting their fitness. These specialized metabolites may serve as chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens and may inhibit the growth and development of competing species. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two...... classes of defence compounds, which have diverging properties, but also share common biosynthetic features. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are produced in species across the plant kingdom, whereas glucosinolates are found almost exclusively within the Brassicales, which generally does not contain...... these two plant species interesting gateways for addressing these questions of evolution. The presented research demonstrates that the biosynthetic pathway for the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in A. petiolata does not follow the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in other...

  13. Deoxygedunin, a natural product with potent neurotrophic activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wuk Jang

    Full Text Available Gedunin, a family of natural products from the Indian neem tree, possess a variety of biological activities. Here we report the discovery of deoxygedunin, which activates the mouse TrkB receptor and its downstream signaling cascades. Deoxygedunin is orally available and activates TrkB in mouse brain in a BDNF-independent way. Strikingly, it prevents the degeneration of vestibular ganglion in BDNF -/- pups. Moreover, deoxygedunin robustly protects rat neurons from cell death in a TrkB-dependent manner. Further, administration of deoxygedunin into mice displays potent neuroprotective, anti-depressant and learning enhancement effects, all of which are mediated by the TrkB receptor. Hence, deoxygedunin imitates BDNF's biological activities through activating TrkB, providing a powerful therapeutic tool for treatment of various neurological diseases.

  14. Distribution and geochemical characterization of coalbed gases at excavation fields at natural analogue site area Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Žigon, Stojan; Grassa, Fausto; Sedlar, Jerneja; Zadnik, Ivo; Zavšek, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional gas resources, including coal bed methane and shale gas, are a growing part of the global energy mix, which has changed the economic and strategic picture for gas consuming and producing countries, including the USA, China and Australia that, together are responsible for around half the currently recoverable unconventional gas resources. However, CBM production was often hindered by low permeability and mineralization in cleats and fractures, necessitating the development of cost effective horizontal drilling and completion techniques. Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at excavation fields in Velenje Basin started in year 2000, with the aim to obtain better insights into the origin of coalbed gases. Results from active excavation fields in the mining areas Pesje and Preloge in the year period 2014-2015 are presented in this study. Composition and isotopic composition of coalbed gases were determined with mass - spectrometric methods. The chemical (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen) and isotopic composition of carbon in methane and carbon dioxide in the Velenje Basin vary and depend on the composition of the source of coalbed gas before excavation, advancement of the working face, depth of the longwall face, pre-mining activity and newly mined activity. The basic gas components determined in excavation fields are carbon dioxide and methane. Knowledge of the stable isotope geochemistry of coal bed and shale gas and the related production water is essential to determine not only gas origins but also the dominant methanogenic pathway in the case of microbial gas. Concentrations of methane at active excavation fields are changing from 1.8 to 63.9 %, concentrations of carbon dioxide are changing from 36.1 to 98.2% and CDMI (Carbon Dioxide Methane Index) index from 0.2 to 100 %. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide is changing from -11.0 to -1.9‰ , isotopic composition of methane from -71.8 to -43.3‰ , isotopic composition of

  15. Temperature effects on fish production across a natural thermal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Ólafsson, Ólafur P; Demars, Benoît O L; Friberg, Nikolai; Guðbergsson, Guðni; Hannesdóttir, Elísabet R; Jackson, Michelle C; Johansson, Liselotte S; McLaughlin, Órla B; Ólafsson, Jón S; Woodward, Guy; Gíslason, Gísli M

    2016-09-01

    Global warming is widely predicted to reduce the biomass production of top predators, or even result in species loss. Several exceptions to this expectation have been identified, however, and it is vital that we understand the underlying mechanisms if we are to improve our ability to predict future trends. Here, we used a natural warming experiment in Iceland and quantitative theoretical predictions to investigate the success of brown trout as top predators across a stream temperature gradient (4-25 °C). Brown trout are at the northern limit of their geographic distribution in this system, with ambient stream temperatures below their optimum for maximal growth, and above it in the warmest streams. A five-month mark-recapture study revealed that population abundance, biomass, growth rate, and production of trout all increased with stream temperature. We identified two mechanisms that contributed to these responses: (1) trout became more selective in their diet as stream temperature increased, feeding higher in the food web and increasing in trophic position; and (2) trophic transfer through the food web was more efficient in the warmer streams. We found little evidence to support a third potential mechanism: that external subsidies would play a more important role in the diet of trout with increasing stream temperature. Resource availability was also amplified through the trophic levels with warming, as predicted by metabolic theory in nutrient-replete systems. These results highlight circumstances in which top predators can thrive in warmer environments and contribute to our knowledge of warming impacts on natural communities and ecosystem functioning. PMID:26936833

  16. Impact of natural reforestation on floodpain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in floodplain sediment dynamics have profound effects on riverine habitats and riparian biodiversity. Depopulation due to socio-economic changes in the Dragonja catchment (91 km2) in southwestern Slovenia resulted in the abandonment of agricultural fields, followed by natural reforestation s

  17. A Comparison of Wholesaler/Retailer Business Characteristics of Natural Products between Ghana and Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Simon, James E.; Puduri, Venkata S.; Juliani, H. Rodolfo; Asante-Dartey, Juliana; Arthur, Hanson; Diawuo, Bismarck; Acquaye, Dan; Hitimana, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The usage of natural products is becoming an increasingly common consumer phenomenon due to increasing health consciousness, and because of their naturalness, and medicinal qualities of the products. African countries are very rich with natural products resources and supplies. The continent’s rich botanical heritage offers an excellent opportunity to diversify away from other traditional exports. Europe and the USA are particularly promising markets for natural products. Thus, it is advantage...

  18. Marine Natural Products as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Cherigo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its multi-drug resistance properties in cancer. BCRP can be associated with clinical cancer drug resistance, in particular acute myelogenous or acute lymphocytic leukemias. The overexpression of BCRP contributes to the resistance of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as topotecan, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and daunorubicin. The Food and Drugs Administration has already recognized that BCRP is clinically one of the most important drug transporters, mainly because it leads to a reduction of clinical efficacy of various anticancer drugs through its ATP-dependent drug efflux pump function as well as its apparent participation in drug resistance. This review article aims to summarize the different research findings on marine natural products with BCRP inhibiting activity. In this sense, the potential modulation of physiological targets of BCRP by natural or synthetic compounds offers a great possibility for the discovery of new drugs and valuable research tools to recognize the function of the complex ABC-transporters.

  19. New natural product carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating phenol moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Bilia, Anna-Rita; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. The need to find selective CA inhibitors (CAIs) triggered the investigation of natural product libraries, which proved to be a valid source of agents with such an activity, as demonstrated for the phenols, polyamines and coumarins. Herein we report an in vitro inhibition study of human (h) CA isoforms hCAs I, II, IV, VII and XII with a panel of natural polyphenols including flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones and depsides, some of which extracted from Quercus ilex and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting some important isoforms over the off-target ones hCA I and II.

  20. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more

  1. Isotopes as natural tracers in the water cycle: examples from the Carpathian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotopes are the best tracers in the water cycle. These isotopes can be grouped by different point of views, e.g. 1) stable or radioactive; 2) incorporated in the water molecule or not incorporated in the water molecule. Those incorporated in the water molecule gives information about the water itself, while the others give information about the solutes or physical conditions during the infiltration of water. The stable environmental isotopes: 1 H, 2 H (D), 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 10 B, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 20 Ne, 22 Ne, 32 S, 34 S, 35 Cl, 37 Cl, 79 Br, 81 Br, 86 Sr, 87 Sr. The radioactive environmental isotopes: 3 H (T), 14 C, 37 Cl, 39 Ar, 85 Kr, 129 I, 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 234 U, 238 U. Among the above isotopes the most commonly used are T, 2 H/1 H, 18 O/16 O, 13 C/12 C, 14 C. The stable isotope composition (δD, δ18 O) of precipitation depends on the distance from the seas, altitude, latitude and the mean temperature of surface air. As a result of the relation between the temperature and the stable isotope composition of precipitation, deeper groundwater resources infiltrated during the Ice Age in the Carpathian Basin possess an isotopic composition definitely different from those infiltrated during the Holocene (latest 10 000 years). Regarding the oxygen isotope composition: the δ18 O value of the Ice Age water is between -11 0/00 and -14 0/00 vs. VSMOW, while that of the Holocene water is between -9 0/00 and -9.7 0/00. This phenomenon allows us to trace the flow of water under the surface, to determine the origin of water and to identify mixing processes. Usual problem is the over-exploitation of groundwater, when the amount of extracted (exploited) water is higher than what the aquifer can provide, and, as a result, the potentially or actually polluted near surface water flows down to the aquifer and mixes with the deep water. In the Carpathian Basin, in many cases, this deep groundwater was infiltrated in the

  2. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

  3. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Powder River Basin for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvasnicka, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Powder River Basin. General research, based on a review of published literature from both private and public sources, indicates that the shallow, thick subbituminous coal seams found in the Powder River Basin exhibit significant potential for the application of this patented process. These coal deposits can be characterized, on the basis of established coalbed methane production, as being highly water productive. The desorption and economic recovery of coalbed methane, widely believed to be biogenic in origin, from these low-grade deposits will require the subsequent dewatering of these geologic formations. The patented process, developed by Mr. McIntyre and described in the compendium of this study, may offer a cost-effective means of methane recovery and downhole disposal of produced groundwaters.

  4. Mercury, methylmercury, and other water-quality data from flood-control impoundments and natural waters of the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.; Olson, Mark L.; DeWild, John F.

    1999-01-01

    It is now well documented that impoundment of natural waters, with inundation of terrestrial area, results in enhanced conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, a form that is toxic and bioaccumulates to a greater extent than inorganic mercury. Concentrations of mercury, methylmercury, and other water-quality constituents are reported from water sampled from flood-control impoundments and natural (unimpounded) waters of the Red River of the North Basin from 1997-99.

  5. Genetic Classification of Natural Gases in the Oil—Gas Zone and Its Application in the Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄籍中

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of the carbon isotopic compositions of methane(CH4) and its homologues and the differences in isotopic values for CH4 and ethane (C2H6) and the correlation and compositional char-acteristics of hydrocarbon gases, the author has proposed a genetic classification of natural gases in the oil-gas zone.They are classified as biogenetic and abiogenetic gases in terms of the types of hydrocarbon-generating precursors (or parent materials) and their thermal evolution stages.Biogenetic gases can also be further divided into two series: biochemical and thermochemical gases,with the lat-ter formed at different evolution stages.Gases generated from type-I and -II1 organic matter are called oil-series gases, those from type-III, coal -series ,and those type -II2,mixture-type gases.Gases generated from two or more than two types of precursors are called mixture-source gases.According to those mentioned above, natural gases from the major oil-gas pools in the Sichuan Basin have been discriminantly analyzed,and the results are concordant with the distribution and de-velopment of hydrocarbon-source rocks as well as with their characteristics, indicating a prospective application.

  6. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argilla- ceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000--4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  7. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MengJun; ZHANG ShuiChang; ZHAO Lin; DA Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000-4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  8. Hydrogen isotope composition of natural gases from the Tarim Basin and its indication of depositional environments of the source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU QuanYou; DAI JinXing; LI Jian; ZHOU QingHua

    2008-01-01

    By measuring carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions for C1, C2 and C3 of 74 gas samples, natural gases from the Tarim Basin can be divided into six groups on the basis of their origins: (1) coal-type gas derived from coal measures; (2) coal-type gas generated from the T-J lacustrine mudstones; (3) oil-type gas derived from the Cambrian and low Ordovician marine source rocks; (4) oil-type gas from the source rocks deposited in the marine -transitional facies; (5) mixing gas between gas derived from the Carboniferous transitional source rocks and the Mesozoic humic gas, and (6) mixing gases of of methane in natural gases originating from different type kerogens are affected by both palaeo-environments of the source rock formation (kerogen types) and thermal maturity, with sedimentary environment (kerogen type) as the main controlling factor. Under the similar thermal maturity, the hydrogen isotope composition of methane is more enriched in deuterium in marine environments than lacustrine one. With the increase of thermal maturity and the increase of carbon atomic numbers of environment of the source rock formation. The partial reversal of hydrogen isotopes for gaseous alkanes would be related to the microbial oxidation, mixing of sapropelic and humic gases and / or mixing of gases from similar kerogen sources with various thermal maturities. In the oil-type gas, the sul

  9. Origin of minerals in joint and cleat systems of the Pottsville Formation, Black Warrior basin, Alabama: Implications for coalbed methane generation and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, J.K.; Pashin, J.C.; Hatch, J.R.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Coalbed methane is produced from naturally fractured strata in the lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the eastern part of the Black Warrior basin, Alabama. Major fracture systems include orthogonal fractures, which consist of systematic joints in siliciclastic strata and face cleats in coal that strike northeast throughout the basin. Calcite and minor amounts of pyrite commonly fill joints in sandstone and shale and, less commonly, cleats in coal. Joint-fill calcite postdates most pyrite and is a weakly ferroan, coarse-crystalline variety that formed during a period of uplift and erosion late in the burial history. Pyrite forms fine to coarse euhedral crystals that line joint walls or are complexly intergrown with calcite. Stable-isotope data reveal large variations in the carbon isotope composition of joint- and cleat-fill calcite (-10.3 to + 24.3??? Peedee belemnite [PDB]) but only a relatively narrow range in the oxygen-isotope composition of this calcite (-16.2 to -4.1 ??? PDB). Negative carbon values can be attributed to 13C-depleted CO2 derived from the oxidation of organic matter, and moderately to highly positive carbon values can be attributed to bacterial methanogenesis. Assuming crystallization temperatures of 20-50??C, most joint- and cleat-fill calcite precipitated from fluids with ??18O ratios ranging from about -11 to +2 ??? standard mean ocean water (SMOW). Uplift and unroofing since the Mesozoic led to meteoric recharge of Pottsville strata and development of freshwater plumes that were fed by meteoric recharge along the structurally upturned, southeastern margin of the basin. Influxes of fresh water into the basin via faults and coalbeds facilitated late-stage bacterial methanogenesis, which accounts for the high gas content in coal and the carbonate cementation of joints and cleats. Diagenetic and epigenetic minerals can affect the transmissivity and storage capacity of joints and cleats, and they appear to contribute significantly to

  10. In Situ Production of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers in a Great Basin Hot Spring (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlun eZhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core-bGDGTs and polar (P- bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62-86°C in the Great Basin (USA. First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their Core (C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (Atribacteria. These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear.

  11. Fingerprinting of Natural Product by Eastern Blotting Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We succeeded in developing the fingerprint of natural product by eastern blotting using monoclonal antibodies. After developing and separating them on a TLC plate, solasodine glycosides are oxidized by NaIO4 and reacted with a protein to give conjugates which are recognized with anti-solamargine monoclonal antibody (MAb. Anti-solamargine MAb having wide cross-reactivity can stain and detect all solasodine glycosides by fingerprint. Different sensitivity between solamargine and solasonine was observed. The detection limit was 1.6 ng of solasonine. The hydrolysed products of solamargine were determined by fingerprint of eastern blotting compared to their Rf values depending on the sugar number. Fingerprint by eastern blotting using anti-ginsenoside Rb1 MAb distinguished the formula containing ginseng prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine. By double-staining of ginsenosides it is possible to suggest that the staining color shows the pharmacological activity, such as the purple bands indicate ginsenosides having stimulation activity, and the blue color indicated compound like ginsenosides possessed the depression affect for the central nervous system (CNS, respectively.

  12. Cameroonian medicinal plants: Pharmacology and derived natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, antiparasitic including anti-malarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

  13. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  14. Production Characteristics of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations form when natural gas is trapped thermodynamically within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), which extends downward from the seafloor in open ocean depths greater than about 500 metres. As water depths increase, the thickness of the GHSZ thickens, but economic NGH deposits probably occur no deeper than 1 km below the seafloor. Natural gas (mostly methane) appears to emanate mostly from deeper sources and migrates into the GHSZ. The natural gas crystallizes as NGH when the pressure - temperature conditions within the GHSZ are reached and when the chemical condition of dissolved gas concentration in pore water is high enough to favor crystallization. Although NGH can form in both primary and secondary porosity, the principal economic target appears to be turbidite sands on deep continental margins. Because these are very similar to the hosts of more deeply buried conventional gas and oil deposits, industry knows how to explore for them. Recent improvements in a seismic geotechnical approach to NGH identification and valuation have been confirmed by drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico and allow for widespread exploration for NGH deposits to begin. NGH concentrations occur in the same semi-consolidated sediments in GHSZs worldwide. This provides for a narrow exploration window with low acoustic attenuation. These sediments present the same range of relatively easy drilling conditions and formation pressures that are only slightly greater than at the seafloor and are essentially equalized by water in wellbores. Expensive conventional drilling equipment is not required. NGH is the only hydrocarbon that is stable at its formation pressures and incapable of converting to gas without artificial stimulation. We suggest that specialized, NGH-specific drilling capability will offer opportunities for much less expensive drilling, more complex wellbore layouts that improve reservoir connectivity and in which gas

  15. In vitro study of natural plant products against oral bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddiqui R; Siti AsmaH; Tang L; Jie CC; Rosliza AR; Roziawati Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of selected plant product against several bacterial which commonly causes oral infection.It was hope that in future,this product will become the remedy for treatment of oral infection and with the hope that it can substitute antibiotics.Methods:A total of 5 species of oral bacteria from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)were employed in this study(S.mutans,S.aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.sobri-nus and L.salivarius).Three types of natural plants crude extracts were used (garlic,curry leaves and cloves).Bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of these herbs were tested.Results:It was shown garlic had an-tibacterial effects on all bacteria.The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in g/mL)of garlic towards S. aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.mutans,S.sobrinus and L.salivarius were 0.3,1.8,1.2,0.5 and 1.8,respectively. There was significant difference among the MIC of garlic on tested bacteria.It was more potent toward S.au-reus.The curry leaf solution on the other hand,did not show any zone of inhibition in all bacteria plates but adversely showed enhanced growth of those bacteria.Clove had shown its antibacterial effects on S.aureus and P.aeruginosa.The clove was more potent toward S.aureus with the MIC of 0.45 g/mL.P.aeruginosa was more sensitive to clove compared to garlic.For S.aureus,it was more sensitive to garlic compared to clove. Conclusion:The antibacterial activity of garlic and clove crude extracts shown in our study further confirm these natural plants'potential usage in therapeutic use for oral diseases or infections.This could be the platform for the interested party to do research and development on it and to produce oral health products which are more affordable for lower economic income groups and with fewer side effects as seen in synthetic drug.

  16. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers - v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a complement of the first volume and it has studies with natural tracers to be done on February and March/82, results and conclusions obtained with artificial tracers on March/82, every direction tests and flood course done up to october/82, besides mineralogical and complete qualitative analysis of soil obtained from sounding evidences done in mineral and industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas. (author)

  17. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  19. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Protect ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  20. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  1. Natural resources and their prospects in the closed basins of rift valley marginal grabens in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaza, Hailemariam; Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Zenebe, Amanuel; Deckers, Jozef; Vaneetvelde, Veerle; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    With increasing population, producing more food and fibers has led to an expansion of the area under cultivation. For this, much attention is given to low-lying flat areas in search of suitable agricultural lands. The objectives of this paper are therefore: (1) to review the opportunities and challenges of natural resources in the marginal grabens for rural development; (2) to highlight the knowledge gaps and priorities in research and development in the marginal grabens, and (3) to supplement the literature review through repeat transect walks, focus group discussions and interviews across the western rift valley of northern Ethiopia. The paper shows that marginal grabens along the rift valleys are rich both in blue and green water resources due to their topographical and geological characteristics. Spate irrigation has been a growing water management practice to respond to soil moisture deficit. Besides, marginal grabens are fertile plains as a result of alluvial deposition that could be suitable for agricultural development. However, rainfall variability and groundwater withdrawal lead to graben basin closure and salinization. Notably, riverbed incisions and sediment deposition affects drainage systems and water supply in the marginal grabens. As a result, socioeconomic and natural capital of the marginal graben farmers are continuously threatened. Thus, the benefits of natural resources for rural development in the marginal grabens along the rift valley can be optimized if the current bottlenecks are converted into opportunities. A better understanding of the complex marginal graben system via a robust land evaluation framework will improve livelihoods of the communities that live in the (closed) marginal grabens. Keywords: population pressure, marginal grabens, endorheic lakes, salinization, Ethiopia

  2. Natural radiation-induced damage in quartz. III. A new ozonide radical in drusy quartz from the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartz crystals collected in druses, including one annealed at 400oC, from a fracture in the hanging-wall sandstone at the McArthur River uranium deposit in the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca basin, northern Saskatchewan, have been investigated by single-crystal X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at room temperature and 110 K. The single-crystal EPR spectra allow us to distinguish eight paramagnetic defects, including one new center and seven previously reported centers. These centers, most of which were discovered in artificially irradiated crystals and only a few had been suggested to occur in natural quartz by powder EPR, are herewith positively established for the first time as natural radiation-induced defects by single-crystal EPR. The new center is similar in principal g-factor values to the ozonide radical (O3-) in various minerals and synthetic compounds, and is characterized by its g-maximum and g-minimum axes approximately parallel to two O-O edges of the SiO4 quasi-tetrahedron in the quartz structure. This geometry is also compatible with an ozonide radical formed from a silicon vacancy. The observed linewidths of the new ozonide radical vary from 0.087 to 0.257 mT, which are attributed to unresolved site-splittings or unresolved hyperfine splittings. This new ozonide radical is distinct from a previously reported ozonide radical in citrine quartz, which is characterized by the presence of a small 27Al hyperfine structure. The new ozonide radical is probably linked to a Si atom in the neighboring tetrahedron and hence represents a general case in quartz, whereas the previously reported ozonide radical linked to a neighboring Al atom is a special variant in Al-bearing quartz. The presence of natural radiation-induced defects in drusy quartz is attributable to the presence of uranium in mineralized assemblages nearby or late hydrothermal fluids. (author)

  3. Natural radiation-induced damage in quartz. III. A new ozonide radical in drusy quartz from the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botis, S.M.; Pan, Y.; Nokhrin, S. [Univ. of Saskatchwan, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Nilges, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois EPR Research Center, Urbana, Illinois (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Quartz crystals collected in druses, including one annealed at 400{sup o}C, from a fracture in the hanging-wall sandstone at the McArthur River uranium deposit in the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca basin, northern Saskatchewan, have been investigated by single-crystal X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at room temperature and 110 K. The single-crystal EPR spectra allow us to distinguish eight paramagnetic defects, including one new center and seven previously reported centers. These centers, most of which were discovered in artificially irradiated crystals and only a few had been suggested to occur in natural quartz by powder EPR, are herewith positively established for the first time as natural radiation-induced defects by single-crystal EPR. The new center is similar in principal g-factor values to the ozonide radical (O{sub 3}{sup -}) in various minerals and synthetic compounds, and is characterized by its g-maximum and g-minimum axes approximately parallel to two O-O edges of the SiO{sub 4} quasi-tetrahedron in the quartz structure. This geometry is also compatible with an ozonide radical formed from a silicon vacancy. The observed linewidths of the new ozonide radical vary from 0.087 to 0.257 mT, which are attributed to unresolved site-splittings or unresolved hyperfine splittings. This new ozonide radical is distinct from a previously reported ozonide radical in citrine quartz, which is characterized by the presence of a small {sup 27}Al hyperfine structure. The new ozonide radical is probably linked to a Si atom in the neighboring tetrahedron and hence represents a general case in quartz, whereas the previously reported ozonide radical linked to a neighboring Al atom is a special variant in Al-bearing quartz. The presence of natural radiation-induced defects in drusy quartz is attributable to the presence of uranium in mineralized assemblages nearby or late hydrothermal fluids. (author)

  4. Biogenic nitrogen gas production at the oxic-anoxic interface in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, E.(Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain); Altabet, M.A.; F. E. Muller-Karger; Scranton, M. I.; R. C. Thunell; Benitez-Nelson, C.; L. Lorenzoni; Astor, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nitrogen gas (excess N2) was measured in samples collected at six locations in the eastern and western sub-basins of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, in September 2008 (non-upwelling conditions) and March 2009 (upwelling conditions). During both sampling periods, excess N2 concentrations were below detection in surface waters, increasing to ~22 μmol N kg−1 at the oxic-anoxic interface ([O...

  5. The effects of pay formation combination on productivity of coalbed methane well in Qinshui basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tong, D. [China University of Petroleum, Dongying (China)

    2007-03-15

    A three-dimensional, two-phase, dual porosity, fully implicit coalbed methane simulator was developed by drawing on former models and considering the reality in Qinshui Basin. Then according to different combinations of coal seams and aquifers in Qinshui basin, seven schemes were presented and simulated respectively by this simulator. The result shows that the combination of No. 3 coal seam, No. 15 coal seams and K{sub 2} limestone aquifer is the optimal scheme. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. [Allergic reaction to products made of natural rubber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, M; Kuna, P; Cieślewicz, G

    In the previous few years, there has been a startling escalation in intraoperative and radiologic anaphylactic episodes, some of them lethal, that have been assigned to rubber exposure. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber pose a significant risk to patient with spina bifida and urogenital abnormalities, health care workers, and rubber industry workers. It has been estimated that 2% to 10% of physicians and nursing personnel are latex allergic. The clinical syndromes associated with reactions to latex may be divided into three broad categories a) contact dermatitis--limited to skin directly in contact with latex, b) contact urticaria syndrome a broad spectrum of contact reactions including not only immediate wheal and flare reactions, but also dyshidrotic vesiculation, and accelerated contact reactions including erythema, burning or pruritus occurring within 10-30 minutes after contact, c) systemic allergic reactions-including generalized urticaria or pruritus, rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma, as well as the multiple presentations of anaphylaxis. Contact dermatitis reactions are thought to be a T-cell mediated type IV reaction, systemic reactions to latex appear to be an IgE-mediated phenomenon. Contact urticaria syndrome seems to be a heterogeneous group of reactions. Diagnosis of latex allergy is made on clinical grounds, however, history alone is insufficient to recognize all patients at risk, and conscientious testing materials are not yet available. Prick tests utilizing extracts from latex gloves or from raw latex preparation can be used but the specificity of this test remains unknown. Skin prick testing must be considered experimental and should be only done by experienced physician. Serologic testing for latex allergy remains a safe alternative, although the sensitivity and specificity of this procedure is still undefined. Prophylactic regimes to avoid rubber exposure and decrease the antigen content of natural rubber products by the rubber

  7. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  8. Use of natural products as chemical library for drug discovery and network pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyong Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural products have been an important source of lead compounds for drug discovery. How to find and evaluate bioactive natural products is critical to the achievement of drug/lead discovery from natural products. METHODOLOGY: We collected 19,7201 natural products structures, reported biological activities and virtual screening results. Principal component analysis was employed to explore the chemical space, and we found that there was a large portion of overlap between natural products and FDA-approved drugs in the chemical space, which indicated that natural products had large quantity of potential lead compounds. We also explored the network properties of natural product-target networks and found that polypharmacology was greatly enriched to those compounds with large degree and high betweenness centrality. In order to make up for a lack of experimental data, high throughput virtual screening was employed. All natural products were docked to 332 target proteins of FDA-approved drugs. The most potential natural products for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of molecular descriptors, distribution in chemical space and biological activities of natural products was conducted in this article. Natural products have vast chemical diversity, good drug-like properties and can interact with multiple cellular target proteins.

  9. Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson

    2002-03-15

    In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing

  10. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  11. A systematic review of natural health product treatment for vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a hypopigmentation disorder affecting 1 to 4% of the world population. Fifty percent of cases appear before the age of 20 years old, and the disfigurement results in psychiatric morbidity in 16 to 35% of those affected. Methods Our objective was to complete a comprehensive, systematic review of the published scientific literature to identify natural health products (NHP such as vitamins, herbs and other supplements that may have efficacy in the treatment of vitiligo. We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE for vitiligo, leucoderma, and various NHP terms. Prospective controlled clinical human trials were identified and assessed for quality. Results Fifteen clinical trials were identified, and organized into four categories based on the NHP used for treatment. 1 L-phenylalanine monotherapy was assessed in one trial, and as an adjuvant to phototherapy in three trials. All reported beneficial effects. 2 Three clinical trials utilized different traditional Chinese medicine products. Although each traditional Chinese medicine trial reported benefit in the active groups, the quality of the trials was poor. 3 Six trials investigated the use of plants in the treatment of vitiligo, four using plants as photosensitizing agents. The studies provide weak evidence that photosensitizing plants can be effective in conjunction with phototherapy, and moderate evidence that Ginkgo biloba monotherapy can be useful for vitiligo. 4 Two clinical trials investigated the use of vitamins in the therapy of vitiligo. One tested oral cobalamin with folic acid, and found no significant improvement over control. Another trial combined vitamin E with phototherapy and reported significantly better repigmentation over phototherapy only. It was not possible to pool the data from any studies for meta-analytic purposes due to the wide difference in outcome measures and poor quality ofreporting. Conclusion Reports investigating the

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Regulated Streamflow, Hydrologic Extremes, Hydropower Production, and Sediment Discharge in the Skagit River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Hamlet, Alan F.; Grossman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the impacts of climate change on the hydrologic response of the Skagit River are likely to be substantial under natural (i.e. unregulated) conditions. To assess the combined effects of changing natural flow and dam operations that determine impacts to regulated flow, a new integrated daily-time-step reservoir operations model was constructed for the Skagit River Basin. The model was used to simulate current reservoir operating policies for historical flow conditions and for projected flows for the 2040s (2030–2059) and 2080s (2070–2099). The results show that climate change is likely to cause substantial seasonal changes in both natural and regulated flow, with more flow in the winter and spring, and less in summer. Hydropower generation in the basin follows these trends, increasing (+ 19%) in the winter/ spring, and decreasing (- 29%) in the summer by the 2080s. The regulated 100-year flood is projected to increase by 23% by the 2040s and 49% by the 2080s. Peak winter sediment loading in December is projected to increase by 335% by the 2080s in response to increasing winter flows, and average annual sediment loading increases from 2.3 to 5.8 teragrams (+ 149%) per year by the 2080s. Regulated extreme low flows (7Q10) are projected to decrease by about 30% by the 2080s, but remain well above natural low flows. Both current and proposed alternative flood control operations are shown to be largely ineffective in mitigating increasing flood risks in the lower Skagit due to the distribution of flow in the basin during floods.

  13. Dating and assessing the recent sediments of three deep basins of the Baltic Sea: Indication of natural and anthropogenic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, H.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-years EU-MAST-3 project (Baltic Sea System Study, BASYS) recovered short and long sediment cores from 3 deep basins of the Baltic Sea (Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin and North Central Basin). During a paleoenvironmental study, lead-210 dating andgeochemical data were generated.Dating of cores...... rhodochrosite formation which is thought to be coupled to saltwater inflows in that oxygen and HCO_3- rich saltwater converts bacterially re-dissolved Mninto the carbonate mineral. There is a clear indication for cyclic rhodochrosite deposition in that about 300 year long periods with relatively high Ca-Mn are...

  14. Types of Karst-fractured and Porous Reservoirs in China's Carbonates and the Nature of the Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kang; WANG Darui

    2004-01-01

    Almost all the oil and gas reservoirs developed in marine sedimentary strata of China have undergone processes of multi-phase reservoir formation and later modification. The irregular reservoirs are classified into three types as the Naxi, Tahe and Renqiu ones, increasing successively in the development degree of karstificated pores and fissures and the connection degree of independent reservoirs. In these reservoirs, the unity in the fluid feature, pressure and oil-gaswater interface also increases successively from the Naxi to the Renqiu type. The main body of Ordovician reservoirs of the Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin is a network pool rather than a stratified, massive, stratigraphically-unconformed or weathering-crust one. The fluid nature of oil, gas and water, the interface positions and the pressures, as well as the dynamic conditions of fluids within the reservoirs during the production are all different from those in stratified or massive oil and gas reservoirs. Carbonates in the Akekule uplift and the Tahe Oilfield are assemblages of various types of reservoirs, which have an overall oil-bearing potential and obvious uneven distribution. Testing and producing tests are the major means to evaluate this type of reservoirs and acid fracturing improvement is a key link in petroleum exploration and development.

  15. Identification and quantification of the halogenated natural product BC-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, J.; Olbrich, D.; Vetter, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Marsh, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Gaus, C.; Mueller, J.F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) of marine origin are increasingly recognized as critical residues in foodstuff (e. g. fish) and environmental samples (e. g. marine mammals and birds). Some of these HNPs (Q1, MHC-1, BC-2, and HDBPs including BC-10) were detected in diverse fish and marine mammal samples at concentrations sometimes exceeding those of PCBs, DDT, and other anthropogenic pollutants. Recent studies with marine mammal samples from Australia led to the detection of six abundant HNPs (Q1, BC-1, BC-2, BC-3, BC-10, and BC-11). In the meantime, Q1 was identified as heptachloro-1{sup '}-methyl-1,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, BC-2 as 4,6-dibromo-2-(2{sup '},4{sup '}-dibromo)phenoxyanisole, BC- 10 as 1,1{sup '}-dimethyl-3,3{sup '},4,4{sup '}-tetrabromo-5,5{sup '}-dichloro-2,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, and BC-11 as 3,5-dibromo- 2-(3{sup '},5{sup '}-dibromo,2{sup '}-methoxy)phenoxyanisole. However the identity of BC-1 and BC-3 remained unclear. The goal of the present study was the identification of BC-3. The tetrabromo compound BC-3 has previously been detected in marine mammals from four continents. Furthermore, we attempted establishing quantitative concentrations in diverse marine biota samples.

  16. New Positioning Products and Pilot Service for Natural Hazard Monitorin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Miller, K. J.; Miller, M. A.; Khachikyan, R.; Meyer, R. F.; Vallisneri, M.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y. T.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new pilot service from JPL's Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System that provides positioning solutions for hundreds of GNSS tracking sites, from both global and regional networks, aiming to monitor ground motion in the immediate aftermath of earthquakes. The new service provides site position time series solutions at 1 Hz, based on GNSS tracking data. Recognizing the tradeoff between latency and accuracy, the solutions are provided at multiple latencies, ranging from one second to one hour. Individual site solution accuracy strongly depends on the local tracking data. The median site position accuracies ranges from ~one cm 1DRMs for the to most latent solution to ~five cm 1DRMS for the one-second solutions. We discuss the tradeoff between accuracy and latency and explain the choice of product latencies in terms of this trade and in terms of the benefits to agencies responsible for issuing alarms and managing natural disasters. We describe and demonstrate a simple user algorithm to seamlessly merge the disparate latent solutions into a single, optimal record of site motion. The positioning service is integrated with automated earthquake notices from the USGS to support calculations of co-seismic displacements. Finally we describe the current scope of the pilot project, its innovative user-interface, and our ultimate plans to serve all real-time GNSS sites.

  17. Machine learning estimates of natural product conformational energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rupp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning has been used for estimation of potential energy surfaces to speed up molecular dynamics simulations of small systems. We demonstrate that this approach is feasible for significantly larger, structurally complex molecules, taking the natural product Archazolid A, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar-type ATPase, from the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra as an example. Our model estimates energies of new conformations by exploiting information from previous calculations via Gaussian process regression. Predictive variance is used to assess whether a conformation is in the interpolation region, allowing a controlled trade-off between prediction accuracy and computational speed-up. For energies of relaxed conformations at the density functional level of theory (implicit solvent, DFT/BLYP-disp3/def2-TZVP, mean absolute errors of less than 1 kcal/mol were achieved. The study demonstrates that predictive machine learning models can be developed for structurally complex, pharmaceutically relevant compounds, potentially enabling considerable speed-ups in simulations of larger molecular structures.

  18. Natural Products as Leads in Schistosome Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno J. Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitic tropical disease that claims around 200,000 human lives every year. Praziquantel (PZQ, the only drug recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment and control of human schistosomiasis, is now facing the threat of drug resistance, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to treat this disease. Therefore, globally, there is renewed interest in natural products (NPs as a starting point for drug discovery and development for schistosomiasis. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and cheminformatics have brought about unprecedented opportunities for the rapid and more cost-effective discovery of new bioactive compounds against neglected tropical diseases. This review highlights the main contributions that NP drug discovery and development have made in the treatment of schistosomiasis and it discusses how integration with virtual screening (VS strategies may contribute to accelerating the development of new schistosomidal leads, especially through the identification of unexplored, biologically active chemical scaffolds and structural optimization of NPs with previously established activity.

  19. Formulating natural based cosmetic product - irradiated herbal lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbal lip balm was formulated in efforts to produce a safe product, attractive with multifunctional usage i.e. prevent chap lips, reduce mouth odour and benefits in improving the health quality. Problems faced in constructing formulations of herbal lip balm were focused to the extraction of anthocyanins, the stability of the pigments in the formulations and changes of colour during irradiation for the sterilization of herbal lip balm. Natural pigment, anthocyanin was used as a colorant agent in herbal lip balm, obtained from various herbs and vegetables i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle), Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) and Daucus carota (carrot). Water based extraction method was used in extracting the anthocyanins. The incorporation of honey in the formulations improved the colour of the lip balm. The usage of plant based ingredient i.e. cocoa butter substituting the normal based ingredient i.e. petroleum jelly in lip balm also affecting the colour of herbal lip balm. Irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy was carried out as preservation and reducing of microbial load of the herbal lip balm and changes in colour were observed in formulations irradiated at 10 kGy. (Author)

  20. Natural Diagonal Riemannian Almost Product and Para-Hermitian Cotangent Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Druta-Romaniuc, Simona-Luiza

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the natural diagonal almost product and locally product structures on the total space of the cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold. We find the Riemannian almost product (locally product) and the (almost) para-Hermitian cotangent bundles of natural diagonal lift type. We prove the characterization theorem for the natural diagonal (almost) para-K\\"ahlerian structures on the total spaces of the cotangent bundle.

  1. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

  2. Natural resource inventories and management applications in the Great Basin. [Nevada vegetation and wildlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, P. T.; Lorain, G.; Halvorson, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 resolution capabilities and repetitive coverage have allowed the acquisition of several statewide inventories of natural resource features not previously completed or that could not be completed in any other way. Familiarity with landform, tone, pattern and other converging factors, along with multidate imagery, has been required. Nevada's vegetation has been mapped from ERTS-1. Dynamic characteristics of the landscape have been studied. Sequential ERTS-1 imagery has proved its usefulness for mapping vegetation, following vegetation phenology changes, monitoring changes in lakes and reservoirs (including water quality), determining changes in surface mining use, making fire fuel estimates and determining potential hazard, mapping the distribution of rain and snow events, making range readiness determinations, monitoring marshland management practices and other uses. Feasibility has been determined, but details of incorporating the data in management systems awaits further research and development. The need is to accurately define the steps necessary to extract required or usable information from ERTS imagery and fit it into on-going management programs.

  3. Comparative evaluation of different satellite rainfall estimation products and bias correction in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Wuletawu; Brocca, Luca; Rigon, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    In a region where ground-based gauge data are scarce, satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) are a viable option for proper space-time rainfall characterization. However, their accuracy and performances vary from region to region, and must be assessed. In this study, five high resolution satellite products (3B42V7, CMORPH, TAMSAT, SM2R-CCI, and CFSR) are compared and analyzed using the available rain gauge data in one of the most topographically and climatologically complex basin of Africa, the Upper Blue Nile basin (UBN). The basin rainfall is investigated systematically, and it is found that, at some locations, the difference in mean annual rainfall estimates between these SREs could be as much as about 2700 mm. Considering three goodness-of-fit indexes, correlation, bias and root mean square error (RMSE) between the SREs and ground-based gauge rainfall, CMORPH, TAMSAT and SM2R-CCI outperform the other two. Furthermore, a confusion matrix is used to investigate the detection ability of satellite rainfall products for different rainfall intensities. TAMSAT has the highest (91%) detection skill for dry days, followed by CFSR (77%). On the contrary, SM2R-CCI has the highest accuracy index for medium rainfall ranges (10-20 mm). The empirical cumulative distribution (ecdf) mapping technique is used to correct the intensities distribution givenby the SREs. This method provides a means to improve the rainfall estimation of all SREs, and the highest improvement is obtained for CMORPH (bias reduction from - 72% to - 1%).

  4. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong

    2007-01-01

    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  5. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Enhance Flood Impact Products and Mitigation in the Lower Mekong Water Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, C.; Gao, M.; Spruce, J.; Bolten, J. D.; Weber, S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses results of a project to develop a near real time flood monitoring capability for the Lower Mekong Water Basin (LMB), the largest river basin in Southeast Asia and home to more than sixty million people. The region has seen rapid population growth and socio-economic development, fueling unsustainable deforestation, agricultural expansion, and stream-flow regulation. The basin supports substantial rice farming and other agrarian activities, which heavily depend upon seasonal flooding. But, floods due to typhoons and other severe weather events can result in disasters that cost millions of dollars and cause hardships to millions of people. This study uses near real time and historical Aqua and Terra MODIS 250-m resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products to map flood and drought impact within the LMB. In doing so, NDVI change products are derived by comparing from NDVI during the wet season to a baseline NDVI from the dry season. The method records flood events, which cause drastic decreases in NDVI compared to non-flooded conditions. NDVI change product computation was automated for updating a near real-time system, as part of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Disaster Risk Management Observation Strategy. The system is a web-based 'Flood Dashboard that will showcase MODIS flood monitoring products, along with other flood mapping and weather data products. This flood dashboard enables end-users to view and assess a variety of geospatial data to monitor floods and flood impacts in near real-time, as well provides a platform for further data aggregation for flood prediction modeling and post-event assessment.

  6. Natural environment assessment and vegetation indicators for IWRM scenarios in the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, I.; Exler, N.; Janauer, G. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Brahmaputra River originates in the highest mountain massif of the world, the Western Himalaya. Fed by ice-melt, snow and also monsoon rain from the northern slope of the Himalaya Range in its reach in Tibet develops into a braided river with many channels in a wide valley, where it receives important tributaries like the Lhasa River, before entering the constrained reach of the Great Brahmaputra Gorge. Downstream of the Gorge the river enters even more diverse landscapes in intensively cultivated Assam, where the braided river bed reaches its greatest lateral expansion. Monsoon related flooding causes the most severe effects in this densely populated reach on the south-eastern rim of the Himalaya Range, but intense flooding is also a great threat at upper parts of the river and in populated areas of some tributaries. IWRM plays an important role with regard to mitigating climate change effects, whether too much or too little water is available for human uses. The assessment of the natural environment in a multi-scale approach leads to the identification of essential indicators, which are the basis for modelling scenarios of future development as the spatio-temporal processes vary within scale and along the course of this Large River. In our assessment it was necessary to aggregate local vegetation structures for a generalised description at larger scales to bridge the gap between the hydrological modelling scale and respective ecosystem services resulting from the existing vegetation types. These indicators can be used to evaluate the influence of different ecosystem types on related IWRM activities and policies. Aside from more general wetland ecosystem services like flood retention of support of livelihood for the neighbouring population a focus was also set on wetland and water body ecotones where detectable by high-resolution RS techniques to evaluate vulnerability and biodiversity aspects.

  7. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  8. Natural product diversity and its role in chemical biology and drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jiyong

    2011-01-01

    Through the natural selection process, natural products possess a unique and vast chemical diversity and have been evolved for optimal interactions with biological macromolecules. Owing to their diversity, target affinity, and specificity, natural products have demonstrated enormous potential as modulators of biomolecular function, been an essential source for drug discovery, and provided design principles for combinatorial library development.

  9. Cities of Nature: Socio-natural Crisis and the Production of Space in New Orleans and Seattle

    OpenAIRE

    Janos, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Cities of Nature: Socio-natural Crisis and the Production of Space in New Orleans and SeattleNik JanosThis dissertation shows how the seemingly social processes of urbanization are deeply entangled with seemingly natural processes, such as ecological, biological, and climatological ones. Using historical comparative methods and archival research, I compare urbanization in New Orleans and Seattle by looking at two apparently distinct social and ecological crises. One, in New Orleans I examine ...

  10. Concentration of natural radionuclides in coal and its end products in steel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal industry and natural radioactivity in coal ash was one of the first major beneficiaries of nucleonics control system (NCS) utilization. Coal as most earth materials contains low concentrations of 238U and 232Th and their radioactive progeny, also 40K. Fly ash and slag are end products of coal combustion industries. Burning of coal and other fossil fuels is one source of radiation exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes, which is released to the environment. About one fourth of the produced coal is used in iron and steel production. In this work high resolution gamma spectrometry were applied to measure the concentration of different radionuclides in Bq kg-1 in coal ore, coke, limestone, iron ore, also ash and slag produced as waste products from blast furnaces. Concentration of different radionuclides in both ash and slag, measured in this work, show low contents, compared to the concentrations of ash and slag obtained as (NORM) wastes from coal fired power plant. Slag is used in Egypt for high way construction purposes, as embankment. It has concentrations of 90 Bq kg-1 for 234Th, 73 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 46 Bq kg-1 for 214Pb and 41 Bq kg-1 for 214Bi in uranium series, and 29 Bq kg-1 for 228Ac, 33 Bq kg-1 for 212Bi and 24 Bq kg-1208 Tl in the thorium series as well as 97 Bq kg-1 for 40K, so it will give slight increase of exposure compared to natural radiation. (author)

  11. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  12. A water productive and economically profitable paddy rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Nay-Htoon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam, drought during the dry season affected negatively on rice production. High and uneven rainfall distribution cause flooding in the basin during wet season and cause severe agricultural drought during dry season.This study aimed to point out a higher water productive and economically efficient rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the region. Based on available secondary data, water productivity is calculated for different water saving rice production methods, according to Pereira, et al, (2012’s irrigation water productivity and total productivity equations. The profit of technological change is calculated by partial budget analysis of rice production in that area and a sensitivity analysis supports to point out which input factor is sensitive to farmer’s benefit. Farmer’s psychological and social beliefs are used to create fuzzy logic based decision making model. Although water productivities (ranging 0.441 kg/m3/ha to 0.504 kg/m3/ha are ranked as the second after System of Rice Intensification, we demonstrated that Alternate Wetting and Drying method is a recommendable method to the farmer after considering economic profitability and technical simplicity. The System of Rice Intensification method also could be a suitable method to adopt because this method is the highest water productive method (Water Productivities are ranging from 0.77 kg/m3/ha to 1.02 kg/m3/ha coupled with highest yield of rice, subject to certain ecosystem services and payment policies should be developed to subsidize the reduced benefit resulting from this method.

  13. Biogenic nitrogen gas production at the oxic–anoxic interface in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, E.(Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain); Altabet, M.A.; F. E. Muller-Karger; Scranton, M. I.; R. C. Thunell; Benitez-Nelson, C.; L. Lorenzoni; Astor, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    Excess nitrogen gas (N2xs) was measured in samples collected at six locations in the eastern and western sub-basins of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, in September 2008 (non-upwelling conditions) and March 2009 (upwelling conditions). During both sampling periods, N2xs concentrations were below detection in surface waters, increasing to ~ 22 μmol N kg−1 at the oxic–anoxic interface...

  14. Voracious Transformation of a Common Natural Resource into Productive Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Van der Ploeg

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a power struggle about the control of natural resources where competing factions in society have a private stock of financial assets and a common stock of natural resources with inadequately defined private property rights. We solve a dynamic common-pool problem and obtain political economy variants of the Hotelling rule for resource depletion and the Hartwick saving rule necessary to sustain constant consumption in an economy with exhaustible natural resources. The rate of increas...

  15. Voracious Transformation of a Common Natural Resource into Productive Capita.

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a power struggle about the control of natural resources where competing factions in society have a private stock of financial assets and a common stock of natural resources with inadequately defined private property rights. We solve a dynamic common-pool problem and obtain political economy variants of the Hotelling rule for resource depletion and the Hartwick saving rule necessary to sustain constant consumption in an economy with exhaustible natural resources. The rate of increas...

  16. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds associated with oil and natural gas extraction in the Uintah Basin, UT, during a wintertime ozone formation event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with oil and natural gas extraction were measured during a strong temperature inversion in winter of 2013 at a rural site in the Uintah Basin, Utah. During this period, photochemistry enhanced by the stagnant meteorological conditions and concentrated VOCs led to high ozone mixing ratios (150 ppbv. A simple analysis of aromatic VOCs measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS is used to estimate (1 VOC emission ratios (the ratio of two VOCs at the time of emission relative to benzene, (2 aromatic VOC emission rates, and (3 ambient OH radical concentrations. These quantities are determined from a best fit to VOC : benzene ratios as a function of time. The main findings are that (1 emission ratios are consistent with contributions from both oil and gas producing wells, (2 the emission rate of methane (27-57 × 103 kg methane h−1, extrapolated from the emission rate of benzene (4.1 ± 0.4 × 105 molecules cm−3 s−1, agrees with an independent estimate of methane emissions from aircraft measurements in 2012, and (3 calculated daily OH concentrations are low, peaking at 1× 106 molecules cm−3, and are consistent with Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM modeling. The analysis is extended to photochemical production of oxygenated VOCs measured by PTRMS and is able to explain daytime variability of these species. It is not able to completely reproduce nighttime behavior, possibly due to surface deposition. Using results from this analysis, the carbon mass of secondary compounds expected to have formed by the sixth day of the stagnation event was calculated, then compared to the measured mass of primary and secondary compounds. Only 17% of the expected secondary carbon mass is accounted for by gas phase, aerosol, and snow organic carbon measurements. The disparity is likely due to substantial amounts of unquantified oxygenated products.

  17. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  18. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  19. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  20. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds associated with oil and natural gas extraction in the Uintah Basin, UT, during a wintertime ozone formation event

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Koss; De Gouw, J.; C. Warneke; J. B. Gilman; B. M. Lerner; M. Graus; B. Yuan; Edwards, P.; S. S. Brown; Wild, R; Roberts, J.M.; T. S. Bates; Quinn, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas extraction were measured during a strong temperature inversion in winter of 2013 at a rural site in the Uintah Basin, Utah. During this period, photochemistry enhanced by the stagnant meteorological conditions and concentrated VOCs led to high ozone mixing ratios (150 ppbv). A simple analysis of aromatic VOCs measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PT...

  1. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds associated with oil and natural gas extraction in the Uintah Basin, UT, during a wintertime ozone formation event

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Koss; De Gouw, J.; C. Warneke; J. B. Gilman; B. M. Lerner; M. Graus; B. Yuan; Edwards, P.; S. S. Brown; Wild, R; Roberts, J.M.; T. S. Bates; Quinn, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas extraction were measured during a strong temperature inversion in the winter of 2013 at a rural site in the Uintah Basin, Utah. During this period, photochemistry enhanced by the stagnant meteorological conditions and concentrated VOCs led to high ozone mixing ratios (150 ppbv). A simple analysis of aromatic VOCs measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) is used...

  2. Climate trends and impacts on crop production in the Koshi River basin of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, D.; Maskey, S.; Babel, M.S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Prasad, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding crop responses to climate is essential to cope with anticipated changes in temperature and precipitation. We investigated the climate–crop yield relationship and the impact of historical climate on yields of rice, maize and wheat in the Koshi basin of Nepal. The results show significan

  3. Report on Productivity Trends in Selected Natural Resource Industries in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to shed light on the dynamics and determinants of productivity growth in nine selected natural resource industries and in the overall natural resource sector in Canada. This report provides a concise review of the findings of a detailed analysis undertaken by the Centre for the Study of Living Standards for Natural Resources Canada. The importance of productivity growth is reviewed, and observations are made on the contribution of natural resource industries to a...

  4. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  5. Epoxide-Opening Cascades in the Synthesis of Polycyclic Polyether Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vilotijevic, Ivan; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2009-01-01

    The structural features of polycyclic polyether natural products can, in some cases, be traced to their biosynthetic origin. However in case that are less well understood, only biosynthetic pathways that feature dramatic, yet speculative, epoxide-opening cascades are proposed. We summarize how such epoxide-opening cascade reactions have been used in the synthesis of polycyclic polyethers (see scheme) and related natural products. The group of polycyclic polyether natural products is of sp...

  6. Evaluation of the Gas Production Potential of Marine HydrateDeposits in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Kim, Se-Joon; Seol,Yongkoo; Zhang, Keni

    2007-11-16

    Although significant hydrate deposits are known to exist in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea, their survey and evaluation as a possible energy resource has not yet been completed. However, it is possible to develop preliminary estimates of their production potential based on the limited data that are currently available. These include the elevation and thickness of the Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL), the water depth, and the water temperature at the sea floor. Based on this information, we developed estimates of the local geothermal gradient that bracket its true value. Reasonable estimates of the initial pressure distribution in the HBL can be obtained because it follows closely the hydrostatic. Other critical information needs include the hydrate saturation, and the intrinsic permeabilities of the system formations. These are treated as variables, and sensitivity analysis provides an estimate of their effect on production. Based on the geology of similar deposits, it is unlikely that Ulleung Basin accumulations belong to Class 1 (involving a HBL underlain by a mobile gas zone). If Class 4 (disperse, low saturation accumulations) deposits are involved, they are not likely to have production potential. The most likely scenarios include Class 2 (HBL underlain by a zone of mobile water) or Class 3 (involving only an HBL) accumulations. Assuming nearly impermeable confining boundaries, this numerical study indicates that large production rates (several MMSCFD) are attainable from both Class 2 and Class 3 deposits using conventional technology. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the dependence of production on the well design, the production rate, the intrinsic permeability of the HBL, the initial pressure, temperature and hydrate saturation, as well as on the thickness of the water zone (Class 2). The study also demonstrates that the presence of confining boundaries is indispensable for the commercially viable production of gas from these deposits.

  7. Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; Bates, A.L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M.D. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 {mu} g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to {lt}0.01 {mu} g/L. Temporal variability of organic compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

  8. Spatial distribution pattern and dynamics of the primary population in a natural Populus euphratica forest in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu HAN; Haizhen WANG; Zhengli ZHOU; Zhijun LI

    2008-01-01

    One 50 m × 50 m standard plot was sampled in a natural forest of Populus euphratica in Awati County, situated at the edge of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The field investigation was conducted with a contiguous grid quadrate method. By means of a test of variance/mean value ratio, aggregation intensity index and theoretical distribution models, the spatial distribution pattern and the dynamics of primary populations in P. euphratica forest were studied. The results showed that the spatial distribution pattern of two dominant arbor populations conformed to clumped distribution. The aggregation intensity of the P. euphra-tica population was higher than that of P. pruinosa popu- lation. The spatial distribution pattern of two companion plant populations in the shrub layer also conformed to clump type, though the aggregation intensity of Tamarix chinensis was higher. In the herb layer, the distribution patterns of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Asparagus persicus conformed respectively to a clumped pattern and a ran-dom pattern. The results of a Taylor power method test and Iwao's m2-x regression model also verified that both P. euphratica and P. pruinosa populations belong to a clumped pattern. Although the distribution pattern of P. pruinosa population at different development stages all belonged to a clumped distribution pattern, the aggrega-tion intensity dropped gradually along with age develop-ment. The distribution patterns of the P. euphratica population at different development stages changed from random type to clumped type, and further to random type. The differences in spatial distribution patterns of different populations at different development stages were related not only to ecological and biological characteris-tics of each species in the communities in the light of competitive exclusion principle among the populations, but were also closely related to the habitats in which the species lived in.

  9. Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; Bates, A.L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 ??g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

  10. Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2008 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne H.; Schricker, Jaym' e; Ruzychi, James R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2009-02-13

    The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations remain depressed relative to historic levels and limited information is available for steelhead life history. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects have been implemented in the basin to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival. However, these projects often lack effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed programmatic or watershed (status and trend) information to help evaluate project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts as well as meet some data needs as index stocks. Our continued monitoring efforts to estimate salmonid smolt abundance, age structure, SAR, smolts/redd, freshwater habitat use, and distribution of critical life states will enable managers to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the level of emphasis by the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Independent Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB), Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP), NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds (OWEB). Each of these groups have placed priority on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. The objective is to estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer

  11. Capability of TMPA products to simulate streamflow in upper Yellow and Yangtze River basins on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-chun HAO; Kai TONG; Xiao-li LIU; Lei-lei ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high elevation, complex terrain, severe weather, and inaccessibility, direct meteorological observations do not exist over large portions of the Tibetan Plateau, especially the western part of it. Satellite rainfall estimates have been very important sources for precipitation information, particularly in rain gauge-sparse regions. In this study, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products 3B42, RTV5V6, and RTV7 were evaluated for their applicability to the upper Yellow and Yangtze River basins on the Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, the capability of the TMPA products to simulate streamflow was also investigated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) semi-distributed hydrological model. Results show that 3B42 performs better than RTV5V6 and RTV7, based on verification of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observational precipitation data. RTV5V6 can roughly capture the spatial precipitation pattern but overestimation exists throughout the entire study region. The anticipated improvements of RTV7 relative to RTV5V6 have not been realized in this study. Our results suggest that RTV7 significantly overestimates the precipitation over the two river basins, though it can capture the seasonal cycle features of precipitation. 3B42 shows the best performance in streamflow simulation of the abovementioned satellite products. Although involved in gauge adjustment at a monthly scale, 3B42 is capable of daily streamflow simulation. RTV5V6 and RTV7 have no capability to simulate streamflow in the upper Yellow and Yangtze River basins.

  12. Advances in identification and validation of protein targets of natural products without chemical modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J; Kim, Y; Kwon, H J

    2016-05-01

    Covering: up to February 2016Identification of the target proteins of natural products is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of action to develop natural products for use as molecular probes and potential therapeutic drugs. Affinity chromatography of immobilized natural products has been conventionally used to identify target proteins, and has yielded good results. However, this method has limitations, in that labeling or tagging for immobilization and affinity purification often result in reduced or altered activity of the natural product. New strategies have recently been developed and applied to identify the target proteins of natural products and synthetic small molecules without chemical modification of the natural product. These direct and indirect methods for target identification of label-free natural products include drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), thermal proteome profiling (TPP), and bioinformatics-based analysis of connectivity. This review focuses on and reports case studies of the latest advances in target protein identification methods for label-free natural products. The integration of newly developed technologies will provide new insights and highlight the value of natural products for use as biological probes and new drug candidates. PMID:26964663

  13. New natural antioxidants for protecting omega-3 rich products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    to oxidation because of their unsaturated nature. Addition of antioxidants is one method. to prevent lipid oxidation. As synthetic antioxidants may have carcinogenic effects at higher levels, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants is now in demand. We have isolated natural...... antioxidants from yoghurt, potato peel, fish protein hydrolysates and seaweed, which were able to protect highly unsaturated fish oil from oxidation. These antioxidant extracts may have potential for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  14. Nature and distribution of manganese nodules from three sediment domains of the Central Indian Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    Manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin (5 degrees-10 degrees S) vary in abundance, morphology, mineralogy, and chemistry with water depth and sediment type. Nodules from the southern region, dominatEd. by siliceous sediment, differ markedly...

  15. Textbook for nature entrepreneurship : product of the WURKS project Nature Entrepreneurship and Tourism within Green Education (NatureToGo)

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, M; Pellis, A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, government funding for nature conservation and development has declined. As a result, links between nature conservation and entrepreneurship are increasingly being made in both practice and education. This comes with many questions and challenges. In Green Secondary Vocational Education and Higher Professional Education, educators want to incorporate social, economic and ecological factors in their courses in nature entrepreneurship. There is also a demand for tools for devel...

  16. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  17. Direct relationship between CO2 uptake and transparent exopolymer particles production in natural phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Anja

    2002-01-01

    Incubation experiments with natural phytoplankton revealed a relationship between CO2 concentration and the production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), with TEP production being linearly related to theoretical CO2 uptake rates.

  18. Discovery of Natural Product Anticancer Agents from Biodiverse Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Chin, Young-Won; Swanson, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    For over 40 years, small organic molecules derived naturally from microbes and plants have provided a number of useful cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. The search for naturally occurring lead compounds of this type has continued in recent years, with the constituents of marine fauna and flora as well as those of terrestrial microorganisms and plants being investigated for their anti-cancer activities. In the present short review, selected new compounds or their derivatives are described that ha...

  19. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacognosy deals with the natural drugs obtained from organisms such as most plants, microbes, and animals. Up to date, many important drugs including morphine, atropine, galanthamine, etc. have originated from natural sources which continue to be good model molecules in drug discovery. Traditional medicine is also a part of pharmacognosy and most of the third world countries still depend on the use of herbal medicines. Consequently, pharmacognosy always keeps its popularity in pharmaceutical sciences and plays a critical role in drug discovery.

  20. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-01-01

    The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, re...