Sample records for basin karnataka southern

  1. Institutional and Economic Dynamics of Water Users Cooperative (WUC) Societies in Cauvery Basin of Karnataka


    Rohith, B.K.; Chandrakanth, Mysore G.


    The economic and institutional dimensions of water users cooperative (WUC) societies have been analyzed with regards to performance, membership and transaction costs in forming organization in the Cauvery basin of Karnataka. Field data have been collected from presidents and members of 30 WUC societies in Tirumakudalu Narasipura taluk of Mysore, Karnataka. Using cluster analysis, these have been grouped into (i) well performing, (ii) moderately performing, and (iii) poorly performing WUC soci...

  2. Low- to high-grade metamorphic transition in the Southern part of Karnataka Nucleus, India (United States)

    Naqvi, S. M.

    The southern part of Karnataka Nucleus has a strong imprint of 2.6 Ga metamorphism. This has affected the schist belts of Karnataka Nucleus from greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. The higher grades of metamorphism are in the Holenarasipur, Nuggihalli, Krishnarajpet, Hadnur and Melkote schist belts. In the high grade transition zone, around Sargur only keels of schist belts are preserved and occur as highly dismembered, disconnected belts with the top and bottom of the stratigraphic column obliterated due to high grade metamorphism and accompanying migmatization. Absence of high-grade metamorphic minerals in the sediments of the Dharwar schist belts supports the contention that high grade metamorphism post-dated the Dharwar sedimentation and occurred around 2.6 Ga ago. Sargur type metamorphism occurred at upper crustal levels and charnockite type metamorphism occurred in lower crustal levels. The P-T conditions for the mineral assemblage in metapelites of Sargur Group indicate burial depths up to at least 15 km suggesting that they were subducted and later obducted during the development of Early Proterozoic Mobile Belt along the southern border of the Karnataka Nucleus.

  3. A new species of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae from the southern Western Ghats, Karnataka, with a key to world species

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    P.M. Sureshan


    Full Text Available A new species of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae N. minuta sp. nov. is described from the southern Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Affinities of the new species with related species are discussed and a key to the world species of Netomocera is provided.

  4. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

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    Ramachandra Kamath


    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  5. Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka (United States)

    Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.


    Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.

  6. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India. (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M


    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. PMID:27155527

  7. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

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    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)


    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  8. Exploration Breakthrough in Southern Margin of Junggar Basin

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    Kang Zhulin; Zheng Jiandong


    @@ The Hutubi structure, located in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, is 60 km norrthwest of Urumqi and 20 km northwest of Changji (Fig. l). The Hu-2 well drilled in the Hutubi structure has gained high-yield gas flow,significant exploration breakthrough in the southern margin of Junggar Basin since the 1950s.

  9. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin (United States)


    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point. The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and

  10. Prevalence of classical swine fever in Karnataka, India

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    Prakash Choori


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to know the current scenario of classical swine fever (CSF in Bengaluru Urban, Bengaluru Rural, Chikkaballapur, Madikeri, Mandya, Bagalkot, Gadag, Yadgir, Koppal, and Bidar districts of Karnataka with the using of both antigen and antibody ELISA. Materials and Methods: We collected 218 sera and 121 blood samples from pigs from 10 different districts of Karnataka. Screening of sera for CSF IgG antibody and whole blood for CSF virus antigen were carried out using the CSF virus (CSFV antibody and antigen ELISA kits, respectively. Results: The mean seroprevalence was 41% (89/218 and prevalence of CSFV antigen in blood samples was 32% (39/121 for the 10 districts of Karnataka. Seroprevalence of 61%, 29%, 20%, and 21%; and antigen prevalence of 40%, 50%, 13%, and 12% were recorded for Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, and Gulbarga divisions of Karnataka, respectively. Conclusions: The study revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of CSF, both for the antigen (32% and antibody (41% in Karnataka. Southern Karnataka has the highest seroprevalence (61% in Bangalore and 29% in Mysore divisions, which confirms the endemicity of the disease in that region. This could be attributed to the intensive pig farming practices in the region as compared to Northern Karnataka (Seroprevalence of 20% in Belgaum and 21% in Gulbarga divisions, where the commercial pig farming is still in infantile stages.

  11. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS. (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S


    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  12. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin


    Lombardo, U


    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation ...

  13. Petroleum System Modelling of Onshore Mandawa Basin - Southern, Tanzania


    Maganza, Neema Ernest


    The Mandawa Basin is located along the coast in the southern part of Tanzania, and is potentially one of the most hydrocarbon prospective in the country, as it believed to contain all the essential petroleum system elements. Hydrocarbon exploration and drilling in the basin has been done since the 1950’s but, in spite of the considerable exploration and drilling activities that have been carried out, no economical discoveries have been made. Gas and oil shows in a few wells significantly...

  14. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru. (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M


    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  15. Does litterfall from native trees support rainfed agriculture? Analysis of Ficus trees in agroforestry systems of southern dry agroclimatic zone of Karnataka, southern India

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    B.Dhanya; Syam Viswanath; Seema Purushothaman


    Trees of the genus Ficus,integral components of indigenous rainfed agro-ecosystems of the southern dry agro-climatic zone of Kamataka,southern India,have traditionally been associated with the ecological service of soil quality enhancement in addition to various direct use benefits.We assessed the soil enrichment service of Ficus benghalensis L.a common Ficus species in these agroforestry systems,by quantifying nutrient return via litter fall.Litterfall estimation and chemical analysis of litter showed that F.benghalensis trees produce 3,512 kg·ha-1 of litter annually which,on decomposition,can satisfy up to 76.70 % of N,20.24% of P and 67.76% of K requirements of dryland crops annually per hectare.This can lead to an avoided cost of compost of US $ 36.46ha-1·a-1 in dryland farming systems.The slow rate of decay of Ficus litter,as revealed in litter decomposition studies indicates its potential as ideal mulch for dryland soils.We discuss the complementarity between Ficus litterfall and cropping patterns in Mandya,and its implications for rainfed agricultural systems.

  16. Messinian paleoenvironmental changes in the easternmost Mediterranean Basin: Adana Basin, southern Turkey


    FARANDA, Costanza; Gliozzi, Elsa; CIPOLLARI, Paola; Grossi, Francesco; Darbaş, Güldemin


    We present detailed Messinian paleoenvironmental reconstructions for the Adana Basin based on a multidisciplinary approach that utilizes the fossil content of the Kuzgun and Handere Formations. To reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes that affected the Adana Basin during the Messinian, we analyzed mollusk, ostracod, planktonic and benthonic foraminifer, and calcareous nannofossil assemblages from 2 stratigraphic sections near Kabasakal village (Adana, southern Turkey). To determine if th...

  17. Invest In Karnataka

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    Guo Yan


    @@ The bilateral trade between India and China has crossed US$ 51 billion in 2008.China has become India's largest trading partner and there is still a lot of scope for promoting bilateral trade between two countries.Aiming at promoting the Global Invertots Meet to be held in Bangalore on 11-12 January,2010,"Invest in Karnataka-Global Investors meet 2010" was held on September 3,2009.

  18. Subsidence and basin development in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

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    Ferebee, C. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States))


    Development of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen was the result of Cambrian tectonism along Proterozoic zones of weakness that caused northwest-trending extensional normal faults related to a rifting event. These faults were reactivated during upper Paleozoic compressional stress with fault patterns indicative of sinistral transpressive and transtensional movement. Mapping in the region has allowed classification of the myriad of faults into six major systems, from the north to south: the Washita Valley, Madill-Aylesworth, Caddo, Criner, Horseshoe Bend, and Muenster systems. Development of the fault systems occurred somewhat independently as energy was transferred between them owing to changes in stress from the uneven collision of the Ouachita front. This model may account for the episodic movement recognized by past investigators. The determination of relative timing of development within these systems has shown that the Madill-Aylesworth and Criner systems were active during the Upper Mississippian. As deformation continued along the Criner system structural activity moved southward to include the Horseshoe Bend and Muenster systems during the Early Pennsylvanian. During the Middle Pennsylvanian, fault development along the southern margin of the aulacogen subsided, and deformation activity was initiated in the northern portions of the Ardmore basin. The amount of horizontal displacement along fault systems in the region is still unresolved. However, by regional mapping along the Criner systems, a minimum of 6 mi left-lateral movement can be documented as having occurred during the Upper Pennsylvanian using models of sediment deposition and transport in strike-slip basins.

  19. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

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    U. Lombardo


    Full Text Available Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays triggered by above normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all the twelve tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. I found that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid- to late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a year to decade time scale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  20. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto


    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  1. 3D Geologic Model of the Southern Great Basin (United States)

    Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.


    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous

  2. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China

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    何光玉; 陈汉林


    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China:(l) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation.

  3. Crude oil geochemistry of the southern Songliao Basin

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    Li Taiming; Rullkoetter, J.; Radke, M.; Schaefer, R.G.; Welte, D.H.


    Twenty-three crude oils from the southern Songliao Basin, Heilongjiang Province (People's Republic of China), were characterized by various organic geochemical techniques to have a very uniform bulk and molecular composition in terms of source characteristics (type I kerogen) but to vary significantly in thermal maturity. Two middle Cretaceous source rocks, i.e. the Members 1 of the Qingshankou (Qn/sub 1/) and Nenjiang (Nen/sub 1/) Formations, were considered to be the most likely origin of the oils investigated, but a Jurassic source cannot be fully excluded for the Nang'An oils. Molecular maturation indicators including carbon preference indices, sterane isomerisation, conversion of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, relative concentration of diasteranes and the 18..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane/17..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorhopane ratio showed that there is a positive correlation between thermal maturity of the oils and the age of their reservoirs. This was interpreted as an indication of limited cross-stratigraphic migration and further evidence for the generation in the Qn/sub 1/ and Nen/sub 1/ source rocks.

  4. Seismological investigations in the Gioia Tauro Basin (southern Calabria, Italy

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    S. Gresta


    Full Text Available This study provides new seismological information to characterize the seismically active area of the Gioia Tauro basin (southern Calabria, Italy. Seismic activity recorded by a temporary network from 1985 to 1994 was analyzed for focal mechanisms, stress tensor inversion, P-wave seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters estimation. Fault plane solutions of selected events showed a variety of different mechanisms, even if a prevalence of normal dip-slip solutions with prevalent rupture orientations occurring along ca. NE-SW directions was observed. Stress tensor inversion analysis disclosed a region governed mainly by a NW-SE extensional stress regime with a nearly vertical ?1. These results are consistent with the structure movements affecting the studied area and with geodetic data. Furthermore, evaluation of P-waves seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters of a subset of events highlighted a strong heterogeneity of the crust and the presence of fault segments and/or weakened zones where great stress accumulation or long-rupture propagation are hindered.

  5. History of petroleum systems in the southern part of the Broad Fourteens Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.; Simmelink, H.J.; Balen, R.T. van; David, P.


    2D Basin modelling was used to evaluate the response of source rock maturation, and of petroleum expulsion, migration, accumulation and preservation to the evolution of the southern part of the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin. Modelling results show that the temperature, maturation and petroleum gene

  6. Reforestation and land use change in a drainage basin of southern Italy


    D’Ippolito A; Ferrari E; Iovino F; Nicolaci A; Veltri A


    In this study, the land use change in a large basin of Calabria region (southern Italy) subjected to extensive reforestation at the end of the ’50 has been carefully reconstructed and compared with the current situation. The runoff capacity of the basin was estimated using data available for the temporal periods before and after the reforestation interventions. The results show that the surface of the basin interested by former reforestation activities did not affect the runoff, probably due ...

  7. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  8. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

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    Prabhakar S Krishnachary


    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  9. Plate interactions control middle late Miocene, proto-Gulf and Basin and Range extension in the southern Basin and Range (United States)

    Henry, Christopher D.; Aranda-Gomez, J. Jorge


    Middle-late Miocene (proto-Gulf; ˜12-6 Ma) extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and east-northeast extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. We propose that this mechanism also applies to kinematically similar, predominantly east-northeast extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province, from southern Arizona and New Mexico to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. New field and 40Ar/ 39Ar data in Sinaloa and Durango confirm that this episode of extension occurred on the mainland side of the Gulf and in the Basin and Range east of the Sierra Madre Occidental, which is generally considered the eastern margin of the Gulf Extensional Province. Published data indicate the middle-late Miocene episode also occurred across the northern and southern ends of the Sierra Madre where the Gulf Extensional Province connects with the Basin and Range: (1) from central Sonora into southern Arizona and New Mexico, and (2) from Nayarit into central Mexico north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This episode appears to have affected an area that continues to the eastern edge of the Basin and Range province in Texas and San Luis Potosi. Recognition that this episode of extension affected the entire southern Basin and Range resolves the discrepancy between the amount of extension calculated based on plate reconstructions and that based on field data within the Gulf Extensional Province alone. Published plate reconstructions require 160 to 110 km of east-northeast extension between ˜12 and 6 Ma. If taken up solely within the Gulf Extensional Province, this would have generated 66 to 78% extension, which is much greater than observed. Spread across the entire southern Basin and Range it requires only ˜20% total extension, which is more

  10. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.


    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  11. Origin of Meter-Size Granite Basins in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Gorden, Mary A.; Robinson, Joel E.; Moring, Barry C.


    Meter-size granite basins are found in a 180-km belt extending south from the South Fork of the Kings River to Lake Isabella on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada, California. Their origin has long been debated. A total of 1,033 basins have been inventoried at 221 sites. The basins occur on bedrock granitic outcrops at a median elevation of 1,950 m. Median basin diameter among 30 of the basin sites varies from 89 to 170 cm, median depth is 12 to 63 cm. Eighty percent of the basin sites also contain smaller bedrock mortars (~1-2 liters in capacity) of the type used by Native Americans (American Indians) to grind acorns. Features that suggest a manmade origin for the basins are: restricted size, shape, and elevation range; common association with Indian middens and grinding mortars; a south- and west-facing aspect; presence of differing shapes in distinct localities; and location in a food-rich belt with pleasant summer weather. Volcanic ash (erupted A.D. 1240+-60) in the bottom of several of the basins indicates that they were used shortly before ~760 years ago but not thereafter. Experiments suggest that campfires built on the granite will weaken the bedrock and expedite excavation of the basins. The primary use of the basins was apparently in preparing food, including acorns and pine nuts. The basins are among the largest and most permanent artifacts remaining from the California Indian civilization.

  12. Characteristics of seismostratigraphy and analysis of structurallithofacies in the southern Yellow Sea Cenozoic basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYanpeng; LIUChenguang; LIANGRuicai; LIUBaohua; WUJinlong


    In this paper,the upper structural layer of the southern Yellow Sea Basin (SYSB) is further divided into three layers based on the latest obtained high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles.Combined with the borehole data,the characteristics and evolvement of structure and environment since middle-late Tertiary are discussed.The study shows that the acoustic-base indicated by shallow seismic profiles represents the basic shape of the SYSB in late Oligocene-early Miocene.Based on the comprehensive analysis of some typical profiles crossing the basin about seismostratigraphy,gravity and magnetics,the basin about seismostratigraphy,gravity and magnetics,the basin edge fault and some basin inner structure are identified.Furthermore,the acoustic-base is classified into four types of basal lithofacies:Eogene basin basement,Paleozoic basement,Mesozoic basement and magma intrusion basement.

  13. Characteristics of seismostratigraphy and analysis of structural- lithofacies in the southern Yellow Sea Cenozoic basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, the upper structural layer of the southern Yellow Sea Basin (SYSB) is further divided into three layers based on the latest obtained high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles. Combined with the borehole data, the characteristics and evolvement of structure and environment since middle-late Tertiary are discussed. The study shows that the acoustic-base indicated by shallow seismic profiles represents the basic shape of the SYSB in late Oligocene-early Miocene. Based on the comprehensive analysis of some typical profiles crossing the basin about seismostratigraphy, gravity and magnetics, the basin edge fault and some basin inner structure are identified. Furthermore, the acoustic-base is classified into four types of basal lithofacies: Eogene basin basement, Paleozoic basement, Mesozoic basement and magma intrusion basement.

  14. On the actinopterygian fish fauna (Upper Cretaceous: Campanian) from the Kristianstad Basin, southern Sweden.


    Bazzi, Mohamad


    Actinopterygian remains have been recovered from Upper Cretaceous (uppermost lower to lowermost upper Campanian) marine strata of the Kristianstad Basin, southern Sweden. This is the first record of Upper Cretaceous bony fish from the Fennoscandian shield. The fauna consists of higher taxa including Pachycormiformes (Pachycormidae), Elopiformes (Pachyrhizodontidae), Pycnodontiformes (Pycnodontidae), Aulopiformes (Enchodontidae), Ichthyodectiformes (Ichthyodectidae), and indeterminable teleost...

  15. Foraminiferal patterns in two trophically different regions: the northern Adriatic Sea and the southern Levantine Basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, N.T.; Duijnstee, Ivo; van der Zwaan, Bert


    In spite of the fact that the northern Adriatic Sea and southern Levantine Basin are trophically quite different, the benthic foraminiferal standing stocks through the seasons were found to be in the same range. This suggests that the amount offood (organic matter) available at the sediment-water in

  16. The late Quaternary tephrostratigraphical record of the San Gregorio Magno basin (southern Italy) (United States)

    Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.


    Twenty-one primary pyroclastic layers were found embedded in the lacustrine sediments of the San Gregorio Magno basin (Southern Apennines). These sand-sized layers were characterised by a noticeable juvenile fragments content and by a sharp basal contact with the underlying clay and silt sediments. The tephra layers have been correlated with terrestrial counterparts from well-known eruptive events of the Campanian volcanic area, or with reference layers from deep sea sediment cores and from the Monticchio maar sequence. The investigation of the San Gregorio Magno tephra layers made it possible to deduce that lacustrine sedimentation at San Gregorio Magno basin began before 170k yr BP and lasted at least until the emplacement of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, which occurred about 15k yr BP. The tephrochronology allowed determination of the varying sedimentation rate that occurred in the basin. Correlation of the lacustrine record with marine sequences has allowed development of a late Quaternary tephrostratotype for southern Italy. Copyright

  17. Focal mechanisms in the southern Dead Sea basin and related structural elements based on seismological data (United States)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.


    A dense temporary local seismological network was operated from 10/2006 to 3/2008 in the southern Dead Sea basin also outside the basin within the framework of the DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, providing many recordings of local earthquakes. We used the recordings of DESIRE and also the recordings of the permanent networks of Israel Seismic Network, Israel, and Jordan Seismic Observatory, Jordan. We determined high quality focal plane solutions of 490 events, using at least 6 stations (normally >10 stations) with a good station distribution around the epicenters. In the southern Dead Sea basin and adjacent regions there are several clusters of earthquakes. Most of the activity occurred along the eastern bordering fault of the basin, in the Lisan Peninsula and just south and north of it. Along the eastern and western bordering faults we observe mainly strike slip mechanism, probably supporting the left lateral motion along the Dead Sea fault. The nodal planes of many of focal mechanisms inside the basin are parallel to the transverse faults crossing the basin, i.e., Bokek and Ein-Gedi faults, and also parallel to faults that border the Lisan Peninsula on the north-western and south-western sides.

  18. Geodetic measurement of deformation in the Ventura basin region, southern California (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Hager, Bradford H.; King, Robert W.; Herring, Thomas A.


    We have measured the deformation in the Ventura basin region, southern California, with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out over 4.6 years between 1987 and 1992. The deformation within our network is spatically variable on scales of tens of kilometers, with strain rates reaching 0.6 +/- 1 micro-rad/yr in the east-central basin. Blocklike rotations are observed south and northwest of the basin where the maximum shear strain rates are an order of magnitude lower (0.06 +/- 1 micro-rad/yr to the south). We also observed clockwise rotations of 1 deg - 7 deg/m.y. Shear strain rates determined by comparing angle changes from historical triangulation spanning several decades and GPS measurements give consistent, though less precise, results. The geodetic rates of shortening across the basin and Western Transverse Ranges are lower than those estimated from geological observations, but the patterns of deformation from the two methods agree qualitatively.

  19. Large lake basins of the southern High Plains: Ground-water control of their origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Reeves, C.C. Jr (Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock (United States))


    The origin of the {approximately}40-50 topographically large lake basins on the southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico has been an enigma. Previous workers have considered deflation or evaporite dissolution at depth and subsequent collapse as the most probable mechanisms. However, the eolian hypotheses have been unable to provide convincing arguments as to how the wind selectively erodes the thick, deflation-resistant calcrete 'caprock' that is persistent over much of the southern High Plains. Furthermore, recent detailed studies on some of the basins show no significant evaporite dissolution at depth, and neither mechanism offers a satisfactory explanation as to why the basins are almost universally associated with subsurface topographic highs, or why they are absent where the High Plains aquifer thickness exceeds 60 m. The authors address these latter concerns and modify the deflation hypothesis by proposing that the calcrete caprock may never have been deposited in the areas now occupied by the basins. The absence of calcrete deposition is proposed to have resulted from high water tables caused by an increase in hydraulic gradient where aquifers thinned above bedrock highs. A high water table close to an/or intersecting the surface prevents deposition of calcrete, and, thus, the uncemented surface would be more susceptible to deflation than the surrounding calcrete-covered areas after decline of the water table. The rise in water table associated with bedrock highs is documented by numerical simulation using boundary conditions and hydrologic parameters representative of the southern High Plains.

  20. Tectonic development of Laramide thrusts and basins in southern US Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, A.; Ingersoll, R.V. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)


    To elucidate the tectonic nature of the Laramide faults and basins and their role in controlling the development of late Cenozoic extensional structures, the authors compiled a tectonic map and constructed a series of E-W cross-sections between latitude 41[degree]N and latitude 32[degree]N along the Rockies. The tectonic map and balanced cross-sections show that the northern part of the southern Rockies is characterized by a W-directed thrust system and the southern part by an E-directed thrust system. The W- and E-directed systems overlap between 39[degree]N and 38[degree]N. On the surface, the transfer of shortening from the W-directed to the E-directed thrust system was accomplished by variation of displacements along strike of the two thrust systems. The authors hypothesize that the slip transfer at depth was accommodated along a commonly shared sub-horizontal detachment in the plastically deformed mid-crust, a situation similar to the recently documented basement-involved thrust systems in the South American Andes on the basis of focal-mechanism studies. The balanced cross-sections show that no systematic increase in shortening southward along strike of the southern Rockies can be detected within the resolution of the available surface and subsurface data. Dickinson and others (1988) classified three types of Laramide basins in the central Rockies on the basis of their structural settings: perimeter, ponded, and axial. Much debate has been centered on the origin of the axial basins that are characteristic of the southern Rockies. It is not clear whether they are the result of compressional tectonics, transpressional tectonics, or the superposition of the two in both time and space. An evolutionary model systematically accounts for the development of thrusts and basins during the Laramide orogeny and their influence on the development of younger normal faults and extensional basins during the late Cenozoic.

  1. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1) (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.


    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  2. Linkages Between Cretaceous Forearc and Retroarc Basin Development in Southern Tibet (United States)

    Orme, D. A.; Laskowski, A. K.


    Integrated provenance and subsidence analysis of forearc and retroarc foreland basin strata were used to reconstruct the evolution of the southern margin of Eurasia during the Early to Late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous-Eocene Xigaze forearc basin, preserved along ~600 km of the southern Lhasa terrane, formed between the Gangdese magmatic arc and accretionary complex as subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere accommodated the northward motion and subsequent collision of the Indian plate. Petrographic similarities between Xigaze forearc basin strata and Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary rocks of the northern Lhasa terrane, interpreted as a retroarc foreland basin, were previously interpreted to record N-S trending river systems connecting the retro- and forearc regions during Cretaceous time. New sandstone petrographic and U-Pb detrital zircon provenance analysis of Xigaze forearc basin strata support this hypothesis. Qualitative and statistical provenance analysis using cumulative distribution functions and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests show that the forearc basin was derived from either the same source region as or recycled from the foreland basin. Quartz-rich sandstones with abundant carbonate sedimentary lithic grains and rounded, cobble limestone clasts suggests a more distal source than the proximal Gangdese arc. Therefore, we interpret that the northern Lhasa terrane was a significant source of Xigaze forearc detritus and track spatial and temporal variability in the connection between the retro- and forearc basin systems during the Late Cretaceous. A tectonic subsidence curve for the Xigaze forearc basin shows a steep and "kinked" shape similar to other ancient and active forearc basins. Initial subsidence was likely driven by thermal relaxation of the forearc ophiolite after emplacement while additional periods of rapid subsidence likely result from periods of high flux magmatism in the Gangdese arc and changes in plate convergence rate. Comparison of the

  3. Reservoir-forming age and its exploration significance to stratigraphic reservoirs in southern Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Despite many studies concerning the forming age, evolution characteristics and the age of petroleum charging in the Fuxin upheaval of southern Songliao Basin, no consensus has been reached so far. This paper presents the first K-Ar dating of autogenetic illite from stratigraphic petroleum reservoirs in the Fuyu oil layer of the Fuxin upheaval belt. Isotopic test and age calculation were carried out based on the separation and purification of illite mineral, X-diffraction analysis and the detection of scanning electron microscopy. The evolution characteristics of structure, sedimentation, reservoir-forming about the Fuxin upheaval belt were interpreted in terms of the synthetical analysis of "six-type geological history" evolution in southern Songliao Basin. The geologic background of petroleum evolution and reservoir formation are similar in the entire central depression region of southern Songliao Basin. The Changling sag and the Fuxin upheaval belt brought about obvious upheaval-sag separation after the hydrocarbon-generation peak of K2qn1 and the main reservoir-forming period of the Fuyu oil layer, namely reservoir-forming happened before the Fuxin upheaval belt extensively raised. The reservoirs have three characteristics: the hydrocarbon source rock above the reservoir, the oil source in the locality, and the vertical migration. The geological cognition is corrected, that is, oil source came from the Changling sag and migrated from the side direction. The bulk process of petroleum charging in the stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fuxin upheaval belt of southern Songliao Basin is determined according to the isotopic age of autogenetic illite in combination with the method of fluid inclusions. The cognition is helpful to exactly evaluate the resource potential and exploration direction in the Fuxin upheaval belt, Changling sag and their peripheral areas. The present results indicate that the combination of the two methods (the K-Ar dating of





    To determine to what extent climate change affects the rainfall recorded on the southern Mediterranean basin, a trend analysis is proposed. This study is based on the chronological graphic method of processing information (MGCTI) of type "Matrice Bertin". Results show an extreme variability of the precipitations and a severe drought, especially for Morocco, observed since 1970s. Finally, a gradual return to humid conditions is observed from the beginning of the 2000s in Algeria and Tunisia an...

  5. Geothermal field and thermotectonic evolution in Southern South Yellow Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuchun; HU Shengbiao; CAI Dongsheng; FENG Xiaojie; GAO Le; LU Jingmei


    Based on the available borehole temperature data and measurements of thermal conductivities on 10 core samples in the Southern South Yellow Sea Basin, 8 heat flow values are obtained. The results show that the mean values of temperature gradient and heat flow are 28.6℃/km and 69 mW/m2, respectively. The thermal history reconstruction from the inversion of vitrinite reflectance data, using the temperature-gradient method, indicates that the highest paleo-heat flow occurred at the end of the Mesozoic, and then the basin began to cool to present day. Tectonic subsidence analysis shows that the basin experienced at least four episodes of quick subsidence since the late Paleozoic and that the tectonic evolution was quite strong and complex.

  6. Latest Miocene to Quaternary deformation in the southern Chaiwopu Basin, northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland (United States)

    Lu, Honghua; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Tianqi; Zhao, Junxiang; Zheng, Xiangmin; Li, Youli


    Basinward propagation of fold and thrust belts is a crucial geological process accommodating Cenozoic crustal shortening within the India-Eurasia collision zone. Anticlinal growth strata in the southern Chaiwopu Basin (a piggyback basin) of the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland record basinward encroachment of the Tian Shan along the Junggar Frontal Thrust Fault. A new magnetostratigraphic section constrains the onset of syntectonic growth strata at circa 6.4 Ma and suggests synchronous basinward thrusting and propagation of the Tian Shan. The intense alluviation in the southern Chaiwopu Basin ceased at circa 0.55 Ma due to significant anticlinal growth and its resultant river incision. More recent anticlinal growth and deformation during the late Quaternary are revealed by folded river terraces developing across the anticline. The terrace height profile indicates that terrace T1H has been vertically offset about 0.6 m by thrust faulting since its formation at about 7 Ka. The stratigraphic and geomorphic data presented in this work are helpful to understand the initiation of thrust-related folding, as well as aggradation and subsequent incision, in foreland basins of the Tian Shan in relation to the India-Asia collision.

  7. The Mississippian Pedroches Basin: A failed attempt to propagate a Palaeotethys Arm across Southern Iberia? (United States)

    Armendáriz, Maider; Quesada, Cecilio; Rosales, Idoia


    The Pedroches basin, straddling the boundary between the Ossa Morena (OMZ) and the Central Iberian (CIZ) zones of the Iberian Massif, forms one of the largest exposures of Mississippian rocks in the Iberian Peninsula. With the only exception of transitional facies near the northern and southern margins, the basin fill mostly consists of volcanic and sedimentary rocks deposited in relatively shallow continental shelf environments, in which storm activity was the main process of sediment supply and dispersal. Significantly, the Pedroches basin is split into several compartments (structural units), among which three syn-sedimentary, sigmoidal shape igneous belts, produced the most severe facies, structural and palaeogeographic changes. Owing to its timing of formation during the period of Variscan convergence, its location within an area undergoing active Variscan deformation, and the fact that the basin fill was itself affected by the Variscan orogeny, the Pedroches basin was considered a typical example of a syn-orogenic, peripheral foreland basin. Recent stratigraphical, sedimentological and isotope geology work has allowed a reinterpretation of the basin fill, in which two different sequences may be distinguished, with distinct tectono-stratigraphic significance. Above a basal conglomerate, the several hectometres thick lower part of the basin fill succession shows the highest variability among the various structural units in terms of lithology, facies and thickness. Most volcanic rocks are located within this lower part, within and in between the igneous belts, suggesting the important role of lithosphere-through, extension-related faulting in the origin of the basin. Significant across-strike thickness changes attest for syn-sedimentary horst and graben formation at this stage. On the contrary, the upper part of the basin fill is very similar in all units and corresponds to flyschoid greywacke-mudstone alternations (Culm facies). The change between the lower and

  8. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan (United States)

    Whitney, John W.


    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  9. Submarine landslides in the Southern Adriatic basin: good candidates for potential paleoseismic analysis. (United States)

    Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Trincardi, Fabio; Foglini, Federica; Campiani, Elisabetta; Pellegrini, Claudio


    The Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the western continental margin that surround the Southern Adriatic basin mainly consists of contourite depositional systems. The architectural stacking pattern of the contourites-linked bodies is sometimes interrupted by the presence of large-scale mass-transport complexes (MTCs). MTCs are spatially diffused along the margin and are characterized by high variability in size, morphology and geometries. In the northern sector of the margin MTCs derive from the remobilisation of upper-slope contourite drifts, whereas in the southern sector of the margin sedimentary instability involves shelf-margin, progradational deposits. The most prominent MTC of the northern sector of the margin is the Gondola Slide (GS) a large, deep-seated MTC composed of at least three distinct MTDs involving up to 40km3 of sediments. The events that have generated these MTDs have been enclosed within a robust chronological framework using sedimentary shallow piston-cores collected along the continental slope. The reconstruction of the age of these MTDs indicates that failures have repeatedly occurred along the margin during at least the last 55,000 years. Therefore, the GS case indicates that sediment instability processes can span a large portion of a sea-level cycle, pointing to triggering mechanisms that are independent from variations in the relative sea level position. The repeated GS failure events are therefore interpreted to be mainly triggered by earthquake shocks. The Southern Adriatic basin represents a seismically active area and earthquakes are generally cluster along long-lived shear zones. One of these zones, the Gondola Zone, which run across the shelf and the slope, close to the GS-MTC, has been site of paleoseismology analysis, indicating recent (younger than 5.5 kyr) tectonic deformation through E-W strike-slip faulting . Basin-scale MTDs characterize also the southern sector of the continental margin. MTDs are present both

  10. Basin Evolution of the Cretaceous-Early Eocene Xigaze Forearc, Southern Tibet (United States)

    Orme, D. A.; Carrapa, B.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.; Reiners, P. W.


    An understanding of the processes which control the evolution of forearc basins is important for deciphering the tectonic development of a convergent margin prior to continent-continent suturing. This study presents sedimentologic, modal petrographic and geo-thermochronologic data from the Xigaze forearc basin, preserved along ~ 600 km of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone in southern Tibet. From late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time, subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the southern margin of Asia accommodated the northward motion of the Indian craton and formed the Xigaze forearc basin. Following collision with India in the early Cenozoic, the basin transitioned from predominantly marine to non-marine sedimentation and was subsequently uplifted to a mean elevation of 5000 m. Thus, the sedimentary record in the Xigaze forearc preserves information regarding the tectonic evolution of the Indo-Asia continental margin prior to and following collision. We present new measured sections and geo-thermochronologic data from Early Cretaceous to Early Eocene clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks, preserved in two previously unexplored regions of the forearc, (1) at its western most extent, northwest of Saga, and (2) north of Lhatse. In turn, we compare our results with previously published data in order to synthesize our current understanding of forearc evolution. Strata preserved in the Lhaste region record an initial shallow marine phase of forearc sedimentation (Aptian), but quickly transition to deep marine slope and distal fan turbidite facies (Albian-Campanian). In contrast, facies preserved in the Saga region record a younger shoaling upward marine sequence (Maastrichtian-Ypresian), with the uppermost ~ 400 m consisting of fluvial channel sandstones and red-green paleosols. Facies and depositional environments in the Saga region are highly variable along strike, with turbidites, shelf limestones, estuarine siliciclastics and thick paleosols sequences all

  11. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico. (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.


    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  12. Clustering and interpretation of local earthquake tomography models in the southern Dead Sea basin (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Braeuer, Benjamin


    The Dead Sea transform (DST) marks the boundary between the Arabian and the African plates. Ongoing left-lateral relative plate motion and strike-slip deformation started in the Early Miocene (20 MA) and produced a total shift of 107 km until presence. The Dead Sea basin (DSB) located in the central part of the DST is one of the largest pull-apart basins in the world. It was formed from step-over of different fault strands at a major segment boundary of the transform fault system. The basin development was accompanied by deposition of clastics and evaporites and subsequent salt diapirism. Ongoing deformation within the basin and activity of the boundary faults are indicated by increased seismicity. The internal architecture of the DSB and the crustal structure around the DST were subject of several large scientific projects carried out since 2000. Here we report on a local earthquake tomography study from the southern DSB. In 2006-2008, a dense seismic network consisting of 65 stations was operated for 18 months in the southern part of the DSB and surrounding regions. Altogether 530 well-constrained seismic events with 13,970 P- and 12,760 S-wave arrival times were used for a travel time inversion for Vp, Vp/Vs velocity structure and seismicity distribution. The work flow included 1D inversion, 2.5D and 3D tomography, and resolution analysis. We demonstrate a possible strategy how several tomographic models such as Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs can be integrated for a combined lithological interpretation. We analyzed the tomographic models derived by 2.5D inversion using neural network clustering techniques. The method allows us to identify major lithologies by their petrophysical signatures. Remapping the clusters into the subsurface reveals the distribution of basin sediments, prebasin sedimentary rocks, and crystalline basement. The DSB shows an asymmetric structure with thickness variation from 5 km in the west to 13 km in the east. Most importantly, a well-defined body

  13. Hydrological drought forecasting and skill assessment for the Limpopo river basin, Southern Africa

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    P. Trambauer


    Full Text Available Ensemble hydrological predictions are normally obtained by forcing hydrological models with ensembles of atmospheric forecasts produced by Numerical weather prediction models. To be of practical value to water users, such forecasts should not only be sufficiently skilful, they should also provide information that is relevant to the decisions end users make. The semi-arid Limpopo basin in Southern Africa has experienced severe droughts in the past, resulting in crop failures, high economic losses and the need for humanitarian aid. In this paper we address the seasonal prediction of hydrological drought for the Limpopo river basin by testing three proposed forecasting systems (FS that can provide operational guidance to dam operators and water managers within the basin at the seasonal time scale. All three FS include a distributed hydrological model of the basin, and are forced with either (i a global atmospheric model forecast (ECMWF seasonal forecast system – S4, (ii the commonly applied Ensemble Streamflow Prediction approach (ESP using resampled historical data, or (iii a conditional ESP approach (ESPcond, which is conditional on the ENSO signal. We determine the skill of the three systems in predicting drought indices and streamflow. We also assess the skill of the model in predicting indicators that are meaningful to the local end users in the basin. FS_S4 shows moderate skill for all lead times (3, 4, and 5 months and aggregation periods. FS_ESP also performs better than climatology for the shorter lead times, but with a lower skill than FS_S4. FS_ESPcond shows skill in between the other two FS, though its skill is shown to be more robust. The skills of FS_ESP and FS_ESPcond reduce rapidly with increasing lead time. Both FS_S4 and FS_ESPcond show good potential for seasonal hydrological drought forecasting in the Limpopo river basin, which is encouraging in the context of providing better operational guidance to water users.

  14. Multi-Layer Superposed Coalbed Methane System in Southern Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Yong Qin; Xuehai Fu; Zhaobiao Yang; Chen Guo


    Multi-coalbed developed in Carboniferous–Permian coal-bearing strata of southern Qinshui Basin, and different coal-bearing segments have different coalbed methane (CBM) reservoiring characteristics. Analysis of previous studies suggests that the essence of an unattached CBM system is to possess a unified fluid pressure system, which includes four key elements, namely, gas-bearing coal-rock mass, formation fluid, independent hydrodynamic system and capping layer condition. Based on the exploration and exploitation data of CBM, it is discovered that the gas content of coal seams in southern Qinshui Basin presents a change rule of non-monotonic function with the seam dipping, and a turning point of the change appears nearby coal seam No. 9, and coal seams of the upper and the lower belong to different CBM systems respectively; well test reservoir pressure shows that the gradient of coal seam No. 15 of the Taiyuan Formation is significantly higher than that of coal seam No. 3 of the Shanxi Formation; the equivalent reservoir pressure gradient of coal seam No. 15 “jumps” obviously compared with the reservoir pressure gradient of coal seam No. 3 in the same vertical well, that is, the relation between reservoir pressure and burial depth takes on a characteristic of nonlinearity; mean-while, the vertical hydraulic connection among the aquifers of Shanxi Formation and Taiyuan Forma-tion is weak, constituting several relatively independent fluid pressure systems. The characteristics dis-cussed above reveal that the main coal seams of southern Qinshui Basin respectively belong to relatively independent CBM systems, the formation of which are jointly controlled by sedimentary, hydrogeolog-ical and structural conditions.

  15. Structural development and crustal stretching in the Muglad Basin, southern Sudan (United States)

    Mohamed, A. Y.; Ashcroft, W. A.; Whiteman, A. J.


    A simplified model cross-section has been established from integrated well data, reflection seismic and gravity data along a northeast-southwest profile in the Unity-Kaikang area in the Muglad Basin, southern Sudan. A multi-layer crustal model has been created to produce a better estimate of the crustal extension involved and assess some of the key factors in the basin's formation by comparison to a theoretical model. Within the sedimentary section, three reflection seismic horizons were picked and their depths were calculated: Top Bentiu (Cenomanian), Top Abu Gabra (Aptian-Albian) and Top Basement (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous). The integrated well and seismic data indicate a sedimentary section up to 11 km thick along the cross-section. Different densities were assigned to the three sedimentary layers according to well data, and upper and lower crustal layers were incorporated in the model. Isostatic compensation of the sedimentary fill and the resultant crustal thinning was estimated by gravity modelling. The stretching of the lithosphere is estimated at ≈56 km (≈61%), corresponding to a β factor of 1.61. The form of the basin agrees with the model of a rift basin developed over an extended period of time.

  16. Tephrochronological study in the quaternary Val d'Agri intermontane basin (Southern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Zembo, Irene; Vignola, Pietro; Andò, Sergio; Bersezio, Riccardo; Vezzoli, Luigina


    In the south-eastern depocentre of the Val d'Agri basin (Southern Apennines), a volcanic ash layer crops out interbedded within poorly structured alluvial fan deposits of Late Pleistocene age. Textural, depositional and pedological features of this weathered layer suggest a primary deposition from a pyroclastic fall-out of volcanic ash. Chemical analyses of feldspars show an alkali trachytic composition and accessory minerals association allow to correlate this tephra layer with the regionally dispersed Y-7 marine tephra layer (Tufo Verde Epomeo eruption, Ischia volcano), dated at 56 ± 4 ka. The Val d'Agri tephra here described for the first time was deposited during MIS Stage 3. Its recovery and characterization permit to contribute to regional correlation of the Mediterranean climatic and volcanic events from marine to continental successions and to describe landscape evolution of the Southern Apennines during glacial-interglacial cycles.

  17. Diamondoid Hydrocarbons as Maturity Indicators for Condensates from Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan


    Shagufta Nasir; Tahira Fazeelat


    Diamondoid hydrocarbons have been examined in condensates reservoired in the Southern Indus Basin using GC-MS. Bulk properties reveal that samples are waxy and low sulfur with the exception of Pakhro and Gopang which are nonwaxy. TIC show bimodal distribution of n-alkanes along with high abundance of C20+ n-alkanes indicating substantial contribution of terrigeneous OM in these samples. CPI close to one is consistent with mature nature of oils. The samples show two ranges of Pr/Ph ratios. Tho...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available To determine to what extent climate change affects the rainfall recorded on the southern Mediterranean basin, a trend analysis is proposed. This study is based on the chronological graphic method of processing information (MGCTI of type "Matrice Bertin". Results show an extreme variability of the precipitations and a severe drought, especially for Morocco, observed since 1970s. Finally, a gradual return to humid conditions is observed from the beginning of the 2000s in Algeria and Tunisia and since 2008 in Morocco. This new trend is also confirmed by recent results provided by agricultural data of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013.

  19. Tectonic and climatic control on geomorphological and sedimentary evolution of the Mercure basin, southern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Robustelli, Gaetano; Ermolli, Elda Russo; Petrosino, Paola; Jicha, Brian; Sardella, Raffaele; Donato, Paola


    The morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Mercure intramontane basin (Calabria-Lucania boundary, southern Apennines) has been assessed through facies analysis, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The Mercure basin, one of the most active seismogenic zones of the southern Apennines, is a favorable area for reconstructing the main stages of landscape evolution of the axial zone because of its capability to record changes in base level during the Quaternary. In addition, the presence of both erosional and depositional Palaeosurfaces is a useful marker for reconstructing tectonic and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect the role played by tectonics and climate in its genesis, evolution and extinction. The present study identifies the key role of tectonics and denudation, combined with high-frequency floods, as mechanisms controlling alluvial sedimentation in the study area. During endorheic conditions, denudational processes driven by pulses of extensional deformation of the basin margin caused strong alluvial inputs that resulted in the development of alluvial fans. Alluvial facies are mainly characterized by turbulent, subaerial, hyperconcentrated flood flows deposited during the glacial, semi-arid conditions of MIS 14. The retrogradational stacking pattern of the alluvial system indicates decreasing rates of tectonic activity along with declining river gradients. The Mercure coalescing alluvial fans were inundated by lake transgression during MIS 13 in response to (i) abrupt tectonic subsidence at the basin margins and (ii) large decrease of coarse sediment supply due to the interplay among climate, tectonics and catchment size changes. In this regard, it is suggested that tectonic control on the drainage network along with climate and long-term slope evolution may have caused marked pulses in sediment supply, thus influencing the arrangement of facies associations in the sedimentary succession. In addition, the

  20. Traveling Weather Disturbances in Mars' Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.


    ' transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are significantly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). In addition, the occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring is keyed particularly to the western hemisphere via orographic influences arising from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate fundamental differences amongst such simulations and these are described.

  1. Stratigraphic correlations of the Vaca Muerta formation in the southern Neuquén basin, Argentina (United States)

    Nesma, Krim; Patrice, Imbert; Cedric, Bonnel; Charles, Aubourg


    The petroleum Neuquén basin, south west Argentina, contains a continuous late Triassic to Cenozoic succession including continental and marine sediments, deposited under a variety of tectonic regimes. The Vaca Muerta formation is one of the major source rocks of the Neuquén basin and was deposited during the Andic cycle. This formation consists of organic-rich dark brown to black shales and mudstones deposited during a major transgression, in euxinic conditions on a shelf and slope during the Tithonian. Over most of the basin, the Vaca Muerta formation overlies the continental deposits of the Tordillo formation. The contact between the two formations is isochronous throughout the basin and marks the Tithonian transgression (Leanza, 1981). After this transgression, prograding bodies were deposited and the Vaca Muerta corresponds to the distal part of this latest. It includes stages from Middle Tithonian in the south to Valanginian in the north (Leanza & Hugo, 1977). The Vaca Muerta formation is well exposed in the southern part of the Neuquén basin, from the Picun Leufu Anticline to the north of the town of Las Lajas. It corresponds in these two areas to a succession of dark to brown shales and carbonate beds. In details, we can divide it into two parts: the Lower Vaca Muerta and the Upper Vaca Muerta. Above, the Picun Leufu formation overlies the Vaca Muerta formation and consists of carbonaceous and siliciclastics prograditional bodies. This unit is absent in the "North Zapala Zone" and its lateral equivalent is less carbonaceous. In this poster; we propose eight detailed sedimentological logs, which are correlated along 120 km north-south trend (from the Picun Leufu Anticline to the south west to the Agrio thrust Belt (ATB) to the north). This correlation will be used to assess the vertical and lateral variability of the Vaca Muerta deposits and to define the palaeogeographic evolution of that region. This allowed us to identify two major prograding sequences

  2. Seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: 1987 through 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, S.C.; Bufe, C.G.


    For the calendar year 1987, the southern Great basin seismic network (SGBSN) recorded about 820 earthquakes in the southern Great Basin (SGB). Local magnitudes ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 (December 30, 1987, 22:50:42 UTC at Hot Creek Valley). Five earthquakes epicenters in 1987 within the detection threshold of the seismic network are at Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential national, high-level nuclear waste repository. The maximum magnitude of those five earthquakes is 1.1, and their estimated depths of focus ranged from 3.1 to 7.6 km below sea level. For the calendar year 1988, about 1280 SGB earthquakes were catalogued, with maximum magnitude-4.4 for an Owens Valley, California, earthquake on July 5, 1988. Eight earthquake epicenters in 1988 are at Yucca Mountain, with depths ranging from three to 12 km below sea level, and maximum magnitude 2.1. For the calendar year 1989, about 1190 SGB earthquakes were located and catalogued, with maximum magnitude equal to 3.5 for earthquake about ten miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, on January 9. No Yucca Mountain earthquakes were recorded in 1989. An earthquake having a well-constrained depth of about 30 km below sea level was observed on August 21, 1989, in eastern Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  3. Reservoir Potential of Silurian Carbonate Mud Mounds in the Southern Sichuan Basin, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; YANG Xiaoping; Steve KERSHAW; ZHANG Baomin


    Lower Silurian mud mounds of the Shinuilan Formation, located in the southern Sichuan Basin, China, have developed in open shelf settings in deeper water than shallow-water reef-bearing limestones that occur in the region. An integration of the outcrop, drill data and seismic profiles show that contemporaneous faults have controlled the boundary and distribution of the sedimentary facies of Lower Silurian rocks in the southern Sichuan Basin. Mounds appear to have developed in the topographic lows formed by synsedimentary faulting, on the shelf of the Yangtze Platform. Average mound thickness is 20 m, maximum 35 m. Mounds are composed mainly of micrite, possibly microbially bound, and are overlain by shales. Mound tops are preferentially dolomitized, with the Mg2+ source probably from the clay content of the mound-top carbonate. Microfacies analysis and reconstruction of the diagenetic history reveal that the mound tops have higher porosity, and are gas targets; in contrast, mound cores and limbs show pores filled by three generations of calcite cement, and therefore have a low gas potential.

  4. Rates of soil development from four soil chronosequences in the southern Great Basin (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Taylor, E.M.; Hill, C.; Mark, R.K.; McFadden, L.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Sowers, J.M.; Wells, S.G.


    Four soil chronosequences in the southern Great Basin were examined in order to study and quantify soil development during the Quaternary. Soils of all four areas are developed in gravelly alluvial fans in semiarid climates with 8 to 40 cm mean annual precipitation. Lithologies of alluvium are granite-gneiss at Silver Lake, granite and basalt at Cima Volcanic Field, limestone at Kyle Canyon, and siliceous volcanic rocks at Fortymile Wash. Ages of the soils are approximated from several radiometric and experimental techniques, and rates are assessed using a conservative mathematical approach. Average rates for Holocene soils at Silver Lake are about 10 times higher than for Pleistocene soils at Kyle Canyon and Fortymile Wash, based on limited age control. Holocene soils in all four areas appear to develop at similar rates, and Pleistocene soils at Kyle Canyon and Fortymile Wash may differ by only a factor of 2 to 4. Over time spans of several millennia, a preferred model for the age curves is not linear but may be exponential or parabolic, in which rates decrease with increasing age. These preliminary results imply that the geographical variation in rates within the southern Great Basin-Mojave region may be much less significant than temporal variation in rates of soil development. The reasons for temporal variation in rates and processes of soil development are complexly linked to climatic change and related changes in water and dust, erosional history, and internally driven chemical and physical processes. ?? 1991.

  5. Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cuzco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Byers, C.; Mann, P.


    The Cuzco basin forms a 80-wide, relatively flat valley within the High Andes of southern Peru. This larger basin includes the regional capital of Cuzco and the Urubamba Valley, or "Sacred Valley of the Incas" favored by the Incas for its mild climate and broader expanses of less rugged and arable land. The valley is bounded on its northern edge by a 100-km-long and 10-km-wide zone of down-to-the-south systems of normal faults that separate the lower area of the down-dropped plateau of central Peru and the more elevated area of the Eastern Cordillera foldbelt that overthrusts the Amazon lowlands to the east. Previous workers have shown that the normal faults are dipslip with up to 600 m of measured displacements, reflect north-south extension, and have Holocene displacments with some linked to destructive, historical earthquakes. We have constructed topographic and structural cross sections across the entire area to demonstrate the normal fault on a the plateau peneplain. The footwall of the Eastern Cordillera, capped by snowcapped peaks in excess of 6 km, tilts a peneplain surface northward while the hanging wall of the Cuzco basin is radially arched. Erosion is accelerated along the trend of the normal fault zone. As the normal fault zone changes its strike from east-west to more more northwest-southeast, normal displacement decreases and is replaced by a left-lateral strike-slip component.

  6. Soil erosion vulnerability in the verde river basin, southern minas gerais

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    Vinícius Augusto de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental degradation processes. Mapping and assessment of soil erosion vulnerability is an important tool for planning and management of the natural resources. The objective of the present study was to apply the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE using GIS tools to the Verde River Basin (VRB, southern Minas Gerais, in order to assess soil erosion vulnerability. A annual rainfall erosivity map was derived from the geographical model adjusted for Southeastern Brazil, calculating an annual value for each pixel. The maps of soil erodibility (K, topographic factor (LS, and use and management of soils (C were developed from soils and their uses map and the digital elevation model (DEM developed for the basin. In a GIS environment, the layers of the factors were combined to create the soil erosion vulnerability map according to RUSLE. The results showed that, in general, the soils of the VRB present a very high vulnerability to water erosion, with 58.68% of soil losses classified as "High" and "Extremely High" classes. In the headwater region of VRB, the predominant classes were "Very High" and "Extremely High" where there is predominance of Cambisols associated with extensive pastures. Furthermore, the integration of RUSLE/GIS showed an efficient tool for spatial characterization of soil erosion vulnerability in this important basin of the Minas Gerais state.

  7. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

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    Shuchismita Dey


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  8. Earthquake location data for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: 1984 through 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data in map and table form for earthquake parameters such as hypocentral coordinates and magnitudes for earthquakes located by the southern Great Basin Seismic network for the time period January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1986. These maps show concentrations of earthquakes in regions previously noted to be seismically active, including the Pahranagat Shear Zone, Pahroc Mountains, southern Nevada Test Site, Timber Mountain, Black Mountain, Gold Mountain, Montezuma Range, and Grapevine Mountains. A concentration of earthquake activity in the Reveille Range was observed in 1986, in a previously inactive area. The northern Nevada Test Site had fewer earthquakes than a comparable area of the southern Nevada Test Site, indicating that the low-yield nuclear testing program is not currently triggering significant numbers of aftershocks. Eight microearthquakes occurred at Yucca Mountain during the 1984-1986 monitoring period. Depths of focus for well-located earthquakes continue to indicate a bimodal distribution, with peaks at 1 to 2 and 8 to 9 km below sea-level and a local minimum at 4 to 5 km. Focal mechanisms range from strike slip to normal slip. No dependence of slip mode on depth or magnitude is evident. 8 refs., 46 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Comparative analysis of post-breakup basin evolution along the South-American and South-African margins, southern Atlantic (United States)

    Strozyk, F.; Back, S.; Kukla, P. A.


    Recently, considerable attempts have been made to compare the sedimentary basin evolution and the associated tectonic framework on both sides of the South-Atlantic. However, yet there are still unresolved questions concerning the tectono-sedimentary styles of margin basin evolution that markedly differ from north to south. Amongst the most striking observations is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic margin segment on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. Adding to the heterogeneity of the system, the northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is also characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin now comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt than the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. This project deals with a large-scale comparison of this very different post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development of the southern and northern South American and African continental margins that both record thick post-rift sedimentary successions. To gain detail of the basin margin evolution, we focus on a regional comparison between the post-breakup records archived in the large offshore southern Brazil basins (Pelotas, Santos, Campos) and the post-breakup continental margin successions of offshore Namibia (e.g. Orange Basin) and southern Angola (e.g. Kwanza Basin). A tectonic-stratigraphic comparison of representative geological transects provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key factors influencing margin development which include the subsidence development through time, the sediment (in-)flux and storage patterns and the respective type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems). Data from the salt-prone areas offshore South America and southern

  10. Back-arc basin opening and closure along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Claringbould, Johan; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji


    Following the tsunami disaster produced by 2001 Off-Tohoku earthquake (M9) along the Pacific coast of Japan, the Japanese government started an intense evaluation of tsunami hazards. This evaluation spanned along the full Japanese coast, including the Sea of Japan coast on the western side of the Japan arc. In the Sea of Japan, tsunamis are produced by crustal faults. As the longer interval of faulting activity, the historical records of tsunamis in the Sea of Japan are not enough for the evaluation of tsunami height. Thus, the evaluation is carried out based on structural analyses of the margin of the Sea of Japan. To get better understanding of the present-day structural geometry and develop a source-fault model in this region, intense seismic reflection profiling has been carried out since 2013. We introduce the results of the seismic reflection profiles and discuss the structural evolution of the southern margin of the Sea of Japan. 2D seismic reflection profiles were acquired using 1950 cu. in. air-gun and 2100 m streamer cable. The seismic profiles provide the image image up to 3 seconds TWT. The southern margin of the Sea of Japan was produced by back-arc opening and post-rift deformation, and the structural evolution of this area is divided into several stages: rifting (25 - 14 Ma), post-rift compression (14 - 5 Ma), weak thrusting (5 - 1 Ma), and strike-slip deformation (1 Ma to present). During the rifting stage that is associated with the fan-shaped opening of the Sea of Japan, grabens and half-grabens were formed trending parallel to the extension of SW-Japan arc. These grabens were filled by syn-rift sediments, and the maximum thickness of basin fill is observed along the southern margin of the rifted crust. The opening of the Sea of Japan ceased as a result of the collision of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system at the Izu collision zone on the central part of Honshu, Japan. Soon after the this event, the young Shikoku basin within the Philippine Sea plate

  11. Simulation of the Arid Climate of the Southern Great Basin Using a Regional Climate Model. (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Bates, Gary T.; Nieman, Steven J.


    As part of the development effort of a regional climate model (RCM)for the southern Great Basin, this paper present savalidation analysis of the climatology generated by a high-resolution RCM driven by observations. The RCM is aversion of the National Center for atmospheric Research-Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model, version 4 (MM4), modified for application to regional climate simulation. Two multiyear simulations, for the periods 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1983 and 1 January 1988 to 25 April 1989, were performed over the western United States with the RCM driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses of observations. The model resolution is 60 km. This validation analysis is the first phase of a project to produce simulations of future climate scenarios over a region surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the only location currently being considered as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site.Model-produced surface air temperatures and precipitation were compared with observations from five southern Nevada stations located in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation were simulated well. Monthly and seasonal temperature biases were generally negative and largely explained by differences in elevation between the observing stations and the model topography. The model-simulated precipitation captured the extreme dryness of the Great Basin. Average yearly precipitation was generally within 30% of observed and the range of monthly precipitation amounts was the same as in the observations. Precipitation biases were mostly negative in the summer and positive in the winter. The number of simulated daily precipitation events for various precipitation intervals was within factors of 1.5-3.5 of observed. Overall, the model tended to overestimate the number of light precipitation events and underestimate the number of heavy precipitation events. At Yucca Mountain, simulated

  12. Chronological dating and tectonic implications of late Cenozoic volcanic rocks and lacustrine sequence in Oiyug Basin of southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Reconstruction of uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau is crucial for understanding its environmental impacts. The Oiyug Basin in southern Tibet contains multiple periods of sedimentary sequences and volcanic rocks that span much of the Cenozoic and has great potential for further studying this issue. However, these strata were poorly dated. This paper presents a chronological study of the 145 m thick and horizontally-distributed lacustrine sequence using paleomagnetic method as well as a K-Ar dating of the underlying volcanic rocks. Based on these dating results, a chronostratigraphic framework and the basin-developmental history have been established for the past 15 Ma, during which three tectonic stages are identified. The period of 15-8.1 Ma is characterized by intense volcanic activities involving at least three major eruptions. Subsequently, the basin came into a tectonically quiescent period and a lacustrine sedimentary sequence was developed. Around 2.5 Ma, an N-S fault occurred across the southern margin of the basin, leading to the disappearance of the lake environment and the development of the Oiyug River. The Gyirong basin on northern slope of the Himalayas shows a similar basin developmental history and thus there is a good agreement in tectonic activities between the Himalayan and Gangdise orogenic belts. Therefore, the tectonic evolution stages experienced by the Oiyug Basin during the past 15 Ma could have a regional significance for southern Tibet. The chronological data obtained from this study may provide some constraints for further studies with regard to the tectonic processes and environmental changes in southern Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar Singh Policepatel


    Objective: To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region.Methods:gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews.Results:A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported.Conclusions:The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  14. Large lake basins of the southern High Plains: ground-water control of their origin? (United States)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.; Reeves, C.C., Jr.


    We modify the deflation hypothesis by proposing that the calcrete caprock may never have been deposited in the areas now occupied by the basins. The absence of calcrete deposition is proposed to have resulted from high water tables caused by an increase in hydraulic gradient where aquifers thinned above bedrock highs. A high water table close to and/or intersecting the surface prevents deposition of calcrete, and thus, the uncemented surface would be more susceptible to deflation than the surrounding calcrete-covered areas after decline of the water table. The rise in water table associated with bedrock highs is documented by numerical simulation using boundary conditions and hydrologic parameters representative of the southern High Plains. -from Authors

  15. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise) (United States)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.


    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  16. Ar/39Ar age spectrum analysis of detrital microclines from the southern San Joaquin Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrital microcline grains from sedimentary strata preserve a record of thermal evolution in the temperature range approx.= 1000 to 2000C which can be revealed by 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum analysis. Microcline separates from deep drill hole intersections with Eocene to Miocene sediments in the Basin and Tejon Blocks of the southern San Joaquin Valley, California, analysed by the age spectrum approach show radiogenic 40Ar (40Ar*) gradients that record both the slow cooling of the uplifting sediment source approx.= 65 Ma ago, and a recent thermal event. This information, in conjunction with the observation of fission track annealing in the coexisting apatites, allows estimation of the temperature-time conditions of this thermal event at about 1400C for approx.= 200 ka. Present and paleotemperature data is in accord with heating related to several kilometers of Pleistocene sediment deposition. Heat flow calculations suggest that this recent subsidence has depressed the thermal gradient from about 300C km-1 to the present apparent gradient of 240C km-1. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of detrital microcline crystals yields thermochronological information in the temperature-time range of petroleum maturation and provides this technique with potential as both a useful exploration tool and as a means of probing the fundamental geodynamic processes of basin evolution. (orig.)

  17. Magnitude-frequency distribution of submarine landslides in the Gioia Basin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) (United States)

    Casas, D.; Chiocci, F.; Casalbore, D.; Ercilla, G.; de Urbina, J. Ortiz


    Regional inventories and magnitude-frequency relationships provide critical information about landslides and represent a first step in landslide hazard assessment. Despite this, the availability of accurate inventories in the marine environment remains poor because of the commonly low accessibility of high-resolution data at regional scales. Evaluating high-resolution bathymetric data spanning the time interval 2007-2011 for the Gioa Basin of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea yielded a landslide inventory of 428 events affecting an area of >85 km2 and mobilizing approximately 1.4 km3 of sediment. This is the first time that this area is studied in such detail, justifying comparison with other areas both onland and offshore. Statistical analyses revealed that the cumulative distribution of the dataset is characterized by two right-skewed probability distributions with a heavy tail. Moreover, evidence of a rollover for smaller landslide volumes is consistent with similar trends reported in other settings worldwide. This may reflect an observational limitation and the site-specific geologic factors that influence landslide occurrence. The robust validation of both power-law and log-normal probability distributions enables the quantification of a range of probabilities for new extreme events far from the background landslide sizes defined in the area. This is a useful tool at regional scales, especially in geologically active areas where submarine landslides can occur frequently, such as the Gioia Basin.

  18. Controls on Suspended Sediment Concentrations and Turbidity within a Reforested, Southern Appalachian Headwater Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R. Miller


    Full Text Available Water quality data collected between 2007 and 2014 within the Allen Creek Watershed were used to: (1 determine the factors controlling the temporal variations in turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC within a representative, high-gradient headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians; and (2 assess the recovery of water quality following extensive logging operations during the early to mid-1900s. Regression analysis suggests that suspended sediment is primarily derived from upland areas and variations in concentration reflect rainfall intensity and total event precipitation. Overall, SSC and turbidity were low in stream waters in comparison to both reference values for stable streams and more developed basins in the region. Some floods were characterized by high SSC values, but limited turbidity and vice versa. Differences in measured SSC and turbidity between storms reflect different controls on the two parameters, and the apparent influence of natural organic matter on turbidity during rainfall events that are incapable of transporting sediment to the channel via overland flow. Low SSC and turbidity values are presumably related to the reforestation of hillslopes and riparian buffers following the cessation of logging operations. They also are due to a historical reduction in the sedimentological connectivity of hillslopes and tributaries with the axial channel that occurred during logging operations.

  19. Magnetic mineralogy analyses on greigite-bearing sediments with inconsistent magnetic polarity (Adana Basin, Southern Turkey) (United States)

    Lucifora, S.; Cifelli, F.; Mattei, M.; Cosentino, D.; Sagnotti, L.; Roberts, A.


    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out, in the framework of the VAMP (Vertical Anatolian Movement Project) project, on 4 stratigraphic sections and 1 site from the Adana basin in the southern margin of the Anatolian Plateau. About 300 standard cylindrical samples have been analysed for paleomagnetism and rock magnetism. All the sections have been deposited in the upper Messinian"lago-mare" post-evaporitic event, which occurred in the Mediterranean basin, during the reverse polarity Chron C3r. Paleomagnetic results, presented in this work, are in contrast with these data, showing both normal and reverse polarities along the sections. Standard magnetic mineralogy investigations, integrated with SEM analyses and FORC diagrams, show that magnetite and ferrimagnetic iron sulphides (greigite) are the main magnetic carriers. Moreover, we find an interesting correlation between the magnetic mineralogy of the sediments and the magnetic polarities, being magnetite the magnetic carrier in the normal polarity samples and greigite in the reverse ones. Reversal and fold tests demonstrate that normal polarity samples have been subjected to a pervasive magnetic overprint and acquired their remanent magnetization after bedding tilt. Whereas samples with a reverse polarity acquired their remanent magnetization before bedding tilt, but after syn-sedimentary soft deformation. This work is proposed as a contribution aimed to improve the understanding of the relationship between the magnetic mineralogy and the remagnetization phenomena in order to avoid misinterpretation of magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data.

  20. Integrated ICTs for Water Basins Management in Southern Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses for Perceived Relevance Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mongi


    Full Text Available User-focused design and an implementation of a computer-based Information System (IS or Information Technology (IT are considered to play a key role in enhancing adoption, supporting activities and contributing to the sector specific sustainability goals. However, there are general concerns over the practical applications derived from records of failure rates of IS/IT projects in the developing world. This paper aggregates and analyzes stakeholders’ perceived usefulness criteria that were documented from water basin focusing on IS and related projects in Southern Africa. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analysis were adopted for data collection and analyses. Literature with academic, practice and hybrid viewpoints was collected from five water basins in Southern Africa. Designed data collection flow chart guided the search for appropriate literature. Analyses of the data were performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results of the search were classified and presented basing on the domain, yearly waves from 2000 to 2015, trans-basin nature and basin of focus. Literature was distributed across the classes at different magnitudes. The study has found out that relevance criteria as measure of usefulness have been incorporated in designing and implementing the IS/IT projects in the river basins. However, incorporation of relevance criteria was periodically increasing with technological advancement and increasing complexity of managing the water basins. In general, it was responsive to increasing challenges of water resources in the developing countries. This anticipated better results at the levels of output, outcome and impacts of IS/IT projects in the Southern Africa. The study concludes that the current trends of incorporation of the relevance criteria in designing and implementing the IS/IT projects on water resources are potential for impact-based interventions in Southern Africa.

  1. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene-Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiao Wan; Xi Wang; Luba F.Jansa


    This study of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet,which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa.The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation-from the Miscellanea-Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites-Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites.Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P-E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  2. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating from granitoids in southern basement of Songliao basin: Constraints on ages of the basin basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuHong; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; PEI FuPing; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu


    Seven LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb datings from granitoids in the southern basement of the Songliao basin were done in order to constrain the ages of the basin basement. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the zircons from seven granitoids indicate that they are euhedral-subhedral ones with striped absorption and obvious oscillatory zoning rims. The dating results show that a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age is 236±3 Ma for quartz diorite (sample No.T6-1) located in the western slope of the basin, that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 319±1 Ma (2126 m) and 361±2 Ma (1994 m) for diorite (sample No.YC1-1) and granite (sample No.YC1-2) located in northern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively, and that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 161±5 Ma, 165±2 Ma, 165±1 Ma and 161±4 Ma for samples Q2-1, SN121, SN122, and SN72 granitoids located in southern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively. The statistical results of ages suggest that the middle Jurassic granitoids constitute the main part of basement granitoids, and that the Hercynian and Indo-Sino magmatisms also occur in the basin basement. It is implied that the Songliao basin should be a rift one formed in the intracontinent or active continental margin settings in the late Mesozoic after the Middle Jurassic orogeny took place.

  3. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji


    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  4. Abundance and Morphological Effects of Large Woody Debris in Forested Basins of Southern Andes (United States)

    Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.


    The Southern Andes mountain range represents an ideal location for studying large woody debris (LWD) in streams draining forested basins thanks to the presence of both pristine and managed woodland, and to the general low level of human alteration of stream corridors. However, no published investigations have been performed so far in such a large region. The investigated sites of this research are three basins (9-13 km2 drainage area, third-order channels) covered by Nothofagus forests: two of them are located in the Southern Chilean Andes (the Tres Arroyos in the Malalcahuello National Reserve and the Rio Toro within the Malleco Natural Reserve) and one basin lies in the Argentinean Tierra del Fuego (the Buena Esperanza basin, near the city of Ushuaia). Measured LWD were all wood pieces larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length, both in the active channel and in the adjacent active floodplain. Pieces forming log jams were all measured and the geometrical dimensions of jams were taken. Jam type was defined based on Abbe and Montgomery (2003) classification. Sediment stored behind log-steps and valley jams was evaluated approximating the sediment accumulated to a solid wedge whose geometrical dimensions were measured. Additional information relative to each LWD piece were recorded during the field survey: type (log, rootwad, log with rootwads attached), orientation to flow, origin (floated, bank erosion, landslide, natural mortality, harvest residuals) and position (log-step, in-channel, channel-bridging, channel margins, bankfull edge). In the Tres Arroyos, the average LWD volume stored within the bankfull channel is 710 m3 ha-1. The average number of pieces is 1,004 per hectare of bankfull channel area. Log-steps represent about 22% of all steps, whereas the elevation loss due to LWD (log-steps and valley jams) results in 27% loss of the total stream potential energy. About 1,600 m3 of sediment (assuming a porosity of 20%) is stored in the main channel

  5. An Approach for Including Uncertainty in Integrated Water Resources Assessments within Large River Basins of Southern Africa. (United States)

    Hughes, D.


    There are many large basins in southern Africa that are mostly ungauged but may have some streamflow observations either on the main river or on tributaries. Many of the streamflow records are, however, of poor quality or impacted by largely unquantified and non-stationary development impacts. All water resources assessments are therefore uncertain and model setups are difficult to validate in traditional ways. The paper presents a method for practical uncertainty assessment using a semi-distributed (sub-basin) model. The method uses a 2-stage approach where the first stage involves obtaining 'behavioural' parameter sets to represent the incremental natural streamflow for each sub-basin. The criteria for 'behavioural' are based on a series of constraints on model output that can be developed from the available gauged data or from regional assessments of natural hydrological functioning. The second stage simulates the whole basin based on sampling the 'behavioural' incremental flow parameter sets, as well as samples of additional individual parameter values representing downstream routing parts of the model and development impacts. One of the perceived advantage of the method is that all the ensembles at the total basin outlet are made up of behavioural inputs for all sub-basins. The method is also flexible in terms of the uncertainty range of the constraints, which might be expected to be narrow (low uncertainty) in well gauged sub-basins, or areas where our understanding of flow regime characteristics is good, but much wider (higher uncertainty) in other parts of the basin. The paper briefly explains the approach and discusses some of the issues associated with its application using examples from southern Africa.

  6. Basin-and Mountain-Building Dynamic Model of "Ramping-Detachment-Compression" in the West Kunlun-Southern Tarim Basin Margin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Junwen; LI Pengwu; GUO Xianpu; DING Xiaozhong; TANG Zhemin


    -present compression-rapid uplift and strong subsidence, when the basin- and mountain-forming processes were simultaneously controlled by north-vergent thrust propagation and compression. The authors summarize the processes as the "ramping-detachment-compression basin- and mountain-forming dynamic model". The basin-range tectonics was initiated in the Late Jurassic, the Miocene-Piiocene were a major transition period for the basin- and mountain-forming mechanism and the terminal early Pleistocene tectonic movement in the main laid a foundation for the basin-and-mountain tectonic framework in the West Kunlun-southern Tarim basin margin.

  7. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin:Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Li Li; Xing-He Yu; Cheng-Peng Tan; Ronald Steel


    Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multi-kilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial lfuvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were meas-ured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeocli-mate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Mid-dle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  8. Gravity analysis of the Precambrian basement topography associated with the northern boundary of Ghadames Basin (southern Tunisia) (United States)

    Dhaoui, Mohamed; Gabtni, Hakim; Jallouli, Chokri; Jleilia, Ali; Mickus, Kevin Lee; Turki, Mohamed Moncef


    Gravity data were analyzed to determine the structural development of the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin in southern Tunisia. The Ghadames Basin which also occurs in eastern Algeria and northwestern Libya is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa with several of the largest oil fields occurring along its northern boundary. The Ghadames Basin was formed during a series of tectonic events ranging from the Early Paleozoic to the Early Cenozoic. These tectonic events produced a basin in southern Tunisia that has a complex basement configuration which is not completely known. A residual gravity anomaly map constructed using polynomial trend surfaces, and vertical and horizontal gravity derivative maps indicate that the northern boundary contains a series of maxima and minima anomalies that trend in two prominent directions: northeast-southwest and east-west. The horizontal and vertical derivative gravity anomaly maps indicate that the width of the basement structures range between 10 and 20 km in width. Three-dimensional (3D) Euler deconvolution and 3D forward modeling constrained by well data, one seismic reflection profile and remote sensing data confirm the width of the basement structures and indicates that the depth of basin varies between 1.5 and 5 km, with deeper sections in general more numerous in the southern sections of the boundary. The gravity analysis constrained by the seismic reflection profile and well data implies that the basement topography may have been formed during the Pan African and/or late Mesozoic rifting. However, additional seismic reflection and well data are needed to confirm this conclusion. The discovery of the numerous basement structures suggests that there may exist additional hydrocarbon traps within the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin.

  9. Intraplate deformation of the Al Qarqaf Arch and the southern sector of the Ghadames Basin (SW Libya) (United States)

    Carruba, Stefano; Perotti, Cesare; Rinaldi, Marco; Bresciani, Ilenia; Bertozzi, Giuseppe


    The structural evolution of the Al Qarqaf Arch (Libya) and the southern sector of the Ghadames Basin were reconstructed by the integration of remote sensing analysis, 2D seismic lines, well log data and geological maps. The Al Qarqaf Arch (Libya) is a wide, gentle warping of pre-Cambrian and Palaeozoic rocks that forms the southern boundary of the Ghadames Basin, a large Palaeozoic intracratonic basin of the Saharan Platform. Surface and subsurface analyses revealed the presence of different phases of intracratonic deformations, related to the Al Qarqaf Arch uplift and Ghadames Basin development. Extensional tectonic phases prevailed in the study area up until the Devonian, while compressional folding and structural inversion affected the region during Late Carboniferous and Mesozoic, indicating that compressional horizontal stresses affected the plate interior, giving rise to intraplate tectonics. Three major unconformities (Intra-Silurian, Silurian-Devonian transition and Upper Carboniferous unconformities) outline these tectonic events related to the upwarping of the arch and the downwarping of the basin.

  10. Identifying needs for streamflow forecasting in the Incomati basin, Southern Africa (United States)

    Sunday, Robert; Werner, Micha; Masih, Ilyas; van der Zaag, Pieter


    Despite being widely recognised as an efficient tool in the operational management of water resources, rainfall and streamflow forecasts are currently not utilised in water management practice in the Incomati Basin in Southern Africa. Although, there have been initiatives for forecasting streamflow in the Sabie and Crocodile sub-basins, the outputs of these have found little use because of scepticism on the accuracy and reliability of the information, or the relevance of the information provided to the needs of the water managers. The process of improving these forecasts is underway, but as yet the actual needs of the forecasts are unclear and scope of the ongoing initiatives remains very limited. In this study questionnaires and focused group interviews were used to establish the need, potential use, benefit and required accuracy of rainfall and streamflow forecasts in the Incomati Basin. Thirty five interviews were conducted with professionals engaged in water sector and detailed discussions were held with water institutions, including the Inkomati Catchment Management Agency (ICMA), Komati Basin Water Authority (KOBWA), South African Weather Service (SAWS), water managers, dam operators, water experts, farmers and other water users in the Basin. Survey results show that about 97% of the respondents receive weather forecasts. In contrast to expectations, only 5% have access to the streamflow forecast. In the weather forecast, the most important variables were considered to be rainfall and temperature at daily and weekly time scales. Moreover, forecasts of global climatic indices such as El Niño or La Niña were neither received nor demanded. There was limited demand and/or awareness of flood and drought forecasts including the information on their linkages with global climatic indices. While the majority of respondents indicate the need and indeed use the weather forecast, the provision, communication and interpretation were in general found to be with too

  11. Low flows and reservoir management for the Durance River basin (Southern France) in the 2050s (United States)

    Sauquet, Eric


    The Durance River is one of the major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Water resources are under high pressure due to significant water abstractions for human uses within and out of the natural boundaries of the river basin through an extended open channel network. Water demands are related to irrigation, hydropower, drinking water, industries and more recently water management has included water needs for recreational uses as well as for preserving ecological services. Water is crucial for all these activities and for the socio-economic development of South Eastern France. Both socio-economic development and population evolution will probably modify needs for water supply, irrigation, energy consumption, tourism, industry, etc. In addition the Durance river basin will have to face climate change and its impact on water availability that may question the sustainability of the current rules for water allocation. The research project R²D²-2050 "Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development within the Durance river basin in 2050" aims at assessing future water availability and risks of water shortage in the 2050s by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. R²D²-2050 is partially funded by the French Ministry in charge of Ecology and the Rhône-Méditerranée Water Agency. This multidisciplinary project (2010-2014) involves Irstea, Electricité de France (EDF), the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris), LTHE (CNRS), the Société du Canal de Provence (SCP) and the research and consultancy company ACTeon. A set of models have been developed to simulate climate at regional scale (given by 330 projections obtained by applying three downscaling methods), water resources (provided by seven rainfall-runoff models forced by a subset of 330 climate projections), water demand for agriculture and drinking water, for different sub basins of the Durance River basin upstream of Mallemort under present day and under future conditions

  12. Identification of hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of Dawa River basin, southern Ethiopia. (United States)

    Woldemariyam, Fikadu; Ayenew, Tenalem


    Dawa River basin in southern Ethiopia is covered by volcanic, basement, and sedimentary rocks. Locating good quality groundwater is a challenge in most parts of the basin. Statistical analysis and graphical plots of 94 hydrochemical data of groundwater were used as a main tool to acquire an insight into the major processes that control groundwater chemistry. In the volcanic terrain groundwater is dilute (mean total dissolved solids (TDS): 152 mg/l), while salinity is the highest in the sedimentary terrain (mean TDS: 1750 mg/l). NO3 (-) varies from below the detection limit to 433 mg/l NO3 (-). In 26 % of the water samples, nitrate concentration is above the human-affected value, 5 mg/l NO3 (-). In 6 % of the samples, NO3 (-) concentration is above the limit recommended in drinking water, 50 mg/l NO3 (-), by WHO. Concentration range of the other major ions is also high and hydrochemical water types are diverse, suggesting the effect of various hydrogeochemical processes on the water chemistry. Chemical data analysis revealed that in the volcanic and most parts of the basement terrains silicate hydrolysis is the dominant process. Gypsum dissolution is the main process in the sedimentary terrain. Dissolution of gypsum is also important at few locations along dry riverbeds in the semiarid area where the effect of evaporation on the water chemistry is considerable. Loading of factors with K(+) and SO4 (2-), K(+) and NO3 (-), and NO3 (-) and correlation of SO4 (2-) with Cl(-), along with the observed high nitrate concentration, indicate the effect of surface contamination sources on the water quality. PMID:27456694

  13. Nutrient maximums related to low oxygen concentrations in the southern Canada Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ming-ming; SHI Jiuxin; LU Yong; CHEN Jianfang; GAO Guoping; WU Jingfeng; ZHANG Haisheng


    The phenomenon of nutrient maximums at 70~200 m occurred only in the region of the Canada Basin among the world oceans. The prevailing hypothesis was that the direct injection of the low-temperature high-nutrient brines from the Chukchi Sea shelf (<50 m) in winter provided the nutrient maximums. However, we found that there are five problems in the direct injection process. Formerly Jin et al. considered that the formation of nutrient maximums can be a process of locally long-term regeneration. Here we propose a regeneration-mixture process. Data of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients were collected at three stations in the southern Canada Basin during the summer 1999 cruise. We identified the cores of the surface, near-surface, potential temperature maximum waters and Arctic Bottom Water by the diagrams and vertical profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen and nutrients. The historical 129Ⅰ data indicated that the surface and near-surface waters were Pacific-origin, but the waters below the potential temperature maximum core depth was Atlantic-origin. Along with the correlation of nutrient maximums and very low oxygen contents in the near-surface water, we hypothesize that, the putative organic matter was decomposed to inorganic nutrients; and the Pacific water was mixed with the Atlantic water in the transition zone. The idea of the regeneration-mixture process agrees with the historical observations of no apparent seasonal changes, the smooth nutrient profiles, the lowest saturation of CaCO3 above 400 m, low rate of CFC-11 ventilation and 3H-3He ages of 8~18 a around the nutrient maximum depths.

  14. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.


    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  15. Paleogeographic and tectonic controls on the evolution of Cenozoic basins in the Altiplano and Western Cordillera of southern Peru (United States)

    Carlotto, Víctor


    Integrated studies of stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleogeography and tectonic controls on Cenozoic basins provide the basis for a series of time-slice reconstructions of basin evolution in the Andes of southern Peru. The Altiplano and adjacent margin of the Western Cordillera are characterized by several Paleocene-Miocene synorogenic continental basins with thicknesses locally exceeding 10 km. The evolution of these basins has been controlled by NW-trending tectonic features that mark the Altiplano-Western Cordillera and Altiplano-Eastern Cordillera boundaries and the Condoroma structural high. Sedimentary deposits of Paleocene age preserved in the Altiplano are the result of nonmarine sedimentation in a distal foreland basin. During the early Eocene, predominantly dextral strike-slip movements in the Altiplano between the Cusco-Lagunillas and Urcos-Ayaviri fault systems created the transpressional Kayra basin. The Soncco and Anta basins (middle Eocene-early Oligocene) are related to NE shortening (43-30 Ma) and represent proximal, wedge-top and foredeep basin environments preserved on the Altiplano. At ~ 29-28 Ma, a change to predominantly E-W shortening produced sinistral strike-slip motion along NW-striking faults, resulting in intermontane, transpressional basins. In the Altiplano, the Tinajani and Punacancha (29-5 Ma), and Paruro (12-6 Ma) basins were controlled by the Cusco-Lagunillas and the Urcos-Ayaviri fault systems. The Maure, Tincopalca-Huacochullo and Condoroma basins (22-5 Ma) of the Western Cordillera developed between the Condoroma high and the Cusco-Lagunillas fault system. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation commonly evolved from proximal (alluvial) facies along the borders to distal (lacustrine) facies. These basins were linked to sinistral strike-slip faults that evolved into reverse-sinistral structures. Plate kinematics may play a role in Andean basin evolution, with deformation influenced by major preexisting faults that dictated paleogeographic

  16. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hao


    Full Text Available Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET decreased by 23% during 1986–2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  17. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.


    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  18. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)


    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  19. COCORP profiling across the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen: Overthrusting of the Wichita Mountains and compression within the Anadarko Basin (United States)

    Brewer, J. A.; Good, R.; Oliver, J. E.; Brown, L. D.; Kaufman, S.


    COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) deep reflection profiles recorded across the Wichita Mountains and Anadarko Basin suggest that significant crustal shortening occurred in the final stages of the evolution of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The crystalline rocks of the Wichita Mountains were thrust in Pennsylvanian time northeastward over sedimentary rocks of the Anadarko Basin along a series of faults with moderate (average 30° to 40°) and southwesterly dips. These faults can be traced possibly as deep as 20 to 24 km. Listric thrust faults and hanging-wall anticlines developed in the sedimentary rocks of the basin. These features contrast with conventional interpretations of Pennsylvanian structures as the result of predominantly vertical movements along high-angle faults, and they suggest that Pennsylvanian downwarping of the Anadarko Basin was at least partially due to thrust loading. Truncations of reflections from Cambrian-Ordovician rocks in the deepest part of the basin suggest normal faulting, which would support ideas of an early extensional stage in the aulacogen cycle. The distinctive Precambrian layering seen on earlier COCORP data recorded south of the Wichita Mountains cannot be recognized under the Anadarko Basin, and the Proterozoic basin containing that layering may have been bounded on its north side by a Precambrian fault. This inferred fault was probably twice reactivated during formation of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen—once during late Precambrian(?)-Early Cambrian extension, and again during Pennsylvanian compression. The popular view that aulacogens originated from radial rifting of updomed, homogeneous continental crust is probably too simplified, and a more important constraint on their location and development may be the nature of pre-existing lines of weakness. *Present address: Department of Earth Sciences, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 OEZ, England

  20. Cross-basin heterogeneity in lanternfish (family Myctophidae) assemblages and isotopic niches (δ13C and δ15N) in the southern Tasman Sea abyssal basin (United States)

    Flynn, A. J.; Kloser, R. J.


    A cross-basin (longitudinal) study of lanternfishes in the southern Tasman Sea abyssal basin during the austral winter of 2008 and 2009 found that mean biomass in the Western sector was higher than that in the Eastern sector, corresponding with cross-basin patterns in oceanographic heterogeneity and productivity. Dominant species over the abyssal basin differed from those previously recorded over the neighbouring continental slope. Vertical biomass profiles indicated diffuse night-time distributions in the Central sector and extensive diel vertical migrations in the Eastern sector. In the Western sector, macrocrustacean δ13C values were significantly higher, and δ15N significantly lower, than those in the Eastern sector. The results indicate a cross-basin difference in the primary productivity environment and 15N enrichment at the base of the foodweb. The cross-basin pattern in lanternfish δ15N values mirrored that for macrocrustaceans and was not correlated with standard length. Lanternfish δ13C values did not differ between sectors, but there were depth-wise differences, with values in the shallowest stratum (0-200 m) significantly higher than those in the deepest stratum (800-1000 m). Calculated trophic levels (TLs) of lanternfishes spanned the third trophic level and marked niche segregation was evident in the Eastern (mean TL 3.0-3.9) and Central (mean TL 2.5-3.6) sectors. Together, the results suggest that the Eastern and Western sectors are distinct sub-basin scale pelagic habitats, with implications for ecosystem modelling and future monitoring.

  1. Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821 and other Pliocene mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Southern North Sea Basin


    Vervoenen, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Nieulande, van, F.A.D.


    Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, is recorded from the Coralline Crag Formation of East Anglia (UK) and the Lillo Formation (Oorderen, Kruisschans and Merksem members) of the Antwerp area (Belgium). The species is diagnosed on the basis of newly collected material and differentiated from modern European mussel species. The presence of M. antiquorum in the southern North Sea Basin is restricted to the Middle (Piacenzian) and early Late Pliocene (Gelasian). A possible occurrence of the speci...

  2. Selective chemical degradation of kerogen from Nenjiang Formation of the southern Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; YongQiang; WANG; YongQuan; WANG; YanMei


    A sequential selective chemical degradation has been performed on the kerogen from the Nenjiang Formation of the southern Songliao Basin by using a series of mild chemical degradations (alkaline hydrolysis, cleavage of ether-bonds and sulfur-bonds, and ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) oxidation). Subsequently, the GC-MS analyses are carried out on different degradation products. The results show that chemical degradations can release a great number of GC/MS-determinable biomarkers from insoluble kerogen, such as, alkaline hydrolysis products mainly comprise n-alkanes, fatty acids and alkanols; thiophene compounds are predominantly ether-bound to kerogen matrix; the products from the cleavage of sulfur-sulfur and sulfur-carbon bonds in the kerogen include fatty acids, alkanols and some n-alkanes with high carbon numbers; RuO4 oxidation products are predominantly monocarboxylic acids and α,ω-dicarboxylic acids. The distributions of main degradation products indicate that organic matter in this kerogen is predominantly derived from algae and bacteria, and that small amounts of high plant-derived organic matter are possibly combined into kerogen matrix at the late stage by sulfur bonds and other means. This study will provide an important approach for further discussing sources of organic matter in source rocks and their depositional paleoenvironments.

  3. Biomonitoring recycled water in the Santa Ana River Basin in southern California. (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Carney, Michael; Hinton, David E; Lyon, Stephen; Woodside, Greg; Duong, Cuong N; Kim, Sang-Don; Schlenk, Daniel


    The Santa Ana River (SAR) is the primary source of groundwater recharge for the Orange County Groundwater Basin in coastal southern California. Approximately 85% base flow in the SAR originates from wastewater treatment plants operated by three dischargers. An on-line, flow-through bioassay using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a means of judging potential public health impacts was employed to evaluate the water quality of the surface water and shallow groundwater originating from the SAR. Three chronic (3-4.5 mo) exposures using orange-red (outbred, OR) and see-through (color mutant, ST-II) Japanese medaka as bioindicators were conducted to evaluate endocrinologic, reproductive, and morphologic endpoints. No statistically significant differences in gross morphological endpoints, mortality, gender ratios, and vitellogenin induction were observed in fish from SAR groundwater treatment compared to the group tested in solute reconstituted reverse osmosis-treated or granular activated carbon (GAC)-treated control waters. Significant differences were observed in egg reproduction and the time to hatch in SAR groundwater; however, total hatchability was not significantly lower. To evaluate the estrogenic activity of the surfacewater source of the groundwater, SAR surface water was evaluated for vitellogenin and gonadal histopathology in juvenile medaka with no effects observed. These results demonstrate that OR Japanese medaka may be a sensitive strain as an on-line monitor to predict potential impacts of water quality, but further studies are needed to elicit causative agents within the water mixture. PMID:18080901

  4. Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality in lower Palar river basin, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; L Elango


    Hydrogeochemical study of groundwater was carried out in a part of the lower Palar river basin, southern India to determine the geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analysed for pH, Eh, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, CO3, Cl and SO4. The analysed parameters of the groundwater in the study area were found to be well within the safe range in general with respect to the Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water except for few locations. The results of these analyses were used to identify the geochemical processes that are taking place in this region. Cation exchange and silicate weathering are the important processes controlling the major ion distribution of the study area. Mass balance reaction model NETPATH was used to assess the ion exchange processes. High concentration of Ca in groundwater of the study area is due to the release of Ca by aquifer material and adsorption of Na due to ion exchange processes. Groundwater of the study area is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes except for few locations.

  5. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil (United States)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa


    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  6. Features of Late Cenozoic Deepwater Sedimentation in Southern Qiongdongnan Basin,Northwestern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Shengqiang; Yao Genshun; Lü Fuliang; Hu Bing; He Xiaosu; Wang Bin; Li Li


    Based on high resolution 2D and 3D seismic data acquired in recent years,using sequence stratigraphy analysis and geophysical methods,we discuss the features of Late Cenozoic deepwater sedimentation in the southern Qiongdongnan (琼东南) basin.The study area entered a bathyal slope environment in the Miocene.The channel developed in the Sanya (三亚) Formation was controlled by a fault break,and its shingled seismic characteristics represent multiple erosion and fill,which may indicate that turbidite current developed in the slope environment.The polygon faults found in mudstone of the Meishan (梅山) Formation represent the deepwater hungry sedimentary environment.The large-scale channels developed on the top of HuangUu (黄流) Formation could be the result of a big sea level drop and an increase of sediment supply.The fantastic turbidite channel developed in Late Quaternary in the slope environment has "fan-like" body and long frontal tiny avuision channel The analysis of these features suggests that the sediment supply of the study area in the post-rifting period was dominant from the Vietnam uplift in the southwest.These deepwater sedimentary features could be potential reservoirs or migration pathways for deepwater petroleum systems.

  7. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1981 and preliminary data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1981 are reported for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operations are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. These data are being collected to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard to a potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. The regional stress field orientation, as inferred from focal mechanisms, is characterized by a northwest-directed least compressive stress and a northeast-directed greatest compressive stress. We infer from this stress orientation that faults of north to northeast trend are most susceptible to slip. Faults of this orientation exist within the Yucca Mountain block, but they probably have not moved significantly in the last 500,000 years. Yucca Mountain lies within a fairly large area of relatively low level seismicity extending west to the Funeral Mountains, south of the Black Mountains and Nopah Range, and southeast to the Spring Mountains. One M 1.7 earthquake has been located in the Yucca Mountain block in about 1 year of intense monitoring. At present somewhat conflicting geologic, seismologic, and stress evidence hinder definitive conclusions about the seismic hazard at the proposed repository site. 36 references, 18 figures, 1 table

  8. Proterozoic basin in the southern Midcontinent of the United States revealed by COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling (United States)

    Brewer, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Steiner, D.; Oliver, J. E.; Kaufman, S.; Denison, R. E.


    COCORP deep crustal seismic profiles in southwestern Oklahoma show strong, persistent, continuous, and undeformed layering in the basement over an area probably very much greater than 2,500 km2. Such layering is very unusual, judging by COCORP experience with basement rocks elsewhere in the United States. The data can be interpreted as representing a Proterozoic basin filled with clastic sedimentary and felsic volcanic rocks 7 to 10 km thick, whose base lies 10 to 13 km deep. These rocks are believed, on the basis of sparse evidence from regional geology, to have been deposited or extruded about 1,200 to 1,400 m.y. ago, and some of them may now be metamorphosed. This basin lies on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, under the Paleozoic Hardeman Basin, and is similar in depth to the Paleozoic Anadarko Basin north of the mountains. The deep basement layering is truncated on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, probably by Precambrian faults in conjunction with granitic intrusions. Pennsylvanian compression probably reactivated these Precambrian trends. Extensive Precambrian basin deposits in this area were unexpected, on the basis of evidence from sparse well control, and reports of other layered basement reflections elsewhere in the southern Midcontinent suggest that Precambrian basins may be an important feature of this region. Simple models for the evolution of southwestern Oklahoma as an aulacogen must be reformulated in the light of these new data.

  9. A review of the stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo-aged basins of Southern Africa (United States)

    Smith, R. M. H.; Eriksson, P. G.; Botha, W. J.


    The Karoo Basin of South Africa was one of several contemporaneous intracratonic basins in southwestern Gondwana that became active in the Permo-Carboniferous (280 Ma) and continued to accumulate sediments until the earliest Jurassic, 100 million years later. At their maximum areal extent, during the early Permian, these basins covered some 4.5 million km 2. The present outcrop area of Karoo rocks in southern Africa is about 300 000 km 2 with a maximum thickness of some 8000 m. The economic importance of these sediments lies in the vast reserves of coal within the Ecca Group rocks of northern and eastern Transvaal and Natal, South Africa. Large reserves of sandstone-hosted uranium and molybdenum have been proven within the Beaufort Group rocks of the southern Karoo trough, although they are not mineable in the present market conditions. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the major stratigraphic units of the Karoo succession in South Africa demonstrates the changes in depositional style caused by regional and localized tectonism within the basin. These depocentres were influenced by a progressive aridification of climate which was primarily caused by the northward drift of southwestern Gondwana out of a polar climate and accentuated by the meteoric drying effect of the surrounding land masses. Changing palaeoenvironments clearly influenced the rate and direction of vertebrate evolution in southern Gondwana as evidenced by the numerous reptile fossils, including dinosaurs, which are found in the Karoo strata of South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia and Zimbabwe. During the Late Carboniferous the southern part of Gondwana migrated over the South Pole resulting in a major ice sheet over the early Karoo basin and surrounding highlands. Glacial sedimentation in upland valleys and on the lowland shelf resulted in the Dwyka Formation at the base of the Karoo Sequence. After glaciation, an extensive shallow sea covered the gently subsiding shelf, fed by large volumes of meltwater

  10. GIS analysis for the marine environmental data off Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Amit, V.S.

    interpretation and forecasting of marine environmental ecosystems for any region. This system has been applied to the Karnataka Coastal Environment, India and it is very useful for the clients and policy makers...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Djebel Ouarkziz Formation, located in the northern part of the Tindouf Basin, in western Algeria and southern Morocco, is composed mainly of shales with interbedded limestones, dolostones and sandstones. The limestone beds are relatively thin, but are laterally persistent, and can be followed along strike for tens of kilometres. We have identified 19 limestone beds in three main sections; one logged along the road from Assa to Zag, a second in the Tinguiz-Remz Valley, 15 km to the east, and a third section 10 km west of the Assa-Zag road section. Rugose coral assemblages are recorded in most limestone beds, but the stratigraphically higher beds become more diverse However, many rugose genera and species are persistent throughout much of the succession. The oldest coral assemblages are Asbian in age and the youngest coral assemblages indicate a Serpukhovian age, as confirmed by foraminiferal biostratigraphy. The first appearance of rugose corals shows a different pattern than that in northern Moroccan basins; some common genera that first appear in the Asbian and lower Brigantian in northern Morocco and Europe, appear much later, in the upper Brigantian or Serpukhovian in the Djebel Ouarkziz. The genus Kizilia, which is rare in the Upper Viséan in northern Moroccan basins, is, however, abundant in the Tindouf Basin. Interestingly, the occurrence of the genus Lonsdaleia in the Serpukhovian from Djebel Ouarkziz poses a palaeogeographic problem because of its absence in northern Moroccan basins (except as transported elements in Serpukhovian conglomerates. Similarly, Actinocyathus in the Serpukhovian in the Tindouf Basin is not present north of the Anti-Atlas Mountains. A possible coral migration route to the Tindouf Basin may be from the northeast via the Béchar Basin in Algeria, similar to that already inferred for foraminifers and calcareous algae. 

  12. Oligocene-Miocene deformational and depositional history of the Andean hinterland basin in the northern Altiplano plateau, southern Peru (United States)

    Perez, Nicholas D.; Horton, Brian K.


    Cenozoic basin fill of the northern Altiplano plateau records the tectonic development of the flanking Western Cordillera magmatic arc and Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt. The Ayaviri hinterland basin of southern Peru contains a ~2300 m thick succession of fluvial sandstones and overbank siltstones (upper Oligocene Puno Group and lower Miocene lower Tinajani Formation) capped by ~400 m of alluvial fan conglomerates (middle Miocene upper Tinajani Formation). New U-Pb zircon chronostratigraphic constraints from ~30 to 15 Ma yield sediment accumulation rates of 110-660 m/Myr. Newly dated growth strata highlight the genetic role played by thrust displacement in basin evolution. A several phase accumulation history derived from chronostratigraphic, provenance, and structural data reveals Oligocene basin filling by fluvial sand and mud that changes provenance from Western Cordillera Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic rocks to Paleozoic-Mesozoic Eastern Cordillera sedimentary rocks driven by deformation along the southwest directed, northeastern basin margin Ayaviri thrust at 28-26 Ma. Continued early Miocene fluvial deposition was sourced solely from the Eastern Cordillera. An abrupt middle Miocene shift to coarse alluvial fan deposition sourced from the Western Cordillera was driven by out-of-sequence deformation along the northeast directed, southwestern basin margin Pasani thrust at 18-16 Ma. This northern Altiplano out-of-sequence deformation was coincident with increased Eastern and Western Cordillera exhumation and thrusting and may be symptomatic of changes in critical wedge dynamics. The overall record of basin sedimentation and syndepositional fold-thrust deformation emphasizes the role of regional shortening in governing crustal thickening and basin evolution in the central Andes during the Oligocene to Miocene.

  13. Deep Processes of Basin Evolution:A Case Study of the Southern Songliao Basin and Adjacent Area,NE China in Mesozoic-Cenozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rihui Cheng; Dongpo Wang; Linfu Xue


    In south of the Songliao Basin and adjacent area of NE China, there are several high conductive layers in crust and upper mantle. Those layers are interpreted as detachment and rheology, which represent some features of lithosphere, asthenosphere and Moho, and related to the crust-mantle structure of the continent in the study area. The differences of the crust-mantle structures in different places in the study area reflect the differences in the movement and evolution of asthenosphere, lithosphere and crust. The differences can be summarized as follows. (1) Along the south profile of MT, the buried depth of the surface of Moho is 31 ~34 km beneath the Liaohe Basin and 35~37 km beneath the west Liaoning area. Along the north profile of MT, the buried depth of Moho is 32~33 km beneath Changtu area and 36~37 km beneath Kailu area in southern Songliao Basin. The buried depth beneath the central of the Songliao Basin is 29 km.(2) The difference of thickness of lithosphere exists in the south area and the north area of Chifeng-Kaiyuan fault. The thickness of lithosphere is about 65~120 km in the south of the fault, thickening from east to west. The top surface of asthenosphere is highly uplifted in the Liaohe Basin and the highest point is about 65 km in buried depth. The thickness of lithosphere in the north of the fault is about 60~65 km, thinner about 25 km than that in the south of the fault (West Liaoning). Deep processes such as upwelling of mantle thermal flow, extension of lithosphere, underplating, and thinning and subsidence of crust, evidenced from the crust-mantle structures were the direct forces of the basin formation in the study area during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic.

  14. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil (United States)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.


    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (8 μmad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (containing P and S may be

  15. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.


    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  16. Coontail fluorite rhythmites of southern Illinois: evidence for episodic basin dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, C.A.; Kelly, W.C.; Wilkinson, B.H.


    Stratiform coontail ore of the Cave-in-Rock fluorite district, southern Illinois, display conspicuous, rhythmic banded textures similar to those reported in many MVT deposits throughout the world (e.g., east Tennessee, USA; Silesian-Cracow Region, Poland; and northern Baffin Island, Canada). Banding is expressed by the rhythmic alteration of two types of layers: detrital layers of fluorite mottled with particulate gangue dolomite and quartz, and layers of clear, crystalline fluorspar. Both are now composed principally of fluorite but differ in color, fabric and outline. In the past, this rhythmic banding has generally been attributed to fine-scale replacement of a primary host rock stratification or to cyclic replacement of host carbonates by a fluid of oscillating chemistry. Detailed megascopic and microscopic studies of these ores and their carbonate host real that ore bands were not derived by fine-scale in situ limestone replacement. Detrital bands contain hydraulically transported, sorted and graded, allochthonous debris derived by dissolution and disaggregation of host limestone and overlying shale. The banded fabric thus represents a cyclic interplay of chemical and hydraulic processes active during hydrothermal ore mineralization. Coontail ore bodies evidently formed in a hydrothermal spelean system, whose laterally sinuous trace reflects localization of hydrothermal activity where feeder faults intersected relatively impermeable roof-rock shales. The banded nature of these ores testifies to the ability of Mississippi Valley-type hydrothermal solutions to both create and fill their own open spaces. Moreover, the rhythmic nature of coontail ores suggests a prolonged and pulsating mineralization best explained by episodic dewatering of the Illinois Basin.

  17. Late quaternary sea bottom conditions in the southern Panama basin, Eastern Equatorial Pacific (United States)

    Patarroyo, German D.; Martínez, José I.


    A paleoceanographic reconstruction of the southern Panama Basin for the last 23.000 years, based on the benthic foraminiferal analysis from the deep sea core ME0005A-24JC (0.01°N, 86.28°W, water depth 2941) is presented. Cluster and SHEBI (SHE Analysis for Biozone Identification) analyses performed on the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, evidence a faunal turnover in the early Holocene at 14 ky BP. Between 23 and 14 ky BP, Fursenkoina rotundata, Hoeglundina elegans, Globobulimina affinis, Globobulimina pacifica, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Uvigerina hispidocostata were common. Conversely, from 14 ky to the present, the assemblage is represented by Chilostomella oolina, Laticarinina pauperata, and Uvigerina proboscidea. This faunal turnover suggests significant fluctuations in oxygen content at the sea floor and the organic matter (OM) influx, which could reflect: (1) fluctuations in the surface productivity related to the equatorial divergence and, (2) OM advection caused by the dynamic of the deep sea currents. Paleoproductivity estimates and benthic foraminiferal rates depict a general trend towards lower values since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with a conspicuous change at 14 ky BP. Therefore, the paleoceanographic reconstructions of the ME0005A-24JC core suggest a transition from La Niña-like conditions during the LGM to El Niño-like conditions in the recent, as previously proposed for the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Estimates of the paleo-intensity of deep sea currents based on the relative percentage abundance of the epifaunal foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi suggest stronger deep sea currents on the Carnegie Ridge before 14 ky BP.

  18. The location and nature of the Telemzan High Ghadames basin boundary in southern Tunisia based on gravity and magnetic anomalies (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.; Mickus, K. L.; Zouari, H.; Turki, M. M.


    Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to add constraints on the location and nature of the Telemzan-Ghadames boundary (TGB) and structure of the Ghadames basin in southern Tunisia. TGB is the boundary between the thick sedimentary cover of the intracratonic Ghadames basin to the south and the thin sedimentary cover of the Saharan platform to the north. The upward continuation of the Bouguer gravity anomalies showed that the TGB is a regional geophysical feature that may have controlled the amount of sediment being deposited both north and south of the boundary and the tectonic environment in the region since Paleozoic time. To emphasize the shorter wavelength gravity and magnetic anomalies, a series of gray scale images of the directional horizontal gradients were constructed that determined a series of previously unknown east-west-trending gravity and magnetic anomalies south of 31.6°N that correspond to lineaments seen on a Landsat 7 image and the location of the TGB. Also, an edge-enhancement analysis illustrated the same linear gravity anomalies and showed the subbasins and uplifts within the Ghadames basin had source depths of between 0.5 and 3.4 km. A north-south trending gravity model showed that the TGB is a relatively gradual feature (possibly basement stepped down by relatively low-displacement faulting) controlling the subsidence of the main Ghadames basin and confirms the edge-enhancement analysis that subbasin S3 and uplift U1 are the main structural features within the Ghadames basin. The knowledge of basement architecture of the Ghadames basin is important for future petroleum exploration within this intracratonic basin.

  19. Drought management plans and water availability in agriculture: A risk assessment model for a Southern European basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dionisio Pérez-Blanco


    Full Text Available The Drought Management Plans (DMPs are regulatory instruments that establish priorities among the different water uses and define more stringent constraints to access to publicly provided water during droughts, especially for non-priority uses such as agriculture. These plans have recently become widespread across EU southern basins. However, in some of these basins the plans were approved without an assessment of the potential impacts that they may have on the economic activities exposed to water restrictions. This paper develops a stochastic methodology to estimate the expected water availability in agriculture that results from the decision rules of the recently approved DMPs. The methodology is applied to the particular case of the Guadalquivir River Basin in southern Spain. Results show that if DMPs are successfully enforced, available water will satisfy in average 62.2% of current demand, and this figure may drop to 50.2% by the end of the century as a result of climate change. This is much below the minimum threshold of 90% that has been guaranteed to irrigators so far.

  20. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Salmoral


    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading both water quality indicators are exports from upland areas and agricultural intensification. Water quality conditions have improved in regions where there has been abandonment and/or deintensification. The decoupling process has reduced the concentration of nitrates and suspended solids in a number of subbasins. Although agricultural production and water efficiency in the basin have improved, high erosion rates have not yet been addressed. 

  1. Thermal History of Rocks in the Shiwandashan Basin, Southern China: Evidence from Apatite Fission-Track Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinwei; Wang Xinwen; Ma Yongsheng


    Based on interpretations of the apatite fission-track analysis data for 10 outcrop samples and forward modeling of confined fission-track length distributions, the thermal history of rocks in the Shiwandashan basin and its adjacent area, southern China, has been qualitatively and semi-quantitatively studied. The results reflect several features of the thermal history. Firstly, all the samples have experienced temperatures higher than 60-70 ℃. Secondly, the time that the basement strata (T1b) on the northwestern side of the Shiwandashan basin were uplifted and exhumed to the unannealed upper crust (with a paleogeotemperature of below 60-70 ℃) is much earlier than the basement rocks (γ15) on the southeastern side of the basin. Thirdly, the thermal history of samples from the basin can be divided into six stages, I.e., the fast burial and heating stage (220-145 Ma), the transient cooling stage (145-135 Ma), the burial and heating stage (135-70 Ma), the rapid cooling stage (70-50 Ma), the relatively stable stage (50-20 Ma) and another rapid cooling stage (20 Ma to present).

  2. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandra Naik M; Vaishnavi Venugopalan; Preethi Kumaravelayutham; YL Krishnamurthy


    Objective: To explore and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of various plants used by the Lambani ethnic group in Chitradurga District of Karnataka, Southern India for traditional veterinary purposes. The area is rich in plant wealth; therefore this study has been made to prepare an inventory of indigenous medicinal plants and to bring traditional knowledge on record. Methods: In accordance to standardized WHO questionnaires, one hundred fourteen informants - consisting of healers, practitioners, farmers and village headman - were interviewed regarding the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Chitradurga District, Karnataka during February 2010 to October 2010. Results: Ethno botanical uses of 39 plants belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as lack of appetites, bloat, fever, ephemeral fever, diarrhea, cough, foot and mouth disease etc. Of the plants studied, most were trees and leaves contributed mainly to the plant part used for medical purpose. Conclusions:Lambani tribe, who are generally poor and live in remote areas, use ethno veterinary medicine (EVM) for the primary healthcare of their animals. The use of plants reveals their interest in ethnomedicine and further research on these species could lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules for efficient management of diseases.

  3. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, Robert D


    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  4. Evidence for an important tectonostratigraphic seismic marker across Canada Basin and southern Alpha Ridge of the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Shimeld, J.; Chian, D.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Mosher, D. C.; Wade, J.; Chapman, B.


    Using a modern ice-strengthened seismic acquisition system, more than 12,000 km of high quality 16-channel, vertical incidence seismic reflection and wide-angle sonobuoy data, along with single- and multibeam bathymetric soundings and gravimetric profiles have been acquired across Canada Basin and the southern flank of Alpha Ridge. These datasets are being used to determine the crustal types, rifting processes, subsidence history, and sedimentary sequences of this poorly known region. More than a dozen regional seismostratigraphic units are identified, exceeding ~6.5 km in total sediment thickness in the south, thinning northward toward Alpha Ridge. The oldest regionally mappable unit is informally named “bisque” and is characterized by high-amplitude, continuous, parallel and subparallel internal reflections. The bisque unit averages ~600 m thick, with significant local variability. Along southern Alpha Ridge, the base of the bisque unit is marked by a prominent angular unconformity which can be traced southwards into Canada Basin before becoming obscured by thick overlying units. Though affected by faulting and compaction drape, the bisque unit appears to be concordant with the topography of the underlying acoustic basement. It is also spatially and temporally associated with large structures that are interpreted to be volcanic edifices. Most of the 129 available sonobuoy records show clear wide-angle refractions/reflections from sedimentary and upper and lower crustal layers, which can be ray-traced and velocity modeled using constraints from coincident reflection profiles. Slight ray angle dependent anisotropy is found to best describe these observed data, and is used for conversion between two-way travel time and vertical depth domains. Two distinct features are identified for the bisque layer: 1) a wide-angle reflection observed on nearly all sonobuoy data; and 2) S waves (named PsP), doubly converted at the bisque layer. P-wave refractors from bisque

  5. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, S.C.


    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC.

  6. Study of the hydrological functionning of the irrigated crops in the southern mediterranean basin (United States)

    Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Er-Raki, Salah; Le Page, Michel; Merlin, Olivier; Ezzahar, Jamal; Kharrou, Mohamed H.


    In southern Mediterranean region water consumption has significantly increased over the last decades, while available water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. In Morocco, irrigation is highly water demanding: it is estimated that 83% of available resources is dedicated to agriculture with efficiency lower than 50% (Plan Bleu, 2009). In the semiarid region of Tensift Al-Haouz (center of Morocco), typical of southern Mediterranean basin, crop irrigation is inevitable for growth and development. In this situation, and to preserve water resources, the rational management of water irrigation is necessary. This objective is one of the priorities of the research program SudMed (Chehbouni et al., 2008) and the Joint Mixed Laboratory TREMA (Khabba et al. 2013), installed in Marrakech since 2002 and 2011, respectively. In these two programs, the scientific approach adopted, to monitor water transfers in soil-plant-atmosphere system, is based on the synergistic use of the mathematical modeling, the satellite observations and in situ data. Thus, during the decade 2002-2012, 17 experiments on dominant crops in the region (wheat, olive, orange, sugar beet, apricot) were performed. In these experiments, the different terms of water and heat balances exchanged between land surface and atmosphere are controlled with different devices. Results showed that the water losses by evaporation can reach 28% of water inputs for the flooding irrigation site and are obviously lower (about 18-20 % on average) for the drip irrigation sites. Concerning the deep percolation, results are surprising: water losses for the drip irrigation are in the range 29-41% of water input, whereas theses losses are between 26 and 31% for flooding irrigation. Concerning the modeling component, several models ranging from the most simple (FAO-56) to the most complex (i.e. SVAT: Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) were implemented to estimate the spatio-temporal variability of ET. The results showed that

  7. Extreme precipitation and extreme streamflow in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang


    Full Text Available Extreme hydro-meteorological events have become the focus of more and more studies in the last decade. Due to the complexity of the spatial pattern of changes in precipitation processes, it is still hard to establish a clear view of how precipitation has changed and how it will change in the future. In the present study, changes in extreme precipitation and streamflow processes in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China are investigated. It was shown that little change is observed in annual extreme precipitation in terms of various indices, but some significant changes are found in the precipitation processes on a monthly basis. The result indicates that when detecting climate changes, besides annual indices, seasonal variations in extreme events should be considered as well. Despite of little change in annual extreme precipitation series, significant changes are detected in several annual extreme flood flow and low-flow series, mainly at the stations along the main channel of Dongjiang River, which are affected significantly by the operation of several major reservoirs. The result highlights the importance of evaluating the impacts of human activities in assessing the changes of extreme streamflows. In addition, three non-parametric methods that are not-commonly used by hydro-meteorology community, i.e., Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Levene's test and quantile test, are introduced and assessed by Monte Carlo simulation in the present study to test for changes in the distribution, variance and the shift of tails of different groups of dataset. Monte Carlo simulation result shows that, while all three methods work well for detecting changes in two groups of data with large data size (e.g., over 200 points in each group and big difference in distribution parameters (e.g., over 100% increase of scale parameter in Gamma distribution, none of them are powerful enough for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points and small distribution

  8. IRETHERM: Geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin (United States)

    Vozar, J.; Jones, A. G.; Llovet, J. C.; Pasquali, R.


    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data collected in the Newcastle area are presented in the frame of the IRETHERM project. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 °C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system. Processing the "quietest" 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method we obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The final 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models of all MT data in the Newcastle area have also been determined. The 3-D models exhibit higher conductive structures in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to the depth of 1 km, have north-south elongation correlated with surface traces of faults, which are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. The 2-D and 3-D modeling reveal that the BNF is imaged as a conductive zone to depths of 4 km and is likely highly fractured. Generally, the area south of the BNF is more resistive and compact with a horizontal conductive layer at approximately 1 km depth and with a very thin surficial sedimentary layer. In contrast, the structures north of the BNF are more heterogeneous, with deeper conductive layers (2-3 km depth

  9. Tectonomagmatic relationship between the Sierra Madre Occidental ignimbrite flare-up and the southern Basin and Range province (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Labarthe-Hernandez, G.


    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is a Mid-Tertiary, large-volume, ignimbrite province at least 1,200 km long and 200-500 km wide, extending continuously from the U.S.-Mexico border (31\\deg N) to its intersection with the Mexican Volcanic Belt (21\\deg N). Considering the average thickness of 1,000 m for the ignimbrite plateau, based on several measured sections along the province, and the average wide of the province of 300 km, a conservative estimate of the physical volume of the SMO ignimbrites is about 360,000 km3. The southern part of the Basin and Range province is in Mexico. This extensional province overlaps in space and time with the SMO ignimbrite flare-up and formed NW- to NE-trending normal faults that bound many large grabens, which are particularly long and deep in the southern SMO. Basin and Range faulting occurred between at least 32 Ma and 12 Ma with both limits probably extending until the Eocene and the Quaternary. Ignimbrite activity can be as old as 51 Ma and as young as 17-16 Ma, but most of the ignimbrite volume was erupted in the 38-23 Ma period. Thus, the ignimbrite flare-up can be defined as a period of intense explosive volcanic activity that produced enormous volumes of silicic ignimbrite sheets, which took place mainly between 38 and 23 Ma in Mexico. The ignimbrite flare-up coincided in time with peaks in Basin and Range faulting, and the ignimbrite activity apparently migrated from the east-northeast to the west-southwest, i.e., from central Chihuahua (38-27 Ma) to Durango-Tayoltita-Nazas (32-29 Ma) to Zacatecas-Tepic (24-23 Ma), finishing by 16 Ma at Jalisco-Nayarit, as deduced from the compilation of geologic works done in the SMO. It is unknown yet whether there was a west-southward migration of Basin and Range faulting and if the ignimbrite flare-up occurred episodically as peaks (38-27 Ma, 32-29 Ma, and 24-23 Ma) or was continuous. Nevertheless, by the time that the ignimbrite flare-up started, the Basin and Range extension was

  10. Basin Evolution and Exhumation of the Xigaze Forearc, Southern Tibet: Insight from Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, and Geo-Thermochronology (United States)

    Orme, D. A.; Carrapa, B.; Abbey, A. L.; Kapp, P. A.; Ding, L.


    Forearc basins are important data archives for understanding continental dynamics because they preserve the tectono-erosional record of continental margins before collision. This study focuses on the Cretaceous-Eocene Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet, which is exposed along ~600 km of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone between the Indian craton to the south and the Asian Lhasa terrane to the north. From late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time, subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the southern margin of Asia accommodated the northward motion of the Indian craton and formed the Xigaze forearc basin. Following collision with India in the early Cenozoic, the basin transitioned from predominantly marine to non-marine sedimentation and was subsequently uplifted to a mean elevation of 5000 m. How this transition occurred remains unresolved. This study's overall objective is to decipher forearc-basin and Indo-Asia continental-margin development from field sedimentology and stratigraphy, and detrital geo-thermochronology. We present new stratigraphic sections, totaling 8 km thick, from a previously unexplored ~60 km segment of the Xigaze forearc, ~50 km north-northwest of Saga. These sections are quite different from those known farther east. Sedimentary facies of mid-Cretaceous to early Eocene deposits indicate a shoaling-upward trend consistent with other ancient forearc basins (e.g., Great Valley forearc, California). Middle to late Cretaceous deposits indicate a variety of facies and depositional environments along strike in the study area. Facies include distal marine turbidites, shelf limestones, estuarine siliciclastics, and brown paleosols. In contrast, Eocene depositional environments are transitional from nearshore marine to pericontinental. Facies consist of dirty limestones, packstones, and wackestones, interbedded with terrigenous conglomerates and red-green paleosols. Eocene fauna include abundant foraminifera such as Nummulites-Discocyclina and

  11. Discriminant analysis for characterization of hydrochemistry of two mountain river basins of contrasting climates in the southern Western Ghats, India. (United States)

    Thomas, Jobin; Joseph, Sabu; Thrivikramji, K P


    Discriminant analysis (DA) was performed on river hydrochemistry data for three seasons (i.e., monsoon (MON), post-monsoon (POM), and pre-monsoon (PRM)) to examine the spatio-temporal hydrochemical variability of two mountain river basins (Muthirapuzha River Basin (MRB) and Pambar River Basin (PRB)) of the southern Western Ghats, India. Although the river basins drain tropical mountainous terrain, climate and degree of anthropogenic disturbances show significant differences (i.e., humid, more disturbed MRB vs semiarid, less disturbed PRB). In MRB, TDS, Na(+), pH, Mg(2+), and K(+) are the attributes responsible for significant hydrochemical variations between the seasons, while Cl(-), TH, and Na(+) are the predictors in PRB. The temporal discriminant models imply the importance of rainfall pattern, relative contribution of groundwater toward stream discharge and farming activities in hydrochemistry between the seasons. Inclusion of hydrochemical attributes (in the temporal discriminant functions) that can be derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources suggests that ionic enrichment strongly depends on the seasons, and is mainly due to the variability in the intensity of anthropogenic activities as well as fluctuations in river discharge. In spatial discriminant models, Cl(-) is the only variable responsible for hydrochemical variations between the basins (during MON), whereas Si discriminates during POM and PRM, implying the role of atmospheric supply, anthropogenic modifications as well as intensity of weathering. In the spatial discrimination models, misclassification of hydrochemistry data between MRB and PRB can be attributed to the overlapping effect of humid climate of MRB extending toward the upstream of (semiarid) PRB. This study underscores the versatility of DA in deciphering the significance of climatic controls on hydrochemical composition of tropical mountain rivers.

  12. Estimated water use and availability in the South Coastal Drainage Basin, southern Rhode Island, 1995-99 (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Nimiroski, Mark T.


    The South Coastal Drainage Basin includes approximately 59.14 square miles in southern Rhode Island. The basin was divided into three subbasins to assess the water use and availability: the Saugatucket, Point Judith Pond, and the Southwestern Coastal Drainage subbasins. Because there is limited information on the ground-water system in this basin, the water use and availability evaluations for these subbasins were derived from delineated surface-water drainage areas. An assessment was completed to estimate water withdrawals, use, and return flow over a 5-year study period from 1995 through 1999 in the basin. During the study period, one major water supplier in the basin withdrew an average of 0.389 million gallons per day from the sand and gravel deposits. Most of the potable water is imported (about 2.152 million gallons per day) from the adjacent Pawcatuck Basin to the northwest. The estimated water withdrawals from the minor water suppliers, which are all in Charlestown, during the study period were 0.064 million gallons per day. The self-supplied domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the basin were 0.574 million gallons per day. Water use in the basin was 2.874 million gallons per day. The average return flow in the basin was 1.190 million gallons per day, which was entirely from self-disposed water users. In this basin, wastewater from service collection areas was exported (about 1.139 million gallons per day) to the Narragansett Bay Drainage Basin for treatment and discharge. During times of little to no recharge, in the form of precipitation, the surface- and ground-water system flows are from storage primarily in the stratified sand and gravel deposits, although there is flow moving through the till deposits at a slower rate. The ground water discharging to the streams, during times of little to no precipitation, is referred to as base flow. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at the

  13. Paleocene deep-water sediments and radiolarian faunas:Implications for evolution of Yarlung-Zangbo foreland basin, southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This is the first report on the Paleocene deep-water sequences and radiolarian faunas, which are distributed along the southern side of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone. The Zheba group is coined to indicate these Paleocene sequences which are subsequently divided into two lithostratigraphic units based on the lithology observed in the field. The lower unit characterized by the rhythmic cherts and siliceous shales is named the Sangdanlin formation, and the upper one composed mainly of flysches is termed the Zheya formation. The radiolarian faunas from the Zheba group are assigned to the RP1-RP6 zones of the Paleocene age. The Early Paleocene ra-diolarian assemblages have the potential to be established into the low latitude radiolarian zones and to fill in the gap between the Late Cretaceous and the Late Paleocene radiolarian zonations. The radiolarian dating provides a valuable tool for the regional correlation and reconstruction of the sedimentary environment of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. The preliminary work shows that the Paleo-cene sequences accumulated in a foreland basin resulted from the southern Asian margin loading onto the northern Indian passive continental margin. The Yarlung-Zangbo foreland basin se-quences deposited on the Indian passive continental margin also resulted in many good source- reservoir-covering assemblages for oil and gas resources.

  14. Channel change as a response to reforestation and population decline in the rural Toulourenc basin, southern French Prealps (United States)

    Rubin, Z.; Janes, K.; Kondolf, G. M.; Natali, J.; Radke, J.


    As a result of demographic changes, forest cover in the southern French Prealp mountains has increased dramatically during the 20th century. Over the same time period stream morphology within these sub-Mediterranean mountain basins has also changed. At two mainstem locations and eight upstream tributary sites within the Toulourenc basin (~150 km2), we investigated the relationship between hillslope erosion processes and the evolution of stream channel morphology through analysis of historic cadastral maps (circa 1850), aerial photographs (1950-current), topographic surveys (2009-2011), dendrochronolgy of vegetative establishment on abandoned terraces, and bed material size distribution. We observed narrowing of the active channel width, channel degradation, and pavement development along the Toulourenc mainstem and upstream tributaries. On the mainstem Toulourenc, the active channel has narrowed approximately 50% (30m) between 1950 and 2011. As with other studies within the southern French Prealps, the channel modifications appear to be induced by a decrease in the coarse sediment supply as agricultural and logging lands were reforested between 1890 and 1945.

  15. Age and Growth of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta in Six Rivers of the Southern Part of Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarmidokht Kheyrandish


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of dramatic declines in stocks of brown trout in southern part of Caspian basin, the population's structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta in several rivers were studied to provide data for conservation programs. Approach: The structure of the populations in the six rivers of the southern part of Caspian basin including: Keliyare, Khojirood, Lar, Shirinrood, Rig cheshme and Pajimiyane, were studied. Results: Five age classes, ranged from 0+-4+ years, were determined. The most frequent age classes belong to 1+ and 2+. The length ranged from 78-305 mm and weight ranged from 3.6-390 g. Also, the condition factor ranged from 0.58-1.47. The highest and lowest length, weight and condition factor were observed in Lar and Rig cheshme, respectively. In 5 out of 6 rivers, females were dominant over males. The highest and lowest female: Male ratios were observed in Pajimiane (6.75:1 and Khojirood (0.8:1, respectively. Significant relationships were found between total length of brown trout with depth (r = 0.6, pConclusion: According to our knowledge, this is the first report of brown trout from Kelyare and Khojirood rivers. Since size of populations in studied areas are small and majority of these rivers located in low protected locations, it is essential to apply serious measures to protect these vulnerable habitats.

  16. Tectonic setting of Tummalapalle uranium deposit in Southern margin of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of plate tectonics offers a fresh opportunity to interpret the evolution of sedimentary basins in terms of changing plate interactions and shifting plate margins. Late Paleoproterozoic shallow-marine sedimentary sequence of the Nallamalai Fold Belt as allochthonous body is thrusted over the successions of the Papaghni Sub-basin and Kurnool Group in the western part of the basin along Rudravaram line. Evidences of thrusting/continental collision along Rudravaram line include dissimilar provinces across a major fault/suture zone (undeformed in the west and deformed in the east), contrasting radiometric ages (1.9 Ga in the west and 1.3 to 1.6 Ga in the east), different metamorphic grades and subsurface structures. In this tectonic setting, sequence stratigraphy has been recorded in Papaghni Sub-basin, the earliest Sub-basin of Cuddapah Basin. The sequence stratigraphy is identified by the unconformities between cycles of sedimentation and these cycles of sedimentation are caused by tectonic activity. Three cycles of sedimentation were identified in Papaghni Sub-basin. Based on the available literature, it is infer red that these cycles might have been resulted by marine transgression and regression due to sea level changes probably caused by movement of crustal plates. Vast quantity of uranium derived from bordering fertile granitoids was fluxed into the basin during sedimentation. This uranium was precipitated under suitable reducing environment that prevailed during the second cycle and resulted in the formation of uranium deposit in Vempalle Formation as seen in Tummapalle. This uranium bearing horizon in Vempalle Formation hosts 'continental rift petrotectonic assemblage' of immature terrigenous sediments viz. assorted polymictic conglomerate and mixture of quartz, feldspar, apatite (collophane) and micrite. This study elucidates geological evidences to suggest that the phenomenon of plate tectonics was in operation during sedimentation of

  17. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Archana, B R; Prasad, S R; Beena, P M; Okade, R; Sheela, S R; Beeregowda, Y C


    Screening women for syphilis during pregnancy and providing proper treatment are the cornerstones of congenital syphilis prevention. During 2008-2011, 6,221 pregnant women were screened for syphilis using the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination (TPHA) tests at R.L. Jalappa Hospital, Kolar, Karnataka, India. The seroprevalence of syphilis during pregnancy ranged from 0.57% to 0.78% during the study. Of the 35 women with a positive test, 26 (74.28%) were detected at the time of labor and 9 (25.71%) were detected during antenatal care. None of the women detected at the time of labor received penicillin therapy for syphilis. Adverse fetal outcomes due to untreated syphilis during pregnancy were seen in many of the cases. During the study 26 infants (3.69/1,000) were diagnosed with congenital syphilis. Our findings show detection and treatment of syphilis during pregnancy needs to be strengthened in the study area to reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis. PMID:24968685

  18. Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach. (United States)

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B


    Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes.

  19. The Messinian–early Pliocene stratigraphic record in the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain): Implications for the Mediterranean salinity crisis


    Soria, J. M.; Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03080 Alicante; Caracuel, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Corbí, H.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Lancis, C.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Tent-Manclús, J. E.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain; Viseras, C.; Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain; Yébenes, A.; Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Apto. 99, 03080 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain


    The analysis of the Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphy of the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain) has revealed three highstand sedimentary phases (Messinian I, Messinian II, and Pliocene) bounded by two lowstand erosional surfaces (intra-Messinian and end-Messinian unconformities). The Messinian I highstand phase is characterized by the progradation of coastal and shallow marine sandstones (La Virgen Fm) over slope and pelagic-basin marls (Torremendo Fm). After this first ph...

  20. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages for archaean rocks in western Karnataka, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 3020 +- 230 Ma for basal metavolcanics of the Kudremukh - West Coast greenstone belt and a Rb-Sr whole rock age of 3280 +- 230 Ma for the underlying granitoid geneisses are presented. These ages indicate that the filling of an ensialic basin with volcanic and sedimentary rocks began at around 3000 Ma and confirm earlier studies which concluded that the dominant gneisses of Karnataka represent a major period of primary crust formation in the South Indian Craton at about 3300 Ma. Both the early granitoid gneisses and the younger meta-volcanics were derived from unfractionated mantle sources which has not previously been depleted or enriched in LIL elements. (author)

  1. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin (United States)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo


    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  2. Comparison of two landslide inventory maps in the Cervaro basin, Puglia, Southern Italy (United States)

    Mossa, S.; Cardinali, M.


    Reliable and accurate landslide inventory maps are mandatory elements of any landslide hazard or risk assessment. However, the quality, completeness, resolution and reliability of the landslide inventory maps are rarely ascertained. The lack of proper information on the quality of the inventory maps and on the reliability of the techniques used to complete the inventories may compromise the hazard or risk assessment. We present the results of a comparison of two landslide inventory maps prepared for an area of 132 km2, in the Cervaro River basin, in the NW Puglia Region of Southern Italy. The two landslide maps were prepared by different techniques. The first map (Map A) was prepared through the analysis of the literature on slope movements in the study area. Single landslides and landslide areas for which information was available where identified and sites where landslides were studied or where slope failures were reported were checked the field. Landslides were identified and mapped in the field at 1:25,000 scale. Field checks concentrated mostly in the urban areas and along the main roads. The second map (Map B) was obtained through the systematic interpretation of two sets of black and white aerial photographs, flown at a nominal scale of 1:33,000 scale, in 1954 and in 1990-91, respectively. When interpreting the two sets of aerial photographs care was taken in the identification of sites where landslides had changed (reactivations) or where new landslides had occurred. Analysis of the aerial photographs was carried out by two geomorphologists, using a discussion (or double) stereoscope. The methodology guarantees a cross check on the photo-interpretation and a more reliable landslide map. Comparison of the two landslide maps in a GIS allows for a quantitative estimate of the differences between the two inventories. Map A shows 27 landslides, for a total landslide area of 10.51 km2, 7.96% of the study area. Map B portrays 645 landslides, for a total landslide

  3. Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care. (United States)

    Hebbar, S S; Harsha, V H; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R


    The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal literature of India. Basella alba, Blepharis repens, Capparis sepiaria, Oxalis corniculata and Ricinus communis are used for the treatment of aphthae; Azima tetracantha, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cleome gynandra, Gossypium herbacium, Leucas aspera, Merremia chryseides, Pergularia daemia, Prosopis juliflora and Solanum nigrum are used to treat tooth ache and Cassia hirsuta and Cassia tora are used in the treatment of plaque and caries. PMID:15325728

  4. Jurassic–cretaceous deformational phases in the Paraná intracratonic basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Strieder


    Full Text Available This paper examines the domes and basins, regional arcs and synclines, and brittle structures of the Paraná Basin flood volcanism to characterize the deformational phases in its Jurassic to Cretaceous history. First-stage fieldwork revealed brittle structures, extensional joints, and strike-slip faults, and second-stage fieldwork investigated the connections of the brittle structures to both open folds and dome-and-basin features. Fault-slip data inversion was performed using two different techniques to distinguish local and remote stress/strain. Geometric and kinematic analyses completed the investigations of the deformation, which characterized two deformational phases for the Jurassic to Cretaceous periods in the Paraná Basin. Both developed under regional bi-directional constrictional (σ1 ≥ σ2 ≫ σ3 stress regimes that produced a number of non-cylindrical folds. A D1 deformational phase produced the N–S and E–W orthogonally oriented domes and basins. The D2 arcs and synclines are oriented towards the NW and NE and indicate a clockwise rotation (35–40° of both horizontal principal stress tensors. The extensional joints and strike-slip faults characterize the local stress field in the outer rim of the orthogonally buckled single volcanic flow, whereas the inner rim of the buckled single flow supported constriction and thus, developed the local arcuate folds.

  5. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus


    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  6. India - Karnataka : Financing Education in the Context of Economic Restructuring


    World Bank


    The study addresses four major concerns within the Bank's Economic Restructuring Program in Karnataka: 1) identifying the priority issues facing the education sector; 2) indicating possible areas for expenditure reform, to improve the efficiency, and equity of public spending in education; 3) identifying measures to strengthen the effectiveness of public expenditure; and, 4) assessing the ...

  7. Preliminary exploration of south Kanara coast of Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)


    at the mouth of the river Udyavara. It is a natural port with four rocky islands on the west. It is known for the temples of Anantesvara and Odabandesvara. The town Udayavara and village Kaup have been studied. An account of the shipwreck on Karnataka Coast...

  8. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin : A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Jan; Busschers, Freek S.; Stouthamer, Esther


    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses o

  9. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin: A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Stouthamer, E.


    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses o

  10. Palaeotopography-governed sediment distribution—a new predictive model for the Permian Upper Rotliegend in the Dutch sector of the Southern Permian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, H.F.; Geluk, M.


    The Southern Permian Basin (SPB) formed a large, elongated saucer-shaped inland depression extending from the UK to Poland and from Belgium to Denmark. During the Middle to early Late Permian the SPB was filled progressively by playa sediments from its centre in northwestern Germany before it was fl

  11. Polyphase tectonic evolution of the Aksu Basin, Isparta Angle (Southern Turkey) (United States)

    Üner, Serkan; Özsayin, Erman; Kutluay, Alkor; Dirik, Kadir


    The Aksu Basin, within the Isparta Angle, is located to the north of the intersection of the Aegean and Cyprus arcs and has been evolving since the Middle Miocene. Correlation of: (1) kinematic analysis of fault planes that cut the basin fill, (2) the reactivation/inversion of fault planes and (3) sedimentological data indicate that the Aksu Basin has evolved by four alternating compressional and extensional tectonic phases since its formation. The first phase was NW-SE oriented compression caused by the emplacement of the Lycian Nappe units which ended in Langhian. This compressional phase that induced the formation and the initial deformation of the basin was followed by a NW-SE extensional phase. This tectonic phase prevailed between the Langhian and Messinian and was terminated by a NE-SW compressional regime known as the Aksu Phase. The neotectonic period is characterized by NE-SW extension and began in the Late Pliocene. Correlation with the existing tectonic literature shows that the order of deformational phases proposed in this study might also be valid for the entire Isparta Angle area.

  12. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar


    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  13. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T G Sitharam; Naveen James; K S Vipin; K Ganesha Raj


    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  14. Ecotoxicological assessment of the impact of residual heavy metals on soil nematodes in the Guadiamar River Basin (Southern Spain). (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Sara; Camargo, Julio A; Navas, Alfonso


    On 25 April 1998, as a consequence of the breaking of a dam containing the tailings of a pyrite mine, a land strip of approximately 43 km in length was covered with a layer of black sludge, containing high levels of heavy metals, along the Guadiamar River Basin (southern Spain). In this investigation we carried out an ecotoxicological assessment (field and laboratory studies) of the impact of residual heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni) on soil nematodes in the impacted riparian zone, two years after the huge mine spillage. Concentrations of residual heavy metals were significantly (Pimpacted sampling sectors (S-2, S-3, S-4, S-5) than at the unpolluted (reference) sampling sector (S-1). Nickel however exhibited the lowest increases at the impacted sectors. As a consequence, correlation coefficients between concentrations of heavy metals and values of ecological indices were not significant for Ni. In contrast, copper, lead and zinc exhibited significant (Pimpacted riparian zone of the Guadiamar River Basin. Cu, Pb and, to a lesser extent, Zn would be major responsible for the observed impact. PMID:16779593

  15. Decline of General Intelligence in Children Exposed to Manganese from Mining Contamination in Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador. (United States)

    Betancourt, Óscar; Tapia, Marlene; Méndez, Ignacio


    Based on ecosystem approaches to health (Ecohealth), this study sought to identify neurobehavioral disorders in children exposed to several levels of toxic metal pollution from gold mining in the Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador. Ninety-three children born or living in the study area participated in the study. A neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 12 tests assessing various functions of the nervous system was applied as well as a questionnaire regarding events of exposure of children's mothers to contaminants during perinatal period. Hair samples were taken from children to determine manganese concentrations. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied in order to examine possible relationships between exposure events, hair manganese, and neurobehavioral disorders. Having controlled co-variables such as age and educational level, it was found that children with elevated levels of hair manganese (over 2 μg/g) had poor performance in the test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices Scale PCM). The Ecohealth approach helped to identify that children in the lower Puyango Basin with very elevated levels of manganese in the river water (970 µg/L) are the ones who have the highest levels of hair manganese and the worst performance in the intelligence test.

  16. Comparison of Statistical Downscaling Methods for Monthly Total Precipitation: Case Study for the Paute River Basin in Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Campozano


    Full Text Available Downscaling improves considerably the results of General Circulation Models (GCMs. However, little information is available on the performance of downscaling methods in the Andean mountain region. The paper presents the downscaling of monthly precipitation estimates of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1 applying the statistical downscaling model (SDSM, artificial neural networks (ANNs, and the least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM approach. Downscaled monthly precipitation estimates after bias and variance correction were compared to the median and variance of the 30-year observations of 5 climate stations in the Paute River basin in southern Ecuador, one of Ecuador’s main river basins. A preliminary comparison revealed that both artificial intelligence methods, ANN and LS-SVM, performed equally. Results disclosed that ANN and LS-SVM methods depict, in general, better skills in comparison to SDSM. However, in some months, SDSM estimates matched the median and variance of the observed monthly precipitation depths better. Since synoptic variables do not always present local conditions, particularly in the period going from September to December, it is recommended for future studies to refine estimates of downscaling, for example, by combining dynamic and statistical methods, or to select sets of synoptic predictors for specific months or seasons.

  17. Diversity and biogeography of bacterial assemblages in surface sediments across the San Pedro Basin, Southern California Borderlands. (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Jacobson Meyers, Myrna E; Fuhrman, Jed A


    Sediment bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemistry of ocean sediments; however, factors influencing assemblage composition have not been extensively studied. We examined extractable sediment bacterial abundance, the composition of bacterial assemblages using a high-throughput molecular fingerprinting approach, and several sediment biogeochemical parameters (organic matter content and alkaline phosphatase activity), along a 35 km transect from Point Fermin, Southern California, to Santa Catalina Island, across the approximately 900-m-deep San Pedro Basin. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) demonstrated that in two spatially isolated shallow (approximately < 60 m, on opposite sides of the channel) sediment environments, assemblages were more similar to each other than to deeper communities. Distinct communities existed in deeper and shallower sediments, and stations within the deep basin over 2 km apart contained remarkably similar assemblage fingerprints. The relative contribution to total amplified DNA fluorescence of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly correlated to that of other OTUs in few comparisons (2.7% of total), i.e. few bacterial types were found together or apart consistently. The relative proportions within assemblages of only a few OTU were significantly correlated to measured physicochemical parameters (organic matter content and wet/dry weight ratio of sediments) or enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) activities. A low percentage of shared OTU between shallow and deep sediments, and the presence of similar, but spatially isolated assemblages suggests that bacterial OTU may be widely dispersed over scales of a few kilometres, but that environmental conditions select for particular assemblages.

  18. Geodynamic Drivers of Vertical Crustal Motion: Integrating Paleoaltimetry with Basin Development in the Central Andean Plateau of Southern Peru (United States)

    Sundell, K. E., II; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Styron, R. H.; Horton, B. K.; Cardenas, J.


    Determining the spatial and temporal relationships between surface uplift, tectonic subsidence, and exhumation during periods of oblique crustal shortening is essential to discriminating geodynamic processes controlling formation of high topography in the central Andes. Although subsidence analysis is now a standard tool, paleoelevation estimation remains a challenging task, as estimates based on proxy data can be complicated by uncertainties in the relative controls of tectonics and climate. We therefore adopt an approach of combining established tools of subsidence analysis and detrital geochronology with emerging methods of volcanic glass paleoaltimetry, which enables us to explore a broad range of viable interpretations to understand the development of intermontane basins and their relationship to the development of the central Andean plateau. We investigated a suite of temporally overlapping and spatially separate Cenozoic basins spanning the east-west extent of the central Andean plateau in southern Peru. These basins contain an exceptional record of the vertical movements of this region. We calculate sediment accumulation and subsidence rates through decompaction of measured stratigraphic sections, and reconstruct past environmental conditions based on the stable isotopic composition of ancient waters preserved in hydrated volcanic glass. These data and published records of crustal shortening and exhumation show that although paleoaltimetry data in the study areas may be interpreted in various ways, they are best explained by multiple geodynamic processes driving (i) Eocene-early Miocene development of high topography in the Western Cordillera, then (ii) a pulsed middle Miocene-present building of the central Andean plateau from west to east, consistent with global climate changes as well as regional climate shifts driven by topographic development of the Andean orogen.

  19. Pre-Variscan back-arc extension of Avalonia: The genesis of the Southern North Sea Basin (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    The Devonian-Early Carboniferous was a period of intense rifting in the Avalonia microplate in between the Caledonian and the Hercynian-Alleghanian collision phases. This rifting phase created the typical horst-and-graben structure of much of East Avalonia's crust that is best known from the UK and Ireland where the horsts and the graben infill are located at or near the surface. In the Southern North Sea, the Netherlands and northwest Germany, the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous rift structure and units are obliterated by the thick cover of Late Carboniferous-to-Recent basin fill and by the recurrent fault reactivation. Although this rifting created the basis for 350 Ma of lithospheric memory, its dynamics remains relatively unknown. Major open questions include the mode and total amount of extension as well as the age and origin of the Central Graben and the relation between structures located east and west of it. This study addresses these issues by integrating existing data from lithosphere to basin scales and a map-view restoration. We have revised the crustal map of the Thor Suture Zone. The newly defined northern margin of Avalonia and the Thor Suture Zone are key elements in the reconstruction of Devonian-Carboniferous rifting of Avalonian lithosphere. We present a revised map of Devonian-Carboniferous basin structures including the main horsts and grabens and the governing faults east of the Central Graben. Based on these maps, we present a new paleotectonic reconstruction and a novel geodynamic scenario for the Devonian- Carboniferous rifting. These findings are key for better understanding of long-lived tectonic compartmentalisation and post-rifting deformation phases.

  20. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge;

    as this it will lead to better estimate of the groundwater recharge and hereby of the groundwater availability in the delta region.   The hydrological behaviour of the Andarax river basin is simulated by the MIKE SHE code, which is a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. In the first...... scenario we only use traditional meteorological data and standard values for the vegetation characteristics. The traditional meteorological data are rather sparse for the Andarax river basin and to improve the estimation of evapotranspiration we use an energy-based two-layer SVAT model and apply remote...... sensing derived variables as input data. Specifically surface temperature, global radiation, albedo and leaf area index (LAI) are derived from remote sensing images. We compare the two model simulations and focus in particular on the temporal and spatial distribution of evapotranspiration and recharge...

  1. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin (United States)

    Groshong, R.H., Jr.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R.


    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same ??1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali


    Adama Toure; Bernd Diekkrüger; Adama Mariko


    Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela bas...

  3. Late Givetian ammonoids from Hassi Nebech (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, southern Morocco)


    Bockwinkel, J.; R. T. Becker; V. Ebbighausen


    The Hassi Nebech area of the SE Tafilalt (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, Morocco) yielded the richest and most diverse late Givetian ammonoid fauna on a global scale. Above the distinctive regional "Lower Marker Bed" (Synpharciceras clavilobum Zone), abundant loosely collected limonitic specimens derive from hypoxic shales of the Taouzites taouzensis to Petteroceras errans zones. The ontogenetic morphometry and intraspecific variability of a total of 30 species representing five families, the Ac...

  4. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banandur Pradeep


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  5. Risk assessment of desertification using GIS in parts of Mond Basin, Southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper attempts to evolve a new model by considering various indicators of different types of land degradation desertification, namely water erosion, soil salinity, vegetation degradation, and lowering of ground water table. the Mond river basin, located centrally to this zone, has been selected as a test area to assess the risk and kind of desertification. For this purpose two sub basins of the Payab and Quareh Aghaj have been chosen for detailed study. The thresholds for the severity classes of indicators have been established and then the hazards map for each indicator of types of desertification has been prepared in a GIS. The risk maps of water erosion, soil salinization, lowering of water table, vegetation degradation have been produced for each of the two sub basins. It was possible to distinguish the areas under actual risk from areas under potential risk of desertification types. Also areas under potential risk are classified to subclasses with different probability level to show a statistical picture of risk in future. (Author) 3 refs.

  6. A century of oilfield operations and earthquakes in the greater Los Angeles Basin, southern California (United States)

    Hauksson, Egill; Goebel, Thomas; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Cochran, Elizabeth S.


    Most of the seismicity in the Los Angeles Basin (LA Basin) occurs at depth below the sediments and is caused by transpressional tectonics related to the big bend in the San Andreas fault. However, some of the seismicity could be associated with fluid extraction or injection in oil fields that have been in production for almost a century and cover ∼ 17% of the basin. In a recent study, first the influence of industry operations was evaluated by analyzing seismicity characteristics, including normalized seismicity rates, focal depths, and b-values, but no significant difference was found in seismicity characteristics inside and outside the oil fields. In addition, to identify possible temporal correlations, the seismicity and available monthly fluid extraction and injection volumes since 1977 were analyzed. Second, the production and deformation history of the Wilmington oil field were used to evaluate whether other oil fields are likely to experience similar surface deformation in the future. Third, the maximum earthquake magnitudes of events within the perimeters of the oil fields were analyzed to see whether they correlate with total net injected volumes, as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, maximum magnitudes were examined to see whether they exhibit an increase with net extraction volume. Overall, no obvious previously unidentified induced earthquakes were found, and the management of balanced production and injection of fluids appears to reduce the risk of induced-earthquake activity in the oil fields.

  7. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano. (United States)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen


    Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an

  8. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio, E-mail: [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Thunvik, Roger [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Quintanilla, Jorge [Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bundschuh, Jochen [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)


    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO{sub 3} type or the Ca–Na–HCO{sub 3} type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and

  9. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO3 type or the Ca–Na–HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed

  10. Integrating facies and structural analyses with subsidence history in a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin: Outcome for paleogeography of the Panormide Southern Tethyan margin (NW Sicily, Italy) (United States)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio; Gasparo Morticelli, Maurizio


    We illustrate the tectono-sedimentary evolution of a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin in a fold and thrust belt present setting (Cala Rossa basin). Detailed stratigraphy and facies analysis of Upper Triassic-Eocene successions outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily), integrated with structural analysis, restoration and basin analysis, led to recognize and describe into the intraplatform basin the proximal and distal depositional areas respect to the bordered carbonate platform sectors. Carbonate platform was characterized by a rimmed reef growing with progradational trends towards the basin, as suggested by the several reworked shallow-water materials interlayered into the deep-water succession. More, the occurrence of thick resedimented breccia levels into the deep-water succession suggests the time and the characters of synsedimentary tectonics occurred during the Late Jurassic. The study sections, involved in the building processes of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt, were restored in order to obtain the original width of the Cala Rossa basin, useful to reconstruct the original geometries and opening mechanisms of the basin. Basin analysis allowed reconstructing the subsidence history of three sectors with different paleobathymetry, evidencing the role exerted by tectonics in the evolution of the narrow Cala Rossa basin. In our interpretation, a transtensional dextral Lower Jurassic fault system, WNW-ESE (present-day) oriented, has activated a wedge shaped pull-apart basin. In the frame of the geodynamic evolution of the Southern Tethyan rifted continental margin, the Cala Rossa basin could have been affected by Jurassic transtensional faults related to the lateral westward motion of Africa relative to Europe.

  11. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  12. Imaging 2D structures by the CSAMT method: application to the Pantano di S. Gregorio Magno faulted basin (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Patella, Domenico


    A controlled source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been undertaken in the Pantano di San Gregorio Magno faulted basin, an earthquake prone area of Southern Apennines in Italy. A dataset from 11 soundings, distributed along a nearly N-S 780 m long profile, was acquired in the basin's easternmost area, where the fewest data are available as to the faulting shallow features. A preliminary skew analysis allowed a prevailing 2D nature of the dataset to be ascertained. Then, using a single-site multi-frequency approach, Dantzig's simplex algorithm was introduced for the first time to estimate the CSAMT decomposition parameters. The simplex algorithm, freely available online, proved to be fast and efficient. By this approach, the TM and TE mode field diagrams were obtained and a N35°W ± 10° 2D strike mean direction was estimated along the profile, in substantial agreement with the fault traces within the basin. A 2D inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase curves at seven almost noise-free sites distributed along the central portion of the profile was finally elaborated, reinforced by a sensitivity analysis, which allowed the best resolved portion of the model to be imaged from the first few meters of depth down to a mean depth of 300 m b.g.l. From the inverted section, the following features have been outlined: (i) a cover layer with resistivity in the range 3-30 Ω m ascribed to the Quaternary lacustrine clayey deposits filling the basin, down to an average depth of about 35 m b.g.l., underlain by a structure with resistivity over 50 Ω m up to about 600 Ω m, ascribed to the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock; (ii) a system of two normal faults within the carbonate basement, extending down to the maximum best resolved depth of the order of 300 m b.g.l.; (iii) two wedge-shaped domains separating the opposite blocks of the faults with resistivity ranging between 30 Ω m and 50 Ω m and horizontal extent of the order of some tens of metres, likely

  13. Crustal shear velocity structure in the Southern Lau Basin constrained by seafloor compliance (United States)

    Zha, Yang; Webb, Spahr C.


    Seafloor morphology and crustal structure vary significantly in the Lau back-arc basin, which contains regions of island arc formation, rifting, and seafloor spreading. We analyze seafloor compliance: deformation under long period ocean wave forcing, at 30 ocean bottom seismometers to constrain crustal shear wave velocity structure along and across the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC). Velocity models obtained through Monte Carlo inversion of compliance data show systematic variation of crustal structure in the basin. Sediment thicknesses range from zero thickness at the ridge axis to 1400 m near the volcanic arc. Sediment thickness increases faster to the east than to the west of the ELSC, suggesting a more abundant source of sediment near the active arc volcanoes. Along the ELSC, upper crustal velocities increase from the south to the north where the ridge has migrated farther away from the volcanic arc front. Along the axial ELSC, compliance analysis did not detect a crustal low-velocity body, indicating less melt in the ELSC crustal accretion zone compared to the fast spreading East Pacific Rise. Average upper crust shear velocities for the older ELSC crust produced when the ridge was near the volcanic arc are 0.5-0.8 km/s slower than crust produced at the present-day northern ELSC, consistent with a more porous extrusive layer. Crust in the western Lau Basin, which although thought to have been produced through extension and rifting of old arc crust, is found to have upper crustal velocities similar to older oceanic crust produced at the ELSC.

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure


    Full Text Available Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela basin using the RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Scenario 4.5 W/m2 climate scenario. Climatological, geological, hydrogeological, hydraulic and demographic data were collected and used as model input data. Groundwater recharge was estimated to be approximately 165.3 mm/year using the EARTH (Extended model for Aquifer Recharge and soil moisture Transport through the unsaturated Hardrock model. Recharge was then used as groundwater model input. The sandstone aquifer in the study area was simulated in steady and transient conditions. The results showed that hydraulic conductivity values varied from 1.1 to 13.9 m/day. The model was used for scenario quantification after model calibration and verification using three different piezometer data sets. The results of the simulated MODFLOW model showed a decrease in groundwater levels over time.

  15. Evolutionary relationship between marble trout of the northern and the southern Adriatic basin. (United States)

    Pustovrh, G; Sušnik Bajec, S; Snoj, A


    Marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) populate two geographically separated areas in the northern and southern parts of the Adriatic Sea drainage. Although morphologically similar, each population is distinguished by a different set of unrelated mitochondrial haplotypes, suggesting that they have evolved from different ancestors. Due to a possible discordance between mitochondrial and species phylogeny, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on 22 nuclear loci. The results inferred from Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference analysis revealed that northern and southern populations are closely related, forming a monophyletic group. This observation is concordant with the present marble trout classification, which considers both populations as conspecific. On the other hand, our findings are in marked contrast to those of previous mtDNA-based studies and highlight potential dangers of making phylogenetic inferences from mtDNA alone. Reasons for discordance between mtDNA and nDNA phylogeny are discussed with incomplete lineage sorting proposed as the most parsimonious explanation for mtDNA divergence in marble trout.

  16. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar


    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

  17. Differentiating Tectonic and Anthropogenic Earthquakes in the Greater Los Angeles Basin, Southern California (United States)

    Hauksson, E.; Goebel, T.; Cochran, E. S.; Ampuero, J. P.


    The 2014 flurry of moderate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region raised the concern if some of this or past seismicity was of anthropogenic origin as opposed to being caused by ongoing transpressional tectonics. The Mw5.1 La Habra sequence is located near several major oil fields but the Mw4.4 Encino sequence was located away from oil fields, within the Santa Monica Mountains. The last century of seismicity in the Los Angeles area consists of numerous small and large earthquakes. Most of these earthquakes occur beneath the basin sediments and are associated with transpressional tectonics, related to the big bend in the San Andreas fault, but some could be associated with large oil fields. In particular, both the 1933 Mw6.4 Long Beach and the 1987 Mw5.9 Whittier Narrows earthquakes were spatially associated with two major oil fields, the Huntington Beach and Montebello fields. Numerous large oil fields have been in production for more than 125 years. The geographical locations of the oil fields follow major tectonic trends such as the Newport-Inglewood fault, the Whittier fault, and the thrust belt located at the north edge of the Los Angeles basin. More than 60 fields have oil wells and some of these have both disposal and fracking wells. Before fluid injection became common, Kovach (1974) documented six damaging events induced by fluid extraction from 1947 to 1961 in the Wilmington oil field. Since 1981 the waveform-relocated earthquake catalog for the Los Angeles basin is complete on the average above M2.0. We compare the spatial distribution of these events and the proximity of nearby active oil fields. We will also analyze the seismicity in the context of available monthly fluid extraction and injection volumes and search for temporal correlations. The La Habra sequence apparently correlates with temporal changes in extraction and injection volumes in the Santa Fe Springs oil field but not with activities in other oil fields within closer spatial proximity.

  18. Isotopic Assessment of Sources of Surface Water Nitrate within the Oldman River Basin, Southern Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of NO3- from the Oldman River (OMR) and some of its tributaries (Alberta, Canada) have been determined on a monthly basis since December 2000 to assess temporal and spatial variations of riverine NO3- sources within the OMR basin. For the OMR sites, NO3--N concentrations reached up to 0.34 mg L-1, δ15N-NO3- values varied between -0.3 and +13.8 per mille , and δ18O-NO3- values ranged from -10.0 to +5.7 per mille . For the tributary sites, NO3--N concentrations were as high as 8.81 mg L-1, δ15N-NO3- values varied between -2.5 and +23.4 per mille , and δ18O-NO3- values ranged from -15.2 to +3.4 per mille . Tributaries in the western, relatively pristine forested part of the watershed add predominantlyNO3- to the OMR with δ15N-NO3- values near +2 per mille indicative of soil nitrification. In contrast, tributaries in the eastern agriculturally-urban-industrially-used part of the basin contribute NO3- with δ15N-NO3- values of about +16 per mille indicative of manure and/or sewage derived NO3-. This difference in δ15N-NO3- values of tributaries was found to be independent of the season, but rather indicates a spatial change in the NO3- source, which correlates with land use changes within the OMR basin. As a consequence of tributary influx, δ15N-NO3- values in the Oldman River increased from +6 per mille in the downstream direction (W to E), although [NO3--N] increased only moderately (generally -1). This study demonstrates the usefulness of δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- values in identifying the addition of anthropogenic NO3- to riverine systems

  19. Groundwater markets and water use efficiency: The case of Karnataka


    Deepak, S.C.; Chandrakanth, Mysore G.; Nagaraj, N.


    This study, based on primary data collected from 120 groundwater users in eastern dry zone of Karnataka compares the water use efficiency among different categories of water users, viz. well owners who do not sell water, well owners who sell water either for agricultural or non-agricultural use and water buyers (both agricultural and nonagricultural). Some of the important findings are- • The cropping pattern varies between categories, with both the sellers and buyers preferring low water int...

  20. Irrigation Subsidies in Karnataka: A Growing Constraint for Reforms


    K V Raju; Amarnath, H.K.


    Over the last three decades Karnataka has focused more on creating irrigation potential. Financially this has resulted in spending more on creating capacities without a proportionate increase in revenue generation, leading to significant cost and time overruns. This paper has estimated budgetary support at macro level and recovery levels of water charges, by reviewing the unrecovered costs and growing liabilities of the irrigation sector. It has also looked at implications and possible option...

  1. A study on the fish fauna of Coorg District, Karnataka


    Raghunathan, M.B.


    Some 35 species of fishes were collected from 57 localities spread in various taluks of Coorg district of Karnataka State. Four species of fishes which are rare and restricted to this region are recorded after a lapse of several years. A number of species of Puntius, namely, P. arulius arulius, P. arulius tamraparniei, P. pulchelus, P. micropogon , P. conchonius, P. vittatus, P. parrah, P. sarana, P. sophore, P. chola, P. denisonii were observed. Cold water species namely, Barilius bakerii, B...

  2. Organic agriculture and rural livelihoods in Karnataka, India


    Lukas, Martin; Cahn, M


    The research explored the effects a change from conventional to organic farming had on the livelihoods of a group of farmers in Karnataka, South India. It involved semi-structured interviews with organic farmers, NGOs, consumers, marketing organisations, and the State Agricultural Department. The farmers in the case study perceived that they had improved their livelihoods over the long term by the conversion from conventional to organic farming. Reduced costs for external inputs and reduced l...

  3. Keeping Our Cities Clean: Urban Solid Waste Management in Karnataka


    Madhushree Sekher


    This paper broadly examines the process of municipal waste management in our cities, focusing on the situation in Karnataka. The paper is reflective in nature, drawing on a case study of solid waste management process in Bangalore. It highlights the characteristic of municipal waste generated, the management practices involved and the stakeholders in the refuse collection and disposal services, and thereupon attempts to identify future interventions to strengthen the delivery of public munici...

  4. The Aquatic And Marshy Flora Of The Lotru River Basin (Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgulescu Constantin


    Full Text Available The present paper continues the series of floristic inventories of the main Romanian rivers in the Carpathian Mountains (from which have been published those of Mureş, Sadu, Olt, Someş, Criş, Târnave, Tisa. In this work the author lists 204 plant taxa (hydrophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic identified by the author or by other botanists in the Lotru Valley basin. Noted for each species were life form, floral element, ecological preferences for humidity (U, temperature (T, soil reaction (R, corology and coenology. Bibliographical sources are coded with numbers (see the references at the end of the paper. The sign “!” indicates that the author has seen the plant in that locality.

  5. Seismic Data Interpretation: A Case Study of Southern Sindh Monocline, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi


    Full Text Available The Sindh monocline in Lower Indus Basin is an important oil and gas producing area of Pakistan where a large number of oil, gas and condensate fields have been discovered from structural traps. This research involves the interpretation of stratigraphic and structural styles of Sindh Monocline using 2D (Two-Dimensional seismic reflection and well log. Four reflectors of different formations have been marked and were named as Reflector-1 as of Khadro Formation, Reflector-2 as Upper Goru Member, Reflector-3 as Lower Goru Formation and Reflector-4 as Chiltan Limestone. The average depth of Khadro Formation was marked at 449.0m, Upper Goru Member at 968m, Lower Goru Formation at 1938m and Chiltan Limestone at 2943m. Faults were marked on seismic sections which collectively form horsts and grabens which is the evidence of extensional tectonic in the area. Seismic interpretation was carried out through window based Kingdom Software

  6. Sod-podzolic soils with a complex organic profile of the southern Vyatka River basin (United States)

    Prokashev, A. M.; Soboleva, E. S.; Chepurnov, R. R.; Matushkin, A. S.; Ohorzin, N. D.; Borodaty, I. L.; Zhuikova, I. A.; Alalykina, I. Y.; Russkikh, G. A.; Pupysheva, S. A.; Mokrushin, S. L.; Vartan, I. A.


    The article is devoted to the morphology and substantive properties of the sod- podzolic soils with a complex organic profile having the second humus horizons and found on the southern right bank of the lower Vyatka River. The research results of the mineral and organic phases are the evidence of the relict origin of the second humus horizon as well as the evidence of profile polygenicity of the given soils. They went through two fundamentally different pedogenesis stages during the postglacial period: 1) the developmental accumulative evolution stage in the first half of the Holocene and 2) the accumulative-eluvial stage of erasing evolution including the elements of inheriting evolution in the second half of the Holocene. Keywords: granulometric composition, fractional and group composition, humus age, genesis, soil evolution

  7. Possible solar forcing of climate variability in the past 4000 years inferred from a proxy record at the southern margin of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei; WANG Liguo; Tyip·Tashpolat; XIONG Heigang; SHU Qiang


    A ca. 4000a decadal-resolution climate proxy record of the mean grain-size from a lake (or mash) sediment at the southern margin of the Tarim Basin, correlates visually with the atmospheric 14C record from tree ring (residual △14C, solar proxy) and the GISP2 ice core δ18O record (temperature proxy). In general, △14C maxima (solar minima) are coincident with cold (wet) periods in the study area and cold periods in the Greenland ice core. Power spectrum analysis revealed statistically significant periodicities of 196a, 121a,97a, 62a, 45a and 33-30a, which are similar to those principal solar-oscillation periods as inferred from the atmospheric radiocarbon and other proxy records. Possible solar forcing is addressed to be the main driving forcing of climate change in the southern margin of Tarim Basin.

  8. Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, and other Pliocene mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the southern North Sea Basin


    Vervoenen, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.; van Nieulande, F.A.D.


    Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, is recorded from the Coralline Crag Formation of East Anglia (UK) and the Lillo Formation ( Oorderen, Kruisschans and Merksem members) of the Antwerp area (Belgium). The species is diagnosed on the basis of newly collected material and differentiated from modem European mussel species. The presence of M. antiquorum in the southern North Sea Basin is restricted to the Middle (Piacenzian) and early Late Pliocene (Gelasian). A possible occurrence of the spec...

  9. Inconsistent magnetic polarities in magnetite-and greigite-bearing sediments: Understanding complex magnetizations in the late Messinian in the Adana Basin (southern Turkey)


    Lucifora, S.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Università Roma Tre, Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, IT-00146 Rome, Italy; Cifelli, F.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Università Roma Tre, Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, IT-00146 Rome, Italy; Mattei, M.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita` di Roma TRE, Rome; Sagnotti, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Cosentino, D.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita` 'Roma Tre', Rome, Italy; Roberts, A. P.; Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia


    We present paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and scanning electron microscope data from three upper Messinian stratigraphic sections from the Adana Basin (southern Turkey). The collected samples are from fine-grained units, which were deposited during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (within subchron C3r). Paleomagnetic results reveal an inconsistent polarity record, related to a mixture of magnetite and greigite that hinders determination of a reliable magnetostratigraphy. Three classes of samples a...

  10. The Hydromedusae and its distribution in Chukchi Sea and adjacent southern edge waters of Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金标; 林茂


    The present paper is based on materials collected in Chukchi Sea and adjacent southern edge waters of Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean during the period from July to August 1999 on the icebreaker, the R/V “Xuelong”, by the Chinese First Arctic Scientific Expedition. Totally, 8 species of pelagic Hydromedusae were identified, of which 4 species belonged to Anthomedusae, 2 species to Leptomedusae, 1 species to Trachymedusae and 1 species to Narcomedusae, the Neoturris breviconis is recorded for the first time in Chukchi Sea. Their principal morphological characteristics are described and illustrated. The 8 species of Hydromedusae occurring in the Chukchi Sea were all cold water species, of which 6 species belong to neritic species and 2 species to ocean species. According to the geographic distribution of species, they may be divided into three groups: Arctic species, Arctic-boreal species and Boreal-temperate species. From the view-point of zoogeography, species from these waters belong to the Arctic fauna.The abundance of Hydromedusae in Chukchi Sea was generally low, with a mean value of 108 ind.*10-2*m-3. Rathkea octopunctata and Aglantha digitale were dominant species. From the view-point of vertical distribution Aglantha digitale is inhabiting in the depth of 0 300 m and with the maximum in the depth of 50 m to 100 m.

  11. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulami Sahu; P K Sikdar; Surajit Chakraborty


    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  12. Southern North Sea Basin in Europe: Biodiversity of the Marine Fürstenau Formation Including Early White and Megatooth Sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Diedrich


    Full Text Available The Fürstenau Formation (Lutetian, Paleogene, Eocene is based on type sections near Fürstenau in Germany (central Europe and is built of 22 meter thick marine glauconitic and strongly bioturbated sands, clays, and a vertebrate-rich conglomerate bed. The conglomerate layer from the Early Lutetian transgression reworked Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene marine sediments. It is dominated by pebbles from the locally mountains which must have been transported by an ancient river in a delta fan. Marine reworked Lower Cretaceous and Paleogen pebbles/fossils, were derived from the underlying deposits of northern Germany (= southern pre North Sea basin. The benthic macrofauna is cold upwelling water influenced and non-tropical, and medium divers. The vertebrate fish fauna is extremely rich in shark teeth, with about 5,000 teeth per cubic meter of gravel. The most dominant forms are teeth from sand shark ancestors Striatolamia macrota, followed by white shark ancestors Carcharodon auriculatus. Even teeth from the magatooth shark ancestor Carcharocles sokolovi are present in a moderately diverse and condensed Paleogene fish fauna that also includes rays, chimaeras, and more then 80 different bony fish. Fragmentary turtle remains are present, and few terrestrial vertebrates and even marine mammals with phocids, sirenians and possibly whales.

  13. Modelling the impact of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.


    Groundwater modelling is widely used as a management tool to understand the behaviour of aquifer systems under different hydrological stresses, whether induced naturally or by humans. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the Palar River basin, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Groundwater is supplied to a nearby nuclear power plant and groundwater also supplies irrigation, industrial and domestic needs. In order to meet the increasing demand for groundwater for the nuclear power station, a subsurface barrier/dam was proposed across Palar River to increase the groundwater heads and to minimise the subsurface discharge of groundwater into the sea. The groundwater model used in this study predicted that groundwater levels would increase by about 0.1-0.3 m extending out a distance of about 1.5-2 km from the upstream side of the barrier, while on the downstream side, the groundwater head would lower by about 0.1-0.2 m. The model also predicted that with the subsurface barrier in place the additional groundwater requirement of approximately 13,600 m3/day (3 million gallons (UK)/day) can be met with minimum decline in regional groundwater head.

  14. Structural features and petroleum geology of the fold-thrust belt in the southern Tarim basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xinyuan; LUO Jinhai; WANG Qinghua


    The west Kunlun fold-thrust belt (WKFTB) and the Altun fold-thrust belt (AFTB) are respectively located in the southern margin of the Tarim basin, NW China. The analyses of typical structures and regional dynamics of the fold-thrust belts reveal their different structural and petroleum features and mechanisms. WKFTB differs from AFTB by abundant fault-related folds and triangles zones, and was formed by northward extrusion of the west Kunlun orogen. AFTB was affected synchronously by northward extrusion of the Altun orogen and the sinistral strike-slipping of the Altun Fault, so it is characterized by the minor scale and the monotonous structural styles. The Aqike anticline and the Aqike fault, of which the strikes are orthogonal to the strike of the fold-thrust belts, are regarded as the adjustive structures between both of the fold-thrust belts. The oil-gas pools of WKFTB develop mainly in the faulted-related anticline traps, but the oil-gas pools of AFTB develop mainly in the low fault-block and anticlines traps related with the paleo-uplifts. There are different exploration countermeasures for both of the fold-thrust belts.

  15. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippin, L.C.


    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  16. Seismicity in the Raton Basin of Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico, USA, as Recorded by a Local Array (United States)

    Macartney, H.


    Microseismic events (Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, USA, over a period of 18 months following the occurrence of a 5.3 magnitude event near Trinidad CO in August, 2011. Micro-seismicity was observed in the region, concentrated in six clusters at depths of 6-12 km below the surface, deep in the basement, and 4-10 km below zones used for fluid disposal from an overlying coalbed methane natural gas field. Clusters are separated from disposal zones by large aseismic intervals. The clusters are mixed in character; both planar and elongate amorphous swarms, some continually active and some as short-lived bursts, with larger initial events tending to occur deeper and smaller after-shocks propagating upward and away from the nucleating events. Magnitudes range between 0 and 3, with the vast majority being less than 1.5M. Most of the clusters have no disposal wells above and no seismic activity was correlated with changes in fluid disposal. No seismicity was detected from hydraulic fracturing operations.

  17. Drought and vegetation analysis in Tarsus River Basin (Southern Turkey using GIS and Remote Sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Duran


    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of topographic variables on drought and vegetation in dry season have been examined. Distributions of dry conditions in Tarsus River Basin were derived using the NDVI, NDMI indexes and LST (Land Surface Temperature from landsat8 image bands. There is large difference in elevation in the study area. Local climatic conditions are formed under the influence of altitude and morphological structure. Narrow and deep valleys in the topography create more moderate temperature/moisture conditions and are the main distribution area of tall forest vegetation. High radiation in the highest plateau system and, extreme temperature/moisture values led short-lived herbaceous vegetation to spread. Due to high insolation/temperature and restricted marine affect, establishment of scrub vegetation can be observed both in mid-elevation and south-sloping plateau of the study area. Anthropogenic agricultural fields form the land surface with the potential of high temperature/evapotranspiration rate in harvesting periods. Broadleaf plant species spread in areas close to the base of the valley stream. Plantation forest has been created in areas of near-shore sand dunes and very small delta (marsh. Variability in topography also increases the width of the combination of factors that shape the vegetation. This also enables the number of taxa to increase and unusual taxa to co-exist.

  18. Fault zone characteristics and basin complexity in the southern Salton Trough, California (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Ma, Yiran; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Fuis, Gary S.; Han, Liang


    Ongoing oblique slip at the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the Salton Trough produced the Imperial Valley (California, USA), a seismically active area with deformation distributed across a complex network of exposed and buried faults. To better understand the shallow crustal structure in this region and the connectivity of faults and seismicity lineaments, we used data primarily from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project to construct a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model down to 8 km depth and a velocity profile to 15 km depth, both at 1 km grid spacing. A VP = 5.65–5.85 km/s layer of possibly metamorphosed sediments within, and crystalline basement outside, the valley is locally as thick as 5 km, but is thickest and deepest in fault zones and near seismicity lineaments, suggesting a causative relationship between the low velocities and faulting. Both seismicity lineaments and surface faults control the structural architecture of the western part of the larger wedge-shaped basin, where two deep subbasins are located. We estimate basement depths, and show that high velocities at shallow depths and possible basement highs characterize the geothermal areas.

  19. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C


    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  20. Molecular and isotopic composition of hydrate-bound and dissolved gases in the southern basin of Lake Baikal, based on an improved headspace gas method (United States)

    Sakagami, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hirotsugu; Yamashita, Satoshi; Shoji, Hitoshi; Khlystov, Oleg; Kalmychkov, Gennadiy; Grachev, Mikhail; De Batist, Marc


    Assessments of the molecular and isotopic composition of hydrate-bound and dissolved gases in pore water were conducted during the multi-phase gas hydrate project (MHP-09) cruise VER09-03 to the southern basin of Lake Baikal in September 2009. To avoid changes in gas composition during core sampling and transport, various headspace methods were investigated aimed at preserving the dissolved gases in pore water. When distilled water was added to the sediment samples, the concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen decreased because of dissolution into the water and/or microbial consumption. When the headspace was not flushed with inert gases, trace levels of hydrogen and ethylene were detected. The findings suggest that best preparation is achieved by flushing the headspace with helium, and adding a saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride. This improved headspace method served to examine the molecular and isotopic compositions of gas samples retrieved at several new sites in the southern basin. Methane was the major component, and the proportion of ethane ranged widely from 0.0009 to 1.67 mol% of the total hydrocarbon gases. The proportions of propane and higher hydrocarbons were small or less than their detection limits. The carbon isotope signatures suggest that microbial-sourced methane and ethane were dominant in the Peschanka study area, whereas ethane was of thermogenic origin at all other study sites in the southern basin of Lake Baikal.

  1. Prevalence of malformed frogs in Kaoping and Tungkang river basins of southern Taiwan. (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ji; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Yin


    In this study we found many amphibians with bizarre appearances, known as malformations in Pingtung County southern Taiwan. For this investigation we collected frogs inhabiting the Kaoping and Tungkang river watersheds between February 2006 and June 2007. Among the total number of 10,909 normal frogs (i.e., anurans) collected during the investigation period, the Indian rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) account for the greatest number next is the Chinese bullfrog (Rana rugulosa). Of all the 244 captured malformed frogs, the Indian rice frog account for the greatest proportion. These malformed frogs have their main distribution in upstream areas of these two rivers. Our result indicates that the appearance rate of malformed frogs is 1.8% in the upstream reaches of the Kaoping River and 2.6%, and 0.8%, respectively in the upstream and midstream reaches of the Tungkang river. The most-commonly-found malformation is the lack of palms, followed by the lack of appendages, exostosis, and a malformed appendicular. It is, therefore, reasonable to speculate that the causes for the malformation may be related to the increased organic pollutants and agricultural chemicals used in the upstream reaches of these two rivers. PMID:21047008

  2. Late Givetian ammonoids from Hassi Nebech (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bockwinkel


    Full Text Available The Hassi Nebech area of the SE Tafilalt (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, Morocco yielded the richest and most diverse late Givetian ammonoid fauna on a global scale. Above the distinctive regional "Lower Marker Bed" (Synpharciceras clavilobum Zone, abundant loosely collected limonitic specimens derive from hypoxic shales of the Taouzites taouzensis to Petteroceras errans zones. The ontogenetic morphometry and intraspecific variability of a total of 30 species representing five families, the Acanthoclymeniidae, Taouzitidae, Pharciceratidae, Petteroceratidae, and Tornoceratidae, are documented. New taxa are: Pseudoprobeloceras praecox n. sp., Scaturites minutus n. gen. n. sp., Darkaoceras velox n. sp., Pharciceras decoratum n. sp., Ph. fornix n. sp., Ph. subconstans n. sp., Ph. involutum n. sp., Lunupharciceras incisum n. sp., Transpharciceras procedens n. gen. n. sp., Stenopharciceras progressum n. sp., Pluripharciceras n. gen. (type species: Synpharciceras plurilobatum Petter, 1959, Plu. orbis n. sp., Synpharciceras frequens n. sp., Lobotornoceras bensaidi n. sp., Nebechoceras eccentricum n. gen. n. sp., and Phoenixites lenticulus n. sp. The documentation of conch and particularly suture ontogeny and intraspecific variability necessitates a revised diagnosis for ten taxa. Manticoceras pontiformis Termier & Termier, 1950, Probeloceras costulatum Petter, 1959, and Pseudoprobeloceras nebechense Bensaïd, 1974 are regarded as subjective junior synonyms of Ps. pernai (Wedekind, 1918. Sandbergeroceras acutum Termier & Termier, 1950 is a subjective synonym of Taouzites taouzensis (Termier & Termier, 1950. Pharciceras applanatum Bensaïd, 1974 is transferred to Extropharciceras. Other forms (Ph. aff. tridens, Ph. cf. subconstans n. sp., Extropharciceras n. sp. 2, Ex. cf. arenicum, Ex. cf. applanatum, Synpharciceras sp., Plu. cf. plurilobatum are described in open nomenclature. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300001

  3. Simulation-optimization aids in resolving water conflict: Temecula Basin, Southern California (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Lear, Jonathan


    The productive agricultural areas of Pajaro Valley, California have exclusively relied on ground water from coastal aquifers in central Monterey Bay. As part of the Basin Management Plan (BMP), the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) is developing additional local supplies to replace coastal pumpage, which is causing seawater intrusion. The BMP includes an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system, which captures and stores local winter runoff, and supplies it to growers later in the growing season in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A Coastal Distribution System (CDS) distributes water from the ASR and other supplemental sources. A detailed model of the Pajaro Valley is being used to simulate the coupled supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture from 1963 to 2006. Recent upgrades to the Farm Process in MODFLOW (MF2K-FMP) allow simulating the effects of ASR deliveries and reduced pumping for farms in subregions connected to the CDS. The BMP includes a hierarchy of monthly supply alternatives, including a recovery well field around the ASR system, a supplemental wellfield, and onsite farm supply wells. The hierarchy of delivery requirements is used by MF2K-FMP to estimate the effects of these deliveries on coastal ground-water pumpage and recovery of water levels. This integrated approach can be used to assess the effectiveness of the BMP under variable climatic conditions, and to test the impacts of more complete subscription by coastal farmers to the CDS deliveries. The model will help managers assess the effects of new BMP components to further reduce pumpage and seawater intrusion.

  4. Geology and potential hydrocarbon play system of Lower Karoo Group in the Maamba Coalfield Basin, southern Zambia (United States)

    Phiri, Cryton; Wang, Pujun; Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa


    This study attempts to augment geology and potential hydrocarbon play system database not only in the Maamba Coalfield basin of southern Zambia but in other similar continental non-marine Karoo rift basins in the region as well. Geological analyses were conducted through extensive outcrops and exposures and subsurface boreholes. Six (6) major lithofacies (diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, coal and mudstones) represents Lower Karoo Group sequence. Four (4) mudstone core samples were prepared for thin section petrography. In addition, six (6) samples of sandstones obtained from outcrops, exposures and cores were impregnated with blue epoxy before thin sectioning in order to facilitate easy recognition of porosity. Quantification of framework grain composition and porosity was achieved by point counting a total of 300 points per thin section. The identification of diagenetic constituents and pore types was made possible by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses utilised 35 core samples of mudstones and coal. According to results of the analyses, three (3) deposition settings which include; alluvial, fluvial-lacustrine and lacustrine setting are envisaged. . Fluvial-lacustrine deposits are host to mudstones and coal source rocks and sandstone reservoir rocks. Mudstones and coal source rocks gave the total organic carbon (TOC) that is well above the recommended thresholds of 0.5 wt % and 2.5 wt % of gas and oil generation respectively. The hydrogen index (HI) values are mostly below 200 mg HC/g TOC, indicating fair quantities of type III kerogen. The thermal maturity readings measured by temperature Tmax range from 440 to 485 °C in agreement with calculated vitrinite reflectance (Rocalc) range of 0.76-1.57% indicating mature to post mature stages. This maturation is attributed to the burial temperatures and near-surface heat flows by faults. Production Index (PI) values are less than 0.1 suggesting some hydrocarbon

  5. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series. (United States)

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  6. Cenozoic magnetostratigraphy and magnetic properties of the southern Issyk-Kul basin, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Wack, Michael R.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Macaulay, Euan A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Charreau, Julien; Mikolaichuk, Alexander


    We present paleomagnetic data from the northern flank of the Tianshan range, southeast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). 613 cores were collected in two parallel sections with a total thickness of 960 m (Chon Kyzylsuu, CK) and 990 m (Jeti Oguz, JO), as well as 48 cores at six sites in a nearby anticline. Rock magnetic analyses identify both magnetite and hematite in the fluvial-lacustrine sediments. The concentration of both minerals, the magnetite:hematite ratio, and the average magnetite grain size increase upward in both sections. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization defines a tectonic fabric with sub-horizontal maximum axes that parallel the strike direction together with intermediate and minimum axes that streak out about a great circle orthogonal to the maximum axes suggestive of a tectonic fabric emplaced during folding. Stepwise thermal demagnetization isolates interpretable magnetization components in 284 samples that define 26 polarity chrons in CK and 19 in JO. A positive fold test, dual polarities and systematic changes in rock-magnetic parameters with depth suggest that the high temperature magnetization component was acquired coevally with deposition. An age model based on a visual magnetostratigraphic correlation of both sections with the geomagnetic polarity time scale defines absolute ages from 26.0 to 13.3 Ma, with a fairly constant sedimentation rate of 9-10 cm/ka. A correlation based on a numerical algorithm arrives at a slightly different conclusion, with deposition ages from 25.2 to 11.0 Ma and sedimentation rates from 5 to 8 cm/ka. In comparison with sedimentation rates found at other magnetostratigraphic sections in the Tianshan realm, we infer that the sedimentary record in this part of the Issyk-Kul Basin precedes the more rapid phase of uplift of the Kyrgyz Tianshan. The onset of deposition and concomitant erosion of the adjacent Terskey Range is in good agreement with independent assessments of the exhumation history of this

  7. Constraints from GPS on Block Kinematics of the Transition between the Southern Walker Lane and the Basin and Range Province (United States)

    Jha, S.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.


    The southern Walker Lane (SWL) is a part of the Eastern California Shear Zone that lies north of the Mojave region, bounded by the Garlock Fault to the south, the Sierra Nevada to the west, the Basin and Range to the east and by Mono Lake to the north. The region includes many northwest striking right-lateral strike slip and sub-parallel normal faults (e.g. Death Valley/Furnace Creek, Fish Lake Valley, Owens Valley), which together accommodate ~25% of the Pacific/North American relative motion. For many of these faults, and the system as a whole, there appears to be a discrepancy between geodetically and geologically inferred fault slip rates. Since the installation of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and the Nevada Earthquake Response Network (NEARNET) of the University of Nevada, Reno, many recently obtained high- precision GPS data are now available to place improved constraints on the pattern and rates of crustal deformation of this region. In this study we use a block modeling methodology to estimate block motions and fault slip rates from GPS velocities of PBO, NEARNET and BARGEN continuous sites. Time series were obtained from raw RINEX data that we processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with the Ambizap software for ambiguity resolution. We have additionally included earlier published campaign-style velocities, in those areas where we do not have better coverage from other continuous/semi-continuous networks. Geologic slip rates have been obtained from the published literature. We solve for the motion of blocks using the GPS velocities that have been adjusted based on the viscoelastic modeling to estimate long term motion. To evaluate the consistency between the geologic and geodetic data, we compare long-term fault slip to slip rates inferred from geodetic results obtained over Basin and Range. The preliminary results obtained from the block model indicate significant slip at the easternmost

  8. Investigation of the buried structure of the Volturara Irpina Basin (southern Italy) by microtremor and gravimetric data (United States)

    Maresca, Rosalba; Berrino, Giovanna


    We investigated the structure of the Volturara Irpina Plain, a small intra-mountain basin in southern Italy. Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) measurements were performed on a 50-point grid across the plain, and contour maps of the peak frequencies and maximum amplitudes of the HVSR curves were constructed. In the deepest part of the plain, the fundamental resonance frequencies were 0.8 Hz to 0.9 Hz. Assuming that the HVSR peak frequencies interpret the fundamental resonance frequencies, and taking into account the shear-wave velocity-depth relationship derived from down-hole data, a first thickness-frequency relationship for the plain was estimated. The sediment thickness corresponds to the depth from the ground surface of the seismic basement. A power-law thickness-frequency relationship was also derived through nonlinear regression fitting of the borehole data that intercepted the bedrock. Finally, the contour map of the depth of the seismic basement was constructed by averaging the thickness estimates from the two different approaches. Gravity measurements were also acquired on a 54-point grid across the plain, most of which coincided with microtremor stations. From these data, the Bouguer gravity anomaly was computed with reference to the 1980 Ellipsoid, and using a density of 2670 kg/m3, we propose a three-dimensional interpretation of the buried structure of the plain that is mainly formed by three overlapped layers. The separately obtained microtremor and gravity results were also compared, using constraints from the drillings. Thus, we interpret the first layer as Plio-Pleistocenic sediments mostly composed of clay, silty clay, and gravel. The underlying basement has maximum depth ~ 500 m below ground level (altitude, ~ 200 m a.s.l.), and corresponds to Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These rocks are nonhomogeneous, with an upper, less compact, layer formed by unstable rocks with clay, or fractured rocks with water circulation. This is

  9. Assessing sedimentation rates at Usumacinta and Grijalva river basin (Southern Mexico) using OSL and suspended sediment load analysis: A study from the Maya Classic Period (United States)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Sanderson, D.; Kinnaird, T.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.


    Studying sedimentation rates on floodplains is key to understanding environmental changes occurred through time in river basins. The Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers flow most of their travel through the southern part of Mexico, forming a large river basin, crossing the states of Chiapas and Tabasco. The Usumacinta-Grijalva River Basin is within the 10 major rivers of North America, having a basin area of ~112 550 km2. We use the OSL technique for dating two sediment profiles and for obtaining luminescence signals in several sediment profiles located in the streambanks of the main trunk of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers. We also use mean annual values of suspended sediment load spanning ~50 years to calculate the sedimentation rates. Our OSL dating results start from the 4th Century, when the Maya Civilization was at its peak during the Classic Period. Sedimentation rates show a notable increase at the end of the 19th Century. The increase of the sedimentation rates seems to be related to changes in land uses in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Altos de Chiapas, based on deforestation and land clearing for developing new agrarian and pastoral activities. We conclude that the major environmental change in the basin of the Usumacinta and Grijalva Rivers since the Maya Classic Period was generated since the last Century as a result of an intense anthropogenic disturbance of mountain rain forest in Chiapas.

  10. Evolution of the late Quaternary San Gregorio Magno tectono-karstic basin (southern Italy) inferred from geomorphological, tephrostratigraphical and palaeoecological analyses: tectonic implications (United States)

    Aiello, G.; Ascione, A.; Barra, D.; Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Villani, F.


    The Pantano di San Gregorio Magno is a 4.7 km2 large tectono-karstic basin located in the axial belt of the Southern Apennines, an area affected by intense seismicity. The basin was formed in the Middle Pleistocene and is presently undissected. It is filled by lacustrine sediments (clays, silts and pyroclastic sands) passing laterally into alluvial fan deposits. Geomorphological investigations were integrated with tephrostratigraphical, palynological and palaeoecological analyses of a 61 m thick core (not reaching the bedrock). The multiproxy analysis of the S. Gregorio Magno record shows that, over the last 200k yr, the basin hosted a freshwater lake with an oscillating level. Age constraints provided by the tephrostratigraphic record allowed estimation of the sedimentation rate, which varied strongly through time. Evolution of the basin resulted from the complex combination of tectonic subsidence, karst processes and changing amounts of sedimentary inputs. The latter was influenced by allogenic contributions related both to primary and reworked volcanoclastic inputs and was climate-driven. The overall evidence, which indicates that in the long-term the accumulation rate substantially counterbalanced the accommodation space created by faulting, suggests that the basin evolution was also modulated by changing subsidence rates. Copyright

  11. A Study of the Connection Among Basin-Fill Aquifers, Carbonate-Rock Aquifers, and Surface-Water Resources in Southern Snake Valley, Nevada (United States)



    The Secretary of the Interior through the Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act approved funding for research to improve understanding of hydrologic systems that sustain numerous water-dependent ecosystems on Federal lands in Snake Valley, Nevada. Some of the streams and spring-discharge areas in and adjacent to Great Basin National Park have been identified as susceptible to ground-water withdrawals (Elliott and others, 2006) and research has shown a high potential for ground-water flow from southern Spring Valley into southern Snake Valley through carbonate rocks that outcrop along a low topographic divide known as the Limestone Hills (Welch and others, 2007). Comprehensive geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information will be collected and analyzed to assess the hydraulic connection between basin-fill aquifers and surface-water resources, water-dependent ecological features, and the regional carbonate-rock aquifer, the known source of many high-discharge springs. Understanding these connections is important because proposed projects to pump and export ground water from Spring and Snake Valleys in Nevada may result in unintended capture of water currently supplying springs, streams, wetlands, limestone caves, and other biologically sensitive areas (fig. 1). The methods that will be used in this study may be transferable to other areas in the Great Basin. The National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Forest Service submitted the proposal for funding this research to facilitate science-based land management. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources and Geologic Disciplines, and the University of Nevada, Reno, will accomplish four research elements through comprehensive data collection and analysis that are concentrated in two distinct areas on the eastern and southern flanks of the Snake Range (fig. 2). The projected time line for this research is from July 2008 through September 2011.

  12. Contribution of the airborne geophysical survey to the study of the regolith : A case study in southern Paris Basin. (United States)

    Prognon, Francois; Lacquement, Fréderic; Deparis, Jacques; Martelet, Guillaume; Perrin, José


    Studies of soil and subsoil, also called regolith, are at the crossroads of scientific new challenging questions as well as new environmental needs. Historically, geological maps were focussed on solid geology. Present societal needs increasingly require knowledge of regolith properties: superficial studies combining geology, geochemistry and geophysics become essential to better understand the natural processes which govern the repartition and evolution of subsoil formations. Such progress is critical to better orient the use and management of natural and groundwater resources. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic …). We illustrate the results of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in France, in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Spectral radiometry data were collected throughout "Région Centre" with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. Gamma-rays emitted from the Earth surface are related to the primary mineralogy and geochemistry of the bedrock and/or the nature of secondary weathering including regolith materials. Obtained images are confronted with former geological investigations (1:50 000e geological maps). Geophysical data and geological maps are generally consistent on most of the covered area since the first-rate information delivered by the spectrometry derives from the geochemistry of the solid geology. Second-rate gamma-ray responses come from superimposed allochtonous deposits as well as in situ geochemical modifications. For instance

  13. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation tight sandstones in the southern Songliao Basin, China (United States)

    Xi, Kelai; Cao, Yingchang; Jahren, Jens; Zhu, Rukai; Bjørlykke, Knut; Haile, Beyene Girma; Zheng, Lijing; Hellevang, Helge


    The Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation in the southern Songliao Basin is the typical tight oil sandstone in China. For effective exploration, appraisal and production from such a tight oil sandstone, the diagenesis and reservoir quality must be thoroughly studied first. The tight oil sandstone has been examined by a variety of methods, including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, fluorescence, electron probing analysis, fluid inclusion and isotope testing and quantitative determination of reservoir properties. The sandstones are mostly lithic arkoses and feldspathic litharenites with fine to medium grain size and moderate to good sorting. The sandstones are dominated by feldspar, quartz, and volcanic rock fragments showing various stages of disintegration. The reservoir properties are quite poor, with low porosity (average 8.54%) and permeability (average 0.493 mD), small pore-throat radius (average 0.206 μm) and high displacement pressure (mostly higher than 1 MPa). The tight sandstone reservoirs have undergone significant diagenetic alterations such as compaction, feldspar dissolution, quartz cementation, carbonate cementation (mainly ferrocalcite and ankerite) and clay mineral alteration. As to the onset time, the oil emplacement was prior to the carbonate cementation but posterior to the quartz cementation and feldspar dissolution. The smectite to illite reaction and pressure solution at stylolites provide a most important silica sources for quartz cementation. Carbonate cements increase towards interbedded mudstones. Mechanical compaction has played a more important role than cementation in destroying the reservoir quality of the K1q4 sandstone reservoirs. Mixed-layer illite/smectite and illite reduced the porosity and permeability significantly, while chlorite preserved the porosity and permeability since it tends to be oil wet so that later carbonate cementation can be inhibited to some extent. It is likely that the oil emplacement occurred

  14. Variability in the microbial communities and hydrothermal fluid chemistry at the newly discovered Mariner hydrothermal field, southern Lau Basin (United States)

    Takai, Ken; Nunoura, Takuro; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Lupton, John; Suzuki, Ryohei; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Gamo, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Horikoshi, Koki


    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field on the Valu Fa Ridge in the southern Lau Basin was explored and characterized with geochemical and microbiological analyses. The hydrothermal fluid discharging from the most vigorous vent (Snow Chimney, maximum discharge temperature 365°C) was boiling at the seafloor at a depth of 1908 m, and two distinct end-member hydrothermal fluids were identified. The fluid chemistry of the typical Cl-enriched and Cl-depleted hydrothermal fluids was analyzed, as was the mineralogy of the host chimney structures. The variability in the fluid chemistry was potentially controlled by the subseafloor phase-separation (vapor loss process) and the microbial community activities. Microbial community structures in three chimney structures were investigated using culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene clone analysis revealed that both bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities on the chimney surfaces differed among three chimneys. Cultivation analysis demonstrated significant variation in the culturability of various microbial components among the chimneys, particularly of thermophilic H2-oxidizing (and S-oxidizing) chemolithoautotrophs such as the genera Aquifex and Persephonella. The physical and chemical environments of chimney surface habitats are still unresolved and do not directly extrapolate the environments of possible subseafloor habitats. However, the variability in microbial community found in the chimneys also provides an insight into the different biogeochemical interactions potentially affected by the phase separation of the hydrothermal fluids in the subseafloor hydrothermal habitats. In addition, comparison with other deep-sea hydrothermal systems revealed that the Mariner field microbial communities have unusual characteristics.

  15. Differences in nitrous oxide distribution patterns between the Bering Sea basin and Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liqi; ZHANG Jiexia; ZHAN Liyang; LI Yuhong; SUN Heng


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) distribution patterns in the Bering Sea basin (BSB) and Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean (ISSO) were described and compared. In both sites, the waters were divided into four layers:surface layer, subsurface layer, N2O maximum layer, and deep water. Simulations were made to find out the most important factors that regulate the N2O distribution patterns in different layers of both sites. The results showed that in the surface water, N2O was more understaturated in the ISSO than the BSB. This phenom-enon in the surface water of ISSO may result from ice melt water intrusion and northeastward transport of the Antarctic surface water. Results of the rough estimation of air-sea fluxes during the expedition were (-0.34±0.07)-(-0.64±0.13) μmol/(m2·d) and (-1.47±0.42)-(-1.77±0.51) μmol/(m2·d) for the BSB and the ISSO, respectively. Strongly stratified surface layer and temperature minimum layer restricted exchange across the thermocline. The N2O maximum existed in higher concentration and deeper in the BSB than the ISSO, but their contribution to the upper layer by eddy diffusions was negligible. In deep waters, a concen-tration difference of 5 nmol/L N2O between these two sites was found, which suggested that N2O produc-tion occurred during thermohaline circulation. N2O may be a useful tracer to study important large-scale hydrographic processes.

  16. A structurally controlled fan-delta complex at the southern margin of the peninsular range forearc basin complex (Baja California)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.R.; Busby-Spera, C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))


    A confined trunk fan delta and its structurally controlled tributary fan deltas are extremely well exposed along the southern margin of the Rosario embayment. This fan-delta complex consists of nonmarine to deep marine deposits almost continuously exposed for over 20 km in the down-paleoslope direction. Facies and stratal patterns in the fan-delta complex were controlled by local faulting, climatic variation, and eustasy, resulting in relative sea level fluctuations. Basin bathymetry and drainage patterns were controlled by a series of half-grabens that formed along north-south-trending faults that lay along the northern margin of an east-west-trending depression. Breccias were initially shed into the north-south-trending half-grabens; axial drainage systems were later established within the grabens, making up the tributary fan deltas. These tributary fan deltas fed a voluminous trunk fan delta confined to the east-west-trending depression. The trunk and tributary fan delta deposits show two major progradational to retrogradational cycles that record relative sea level fluctuations. Progradation in the shallow-marine environment is represented by conglomerate channels cut into ripple-laminated or bioturbated siltstone and HCS sandstones, overlain by conglomerate mouth bar deposits interstratified with nearshore sandstone deposits. Retrogradation in the shallow marine environment is recorded by either a vertical clastic facies transition or a clastic-carbonate facies transition. The clastic facies transition consists of nearshore sandstone deposits overlain by offshore bioturbated siltstones. The clastic-carbonate facies transition consists of the development of red algal patch reefs and rhodoliths on top of fan-delta conglomeratic lobes, mudstone and sandstone bank channel margins, or paleobasement highs. The clastic-carbonate facies transition reflects low sediment supply controlled by climatic conditions.

  17. Paleoclimatic implications of fossil shoreline deposits in the southern basin and range province during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (United States)

    Kowler, A. L.


    Paleolake shoreline deposits throughout the southern Basin and Range (SBAR) signify past intervals of steady-state climatic conditions occuring during the late Pleistocene slightly before, as well as after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~23-19 Ka). Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge about the age of fossil shoreline deposits—due to C-14 related uncertainties and incomplete dating of shorelines—has resulted in a large gap in our knowledge about past climatic and surface hydrologic conditions in the SBAR. Several studies collectively reveal multiple lake level oscillations during the LGM and last part of the Pleistocene, with reasonably well dated shoreline deposits existing for only four paleolakes: one in central New Mexico (Estancia), two in southwestern New Mexico (Playas and Cloverdale), and one in southeastern Arizona (Cochise). In summary, there is evidence for a pre-LGM high-stand at Cochise (>26 Ka), LGM high-stands at Estancia and Cloverdale (>20-16 Ka), deglacial age high-stands at Playas and Cochise (16-13 Ka), and latest Pleistocene-early Holocene still stands of as yet undetermined elevation at Playas and Estancia (13-9K). Further, the absence of high-stands from 11-10 Ka suggests that the Younger Dryas climatic reversal—which is detected in the stable O isotopic composition of speleothems from Cave-of-the-Bells in southeastern Arizona—was marked there by a decrease in mean annual air temperature without a significant increase in precipitation. Alternatively, if a return to glacial precipitation levels did occur, then it was for an interval so short that sedimentological evidence was not preserved. This presentation will cover the afore mentioned chronologies, along with discussion about associated atmospheric circulation patterns in the SBAR and across western North America.

  18. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Rivollat

    Full Text Available An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers

  19. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin (United States)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.


    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  20. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin. (United States)

    Rivollat, Maïté; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Safi, Audrey; Saint-Marc, Didier; Brémond, Antoine; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Rottier, Stéphane; Deguilloux, Marie-France


    An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France) where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals) from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers from both Central

  1. Late Quaternary tectonics in the inner Northern Apennines (Siena Basin, southern Tuscany, Italy) and their seismotectonic implication (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Martini, Ivan; Picozzi, Matteo; Sandrelli, Fabio


    Defining the most recent Quaternary tectonics represents a challenging task for neotectonic, palaeoseismological and seismotectonic studies. This paper focuses on an integrated approach to reconstructing the latest Quaternary deformation affecting the northern part of the Siena Basin (inner Northern Apennines, i.e., southern Tuscany, Italy) near the town of Siena, and to discuss the seismological implications. Field work and structural and stratigraphic analyses, coupled with the interpretation of reflection seismic lines, have been combined to define the geometry, kinematics and age of mesoscopic to map-scale faults which have affected the mainly Quaternary continental and Pliocene marine deposits. The resulting dataset describes a tectonic setting characterized by coeval SW- and NW-trending transtensional and normal faults, respectively, dissecting alluvial sediments younger than 23.9 ± 0.23 ka. Seismic interpretation sheds light on the geometrical setting of the faults at deeper levels, down to 1-2 km, and provides support for the presence of a wide brittle shear zone defined by conjugated fault segments, locally giving rise to an asymmetrical negative flower-like structure. Faults and their damage zones have controlled (and still control) the discharge of gas vents (mainly CO2 and H2S) and hydrothermal circulation (which deposits travertine) since at least 23.216 ± 0.124 ka. The resulting complete data set provides support for our description of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonics which were active until the late Quaternary, providing additional information about the seismotectonic framework of an area characterized by low seismicity and generally low-magnitude earthquakes (M < 4), but having experienced significant seismic events over the last few centuries.



    N. B. Mruthyunjaya; M.Venkateshwarlu; B. R. Kiran


    The present study is intended to know the status of primary productivity of freshwater Lake Ayyanakere, Karnataka. Primary productivity is determined by using standard ‘Light and Dark bottle’ method of Garden and Gran at an interval of every month for a period of one year from April 2008 to March 2009. Gross primary production in Ayyanakere recorded as 4.572 gC/m3/day, 9.1464 gC/m3/day and 6.4056 gC/m3/day. In the present study,GPP, NPP and CR was maximum in monsoon season and low...

  3. A study on lip print types among North Karnataka people


    Patil, Devraj; Mugadlimath, Anand Basayya; Hiremath, Rekha


    ABSTRACT: Cheiloscopy, the study of lip prints is one of the important tools for identification of a person.  Uniqueness of lip print of every individual helps to fix the identity of a person. Various studies have been conducted on lip prints, which have shown the differences among people belonging to different races and ethnic origins of people. The present study was conducted to establish the most common lip print type among North Karnataka population. A total number of 100 subjects were in...

  4. Three cycles of sedimentation in ancient sedimentary basins of southern Ireland: insights from detrital zircon U-Pb ages (United States)

    Fairey, Brenton; Kerrison, Aidan; Meere, Patrick; Mulchrone, Kieran; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Gaertner, Andreas; Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Byrne, Keith


    Previous work has shown that sedimentary rocks from the Lower Devonian Dingle Basin were uplifted and recycled by Acadian orogenic activity into the Upper Devonian Munster Basin. This is particularly applicable for sediments deposited in the western part of the Munster Basin. In the present study, a new dataset of U-Pb ages for detrital zircons has been established that spans a large geographic area which includes the Dingle and Munster basins as well as the offshore Mesozoic North Celtic Sea, South Celtic Sea, 'Goban Spur' and Fastnet basins. The study is the first of its kind in any of these sedimentary basins. The aim is to investigate whether sediments deposited in the offshore basins during the Mesozoic reflect three erosion-deposition cycles. Detritus that has undergone three sedimentary cycles would yield super-mature sediments suitable for hydrocarbon storage. Detrital zircon age spectra for Lower Devonian Dingle Basin samples indicate strong sediment input from Avalonian (~600 Ma) and Laurentian (~1.7 Ga and ~1.1 Ga) sources with some input from Caledonian orogenic sources (400-480 Ma). Detrital zircon age spectra in the western Munster Basin largely reflect input from Caledonian-aged igneous crustal input (400-480 Ma) and Laurentian sources. An Avalonian component is not detected in any of the samples from the western Munster Basin. In the central and eastern parts of the Munster Basin, detrital zircon age spectra indicate that the dominant sources of detritus are derived from Laurentia and from Caledonian igneous rocks. In contrast to the western part of the basin, age components around 600 Ma are present in some samples and represent an Avalonian source. These signals are echoed, at varying degrees, in detrital age spectra from Jurassic and Cretaceous samples of the central North Celtic Sea Basin. These age spectra also indicate a significant contribution of detritus from Avalonian terrane. The Avalonian signature is completely absent from Jurassic

  5. Hydrological feasibility of gravity diversion of the west flowing Nethravathi in Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mysooru R Yadupathi Putty; N M Thipperudrappa; P N Chandramouli


    The concept of collecting surface runoff on the slopes in canals cut across the western slopes of the Western Ghats, in order to divert part of a flow in the west flowing rivers to the east by gravity, is being promoted in Karnataka. This paper presents a study of the hydrological feasibility of such canals, termed ‘garland canals’ and claimed to be an environmental friendly alternative to the conventional technologies for inter-basin transfer of water, by their promoters. The paper presents a methodology for disaggregating normal annual rainfall into 15-min magnitudes and its application for simulating surface runoff, using a knowledge of infiltration rates on the slopes. The study has been carried out considering a part of a garland canal proposed for diverting the river Netravathi in the state. The results from the study reveal that significant amounts of flow can be collected in the proposed canal only if streams are also tapped and that because of the arrangements necessary for the purpose, garland canals cannot be considered a means superior to the conventional methods for diverting west flowing rivers.

  6. Spatial distribution of temperature trends and extremes over Maharashtra and Karnataka States of India (United States)

    Dhorde, Amit G.; Korade, Mahendra S.; Dhorde, Anargha A.


    Earth surface temperatures are changing worldwide together with the changes in the extreme temperatures. The present study investigates trends and variations of monthly maximum and minimum temperatures and their effects on seasonal fluctuations at different climatological stations of Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India. Trend analysis was performed on annual and seasonal mean maximum temperature (TMAX) and mean minimum temperature (TMIN) for the period 1969 to 2006. During the last 38 years, an increase in annual TMAX and TMIN has occurred. At most of the locations, the increase in TMAX was faster than the TMIN, resulting in an increase in diurnal temperature range. At the same time, annual mean temperature (TM) showed a significant increase over the study area. Percentiles were used to identify extreme temperature indices. An increase in occurrence of warm extremes was observed at southern locations, and cold extremes increased over the central and northeastern part of the study area. Occurrences of cold wave conditions have decreased rapidly compared to heat wave conditions.

  7. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.


    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  8. Determining Deep Basin Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.


    The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (Mexico border.

  9. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Sylvia


    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthopaedic surgery, trochanteric region is an important as it’s an entry point, usually lateral side of the great trochanter, although anterior and posterior approaches have variable interest. For implants such as plates and DHS (dynamic hip screw, lateral approach is standard. After skin, fat tissue and fascia lata, vastuslateralis muscle is reached and elevated to approach lateral surface of subtrochanteric area. For implants as intra-medullar nail, minimally invasive approach is in routine use. Despite abundant research of general femoral morphology, especially its specific morphological parts (femoral head, neck, shaft, and its distal part involved in knee joint. Materials and methods: Study on 158 dry adult human femur of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The broken or non-dried specimens were excluded from the study. Results: The third trochanter was present in 4.43% of the femora. Although the incidence was higher on the right side it was not statistically significant. Discussion: Another study which reported the side variations in Whites and Negroes, documented higher incidence on right side in White and on left side in Negro population; it also reported the trait to be more common in females in both Whites and Negroes. Conclusion: The presence of third trochanter at the proximal part of the femur has been found to alter the break lines in the pertrochanteric fracture patients. This study dealt with the incidence of third trochanter in north Karnataka region.

  11. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Marsella


    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  12. Interbasin flow in the Great Basin with special reference to the southern Funeral Mountains and the source of Furnace Creek springs, Death Valley, California, U.S. (United States)

    Belcher, W.R.; Bedinger, M.S.; Back, J.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.


    Interbasin flow in the Great Basin has been established by scientific studies during the past century. While not occurring uniformly between all basins, its occurrence is common and is a function of the hydraulic gradient between basins and hydraulic conductivity of the intervening rocks. The Furnace Creek springs in Death Valley, California are an example of large volume springs that are widely accepted as being the discharge points of regional interbasin flow. The flow path has been interpreted historically to be through consolidated Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the southern Funeral Mountains. This work reviews the preponderance of evidence supporting the concept of interbasin flow in the Death Valley region and the Great Basin and addresses the conceptual model of pluvial and recent recharge [Nelson, S.T., Anderson, K., Mayo, A.L., 2004. Testing the interbasin flow hypothesis at Death Valley, California. EOS 85, 349; Anderson, K., Nelson, S., Mayo, A., Tingey, D., 2006. Interbasin flow revisited: the contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, California. Journal of Hydrology 323, 276-302] as the source of the Furnace Creek springs. We find that there is insufficient modern recharge and insufficient storage potential and permeability within the basin-fill units in the Furnace Creek basin for these to serve as a local aquifer. Further, the lack of high sulfate content in the spring waters argues against significant flow through basin-fill sediments and instead suggests flow through underlying consolidated carbonate rocks. The maximum temperature of the spring discharge appears to require deep circulation through consolidated rocks; the Tertiary basin fill is of insufficient thickness to generate such temperatures as a result of local fluid circulation. Finally, the stable isotope data and chemical mass balance modeling actually support the interbasin flow conceptual model rather than the alternative presented in Nelson et al. [Nelson

  13. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  14. Integrative geomorphological mapping approach for reconstructing meso-scale alluvial fan palaeoenvironments at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland


    Alluvial fans and aprons are common depositional features in general Iranian geomorphology. The countries major cities as well as settlements and surrounding area have often been developed and been built up on this Quaternary sediment covers. Hence they periodically face the effects of varying fluvial and slope-fluvial activity occurring as part of this geosystem. The Geological Survey of Iran therefore supports considerable efforts in Quaternary studies yielding to a selection of detailed mapped Quaternary landscapes. The studied geomorphologic structures which are settled up around an endorheic basin in Semnan Province represent a typical type of landform configuration in the area. A 12-km-transect was laid across this basin and range formation. It is oriented in north-south direction from the southern saltpan, called "Kavir-e-Haj Aligholi"/"Chah-e-Jam" ("Damghan Kavir"), across a vast sandy braided river plain, which is entering from the north east direction of the city of Shahroud. At its northern rim it covers alluvial sediment bodies, which are mainly constituted by broad alluvial aprons, fed by watersheds in Alborz Mountains and having their genetic origins in Mio-/Pliocene times. During this study a fully analytical mapping system was used for developing a geodatabase capable of integrating geomorphological analyses. Therefore the system must provide proper differentiation of form, material and process elements as well as geometric separation. Hence the German GMK25 system was set up and slightly modified to fit to the specific project demands. Due to its structure it offers most sophisticated standards and scale independent hierarchies, which fit very well to the software-determinated possibilities of advanced geodatabase applications. One of the main aspects of mapping Quaternary sediments and structures is to acquire a proper description and systematic correlation and categorization of the belonging mapping-objects. Therefore the team from GSI and

  15. Structure and function of fish communities in the southern Lake Michigan basin with emphasis on restoration of native fish communities (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P.; Stewart, Paul M.


    The southern Lake Michigan basin in northwest Indiana possesses a variety of aquatic habitats including riverine, palustrine, and lacustrine systems. The watershed draining this area is a remnant of glacial Lake Chicago and supports fish communities that are typically low in species richness. Composition of the presettlement Lake Michigan fish community near the Indiana Dunes has been difficult to reconstruct. Existing data indicate that the number of native species in the Lake Michigan watershed, including nearshore Lake Michigan, has declined by 22% since the onset of European settlement. Few remnants of natural fish communities exist, and those occur principally in the ponds of Miller Woods, the Grand Calumet Lagoons, and the Little Calumet River. These communities have maintained a relatively diverse assemblage of fishes despite large-scale anthropogenic disturbances in the area, including channelization, massive river redirection, fragmentation, habitat alteration, exotic species invasions, and the introduction of toxic chemicals. Data that we collected from 1985 to 1996 suggested that the Grand Calumet River has the highest proportion of exotic fish species of any inland wetland in northwest Indiana. Along the Lake Michigan shoreline, another group of exotics (e.g., round goby, alewife, and sea lamprey) have affected the structure of native fish communities, thereby altering lake ecosystem function. Stocking programs contribute to the impairment of native communities. Nonindigenous species have restructured the function of Lake Michigan tributaries, causing disruptions in trophic dynamics, guild structure, and species diversity. Several fish communities have been reduced or eliminated by the alteration and destruction of spawning and nursery areas. Degradation of habitats has caused an increase in numbers and populations of species able to tolerate and flourish when confronted with hydrologic alteration. Fish communities found on public lands in northwest

  16. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, Richard M.; Pratt, William L.; Carter, Claire


    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappanianaand Vertigo berryiare the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus,and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobiand Scottia tumida,typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The δ 13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26‰, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C 3(sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C 4(saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ˜10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yr B.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  17. Shallow structure of the Chichinautzin Range, southern Mexico basin, central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A gravity and seismic study (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Lermo-Samaniego, J. F.; Antahyua-Vera, Y. T.; Chavacan, M.; Ramón, V. M.; Hernández-García; Pita, C.


    Chichinautzin Range (ChR) closes to the S the Mexico Basin (MB). Initially based on height differences between MB and the to-he S-located Morelos Plataform (MP) , a major S-dipping fault was proposed. Depths differences to the limestone basement beneath MB and MP respectively supported its existence. This assumed fault was named La Pera. Earlier studies reported the existence of several faults affecting the ChR. New studies were focused to analyze the cinematic and dynamic character of faults to the W of ChR (Tenango Fault System) and of southern Sierra de la Cruces Range. Also based on a gravity study (Campos-Enríquez et al., 2000), the existence of a major N-dipping fault was inferred to delimit the MB to the S (i.e., delimiting the ChR to the N). Our study is based on gravity modelling, and local seismicity analysis. Accordingly, Mezosoic sandstones above metamorphic rocks constitute the basement underlying ChR. This structural high is faulted to the N and S. To the N, fault blocks displace the basement to larger depths (2-4 km). To the S the basement is shallower. The faults of the gravity model correlate with all reported faults, which collectively are refferred to as Aztlan Fault System. Two N-S MT profiles confirm the model. Several of these faults are associated with seismic activity with a N-S extension and a left-lateral component. The seismic event were located at depths of 7-15 km (i.e. the brittle crust). The system can be traced from the Nevado de Tolca volcano up to the Popocatépetl volcano and even further eastwards. The system is about 200 km long, 30-40 km wide, tectonically active. It enabled the fast emplacement of the ChR volcanic rocs. A flower-type structure was inferred to the S of ChR, further south, the profile is cut by faults belonging either to the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende Fault System or to the Chapala-Oaxaca Fault System. This profile shows how the transpressive tectonics, to the S, accomodates, with the N-S extension affecting

  18. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik;


    The ancient basins are of a wide interest to geoscientists as they archive the early development of plate tectonics, life, and ore-bearing systems. Several basins, especially those involving volcanic-derived materials, contain ore and mineral deposits. The formation of these ores is often related...

  19. Trust at the interface: Are examples from French ports applicable in Karnataka?


    STUMM, M.; Kidd, J.


    Drawing on research findings upon two major French ports we discuss issues that may affect ports in India, especially those in the Karnataka region. Our French example derives from actors who encounter problems originating essentially within their own culture: but in the system that will be operating in Karnataka we must consider differences that may swamp the goodwill that have to exist at the interface between long-haul carriers, the port owners, operations personnel, and the hinterland log...

  20. Production, Processing and Marketing of potato in Karnataka, India- An Economic Analysis


    Bhajantri, Shrinivas


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) popularly known as ‘The king of vegetables’, is grown in more than 100 countries in the world. Karnataka is one of the important Potato growing state in the country grown mainly in the districts of Hassan, Belgaum, Chikkaballapur and Kolar. The study was conducted to analyze Production, Processing and Marketing of Potato in Karnataka. The study reveals that Hassan district alone account for more than 41 percent potato production in the state. However production (...

  1. Layer-block tectonics of Cenozoic basements and formation of intra-plate basins in Nansha micro-plate,southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hailing; XIE Guofa; LIN Qiujin; ZHENG Hongbo; LIU Yingchun


    Layer-block tectonics (LBT) concept, with the core of pluralistic geodynamic outlook and multi-layer-sliding tectonic outlook, is one of new keys to study 3-dimensional solid and its 4-dimensional evolution history of global tectonic system controlled by global geodynamics system. The LBT concept is applied to study the lithospheric tectonics of the southern South China Sea (SCS). Based on the analysis of about 30 000 km of geophysical and geological data, some layer-blocks in the Nansha micro-plate can be divided as Nansha ultra-crustal layer-block, Zengmu crustal layer-block, Nanwei (Rifleman bank)-Andu (Ardasier bank) and Liyue (Reed bank)-North Palawan crustal layer-blocks, Andu-Bisheng and Liyue-Banyue basemental layer-blocks. The basic characteristics of the basemental layer-blocks have been dicussed, and three intra-plate basin groups are identified. The intra-plate basins within Nansha micro-plate can be divided into three basin groups of Nanwei-Andu, Feixin-Nanhua, and Liyue-North Palawan based on the different geodynamics. In the light of pluralistic geodynamic concept, the upheaving force induced by the mid-crust plastic layer is proposed as the main dynamical force which causes the formation of the intra-plate basins within the Nansha micro-plate. Finally, models of a face-to-face dip-slip-detachment of basemental layer-block and a unilateral dip-slip-detachment of basemental layer-block are put forward for the forming mechanisms of the Nanwei-Andu and Liyue-North Palawan intra-plate basin groups, respectively.

  2. Geochemical characteristics and genetic types of crude oils from the Tertiary system in the southern part of western Qaidam Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongbo; ZHANG Min; ZHANG Chunming; PENG Dehua


    Crude oil samples taken from the southern part of westem Qaidam Basin were analyzed with GC/MS in order to understand the geochemical characteristics of crude oils. The results reveal that most crude oils are characterized by high abundance of gammaeerane and C35 homohopane, which are the representative characteristics of saline lacustrine crude oils. Based on the variation of the ratios of gammacerane/C30 hopane (G/H) and C35 homohopane/C34 homohopane (C35/C34H), two crude oil groups, A and B, are identified. Group-A crude oils mainly occurr in the north of the study area, with higher ratios of G/H (>0.8) and C35/C34H (>1.2), whereas group-B crude oils, selected from the south of the study area, show lower ratios of G/H (<0.8) and C35/C3aH (<1.0). In addition, group-A crude oils are distinguished into three subgroups in accordance with their different ratios of G/H and C35/C34H and different distribution characteristics of n-alkanes, isoprenoids and steranes. These may be helpful for understanding the distribution characteristics of crude oils in the southern part of western Qaidam Basin and providing clues to the forthcoming exploration of crude oils and gas.

  3. The role of internal waves in the formation of layered structure at exchange flows between two closed basins (Middle and southern basins of the Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bidokhti


    Full Text Available  Layered structures in the oceans have always attracted the attention of oceanographers. The formation of these structures have been attributed to phenomena such as double – diffusive convection, internal waves and turbulent modulated mixing .In this paper, the vertical structures of temperature, salinity, density and the layered structure in the middle parts of Caspian Sea have been studied. Counters of iso-quantities of these physical properties, show the existence of regular structures, which indicate that internal waves which are produced by exchanging flow between two basins, as a result of horizontal density gradients (usually from north basin to south basin may generate these layers. Froude number of this flow is about one. The length of wave of the internal waves is found to be about 200 km and the flow velocity associated with this gravity drive flow is about 0.2 m/s, the frequency of these waves is of order of inertial frequency. The normal modes of these waves have a near steady structure and can fold the inflow front from the North Caspian sea to South Caspian Sea basins, then the layered structure are formed. The thickness of these layers so formed is found to be about 10-20 m. These are in agreement with the values predicted by the model of Wong et al, (2001. In these waters density ratio is negative. Thus, double – diffusive convection does not often happen and cannot produce these layered structures.

  4. Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Bhat, P Ishwara; Cristopher, S S; Hosetti, B B


    The avifaunal diversity and density in Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India, was studied for a period of three years. Anekere pond inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this pond in summer, weed infestation, variations in food availability in different seasons and threat of predation on the breeding activity of birds affected the avifauna diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 44 bird species, which are local and migratory including aquatic birds, waders and others. Highest population of tree ducks (lesser whistling teal) was recorded in all the three years of study. Other prominent residents were Moorhens, Jacanas, Herons and Cormorants. The visitors include ringed plovers, wagtails and storks. It was evident that purple moorhen and tree ducks have developed high tolerance to this highly fluctuating habitat and human activity. PMID:20329405


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Biodiversity of butterflies in Mandagadde of Shivamogga of Karnataka carried out. Many butterfly species are strictly seasonal and prefer only a particular set of habitats and they are good indicators in terms of anthropogenic disturbances and habitat destruction. The richness and diversity of butterfly species is proportional to the food plant diversity, richness of flowers and intensity of rainfall. Unfortunately, butterflies are threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation almost everywhere. A total of 52 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families were recorded during the study period. Among the 5 families, Nymphalidae dominated the list with 23 species, Paplionidae with 9 species, Pieridae and Lycaenidae with 8 species each and Hesperidae with 4 species. It is found that 9 species of butterflies are very common, 26 species are common and 17 species are rare in occurrence in Mandagadde

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in bovines in Bangalore district, Karnataka. (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D'


    The study was undertaken to know the current status of prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Bangalore, Karnataka. An overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among cattle (75.2 %) and buffalos (76.8 %) was determined by coprological examination. The gastrointestinal parasites detected in cattle and buffalo were Strongyle (39.8 and 29.1 %), followed by Amphistome (24.4 and 23.1 %), Moniezia spp. (5.3 and 5.9 %), Fasciola spp. (4.1 and 15.6 %), Trichuris spp. (1.4 and 2.9 %), Buxtonella spp. (36.6 and 37.3 %) and Eimeria spp. (26.7 and 29.8 %) respectively. The percentage prevalence of mixed helminth and protozoan infections was 20.2 and 26.1 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. PMID:27605757

  7. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías


    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  8. Detection of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges: a case study from the central-southern Siena Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Martini, Ivan; Arragoni, Simone; Aldinucci, Mauro; Foresi, Luca Maria; Bambini, Anna Maria; Sandrelli, Fabio


    The detection of detached nearshore wedges formed in response to relative sea-level drops is considered one of the hottest topics in sequence stratigraphic analysis due to their importance as reservoir analogues. In fact, they usually constitute sandy and porous bodies generally encased in impermeable clay, thus presenting a good potential as traps for fluids. This paper focuses on the sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pliocene deposits cropping out in the central-southern sector of the Siena Basin (Tuscany, Italy), a post-collisional basin of the Northern Apennines. The exposed sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic approach, integrated by biostratigraphic analyses, aimed at a better characterization of the infilling history of this sector of the basin. Specifically, this study revealed the occurrence of repeated facies shifts that allowed the identification of two depositional sequences. In detail, a thick sand-rich body far from the basin margins, and previously considered as a turbiditic lobe, has been reinterpreted as formed in a nearshore setting during a fall in relative sea level. This body is totally encased in offshore clay, and due to the lack of physical connection with the related HST deposits, it has to be considered as a detached forced-regressive wedge. The present work led to the recognition of some sedimentological and stratigraphic features typical of falling stage systems tract deposits (e.g. presence of intrabasinal recycled materials, sedimentological evidence of a pre-existing fluvial network subsequently eroded) that can provide useful clues for the identification of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges in core studies and poorly exposed settings.

  9. The flux and recovery of bioactive substances in the surface sediments of deep basins off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, R.A.


    Sediment microbial community biomass and activity in Santa Monica Basin, a nearshore basin in the California Continental Borderland, were examined in October 1985, 1986 and 1987, May 1986, April 1987 and January 1990. Millimeter-scale ATP profiles and incubation of intact cores with {sup 3}H-adenine indicated a high-biomass interface microbial population in the low-oxygen central basin, which was absent in samples from the basin slope sediments. A majority of microbial activity and organic matter mineralization occurred in the top cm of sediment. Comparison of measured ATP and total organic carbon profiles suggest that the C:ATP ratio (wt:wt) ranges between 47:1 and 77:1 in central basin interfacial populations, substantially lower than reported for other aquatic environments. Carbon production estimated from DNA synthesis measurements via {sup 3}H-adenine incorporation was compared with TCO{sub 2} fluxes measured by in situ benthic chamber experiments. Within the uncertainty of the C:ATP ratio, an overall microbial carbon assimilation efficiency of 75--90% was indicated. The low C:ATP ratios and high carbon assimilation efficiencies significantly affect estimates of microbial growth and respiration and are substantially different than those often assumed in the literature. These results suggest that without independent knowledge of these ratios, the uncertainty in tracer-derived microbial growth and respiration rates may be larger than previously reported. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Integrated modelling and management of nutrients and eutrophication in river basin - coast - sea systems: A southern Baltic Sea perspective (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald


    The Odra river basin (area: 120,000 km2, average discharge: 550 m³/s, annual N-load 60,000 t) and the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon (687 km²) are the eutrophication hot-spot in the south-western Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus management scenarios in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal and Baltic Sea water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35%) would have positive effects on lagoon water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will a) summarize recent results (Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2011, 2012), b) give an overview how the models were used to provide a comprehensive and consistent set of water quality thresholds and maximum allowable riverine loads for the Water Framework Directive and c) will show the implications for an optimised river basin - lagoon quality management.

  11. Gravity sliding in basinal setting, a surficial record of tectonic and geodynamic evolution; examples from the southern W. Alps and their foreland (United States)

    Dumont, T.; Franzi, V.; Matthews, S. J.


    The occurrence of large-scale submarine landslides, although commonly observed in the present basins, is only exceptionally mentioned in the Alpine orogen and foreland. The southern part of the Western Alpine arc and the SE basin of France provide examples of such features which could be related with particular geodynamic events, in relation with the motion of the Iberian and Adriatic microplates : - A >50km2 slump scar formed in Aptian times at the northwestern edge of the SE France (so-called Vocontian) basin, giving a low-angle detachment surface which was onlapped by Albian hemipelagic marls (Ferry & Flandrin, 1979). The latter mark the maximum deepening stage of the basin, and the head of the scar is located over a deep-seated fault bounding the platform, which strongly suggest that sliding was caused by differential subsidence due to Middle Cretaceous extension, as a consequence of Iberia-Europe divergence. - Later on, a deep-marine erosion surface developed further down the basin over a >100km2 area (Dévoluy massif; Michard et al., 2010), which had been previously affected by Mid-Cretaceous extension. Typical inversion structures are found beneath the surface, which indicate that NS shortening overprinted the extensional pattern. The removal of up to 400m of Mesozoic sediments was controlled by gravity processes, probably triggered by the deformation of the basin floor following tectonic inversion. The overlying pelagic carbonates indicate that shortening occurred before the Campanian, which is closely comparable with the earliest stages of tectonic inversion in the Pyrenees. - The transition slope between the Paleogene Alpine flexural basin and the NW-ward propagating accretionary prism provides examples of basin floor degradation and of gravity-driven emplacement of large-scale blocks, generally regarded as thrust-sheets in the Alps. These features allow to reconstruct the early stages of the Adria-Europe collision, which strongly differ from the Oligo

  12. Crustal structures across Canada Basin and southern Alpha Ridge of the Arctic Ocean from P- and S-wave sonobuoy wide-angle studies (United States)

    Chian, D.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Mosher, D. C.


    During 2007-2009, a total of 127 expendable sonobuoys (SB) were deployed across Canada Basin and southern Alpha Ridge to record wide-angle reflections and refractions from more than 10,000 km of inline, short-offset seismic reflection surveying. Most of the SB data show clear wide-angle refractions/reflections from various sedimentary and crustal layers at offsets up to 35 km. Source-receiver offsets are calculated using direct water waves. Subsequent processing includes compensation for spherical divergence and attenuation, despiking, filtering, deconvolution, and NMO correction. During wide-angle modeling, inline reflection data are converted to depth using velocity models/interpretations, iteratively updated based on wide-angle raytracing. Slight ray angle dependent anisotropy is found to best describe observed data, and is used for time-depth conversions. Clear deep refractions from upper, middle and lower crusts are recorded by most SB. Across southern Canada Basin, a regionally consistent velocity structure exists: velocities of ~4.5 km/s overlie a sub-basement layer of 5.5-5.8 km/s at depths of 12-13 km which, in turn, overlie a lower crust of 6.7-7.2 km/s. This structure is intersected by a central gravity low (previously interpreted to be an extinct spreading center), west of which the basement and sub-basement layers are consistently shallower by >1 km than the eastern side. Further northward, significant velocity variations exist. For example, the southern Alpha Ridge has a lower crust of 6.0-6.6 km/s or 6.8-7.0 km/s. Volcanic intrusions, inferred from high basement velocities of ~5.7 km/s at unusually shallow depths (~5 km), exist at discrete locations along southern Alpha Ridge. Between Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge, a typical continent-type crustal structure is observed. PmP is occasionally observed, modeling of which results in a Moho depth of 12-15 km. Velocities of 4.2-4.5 km/s in the northern study area are associated with a regional

  13. Identification and simulation of space–time variability of past hydrological drought events in the Limpopo River basin, southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trambauer, P.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; Van Beek, L.P.H.; Uhlenbrook, S.


    Droughts are widespread natural hazards and in many regions their frequency seems to be increasing. A finer-resolution version (0.05° × 0.05°) of the continental-scale hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) was set up for the Limpopo River basin, one of the most water-stressed

  14. Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, Sławomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.


    This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  15. Tectono-thermal History of the Southern Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska: Implications for Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploration (United States)

    Dixit, N. C.; Hanks, C. L.


    The Tertiary Nenana basin of Interior Alaska is currently the focus of both new oil exploration and coalbed methane exploitation and is being evaluated as a potential CO2sequestration site. The basin first formed as a Late Paleocene extensional rift with the deposition of oil and gas-prone, coal-bearing non-marine sediments with excellent source potential. Basin inversion during the Early Eocene-Early Oligocene times resulted in folding and erosion of higher stratigraphic levels, forming excellent structural and stratigraphic traps. Initiation of active faulting on its eastern margin in the middle Oligocene caused slow tectonic subsidence that resulted in the deposition of reservoir and seal rocks of the Usibelli Group. Onset of rapid tectonic subsidence in Pliocene that continues to the present-day has provided significant pressure and temperature gradient for the source rocks. Apatite fission-track and vitrinite reflectance data reveals two major paleo-thermal episodes: Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (60 Ma to 54.8 Ma) and Late Miocene to present-day (7 Ma to present). These episodes of maximum paleotemperatures have implications for the evolution of source rock maturity within the basin. In this study, we are also investigating the potential for coalbed methane production from the Late Paleocene coals via injection of CO2. Our preliminary analyses demonstrate that 150 MMSCF of methane could be produced while 33000 tonnes of CO2 per injection well (base case of ~9 years) can be sequestered in the vicinity of existing infrastructure. However, these volumes of sequestered CO2and coal bed methane recovery are estimates and are sensitive to the reservoir's geomechanical and flow properties. Keywords: extensional rift, seismic, subsidence, thermal history, fission track, vitrinite reflectance, coal bed methane, Nenana basin, CO2 sequestration

  16. Identification and simulation of space-time variability of past hydrological drought events in the Limpopo river basin, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trambauer


    droughts in the Limpopo river basin in the period 1979–2010 with a view to identifying severe droughts that have occurred in the basin. Evaporation, soil moisture, groundwater storage and runoff estimates from the model were derived at a spatial resolution of 0.05° (approximately 5 km on a daily time scale for the entire basin. PCR-GLOBWB was forced with daily precipitation, temperature and other meteorological variables obtained from the ERA-Interim global atmospheric reanalysis product from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Two agricultural drought indicators were computed: the Evapotranspiration Deficit Index (ETDI and the Root Stress Anomaly Index (RSAI. Hydrological drought was characterised using the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI and the Groundwater Resource Index (GRI, which make use of the streamflow and groundwater storage resulting from the model. Other more widely used drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and the Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI were also computed for different aggregation periods. Results show that a carefully set up process-based model that makes use of the best available input data can successfully identify hydrological droughts even if the model is largely uncalibrated. The indicators considered are able to represent the most severe droughts in the basin and to some extent identify the spatial variability of droughts. Moreover, results show the importance of computing indicators that can be related to hydrological droughts, and how these add value to the identification of droughts/floods and the temporal evolution of events that would otherwise not have been apparent when considering only meteorological indicators. In some cases, meteorological indicators alone fail to capture the severity of the drought. Therefore, a combination of some of these indicators (e.g. SPEI-3, SRI-6, SPI-12 is found to be a useful measure for identifying hydrological droughts in

  17. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda


    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  18. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.


    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  19. Modified Gulf of California model for South Georgia,north Scotia Ridge, and implications for the Rocas Verdes back-arc basin, southern Andes (United States)

    Alabaster, T.; Storey, B. C.


    New field mapping and an integrated trace element and Nd isotopic study have been undertaken on the Jurassic-Cretaceous Larsen Harbour Complex on the island of South Georgia, recognized as a displaced part of the southern Andes ensialic, autochthonous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Five basalt groups (Groups I-V) are identified from trace element data; initial Nd isotopic compositions suggest that they are derived from only two sources. Magmas produced during early stages of continental lithospheric attenuation (Groups I-III) were derived by varying degrees of partial melting and fractional crystallization from a large ion lithophile element (LILE)-enriched, low-ɛNd mantle source relative to normal (N)-type mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Magmas produced during later stages of rifting (Groups IV and V) were, however, derived from a high-ɛNd asthenospheric mantle source similar to N-type MORB, unaffected by earlier LILE enrichment. Our data do not concur with previous suggestions that the Larsen Harbour Complex and, by implication, the Rocas Verdes formed in a supra-subduction-zone setting. On the basis of geologic and geochemical evidence, we favor basin formation along an oblique-slip margin akin to that of the Gulf of California.

  20. Web Application to Access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects Information for the Rio Grande Basin, Southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.


    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  1. Microfacies analysis of the Upper Triassic (Norian) "Bača Dolomite": early evolution of the western Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps, western Slovenia) (United States)

    Gale, Luka


    The Slovenian Basin represents a Mesozoic deep-water sedimentary environment, situated on the southern Tethyan passive margin. Little is known about its earliest history, from the initial opening in the Carnian (probably Ladinian) to a marked deepening at the beginning of the Jurassic. The bulk of the sediment deposited during this period is represented by the Norian-Rhaetian "Bača Dolomite", which has, until now, been poorly investigated due to a late-diagenetic dolomitization. The Mount Slatnik section (south-eastern Julian Alps, western Slovenia) is one of a few sections where the dolomitization was incomplete. Detailed analysis of this section allowed us to recognize eight microfacies (MF): MF 1 (calcilutite), MF 2 (pelagic bivalve-radiolarian floatstone/wackestone to rudstone/packstone), MF 3 (dolomitized mudstone) with sub-types MF 3-LamB and MF 3-LamD (laminated mudstone found in a breccia matrix and laminated mudstone found in thin-bedded dolomites, respectively) and MF 3-Mix (mixed mudstone), MF 4 (bioturbated radiolarian-spiculite wackestone), MF 5 (fine peloidal-bioclastic packstone), MF 6 (very fine peloidal packstone), MF 7 (bioclastic wackestone) and MF 8 (crystalline dolomite). The microfacies and facies associations indicate a carbonate slope apron depositional environment with hemipelagic sedimentation punctuated by depositions from turbidites and slumps. In addition to the sedimentary environment, two "retrogradation-progradation" cycles were recognized, each with a shift of the depositional setting from an inner apron to a basin plain environment.

  2. Fault-Related CO2 Degassing, Geothermics, and Fluid Flow in Southern California Basins--Physiochemical Evidence and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garven, Grant [Tufts University


    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  3. Rotational differencies between the northern and southern Tyrrhenian domains: paleomagnetic constraints from the Amantea basin (Calabria, Italy)


    Speranza, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Mattei, M.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita` di Roma TRE, Rome; Sagnotti, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Grasso, F.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Università di Roma Tre, Largo S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00143 Roma, Italy


    We report on a palaeomagnetic study of upper Miocene sediments from the Amantea basin, located on the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria. The magnetic mineralogy is dominated by greigite and subordinate magnetite in the Tortonian-Messinian clays (ten sites), and by hemoilmenite and magnetite in the underlaying sands and volcanic ashes (three sites), which have not been dated. Data from the Tortonian, Messinian clays pass both a reversal and a fold test, and define a 19° ± 11° clockwise rotation (wi...

  4. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Mello


    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  5. Radiometric dating of uranium mineralization in the proterozoic basins of Eastern Dharwar Craton, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiometric dating by Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics on uranium bearing rocks within the Proterozoic basins of the Eastern Dharwar craton in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, South India are discussed. The results indicate three main periods of uranium mineralization and remobilization events at c. 1.70-1.80 Ga, c. 1.25-1.35 Ga and 0.45-0.55 Ga in these basins. (author)

  6. Elevation-Dependent Vegetation Greening of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin in the Southern Tibetan Plateau, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Li


    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River basin is an important alley to transport moisture from the Indian Ocean to the inner Tibetan Plateau. With a wide range of elevations from 147 m to over 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l., ecosystems respond differently to climate change at various elevations. However, the pattern of elevation-dependent vegetation change and how it responds to recent warming have been rarely reported. Here, we investigated the pattern of vegetation greening at different elevations in this river basin using SPOT normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data during 1999–2013, and examined its relationship with elevation-dependent changes in temperature and precipitation. The annual NDVI has increased by 8.83% from 1999 to 2013. In particular, the NDVI increased more apparently at lower elevations, but remained relatively stable or even decreased at high elevations. It seems that rising temperature has driven the basin-wide vegetation greening, but the greening rate is in contrast to the pattern of elevation-dependent warming (EDW with more significant temperature increase at higher elevations. It appears that decreasing precipitation does not reverse the overall increasing trend in NDVI, but relatively limited precipitation (<500 mm may constrain the NDVI increases, causing apparently stable or even decreased NDVI at higher elevations (>4000 m.

  7. Distribution and transportation of mercury from glacier to lake in the Qiangyong Glacier Basin, southern Tibetan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Sun, Shiwei; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Li, Chengding; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Sun, Xuejun; Tripathee, Lekhendra


    The Tibetan Plateau is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the Polar Regions and is a source of fresh water to 1.4 billion people. Yet little is known about the transportation and cycling of Hg in high-elevation glacier basins on Tibetan Plateau. In this study, surface snow, glacier melting stream water and lake water samples were collected from the Qiangyong Glacier Basin. The spatiotemporal distribution and transportation of Hg from glacier to lake were investigated. Significant diurnal variations of dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations were observed in the river water, with low concentrations in the morning (8:00am-14:00pm) and high concentrations in the afternoon (16:00pm-20:00pm). The DHg concentrations were exponentially correlated with runoff, which indicated that runoff was the dominant factor affecting DHg concentrations in the river water. Moreover, significant decreases of Hg were observed during transportation from glacier to lake. DHg adsorption onto particulates followed by the sedimentation of particulate-bound Hg (PHg) could be possible as an important Hg removal mechanism during the transportation process. Significant decreases in Hg concentrations were observed downstream of Xiao Qiangyong Lake, which indicated that the high-elevation lake system could significantly affect the distribution and transportation of Hg in the Qiangyong Glacier Basin. PMID:27266318

  8. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  9. Persistent toxic substances in soils and waters along an altitudinal gradient in the Laja River Basin, Central Southern Chile. (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Popp, Peter; Quiroz, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Cid, Hernan; von Tümpling, Wolf


    In this study the levels and distribution of some persistent toxic substances (PTS) were investigated in soils, superficial water, and snow along an altitudinal gradient in the Laja River Basin (South Central Chile). The principal objective was to establish the basin's contamination status. The working hypothesis was that PTS levels and distribution in the basin are dependent on the degree of anthropogenic intervention. Fifteen PAHs, seven PCBs congeners, and three organochlorine pesticides were studied in superficial soil and water samples obtained along the altitudinal gradient and from a coastal reference station (Lleu-Lleu River). Soil samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with acetone/cyclohexane (1:1) for PAHs and organochlorine compounds. Contaminants were extracted from water and snow samples by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). PAH and organochlorine compound quantification was carried out by HPLC with fluorescence detection and GC-MS, respectively. PCBs in soils presented four different profiles in the altitudinal gradient, mainly determined by their chlorination degree; these profiles were not observed for the chlorinated pesticides. In general, the detected levels for the analyzed compounds were low for soils when compared with soil data from other remote areas of the world. Higher summation operator PAHs levels in soils were found in the station located at 227 masl (4243 ng g-1 TOC), in a forestry area and near a timber industry, where detected levels were up to eight times higher than the other sampling sites. In general, PAH levels and distribution seems to be dependent on local conditions. No pesticides were detected in surface waters. However, congeners of PCBs were detected in almost all sampling stations with the highest levels being found in Laja Lake waters, where 1.1 ng/l were observed. This concentration is two times higher than values reported for polluted lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. The presence of organochlorine

  10. Impact of riparian land-use patterns on Ephemeroptera community structure in river basins of the southern Western Ghats, India


    Selvakumar C; Sivaramakrishnan K.G.; Janarthanan S.; Arumugam M; Arunachalam M.


    This study analysed the impact of riparian land use in structuring the larval ephemeropteran communities from 25 sites in streams and rivers of Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) of the southern end of the Western Ghats, India. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to twenty-four genera of six families were collected across all the sites. Baetidae and Leptophlebiidae were the most numerous and ubiquitous families, com...

  11. Sedimentology, rhythmicity and basin-fill architecture of a carbonate ramp depositional system with intermittent terrigenous influx: The Albian Kharfot Formation of the Jeza-Qamar Basin, Dhofar, Southern Oman (United States)

    Salad Hersi, O.; Abbasi, I. A.; Al-Harthy, A.


    which received fine-grained siliciclastic influx from the land (westward). In southern Oman where Kharfot Formation accumulated, the platform was unrimmed ramp type basin with high fine clastic influx along with elevated carbonate production.

  12. A transect across Australia's southern margin in the Otway Basin region: crustal architecture and the nature of rifting from wide-angle seismic profiling (United States)

    Finlayson, D. M.; Collins, C. D. N.; Lukaszyk, I.; Chudyk, E. C.


    The Otway Basin in southeastern Australia formed on a triangular-shaped area of extended continental lithosphere during two extensional episodes in Cretaceous-to-Miocene times which ultimately led to the separation of Australia and Antarctica. The velocity structure and crustal architecture of the Otway continental margin has been interpreted from offshore-onshore wide-angle seismic profiling data along a transect extending from near the northern Otway Basin margin with Palaeozoic outcrop to the deep ocean basin under the Southern Ocean. Along this transect, the Otway Continental Margin (OCM) Transect, the onshore half-graben geometry of Early Cretaceous deposition gives way to a 5-km-thick basin sequence (P-wave velocity 2.2-4.6 km/s) extending down the continental slope offshore to at least 60 km from the shoreline. At 120 km from the nearest shore, sonobuoy data indicate a 4-5 km sedimentary sequence overlying 7 km of crustal basement rocks above the Moho at 15 km depth (water depth 4220 m). Conspicuous strong Moho reflections are evident under the continental slope at about 10.2 s TWT. Basement is interpreted to be attenuated/faulted Palaeozoic rocks of the Delamerian and Lachlan Orogens (intruded with Jurassic volcanics) that thin from 16 km onshore to about 3.5 km at 120 km from the nearest shore. These rocks comprise a 3 km section that has a velocity of 5.5-5.7 km/s overlying deeper basement with a velocity of 6.15-6.35 km/s. Over the same distance the Moho shallows from a depth of 30 km onshore to 15 km depth at 120 km from the nearest shore, and then to about 12 km in the deep ocean at the limits of the profile (water depth 5200 m). The continent-ocean boundary (COB) is interpreted to be at a prominent topographic inflection point at the bottom of the continental slope in 4800 m of water. P-wave velocities in the lower crust are 6.4-6.8 km/s above a transition to the Moho, with an upper mantle velocity of 8.05 km/s. There is no evidence of massive high

  13. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

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    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  14. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria


    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  16. Factors associated with sexual violence against men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals in Karnataka, India.

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    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T. DESIGN: Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV. RESULTS: A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p = .104. In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2-14.3, p = .029. Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7, p = .012. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.

  17. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study (United States)

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar


    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  18. India--Karnataka: Secondary Education and The New Agenda for Economic Growth. (United States)

    Bashir, Sajitha

    Karnataka (India) recorded impressive growth in the 1990s, with state income growing at 8% per annum, driven largely by expansion of the industrial and service sectors. However, this impressive performance has not reduced rural poverty levels or regional disparities to a great extent. This report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in…

  19. New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera

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    Jakub Prokop


    Full Text Available Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France, viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined. In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

  20. Patterns of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin and adjacent southern waters: an approach based on records from the R/V Pillsbury expeditions.

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    Iván Hernández-Ávila

    Full Text Available The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200-2000 m depth than on the upper continental shelf (60-200 m depth. In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges.

  1. Inconsistent magnetic polarities in magnetite- and greigite-bearing sediments: Understanding complex magnetizations in the late Messinian in the Adana Basin (southern Turkey) (United States)

    Lucifora, Stella; Cifelli, Francesca; Mattei, Massimo; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Cosentino, Domenico; Roberts, Andrew P.


    We present paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and scanning electron microscope data from three upper Messinian stratigraphic sections from the Adana Basin (southern Turkey). The collected samples are from fine-grained units, which were deposited during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (within subchron C3r). Paleomagnetic results reveal an inconsistent polarity record, related to a mixture of magnetite and greigite that hinders determination of a reliable magnetostratigraphy. Three classes of samples are recognized on the basis of paleomagnetic results. The first is characterized by a single magnetization component, with normal polarity, that is stable up to 530-580°C and is carried by magnetite. The second is characterized by a single magnetization component, with reversed polarity, that is stable up to 330-420°C. This magnetization is due to greigite, which developed after formation of slumps and before tectonic tilting of the studied successions. The third is characterized by reversed polarity, which is stable up to 530-580°C. We interpret this component as a primary magnetization carried by fine-grained and magnetically stable detrital magnetite. Results indicate that in the Adana Basin the assumption that a primary magnetization is carried by magnetite, and a magnetic overprint carried by greigite, does not hold because a late magnetic overprint has also been found for magnetite-bearing samples. Our data illustrate the complexity of magnetostratigraphic reconstructions in successions characterized by variable mixtures of magnetic minerals with different magnetic stability that formed at different stages. We demonstrate the need to perform detailed magnetic mineralogy analyses when conducting magnetostratigraphic studies of clay-rich sediments from marine or lacustrine environments.

  2. Sone megafan: A non-Himalayan megafan of craton origin on the southern margin of the middle Ganga Basin, India (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar; Dayal, Shankar


    Researchers in the last few decades have focused on the fluvial megafans at the base of Himalayan foothills in the Ganga Basin. No major effort has so far been made to delineate any such large depositional environment at the base of the northern Indian peninsular craton at the distal parts of the basin. In this work, for the first time, we document a megafan, unusually created by the cratonic Sone River in the marginal plains south of the Ganga. The geomorphology of the megafan surface, distribution of palaeochannels, sedimentology, and areal extent of the megafan are described. The study also reconstructs the tectonic and palaeoclimatic conditions, which might have helped in sediment supply from the cratonic catchment areas of the Sone. We suggest tectonic control over the Sone River channel dynamics and development of the megafan. The oval- and fan-shaped, craton-derived sediment body covers an area of around 12,000 km2 in the marginal plains and about 9000 km2 in the central alluvium north of the Ganga River. The megafan is around 190 km long and ~ 240 km wide. The mean slope of the megafan surface is ~ 0.03°. An onlap of Himalayan sediments has occurred over the megafan at its toe parts caused by southward encroachment of the Ganga during the Holocene. The megafan sediments comprise brownish yellow fine to coarse sand and gravels with an admixture of carbonaceous nodules (kankars). The thickness of the megafan sediment, which directly overlies the Precambrian basement, varies from only a few meters in the south near the peninsular craton to ~ 1000 m at the north in the central alluvial plain. The granular zones form prolific aquifer systems in an otherwise poor hydrogeological setting of the marginal plains.

  3. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.


    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  4. Impact of riparian land-use patterns on Ephemeroptera community structure in river basins of the southern Western Ghats, India

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    Selvakumar C.


    Full Text Available This study analysed the impact of riparian land use in structuring the larval ephemeropteran communities from 25 sites in streams and rivers of Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR of the southern end of the Western Ghats, India. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to twenty-four genera of six families were collected across all the sites. Baetidae and Leptophlebiidae were the most numerous and ubiquitous families, comprising eight genera in each family and eleven and nine species, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters and species richness and abundance of mayflies varied across streams and rivers with different riparian land-use types. Species distribution was influenced by the environmental gradients. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed a clear separation of the mayfly assemblages along water quality and riparian land-use gradients. The results of this study suggest that Ephemeroptera taxa can be potentially used as sensitive indicators of riparian land use in lotic ecosystems.

  5. Quantitative geomorphologic data of the reactivated variscan Hluboká fault system (Budĕjovice Basin, southern Bohemian Massif) (United States)

    Popotnig, Angelika; Tschegg, Dana; Decker, Kurt


    The NW-SE and NNE-SSW striking Hluboká-Rudolfov-Fault System in southern Bohemia is a potentially active late Variscan fault. It was repeatedly activated in Mesozoic, Miocene and Pliocene times and forms a "disputed seismic source" in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant of Temelin. The Fault System at the NE and SE margin of the Budĕjovice Basin with its up to 340 m thick Cretaceous to Neogene sediments overlaying the hanging wall of the Fault System is partly characterized by a prominent linear morphological scarp. Geomorpholigic analysis mainly focus on mountain fronts at the basin margin crossing the Hluboká and Rudolfov fault as well as on the NE facing slope of the Racice Mountain which is not crossing the fault. Analyses use morphological parameters of small ephemeric tributaries of the Vltava River, which are all similar with respect to their catchments, hydrological conditions and location in crystalline basement rocks. Morphological differences in valley shapes are therefore likely to result from different amounts of uplift of the catchments with respect to the Vltava River. All parameters were measured from a 10 m resolution DEM and digital topographic maps 1:10,000. Additional field measurements were made at locations where the resolution of the digital data is insufficient. Data show extremely low mountain-front-sinuosity of the hillslope forming the footwall of the Hluboká Fault characterizing a very straight mountain front at the fault and an uplift influenced morphology. Almost all values differ significantly from those observed at the other mountain slopes. The results are in line with the evidence obtained from mountain sinuosity. The mountain slope at the faults show deep and narrow V-shaped valleys with streams that are actively incising probably responding to continuous uplift. Vf (Valley-Floor-Width-to-Height) and SL (Stream Length) values are generally lower than those from drainages not crossing the fault. Convex-up thalweg sections

  6. Holocene late Pleistocene non-tropical carbonate sediments and tectonic history of the western rift basin margin of the southern Gulf of California (United States)

    Halfar, Jochen; Godinez-Orta, Lucio; Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Mucciarone, David A.; Ingle, James C.; Holden, Peter


    Using high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and dating of (1) shallow marine vibracores and (2) sediments collected from uplifted marine terraces we reconstruct the tectonic history and sediment accumulation patterns of Holocene to late Pleistocene warm-temperate to subtropical carbonates in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. The study was conducted in the vicinity of La Paz where carbonates form along the fault bounded narrow western shelf of the tectonically active Gulf of California rift basin. The non-tropical nature of the setting is responsible for (1) poor cementation of the bioclastic carbonates, and (2) a composition which is dominated by rhodoliths (coralline red algae), corals and mollusks. Unrimmed carbonate flats forming in small pocket bays and a rhodolith bioherm, which has a surface area of more than 20 km 2 and is up to 16 m thick, constitute the major carbonate factories. Holocene carbonate accumulation rates were deduced from seismic and core data and are highest on the rhodolith bioherm (260 cm/ka) and in subtidal zones of pocket bays (210 cm/ka), and lowest on the inner and middle shelf (100 cm/ka). Taken together, rates of carbonate accumulation are intermediate in magnitude between higher rates recorded in fully tropical carbonate settings and lower rates typical of cool-water carbonates. Seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that Isla Espiritu Santo in the center of the study area is a west dipping fault block, which is tectonically influenced by two distinct faults, the La Paz and Espiritu Santo faults. The latter fault accommodates at least 700 m of east-side down normal offset, and forms a steep eastern escarpment leading into the La Paz slope basin. Some of the sediments produced in the shallow carbonate factories of the narrow La Paz shelf are transported across this escarpment and are redeposited in the slope basin at a water depth of 750 m. Uranium-series dates of marine terraces exposed on Isla Espiritu Santo indicate

  7. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)


    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  8. [Correlation Among Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon and the Environmental Factors in a Typical Oasis in the Southern Edge of the Tarim Basin]. (United States)

    Gong, Lu; Zhu, Mei-ling; Liu, Zeng-yuan; Zhang, Xue-ni; Xie, Li-na


    We analyzed the differentiation among the environmental factors and soil organic/inorganic carbon contents of irrigated desert soil, brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil by classical statistics methods, and studied the correlation between soil carbon contents and the environmental factor by redundancy analysis (RDA) in a typical oasis of Yutian in the southern edge of the Tarim Basin. The results showed that the average contents of soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon were 2.51 g · kg⁻¹ and 25.63 g · kg⁻¹ respectively. The soil organic carbon content of the irrigated desert soil was significantly higher than those of brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil, while the inorganic carbon content of aeolian sandy soil was significantly higher than those of other soil types. The soil moisture and nutrient content were the highest in the irrigated desert soil and the lowest in the aeolian sandy sail. All soil types had high degree of salinization except the irrigated desert soil. The RDA results showed that the impacts of environmental factors on soil carbon contents ranked in order of importance were total nitrogen > available phosphorus > soil moisture > ground water depth > available potassium > pH > total salt. The soil carbon contents correlated extremely significantly with total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil moisture and ground water depth (P soil carbon contents and other environmental factors (P > 0.05). PMID:27548977

  9. Fibrous gypsum veins as diffuse features and within fault zones: the case study of the Pisco Basin (Ica desert, southern Peru) (United States)

    Rustichelli, Andrea; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Baud, Patrick; Vinciguerra, Sergio


    New knowledge on patterns of fibrous gypsum veins, their genetic mechanisms, deformation style and weathering are provided by a field- and laboratory-based study carried out on the Neogene to Quaternary Pisco Basin sedimentary strata (porous sandstones, siltstones and diatomites) exposed in the Ica desert, southern Peru. Gypsum veins vary considerably in dimensions, attitudes and timing and can develop in layered and moderately fractured rocks also in the absence of evaporitic layers. Veins occur both as diffuse features, confined to certain stratigraphic levels, and localised within fault zones. Arrays formed by layer-bounded, mutually orthogonal sets of steeply-dipping gypsum veins are reported for the first time. Vein length, height and spacing depend on the thickness of the bed packages in which they are confined. Within fault zones, veins are partly a product of faulting but also inherited layer-bounded features along which faults are superimposed. Due to the different petrophysical properties with respect to the parent rocks and their susceptibility to textural and mineralogical modifications, water dissolution and rupture, gypsum veins may have a significant role in geofluid management. Depending on their patterns and grade of physical and chemical alteration, veins may influence geofluid circulation and storage, acting as barriers to flow and possibly also as conduits.

  10. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data (United States)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.


    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  11. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

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    Donato Sollitto


    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  12. Occurrence, thermal evolution and primary migration processes derived from studies of organic matter in the Lucaogou source rock at the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Lucaogou Formation carbonate-rich oil shale source rock is exposed at the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, NW China. We have sampled it in detail and conducted microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical studies, including thin section petrography, UV fluorescence petrography, X-ray diffraction, vitrinite reflectance, bitumen reflectance, fluid inclusion analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Organic matter is disseminated through the carbonate-bearing siltstone source rocks and concentrated in numerous bedding parallel stylolites and in two sets of carbonate veins, one along bedding parallel fractures and the other cross-cutting stylolites and bedding. The research about maturity of organic matter finds vitrinite reflectance values increase from the dispersed kerogen (0.64%) to the stylolites (the one of oriented vitrinite is 0.72% and the one of migrated bitumen is 2.38%); Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in veins containing hydrocarbon fluid inclusions show an increase from 178.5℃ in the bedding parallel veins to 222℃ in the cross-cutting veins, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. These results support a model of progressive heating accompanied by fluid loss during later stages of thermal maturation of source rock and the onset of primary migration. Obviously, the occurrence of organic matter is the trace of hydrocarbon primary migration, and the bedding lamination surfaces and cross-cutting fissures are the principal pathways of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids migration. Bedding lamination surfaces evolved into stylolites along the earliest primary migration pathways, followed by bedding parallel and cross-cutting fissures.

  13. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam: a case study on the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China. (United States)

    Guo, Pinkun; Cheng, Yuanping


    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  14. [Correlation Among Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon and the Environmental Factors in a Typical Oasis in the Southern Edge of the Tarim Basin]. (United States)

    Gong, Lu; Zhu, Mei-ling; Liu, Zeng-yuan; Zhang, Xue-ni; Xie, Li-na


    We analyzed the differentiation among the environmental factors and soil organic/inorganic carbon contents of irrigated desert soil, brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil by classical statistics methods, and studied the correlation between soil carbon contents and the environmental factor by redundancy analysis (RDA) in a typical oasis of Yutian in the southern edge of the Tarim Basin. The results showed that the average contents of soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon were 2.51 g · kg⁻¹ and 25.63 g · kg⁻¹ respectively. The soil organic carbon content of the irrigated desert soil was significantly higher than those of brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil, while the inorganic carbon content of aeolian sandy soil was significantly higher than those of other soil types. The soil moisture and nutrient content were the highest in the irrigated desert soil and the lowest in the aeolian sandy sail. All soil types had high degree of salinization except the irrigated desert soil. The RDA results showed that the impacts of environmental factors on soil carbon contents ranked in order of importance were total nitrogen > available phosphorus > soil moisture > ground water depth > available potassium > pH > total salt. The soil carbon contents correlated extremely significantly with total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil moisture and ground water depth (P carbon contents and other environmental factors (P > 0.05).

  15. Impact of depositional facies on the distribution of diagenetic alterations in the Devonian shoreface sandstone reservoirs, Southern Ghadamis Basin, Libya (United States)

    Khalifa, Muftah Ahmid; Morad, Sadoon


    The middle Devonian, shoreface quartz arenites (present-day burial depths 2833-2786 m) are important oil and gas reservoirs in the Ghadamis Basin, western Libya. This integrated petrographic and geochemical study aims to unravel the impact of depositional facies on distribution of diagenetic alterations and, consequently, related reservoir quality and heterogeneity of the sandstones. Eogenetic alterations include the formation of kaolinite, pseudomatrix, and pyrite. The mesogenetic alterations include cementation by quartz overgrowths, Fe-dolomite/ankerite, and illite, transformation of kaolinite to dickite, illitization of smectite, intergranular quartz dissolution, and stylolitization, and albitization of feldspar. The higher energy of deposition of the coarser-grained upper shoreface sandstones combined with less extensive chemical compaction and smaller amounts of quartz overgrowths account for their better primary reservoir quality compared to the finer-grained, middle-lower shoreface sandstones. The formation of kaolin in the upper and middle shoreface sandstones is attributed to a greater flux of meteoric water. More abundant quartz overgrowths in the middle and lower shoreface is attributed to a greater extent of stylolitization, which was promoted by more abundant illitic clays. This study demonstrated that linking the distribution of diagenetic alterations to depositional facies of shoreface sandstones leads to a better understanding of the impact of these alterations on the spatial and temporal variation in quality and heterogeneity of the reservoirs.

  16. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California. (United States)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.


    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  18. Paleomagnetic and geochronological study of Carboniferous forearc basin rocks in the Southern New England Orogen (Eastern Australia) (United States)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei A.; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Shaanan, Uri; Hoy, Derek; Speranza, Fabio; Mochales, Tania


    We present results of a paleomagnetic study from Carboniferous forearc basin rocks that occur at both limbs of the Texas Orocline (New England Orogen, eastern Australia). Using thermal and alternating field demagnetizations, two remanence components have been isolated from rocks sampled from the Emu Creek terrane, in the eastern limb of the orocline. A middle-temperature Component M is post-folding and was likely acquired during low-temperature oxidation at 65-35 Ma. A high-temperature Component H is pre-folding, but its comparison with the paleomagnetic data from coeval rocks in the northern Tamworth terrane on the other limb of Texas Orocline does not indicate rotations around a vertical axis, as expected from geological data. A likely explanation for this apparent discrepancy is that Component H postdates the oroclinal bending, but predates folding in late stages of the 265-230 Ma Hunter Bowen Orogeny. The post-Kiaman age of Component H is supported by the presence of an alternating paleomagnetic polarity in the studied rocks. A paleomagnetic study of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks in the Boomi Creek area (northern Tamworth terrane) revealed a stable high-temperature pre-folding characteristic remanence, which is dated to c. 318 Ma using U-Pb zircon geochronology. The new paleopole (37.8°S, 182.7°E, A95 = 16.2°) is consistent with previously published poles from coeval rocks from the northern Tamworth terrane. The combination of our new paleomagnetic and geochronological data with previously published results allows us to develop a revised kinematic model of the New England Orogen from 340 Ma to 270 Ma, which compared to the previous model, incorporates a different orientation of the northern Tamworth terrane at 340 Ma.

  19. Depositional architecture of a mixed travertine-terrigenous system in a fault-controlled continental extensional basin (Messinian, Southern Tuscany, Central Italy) (United States)

    Croci, Andrea; Della Porta, Giovanna; Capezzuoli, Enrico


    The extensional Neogene Albegna Basin (Southern Tuscany, Italy) includes several thermogene travertine units dating from the Miocene to Holocene time. During the late Miocene (Messinian), a continental fault-controlled basin (of nearly 500-km2 width) was filled by precipitated travertine and detrital terrigenous strata, characterized by a wedge-shaped geometry that thinned northward, with a maximum thickness of nearly 70 m. This mixed travertine-terrigenous succession was investigated in terms of lithofacies types, depositional environment and architecture and the variety of precipitated travertine fabrics. Deposited as beds with thickness ranging from centimetres to a few decimetres, carbonates include nine travertine facies types: F1) clotted peloidal micrite and microsparite boundstone, F2) raft rudstone/floatstone, F3) sub-rounded radial coated grain grainstone, F4) coated gas bubble boundstone, F5) crystalline dendrite cementstone, F6) laminated boundstone, F7) coated reed boundstone and rudstone, F8) peloidal skeletal grainstone and F9) calci-mudstone and microsparstone. Beds of terrigenous deposits with thickness varying from a decimetre to > 10 m include five lithofacies: F10) breccia, F11) conglomerate, F12) massive sandstone, F13) laminated sandstone and F14) claystone. The succession recorded the following three phases of evolution of the depositional setting: 1) At the base, a northward-thinning thermogene travertine terraced slope (Phase I, travertine slope lithofacies association, F1-F6) developed close to the extensional fault system, placed southward with respect to the travertine deposition. 2) In Phase II, the accumulation of travertines was interrupted by the deposition of colluvial fan deposits with a thickness of several metres (colluvial fan lithofacies association, F10 and F12), which consisted of massive breccias, adjacent to the alluvial plain lithofacies association (F11-F14) including massive claystone and sandstone and channelized

  20. Response of the diatom flora in the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic Sea) to eutrophication in the last century (United States)

    Witak, Małgorzata


    The diatom flora in six short cores (length of 10-20 cm) taken from Gdańsk Basin, southern Baltic Sea, was analyzed in order to response of diatoms to environmental changes over the past 100 years. This study is a part of CLISED project (Climate Change Impact on Ecosystem Health - Marine Sediments Indicators) funded from Norway Grants in the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme. Three cores P116, M1 and P1 were retrieved from the Gdańsk Deep region, whereas P104, BMPK10 and P110 were drilled from the shallower part - Gulf of Gdańsk. The sediment cores were dated by 210Pb and represented time interval of AD 1895-2015. In this period an artificial mouth of the Vistula River near Świbno was excavated and riverine waters flowed directly to the Gulf of Gdańsk. Urbanization, progressive industrialization and an increase in the inflow of waste water had a strong influence on ecosystem in the last 120 years. The transport of large amounts of nutrients, organic matter and pollutants by the rivers resulted in environmental degradation of the Gdańsk Basin and its progressive eutrophication in particular. Diatoms, being the major component of algal assemblages, are excellent bioindicators for assessing the state of basin ecosystems. They are usually abundant in marine sediments, diverse and sensitive to numerous environmental variables, including physical (e.g. light, temperature, water transparency) and chemical (e.g. pH, alkalinity, nutrient availability) factors. Changes in nutrients concentrations may lead to substantial transformations in the structure of diatom assemblages. Samples for diatom analyses (ca. 0.3-2.0 g dry sediment) were prepared following the standard procedure for diatom observation under light microscope (Battarbee, 1986). To estimate the concentration of siliceous microfossils per unit weight of dry sediment (absolute abundance), a random settling technique was used (Bodén, 1991). Permanent diatom preparations were mounted in Naphrax® (refractive

  1. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction? (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.


    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares

  2. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction? (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah


    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity-depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity-depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity-depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12-13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity-depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares favourably with

  3. Jurassic onychites (hooks from squid-like cephalopods) associated with statolith occurrences in the Wessex Basin, southern England (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher; Wilby, Philip


    Modern coleoid (squid-like) cephalopods have arms that carry arrays of both suckers and hardened, organic hooks. Fossil arm hooks have been known since the description of Sternberg in 1823, although he identified them as plant remains. During the twentieth century there were a number of brief descriptions of hooks but it was Kulicki & Szaniawski (1972) who described 22 morphotypes from the Jurassic of Poland. These authors gave these 'forms' names using a binomial classification though, with many lacking defined (and figured) holotypes and, in some cases, only one recorded specimen, some of their designations should be regarded as invalid. Some of the morphotypes have, however, been reported from DSDP sites on the Falkland Plateau as well as New Zealand, Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom. It is clear that the hooks must belong to widely distributed members of the Belemnitida and Phragmoteuthida. Exceptional soft-bodied preservation of species such as Belemnotheutis antiquus from the Callovian-Oxfordian of the United Kingdom has allowed the identification of the host animal of some morphotypes, though the majority remain non-attributable. In the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Upper Callovian) of Wiltshire large numbers of hooks (including forms described as Acanthuncus, Arites, Deinuncus, Falcuncus, Longuncus and Paraglycerites) are found associated with an abundance of statoliths (cephalopod 'ear bones') and macrofossil evidence of both belemnites and teuthids, some of which includes exceptional soft-bodied preservation (see Wilby et al., 2004, 2008; Hart et al., in press). Using the abundance of material available to us from the Wessex Basin, we are attempting to identify, where possible, the host animals. If this can be established then it should be possible, using micropalaeontological samples, to determine the stratigraphical and palaeoecological ranges of some of the host macro-fossils, many of which are otherwise rarely preserved. HART, M.B., DE JONGHE

  4. Constraining the India-Asia collision by retrieving the paleolatitude from partially remagnetized Paleogene volcanics in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Lippert, Peter; Dekkers, Mark; Guo, Zhaojie; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran


    Determining paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) using paleomagnetic inclinations is key to constraining the paleogeography and timing of the collision between India and Asia. However, paleolatitude estimates vary widely from 5°N to 30°N due to unrecognized rock magnetic biases such as inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks or poor averaging of secular variation in volcanic rocks. Here, we investigated Paleogene volcanics of the Linzizong Group from southern Tibet in the Nanmulin Basin that had previously yielded low paleomagnetic inclinations ca. 10°N. Using proper paleomagnetic sampling and measurement protocols we observe similar shallow inclinations. However, sampled sections with different bedding attitudes yield a negative fold test indicating that the isolated remanent magnetizations do not have a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analysis, end-member modeling, and petrographic investigation reveal that most of the section has been variably remagnetized due to low-temperature alteration of magmatic titanomagnetite and formation of secondary hematite, which occurred after tilting of the strata. We show that the observed paleomagnetic inclinations vary according to a linear trend with the degree of remagnetization. Accordingly, we can estimate that the primary pre-tilting thermoremanent magnetization has an inclination of 38.1° ([35.7°, 40.5°] within 95% confidence limit), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 21.4° ([19.8°, 23.1°] within 95% confidence limit). This is consistent with results from pristine volcanic units and inclination-shallowing corrected sediments of the upper Linzizong Group ~200 km to the east [Dupont-Nivet et al., Geophysical Journal International, 182, 1189-1198; Huang et al., Geophysical Journal International, 194, 1390-1411]. Our results demonstrate that previously reported low paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane can be an artifact of unrecognized remagnetization. Furthermore, we show that original

  5. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.


    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  6. Late Norian δ13Corg record in the Tethyan realm: New clues on the complex Late Triassic carbon cycle from the Lagonegro Basin (southern Italy) (United States)

    Zaffani, Mariachiara; Agnini, Claudia; Concheri, Giuseppe; Godfrey, Linda; Katz, Miriam; Maron, Matteo; Rigo, Manuel


    The Late Triassic (ca. 237-201 Ma) is characterized by complex and extreme environmental, climatic and biotic changes (e.g.: the break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea; the humid event known as the Carnian Pluvial Event; the End-Triassic mass extinction; the emplacement of the CAMP volcanism). A global δ13Corg curve for the Late Triassic would provide new clues on this perturbed time interval and would have the potential for global correlations. In particular, the few available data from North American successions define the late Norian (ca. 220-206 Ma) as a "chaotic carbon interval", with rapid vacillations of the carbon isotope values paired with low faunal diversity. Our goal is to reconstruct a global δ13Corg profile for the late Norian, as a contribution to the construction of a more complete global carbon isotope curve for the Late Triassic. For this purpose, we analyzed three sections from the Lagonegro Basin (southern Italy), originally located in the western Tethys, on the other side of the supercontinent Pangaea respect to the North America. The obtained δ13Corg profiles show four negative shifts correlatable with those of the North American record, suggesting that these carbon cycle perturbations have a widespread occurrence. These perturbations are associated with negative shifts of the 87Sr/86Sr, indicating that these global δ13Corg and 87Sr/86Sr negative excursions were possibly caused by emplacement of a Large Igneous Province (LIP). The input of volcanogenic CO2 to the atmosphere-ocean system is supported also by the 12C enrichment observed, as well as by the increase of atmospheric pCO2 inferred by different models for the Norian- Rhaetian interval. This Norian magmatic activity may be ascribed to the Angayucham province (Alaska, North America), a large oceanic plateau active ca. 214 Ma ±7 Myr, with an estimated volume comparable to other two Late Triassic LIPs: the Wrangellia and the CAMP.

  7. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel


    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Model and Satellite Based Soil Moisture Estimations for Assessing Coupling Hot Spots in the Southern La Plata Basin (United States)

    Bruscantini, C. A.; Karszenbaum, H.; Ruscica, R. C.; Spennemann, P.; Salvia, M.; Sorensson, A. A.; Grings, F. M.; Saulo, C.


    The southern La Plata Basin, located in southeastern South America (SESA), a region of great importance because of its hydrological characteristics, the fact that it has the largest population density and is one of the most productive regions in terms of agriculture, cattle raising and industry of the continent, has been identified as a strong hotspot between soil moisture (SM) and the atmosphere by different regional studies. Among them, Ruscica et al. (2014, Atmos. Sci. Let, Int. J. Climatol.), and Spennemann et al. (2015, Int. J. Climatol.) show, through different modeling approaches, the presence of strong soil moisture-precipitation and evapotranspiration interactions during austral summer in SESA, revealing similar hotspots. Nevertheless these studies have diverse limitations related to model assumptions and to vegetation parameterizations, as well as the lack of observational data for the evaluation of models performance (Ferguson and Wood, 2011, J. of Hydrometeorology). On the other hand, in the last decade several instruments on board satellites are providing soil moisture products globally and in a continuous way. A recent work by Grings et al. (2015, IEEE JSTARS, in press), done over the Pampas Plains in SESA showed characteristic soil moisture patterns that follow the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) under extreme wet and dry conditions In order to deepen and overcome some of the mentioned model limitations, this work adds satellite soil moisture and vegetation products in the spatio-temporal analysis of the regions of strong soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The main objectives and related outcomes are: the verification of already identified regions where soil moisture anomalies may have an influence on subsequent precipitation, evapotranspiration and temperature anomalies, and the study of their seasonal characteristics and land cover influences.

  9. Implementing blended learning into the academic programs of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka. (United States)

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D


    Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka (United States)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R.; Anilkumar, S.


    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4"X4" NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University Kalaburagi – 585 106 India (India); Anilkumar, S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)


    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  12. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deepa, N.; Kunte, P.D.

    of 22 meters (72 feet) above mean sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal center of Karnataka. The government operates the deep-water, all-weather port at Panambur, Mangalore... requires transportation corridors for conveyors and road and rail access, a container terminal, staging yards, dry bulk stockpiles, a bulk liquid tank farm, and port administration buildings to manage which causes lot of landform changes at the particular...

  13. A five year study of maternal mortality in Mandya district, Karnataka, India


    Pradeep Musale Ramachandra; Rangaswamy Manohar


    Background: Maternal mortality is a quality health care of that area. We planned a study on maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to understand the causes leading to maternal mortality in Mandya district, Karnataka, India after the introduction of national rural health scheme in past five years. Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of case records. We collected records of MMR occurred from Jan 2011 to Dec 2015 over a period of five years from district health office. Results: MMR from Jan 20...

  14. The astronomical significance of megalithic stone alignments at Vibhuthihalli in northern Karnataka (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya


    A megalithic site at Vibhuthihalli in Karnataka, India, contains alignments of stones that are arranged in a square pattern with rows and columns showing a diagonal arrangement. Such structures are non-sepulchral, and although their purpose is not clear it has been suggested that they have astronomical significance. We investigated this possibility and our observations showed that the rows of stones point to the direction of equinoctial sunrise and sunset. lt is likely that calendrical events were monitored at this site.

  15. Agriculture in Karnataka: A Historical View After the Fall of Serirangapatana


    Deshpande, R.S.; Malini Tantri


    Not many authors have analysed the economic history of Karnataka and rarely do we find any systematic account of agriculture in the available historical material. Dr. Francis Buchanan’s travelogue provides excellent material for this. Dr. Buchanan traveled through the Mysore State after the fall of Tippu Sultan with a mandate from the British Governor to understand the people, culture and agriculture of the region under Sultan’s regime Buchanan being a Botanist and a medical practitioner had ...

  16. Perception of radiation awareness among patients in Karnataka - a qualitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing concern has recently been expressed in the literature that the patients undergoing diagnostic Computer Tomography imaging and X-ray examinations have inadequate knowledge and awareness about radiation. The frequent use of Computed tomography and routine X-ray examinations for unnecessary indications is the most vital cause of increase in medical radiation exposure. Dose reduction techniques and radiation protection measures is a topic of public concern in which government should play a very important role. Radiologists and patients undergoing any radiological procedure involving ionizing radiation are becoming highly sensitized to the issue of radiation exposure from these diagnostic procedures. The attitudes and perceptions of these patients undergoing diagnostic imaging procedures that use ionizing radiation vary widely. Patients perception about radiation awareness strongly influence their consent or acceptance of any diagnostic imaging procedure. In this study we review the perceptions of radiation risk by laypersons i.e patients who have very little knowledge and awareness about the diagnostic procedure and X-ray examination for which they have been referred. Although the benefit vs risk ratio will outweigh the radiation risk involved in these X-ray and CT examinations but the patients awareness about radiation is a major concern in today's society. The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of radiation awareness among patients in the Karnataka population. Very less qualitative research work has been taken up in this field, as a result such study will gain impetus in the near future. The study was carried out in Karnataka. Qualitative case study was conducted based on Non-Probability purposive sampling and in-depth interview was conducted at the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal among ten patients who were referred for X-ray and CT examinations. An in-depth interview among patients in

  17. Adoption of solar home lighting systems in India: What might we learn from Karnataka?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnataka has been among the most successful markets for solar lighting systems (SLS) among Indian states. In order to understand the dynamics of systems adoption and operation, that have fostered market based adoption of solar lighting, we interviewed rural households from six districts that had purchased solar lighting systems using loans at market rates, the rural banks that provided loans and the solar firms that marketed the technology. We found that a large proportion of households in our sample were connected to the grid but chose to install solar lighting because they considered the power supply from the grid to be unreliable. Households in our sample reported savings on electricity costs and reduced kerosene usage for lighting. In addition to providing credit, banks also play a key role in ensuring good service and maintenance; the viability of the SLS market is thus critically dependent on the role that the banks play as intermediaries between consumers and solar firms in rural areas. Government programs should be carefully designed to match the incentives of firms, banks and consumers if the successes of the ‘Karnataka model’ are to be repeated and amplified. -- Highlights: •Solar lighting system (SLS) adoption in Karnataka largely through commercial sales. •Most surveyed households adopted SLS due to grid supply unreliability. •Rural banks critical in introducing consumers to firms and financing systems. •Banks also play support role in ensuring after-sales maintenance. •Institutional structure may limit choice of firms and products

  18. An Epidemiological Survey Of Diarrhoea Among Children In The Karnataka Region of Kaveri Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan M.K


    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether the source of drinking water influences the occurrence of diarrhoea in under fives? Objectives: i To know the incidence of morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea. ii To identify the relationship of occurrence of diarrhoea with source of drinking water. iii To study the treatment practices in diarrhoea. Study Design: Cross sectional. Participants: 7141 under five children. Setting: Rural and Urban clusters. Analysis: Simple proportions. Results: Nearly 7% of children experienced diarrhoea in the past two weeks and 4% had an attack of diarrhoea in the last 24 hours. Incidence of diarrhoea was significantly higher amongst 1-3 years male children. The source of drinking water per se did not influence the incidence of diarrhoea. Low (12.7% ORS use rare was reported 31% of mothers stopped breast-feeding and 15% of mothers stopped oral fluid during diarrhoea. The overall under five-mortality rate in the area was 6.5 per 1000 children and of these one third deaths could be attributed to diarrhoea.

  19. Brucella infections in high-risk population and in patients hospitalized for fever: A serological study at Kolar, Karnataka

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    Dhanalaxmi Aniyappanavar


    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis, one of the world′s major zoonoses, is endemic in many parts of India. It is an occupational hazard for veterinary employees, butchers, dairy personnel, and laboratory workers. There is no information available on human brucellosis from Kolar region of southern India. Methods and Materials: Serum samples from 154 adults, at high risk for brucellosis and residing in and around Kolar, Karnataka, India, were screened for antibodies to brucella by the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test and immunoglobulin (IgG Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Sera detected to be positive by these screening tests were further tested by standard tube agglutination test (SAT, SAT with 2 Mercaptoethanol, and IgM ELISA. In addition, serum samples from 100 hospitalized patients with prolonged fever were also subjected to the above tests to detect acute brucella infections among patients. Results: Among the 154 individuals at high-risk screened, brucella antibodies were detected in 15 (9.74% of the subjects. The seropositivity rate was 30.76% among veterinarians, 14.28 among cattle businessmen, 9.67% among butchers, and 3.79% among animal owners. Seropositivity was associated with drawing blood and exposure to animals during parturition. Symptoms such as myalgia, low back ache, and joint pains were significantly more among seropositives. When the results of all the tests were taken together, 33.3% seropositives could be classified as past brucella infections and 66.6% as possible chronic brucella infections. Among the 100 hospitalized patients with prolonged fever acute brucellosis was diagnosed in one patient. Conclusion: Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in Kolar region. Among individuals at high risk many have serological profile of possible chronic brucellosis; such individuals may need treatment and follow-up.

  20. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule


    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  1. Interpretation of an airborne geophysical survey in southern Paris Basin: towards a lithological cartography, key tool for the management of shrinking/swelling clay problems (United States)

    Prognon, F.; Tourliere, B.; Perrin, J.; Lacquement, F.; Martelet, G.; Deparis, J.; Gourdier, S.; Drufin, S.


    Regolith formations support a full spectrum of human activities. Among others, they provide a source of extractable materials and form the substratum of soils. As such, they should be considered as a capital to be managed and protected. Moreover, one of the main challenges for present and future land settlement is to prevent house building programs from being planned inside shrink-swell risky areas which is only possible thanks to an complete lithological mapping of the french regolith. We illustrate here the results of the geological interpretation of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin, in France. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to quickly provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic...). Spectral radiometry data were collected with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. On the radiometric data we applied the HAC (Hierarchical Ascendant Classification) computation procedure: taking into account several variables, the statistical HAC method groups individuals based on their resemblance. Also in this study, calibrated Total Count channel (TCm) is compared to an estimated dose rate (TCe) computed from the measured radioelement abundances: TCe = 13.078 * K + 5.675 * U + 2.494 * Th. Our results show that the ratio TCe/TCm came out to be a good indicator of ground property changes within Sologne mixed sandy-clay environment. Processed geophysical data are cross-checked with geological data (from field observations) and field or laboratory measurements of mineralogical data

  2. Pragmatic consideration of geologic carbon storage design based upon historic pressure response to oil and gas production in the southern San Joaquin basin (United States)

    Jordan, P. D.


    Annual CO2 emissions from large fixed sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in California are about 20 million metric tons per year (MMT/Y). Cumulative net fluid production due to oil and gas extracted from below the minimum depth for geologic carbon storage (taken as 1,500 m) was 1.4 billion m3 at reservoir conditions as of 2010. At an average CO2 storage density of 0.5 metric tons per m3, this implies 35 years of storage capacity at current emission rates just to refill the vacated volume, neglecting possible reservoir consolidation. However, the production occurred from over 300 pools. The production rate relative to average pressure decline in the more productive pools analyzed suggests they could receive about 2 MMT/Y raising the field average pressure to nearly the fracturing pressure. This would require well fields as extensive as those used for production, instead of the single to few wells per project typically envisioned. Even then, the actual allowable injection rate to the larger pools would be less than 2 MMT/Y in order to keep pressures at the injection well below the fracture pressure. This implies storing 20 MMT/Y would require developing storage operations in tens of pools with hundreds, if not over a thousand, wells. This utilization of one of the basins with the most storage capacity in the state would result in reducing the state's fixed source emissions by only one eighth relative to current emissions. The number of fields and wells involved in achieving this suggests a different strategy might provide more capacity at similar cost. Specifically, staging wells that initially produce water in the vicinity of fewer injection wells could result in both more storage. This water could be directed to a shallower zone, or supplied to the surface at a similar cost. The commencement of ocean water desalination in the state indicates the economics of water supply might support treating this water for beneficial use, particularly if it

  3. Digital model of the seabed geomorphology of southern-central Espirito Santo basin and northern Campos basin; Modelo digital da geomorfologia do fundo oceanico do centro-sul da bacia do Espirito Santo e norte da bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, Simone; Souza, Mariana Beatriz Ferraz Mendonca de; Migliorelli, Joana Paiva Robalo [Petroleo Brasileiro S. A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Servicos de Exploracao e Producao], Emails:,,


    That communication brings the result of a bathymetric mosaic of converted in a digital model of the ocean topography, consisting of 17 seismic projects 3D, besides 17 multibeam bathymetry surveys of South-Central Espirito Santo Basin and Northern Campos Basin.

  4. The thermal history of the Miocene Ibar Basin (Southern Serbia: new constraints from apatite and zircon fission track and vitrinite reflectance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Nevena


    Full Text Available The Ibar Basin was formed during Miocene large scale extension in the NE Dinaride segment of the Alpine- Carpathian-Dinaride system. The Miocene extension led to exhumation of deep seated core-complexes (e.g. Studenica and Kopaonik core-complex as well as to the formation of extensional basins in the hanging wall (Ibar Basin. Sediments of the Ibar Basin were studied by apatite and zircon fission track and vitrinite reflectance in order to define thermal events during basin evolution. Vitrinite reflectance (VR data (0.63-0.90 %Rr indicate a bituminous stage for the organic matter that experienced maximal temperatures of around 120-130 °C. Zircon fission track (ZFT ages indicate provenance ages. The apatite fission track (AFT single grain ages (45-6.7 Ma and bimodal track lengths distribution indicate partial annealing of the detrital apatites. Both vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track data of the studied sediments imply post-depositional thermal overprint in the Ibar Basin. Thermal history models of the detritial apatites reveal a heating episode prior to cooling that began at around 10 Ma. The heating episode started around 17 Ma and lasted 10-8 Ma reaching the maximum temperatures between 100-130 °C. We correlate this event with the domal uplift of the Studenica and Kopaonik cores where heat was transferred from the rising warm footwall to the adjacent colder hanging wall. The cooling episode is related to basin inversion and erosion. The apatite fission track data indicate local thermal perturbations, detected in the SE part of the Ibar basin (Piskanja deposit with the time frame ~7.1 Ma, which may correspond to the youngest volcanic phase in the region.

  5. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7) (United States)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin


    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  6. Quaternary uplift and subsidence of Catalina Ridge and San Pedro Basin, Inner California Continental Borderland, offshore southern California; results of high-resolution seismic profiling (United States)

    Francis, R.; Legg, M. R.


    High-resolution seismic reflection data collected by us, legacy seismic, and multibeam bathymetry show that the San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) is a continuous fault zone from Santa Monica Basin to Crespi Knoll, and apparently joins with the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF). The SPBF and SDTF together form a more or less straight fault zone over 300 km in length, a major tectonic feature of the Inner Borderland. Catalina Ridge, a 100 km uplift feature including Santa Catalina Island, and adjacent San Pedro Basin, with up to 4-5 km structural relief between them, are closely associated with the SPBF, SDTF, and Catalina fault (CF). Santa Catalina Island has been shown previously to be an uplift associated with a restraining bend (CF linking the Santa Cruz Ridge and San Diego Trough fault zones; White et al., 2004). San Pedro Basin has two major sediment sequences west of the SPBF. The lower one dips away from Catalina Ridge and onlaps onto the basement as a thin sheet that extends beyond the upper sequence around the margins of the basin. This sequence is imaged as deep as 3.7 sec. two way travel time in the basin center. The much thinner upper sequence underlies the flat basin floor, onlaps onto the lower sequence, and is largely flat; any dips are parallel to the SPBF (not away from Catalina Ridge). Basal strata of the upper sequence are approximately 200-600 ka. Santa Catalina Island lacks well-defined marine terraces on land, in contrast to nearby uplifts such as Palos Verdes Peninsula, but submerged depositional terraces occur on the seafloor around the island. These aggradational benches formed on a sediment package that surrounds the island and is separated from the basin sequences. Some of these benches are up to 400 m below present sealevel, well below eustatic sealevel range. Our data suggest that the restraining bend structure formed by the CF was active during the time the lower sequence of San Pedro Basin was deposited. At approximately 200-600 ka, this

  7. The Southern Ocean Observing System


    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise


    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  8. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas


    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...

  9. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohasin


    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008.

  10. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak. (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha V L


    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  11. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.


    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  12. Electrical and well log study of the Plio-Quaternary deposits of the southern part of the Rharb Basin, northern Morocco (United States)

    El Bouhaddioui, Mohamed; Mridekh, Abdelaziz; Kili, Malika; El Mansouri, Bouabid; El Gasmi, El Houssine; Magrane, Bouchaib


    The Rharb Basin is located in the NW of Morocco. It is the onshore extension of a lager offshore basin between Kenitra and Moulay Bousselham. The Rharb plain (properly called) extends over an area of 4200 Km2 between two very different structural entities: the unstable Rif domain in the NE and the East and the ''relatively stable'' Meseta domain in the south. The distribution of Pliocene-Quaternary deposits under this plain is complex and was controlled by both tectonics and climatic factors. The main objective of the present work is to define the spatiotemporal evolution of these deposits in the onshore part of the basin and to make a comparison with a sequence analysis defined, for equivalent deposits in the offshore basin, by a previous work. The proposed model allows thus to characterize the geometry of these deposits in the extension of continental shelf under the present day onshore basin, and to explain there is genesis in terms of interactions between eustatic sea level fluctuations, tectonics and sedimentary rates at the mouths of paleo-rivers that had drained the Rharb plain during Pliocene to Quaternary Times.

  13. Mesozoic architecture of a tract of the European-Iberian continental margin: Insights from preserved submarine palaeotopography in the Longobucco Basin (Calabria, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Santantonio, Massimo; Fabbi, Simone; Aldega, Luca


    The sedimentary successions exposed in northeast Calabria document the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous tectonic-sedimentary evolution of a former segment of the European-Iberian continental margin. They are juxtaposed today to units representing the deformation of the African and Adriatic plates margins as a product of Apenninic crustal shortening. A complex pattern of unconformities reveals a multi-stage tectonic evolution during the Early Jurassic, which affected the facies and geometries of siliciclastic and carbonate successions deposited in syn- and post-rift environments ranging from fluvial to deep marine. Late Sinemurian/Early Pliensbachian normal faulting resulted in exposure of the Hercynian basement at the sea-floor, which was onlapped by marine basin-fill units. Shallow-water carbonate aprons and reefs developed in response to the production of new accommodation space, fringing the newborn islands which represent structural highs made of Paleozoic crystalline and metamorphic rock. Their drowning and fragmentation in the Toarcian led to the development of thin caps of Rosso Ammonitico facies. Coeval to these deposits, a thick (> 1 km) hemipelagic/siliciclastic succession was sedimented in neighboring hanging wall basins, which would ultimately merge with the structural high successions. Footwall blocks of the Early Jurassic rift, made of Paleozoic basement and basin-margin border faults with their onlapping basin-fill formations, are found today at the hanging wall of Miocene thrusts, overlying younger (Middle/Late Jurassic to Late Paleogene) folded basinal sediments. This paper makes use of selected case examples to describe the richly diverse set of features, ranging from paleontology to sedimentology, to structural geology, which are associated with the field identification of basin-margin unconformities. Our data provide key constraints for restoring the pre-orogenic architecture of a continental margin facing a branch of the Liguria-Piedmont ocean in the

  14. Santa Bárbara Formation (Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): depositional sequences and evolution of an Early Paleozoic postcollisional basin (United States)

    de Borba, André Weissheimer; Pimentel Mizusaki, Ana Maria


    The Santa Bárbara Formation, located in southernmost Brazil, comprises red-colored conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. It was deposited in the Early Paleozoic under continental conditions in a restricted, strike-slip basin (Santa Bárbara basin) in response to the postcollisional stresses of the Brasiliano/Pan-African cycle (900-500 Ma). Five facies associations are recognized: alluvial fans, fan-delta front, lacustrine, sandy braided, and gravel bed braided river deposits. The application of sequence stratigraphy enables the recognition of three depositional sequences. The two basal sequences (I and II) represent a coherent depositional pattern, with axial fluvial and fan-delta systems that deposit northeastward and lateral contribution from alluvial fans. Such coarse deposits are composed mainly of metamorphic clasts derived from the erosion of 'Caçapava high', the eastern steep margin of the Santa Bárbara basin. Sequence III lies unconformably over the basal subunits and reflects the inversion of the axial systems, in that the paleocurrents of the gravel bed deposits systematically point south/southwestward. The alluvial fan deposits of Sequence III also suggest a tectonic rearrangement of the basin, with partial erosion of the basal sequences and the presence of granitoid fragments, which reflects a deeper denudation stage for the Caçapava high and possibly a significant hiatus at the base of Sequence III.

  15. Assessment of hydrochemical trends in the highly anthropised Guadalhorce River basin (southern Spain) in terms of compliance with the European groundwater directive for 2015. (United States)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña; Gavilán, Pablo Jiménez; Pérez, Iñaki Vadillo; Cantos, Francisco Carrasco


    One of the key aspects introduced by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) and developed by Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC was the need to analyse pollution trends in groundwater bodies in order to meet the environmental objectives set in Article 4 WFD. According to this Directive, the main goal of "good status" should be achieved by the year 2015, and having reached this horizon, now is a suitable time to assess the changes that have taken place with the progressive implementation of the WFD. An extensive database is available for the Guadalhorce River basin, and this was used not only to identify in groundwater but also to draw real conclusions with respect to the degree of success in meeting the targets established for this main deadline (2015) The geographic and climate context of the Guadalhorce basin has facilitated the development of a variety of economic activities, but the one affecting the largest surface area is agriculture (which is practised on over 50 % of the river basin). The main environmental impacts identified in the basin aquifers arise from the widespread use of fertilisers and manures, together with the input of sewage from population centres. In consequence, some of the groundwater bodies located in the basin have historically had very high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding 200 mg/L. In addition, return flows, the use of fertilisers and other pressures promote the entry of other pollutants into the groundwater, as well as the salinisation of the main aquifers in the basin. In order to assess the hydrochemical changes that have taken place since the entry into force of the WFD, we performed a detailed trends analysis, based on data from the official sampling networks. In some cases, over 35 years of water quality data are available, but these statistics also present significant limitations, due to some deficiencies in the design or management; thus, data are missing for many years, the results are subject to

  16. Stock evaluation and development of a breeding program for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karnataka, India: progress of a research project


    Basavaraju, Y.; Penman, D.J.; Mair, G.C.


    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the single most important species for aquaculture in the state of Karnataka, India, where it is generally grown in polyculture with Indian major carps. Precocious maturation and unwanted reproduction in the species have been identified as constraints to increase production in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Karnataka state. Stocks of C. carpio obtained from Hungary (Amur and P3), Indonesia (Rajdanu) and Vietnam (SV) are being assessed alongside two ...

  17. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul


    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic

  18. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis) (United States)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie


    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  19. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de


    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  20. Superficial and deep-seated gravity-driven deformation horizons within basinal succession: the case study of Maiolica Formation, Gargano Promontory, Southern Italy (United States)

    Jablonská, Danica; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele


    Gravitational phenomena on the paleoslope of continental margins play a significant role both in redistribution of sediment and formation of new structural features within sedimentary basins worldwide. Mass-transport deposits (MTDs) represent important heterogeneities within the succession and occur on various scales (tens of centimetres to hundreds of metres). Small- to medium-scale MTDs (up to tens of meters) act as layers of different petrophysical properties, whereas large-scale MTDs (tens to hundreds of meters) form both stratigraphic and structural discontinuities (faults, thrusts, erosional surfaces, dykes or injections) within the succession. The Maiolica Formation, Early Cretaceous deep basinal succession cropping out in Gargano Promontory of Southeast Italy is represented by undisturbed intervals of flat-lying thin-bedded, cherty micritic limestone interstratified with intervals of lithologically similar, but structurally distorted beds. For this reason, the studied outcrops provide a good opportunity to characterize the geometry and the internal deformation of small- and medium-scale carbonate MTDs. At the outcrop scale, small- to medium-sized MTDs can be simply identified as sheets of deformed strata alternated with packages of undeformed beds. However, several observed features such as folded stylolites with radially oriented peaks within some of these deformed packages and the presence of large vertical clastic-dyke-like bodies in the succession suggest that some of these deformed packages represent deep-seated basal gliding horizons of large-scale MTDs. In this study, we present MTDs on two different scales that have a crucial influence on the evolution of slope to basinal successions. Moreover, we define the features that distinguish superficial MTDs from the deep-seated gravity-driven deformation horizons within basinal carbonates.

  1. Fault-related CO2 degassing, geothermics, and fluid flow in southern California basins---Physiochemical evidence and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, James R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)


    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO


    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  3. Performance Evaluation of Karnataka State University Library Resources and Services:A Librarians Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Library service is the supreme activity to attract the attention of the user community. It is more so in the case of a university library. Looking at the commitment of the university library to promote the cause of healthy higher education, it is essential on the part of the library professionals to evaluate and assesses the usability of the library resources in the light of the vast amount of investment made in acquiring the information resources and the cost of the manpower in managing the library activity. This paper reveals one such attempt with reference to the university libraries in the state of Karnataka which is a part of Independent India.

  4. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

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    S. Mone


    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta R.


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cutaneous fungal infections are common in coastal Karnataka owing to its tropical and humid climate. The organisms causing these infections commonly are dermatophytes, non dermatophytes and yeasts. This study aims to determine the p revalence of cutaneous mycosis, with their different clinical types and etiological agents, and correlate the findings. A total of 96 patients were included in our study, all of them attending dermatology OPD at a tertiary hospital in Mangalore with clinic ally suspected tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea capitis, tinea mannum, onychomycosis, candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor. The study revealed male to female ratio being 0.74:1. The leading diagnosis was pityriasis versicolor, the commones t organism isolated was C. albicans; and the commonest site involved is groin and skin flexures. This study emphasizes utility of timely detection of cutaneous fungal infection in preventing transmission and spread of KEYWORDS: Fungal infe ctions; Dermatophytes; Pityriasis versicolor such infections

  6. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part six--Kundapur, Karnataka and Kannur, Kerala. (United States)

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K


    Mosquitoes of 26 species belonging to 16 subgenera and 11 genera were recorded in the Kundapur mangroves of Karnataka, and 17 species belonging to 11 subgenera and 7 genera were recorded in the mangroves of Kannur, Kerala along the west coast of India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Heizmannia, Lutzia, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both mangrove forests were Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, An. jamesi, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus, Cx. infantulus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. sitiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. luguhris. Tree holes and swamp pools were the common larval habitats, with more species occurring in tree holes in Kundapur than in Kannur. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Ar. aureolineatus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. sitiens, Ma. uniformis, and Ve. lugubris bloodfed on humans. PMID:17304922

  7. Incidence of gastro-intestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, Karnataka state. (United States)

    Adeppa, J; Ananda, K J; Krishna Murthy, C M; Satheesha, G M


    A study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, to generate the data regarding status of parasitic infections of equines in Karnataka state due to paucity of information. A total of 100 fresh fecal samples of equines were collected and examined by direct and sedimentation method for the detection of parasitic egg/ova. Among 100 samples examined, 84 (84.0 %) were found positive for various gastrointestinal helminths. Out of 84 positive cases, 44 (52.38 %) were found positive for Strongylus spp. eggs, 09 (10.71 %) showed Parascaris equorum eggs, 06 (7.14 %) had Gastrodiscus spp. eggs, 04 (4.76 %) harbored Oxyuris equi and the remaining 21 (25.0 %) had a mixed infection of Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp. and Gastrodiscus spp. PMID:27605810

  8. Studies on gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Shimoga region of Karnataka. (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J; Satheesha, M G


    The study was conducted to ascertain the actual status of gastro-intestinal parasites in pigs maintained under different rearing systems in Shimoga region, Karnataka state. A total of 150 Pigs fecal samples were examined, which includes 50 from organized piggery farm, Veterinary College Shimoga, 50 from private piggery farm of Shimoga and 50 from free range desi pigs of Shimoga city. The fecal samples were processed and examined by direct and sedimentation method. Out of 50 fecal samples examined from organized piggery farm, 19 were found positive for different parasitic eggs, Out of 50 fecal samples screened form private farm, 28 harbored different parasites, whereas from 50 free range desi pigs fecal samples examined, all showed one and other parasitic eggs/ova. The percent prevalence of parasitic infection is more in free range desi pigs compared to Yorkshire breeds maintained under stall fed condition. PMID:27605803

  9. Study of profile of poisoning cases reported to district hospital, Chamarajanagar, Karnataka, India

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    Srinivasa K.


    Results: In present study, rural hindu males were among the highest reported cases, with maximum number of cases reported during the month of March and during the 12:01 to 18:00 hours of the day. Irritant poisons accounts to the highest incidence (68% among poisoning in present study. Pesticides, organophosphorus compound in particular form the major type of poisons among irritants followed by snake bite, rat poison and honey bee bite (sting. Conclusions: This study highlights the profile of poisoning cases admitted to the Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka, India which clearly indicates the high risk population involved and the common poisons encountered in these region. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1215-1219

  10. Unraveling multiple provenance areas using sandstone petrofacies and geochemistry: An example in the southern flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Patagonia, Argentina) (United States)

    Limarino, Carlos Oscar; Giordano, Sergio Roberto


    The aim of this paper is to study the provenance of Late Cretaceous sandstones deposited along the south flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin. For this purpose, detrital modes of three hundred thirty-seven sandstone samples collected in the Mina del Carmen, Bajo Barreal, and Cañadón Seco Formations were studied in ten oil fields. According to the modal composition of the sandstones, six petrofacies were defined allowing the identification of not only principal, but also secondary provenance areas. The QVM and VQM petrofacies are more than 20% metamorphic, sedimentary, and polycrystalline quartz clasts (Lm + Ls + Qpg > 20%), evidencing a secondary signal of basement supply masked by a predominant volcanic provenance. The petrofacies VP and VF are characterized by Lm + Ls + Qpg 20%.), which indicate a supply of sediment from volcanic terrains and scarce derivation of materials from basement rocks. Based on the plagioclase/k-feldspar ratio, the VF petrofacies is interpreted to be dominated by the supply of sand grains from the Andean volcanic-arc, while VP is supposed have originated through the erosion of intermediate volcanic rock outcroppings in the Macizo del Deseado. Finally, both the VQ and QV petrofacies show Lm + Ls + Qpg <20% and Pm + Om<20%, indicating a provenance of volcanic areas coupled with minor contributions from basement rocks. During the Late Cretaceous, the Golfo San Jorge Basin underwent a sag phase that was characterized by very scarce volcanism and tectonic activity. Although these conditions did not favor defined patterns in the vertical stacking of petrofacies, the sandstones exhibit remarkable changes in their regional distribution, which were determined by the paleogeography of the basin and differences in basement composition within the source areas. Finally, a paleogeographic model for sediment circulation in the basin is proposed. This model recognizes the main fluvial dispersal trends that flowed northwest to southeast and transported

  11. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience. (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N


    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  12. Pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India

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    Ramesha K


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It is important to know the nature, severity and outcome of acute poisoning cases in order to take up appropriate planning, prevention and management techniques. This study aimed to assess the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical institution in Karnataka. The study included 136 cases and data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake; circumstances of poisoning, name of the poisonous substance, chemical type, duration of hospitalization, severity and outcome were collected in the prestructured proforma. Results: Incidence was more common among males (75.4% compared to females (24.3. Most cases of acute poisoning presented among 20- to 29-year age group (31.2% followed by 12- to 19-year age group (30.2%. A majority of poisoning cases (36.0% were due to organophosphorus compound (OPC. Total mortality was found to be 15.4%. Mortality rate due to corrosives was significantly high compared with OPC poisoning (χ2 = 4.12, P = 0.04. Of the 56 patients of OPC and carbamate poisoning, 13 patients (23.2% had respiratory arrest and required respiratory support. Time lapse had a significant role on the mortality in cases of acute poisoning (χ2 = 10.9, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Poisoning is more common in young males. The overall mortality is substantially high, mainly contributed by self-poisoning with insecticides and corrosives. Early care in a tertiary care center may help to reduce mortality in India.

  13. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

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    Cleland John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  14. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

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    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  15. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in semiarid and karstic environments: A field study in the Granada Basin (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohfahl, Claus [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail:; Sprenger, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Herrera, Jose Benavente [Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada, Ramon y Cajal, 4, 18071 Granada (Spain); Meyer, Hanno [Isotope Laboratory of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Chacon, Franzisca Fernandez [Dpto. Hidrogeologia y Aguas Subterraneas, Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Oficina de Proyectos, Urb. Alcazar del Genil 4, Edificio Zulema bajo, 18006 Granada (Spain); Pekdeger, Asaf [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)


    The objective of this study is to refine the understanding of recharge processes in watersheds representative for karstic semiarid areas by means of stable isotope analysis and hydrogeochemistry. The study focuses on the Granada aquifer system which is located in an intramontane basin bounded by high mountain ranges providing elevation differences of almost 2900 m. These altitude gradients lead to important temperature and precipitation gradients and provide excellent conditions for the application of stable isotopes of water whose composition depends mainly on temperature. Samples of rain, snow, surface water and groundwater were collected at 154 locations for stable isotope studies ({delta}{sup 18}O, D) and, in the case of ground- and surface waters, also for major and minor ion analysis. Thirty-seven springs were sampled between 2 and 5 times from October 2004 to March 2005 along an altitudinal gradient from 552 masl in the Granada basin to 2156 masl in Sierra Nevada. Nine groundwater samples were taken from the discharge of operating wells in the Granada basin which are all located between 540 and 728 masl. The two main rivers were monitored every 2-3 weeks at three different altitudes. Rainfall being scarce during the sampling period, precipitation could only be sampled during four rainfall events. Calculated recharge altitudes of springs showed that source areas of mainly snowmelt recharge are generally located between 1600 and 2000 masl. The isotope compositions of spring water indicate water sources from the western Mediterranean as well as from the Atlantic without indicating a seasonal trend. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different sources of recharge which occur mainly by bankfiltration of the main rivers. Isotopic signatures in the southeastern part of the aquifer indicate a considerable recharge contribution by subsurface flow discharged from the adjacent carbonate aquifer. No evaporation effects due

  16. Awareness of health personnel about lymphatic filariasis and mass drug administration in Karnataka state of South India


    Joseph N; Subba SH; Jain A; Unnikrishnan B; Nagaraj K; Kotian SM


    BackgroundA third of world’s filariasis cases occur in India. As a resultMass Drug Administration (MDA) was commenced in 1997with the aim of eliminating this disease by 2015. Howeverthe coverage of MDA was not satisfactory. The underlyingreasons for the poor coverage need to be identified. Thisstudy was conducted to assess the awareness of healthpersonnel of lymphatic filariasis and the MDA programme.MethodThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Kundapurataluk of Karnataka state in India ...

  17. Psychosocial perspective of first year medical students entered in a professional course – a cross sectional study from Davangere, Karnataka


    Prasad Budri Kallingappa; Sindhuja Asokan


    Background The perception of stress is frequently influenced by socio cultural factors; the results of studies on one region cannot be generalized to the other. This study is an attempt to explore the perception of stress and allied stressors among Indian medical students who have just entered into professional course. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on medical students of SSIMSRC, Davangere, Karnataka. Depression, anxiety and stress scores were noted using DASS questionna...

  18. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

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    Usha Seshachala


    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  19. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals (United States)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio


    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  20. 南沙海域礼乐盆地沉积过程和演化%Depositional Process and Evolution of Liyue Basin in Southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏春; 赵中贤; 张翠梅; 谢辉; 陈广浩


    The evolution of rift-drift-subsidence can usually be illuminated by sedimental style, subsidence history and structural style, so it's possible to understand basin evolution through analysis of depositional process and coupling tectonic-sedimentary. In this paper, infill stratigraphy, subsidence history and structural characteristics are analyzed. The results show that Liyue basin is characterized by typical "tow-layer" structural pattern, which is separated by a regional breakup unconformity (T60). The horsts and grabens are in low basin overlain by upper depressions of the Neogene. And the half-grabens characterized by asymmetric wedge-shape are bounded by both normal faults and large-scale listric faults, which controlled the sedimentary cy cles. The subsidence method is mainly tectonic subsidence before 23. 8 Ma but is thermal subsidence after Late Oligocene. There were three regional subsidence episodes, and each subsidence rate was from slow to fast. Liyue basin is primarily composed of three regressive cycles of rift infilling influenced by regional tectonic, which correspond to three stages of basin development. The first stage, characterized by extensional stress, is related to early rift development from approximately 45 Ma until Early Oligocene. Featured by both extension and strike-slip stress, the second is associated with rift-drift development from initiation of sea floor spreading in South China Sea at 30 Ma until the end of sea floor spreading at Middle Miocene. And the third is late post-rift subsidence from approximately 16 Ma until 5. 5 Ma, which is controlled by transpressive stress field.%礼乐盆地所经历的张裂-漂移-碰撞沉降构造历史,在沉积物沉积样式、沉降历史及断裂构造样式中均有反映,因此,分析盆地沉积过程及其与构造的耦合关系可揭示其演化过程.通过对礼乐盆地沉积充填过程、沉降方式及构造特征的分析,认为礼乐盆地具双层结构模式特征,以T60

  1. Metallogenic model of uranium deposits in red basin area of Southern China%中国南方红盆区铀矿床成矿模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪昌亮; 徐萍


    Based on the analysis of mineralization background of uranium deposits in Southern China and the metallogenic model of uranium summarized by the predecessors,this paper conducted a comprehensive study on the uranium source and mineralization period of granitic and volcanic uranium deposits as well as the time and space relationship between the uranium deposits and cretaceous-tertiary red basin.It appears that the uranium source of granitic and volcanic uranium deposits comes from the upper layer of the earth crust. Under the circumstance of dry,hot and strong oxidization in cretaceous-tertiary period,uranium-rich geologic body suffers from weathering and denudation.The valence state of uranium element is increased because of the effect of oxidization and the uranium migrates under the influence of surface water.The ura-nium-bearing fluid infiltrate along the fractures formed in the setting of cretaceous-tertiary crustal extension and then is mineralized at the spots which are favorable for reduction and precipitation of uranium.Known hydrothermal uranium deposits in Southern China are wildly distributed in the peripheral area of red basin, and the concealed granite and volcanic rocks in the basement of cretaceous-tertiary red basin have the same metallogenic conditions that the known uranium deposit on the periphery of red basin have.It appears that the area in which intrusive granite and volcanic rocks occur have a potential of prospecting for large scale ura-nium deposits.%在分析我国华南地区铀矿床成矿背景的基础上,根据前人提出的铀成矿模式,对该地区花岗岩型和火山岩型铀矿床的铀源、成矿时间以及铀矿床与白垩纪―第三纪红盆在时间和空间上的关系进行了综合研究,认为:华南地区花岗岩型和火山岩型铀矿床的铀源主要来自于地壳表层,在白垩纪―第三纪干热、强氧化的环境下,富铀地质体遭受风化剥蚀,铀元素

  2. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Shaw Souradet Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  3. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study

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    A Basit


    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 162 children were included in the study, of which 56 were cases. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the caregivers of the children and the nutritional status was graded according to the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP grading of protein-energy malnutrition.ResultsUnder-nutrition was associated with illness in the last one month [OR- 4.78 (CI: 1.83 -12.45], feeding diluted milk [OR- 14.26 (CI: 4.65 – 43.68] and having more than two children with a birth interval < 2 years [OR- 4.93 (CI: 1.78 – 13.61]. Lack of exclusive breast feeding, level of education of the caregiver and environmental factors like source of water did not have an association.ConclusionChildhood illness, short birth interval and consumption of diluted milk were some of the significant contributory factors noted among this population. Information, Education, Communication (IEC campaigns alleviating food fads and promoting birth spacing is needed.

  4. Image feature and recognition of prospective section of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits at southern margin of Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the secondary development of scientific experimental satellite photograph, the three-dimension stereo simulation display and the elaboration principle, methods and procedures of multi-parameter extraction. At the same time, the image features of prospective areas for in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits in Yili basin on different type images are comprehensively studied, the geological implication and significance of image features are analysed, and recognition of image features for prospective areas is made. On the basis of above research achievements, three-grade prediction, i.e. the regional metallogenic prediction, the selection of prospective area, and the selection of favorable mineralized site, is performed, and good verification results have been obtained

  5. Facies and depositional architecture according to a jet efflux model of a late Paleozoic tidewater grounding-line system from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil (United States)

    Aquino, Carolina Danielski; Buso, Victoria Valdez; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio; Milana, Juan Pablo; Paim, Paulo Sergio Gomes


    During the Late Paleozoic, the Gondwana supercontinent was affected by multiple glacial and deglacial episodes known as "The Late Paleozoic Ice Age" (LPIA). In Brazil, the evidence of this episode is recorded mainly by widespread glacial deposits preserved in the Paraná Basin that contain the most extensive record of glaciation (Itararé Group) in Gondwana. The Pennsylvanian to early Permian glaciogenic deposits of the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin) are widely known and cover an extensive area in southern Brazil. In the Doutor Pedrinho area (Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil), three glacial cycles of glacier advance and retreat were described. The focus of this article is to detail the base of the second glacial episodes or Sequence II. The entire sequence records a deglacial system tract that is represented by a proximal glacial grounding-line system covered by marine mudstones and shales associated with a rapid flooding of the proglacial area. This study deals with the ice proximal grounding-line systems herein interpreted according to lab model named plane-wall jet with jump. Detailed facies analysis allowed the identification of several facies ranging from boulder-rich conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones. No fine-grained deposits such as siltstone or shale were recorded. According to this model, the deposits are a product of a supercritical plane-wall outflow jet that changes to a subcritical jet downflow from a hydraulic jump. The hydraulic jump forms an important energy boundary that is indicated by an abrupt change in grain size and cut-and-fill structures that occur at the middle-fan. The sedimentary facies and facies associations show a downflow trend that can be subdivided into three distinct stages of flow development: (1) a zone of flow establishment (ZFE), (2) a zone of transition (ZFT), and (3) an established zone (ZEF). The proximal discharge is characterized by hyperconcentrated-to-concentrated flow due to the high energy and sediment

  6. Whole water column distribution and carbon isotopic composition of bulk particulate organic carbon, cholesterol and brassicasterol from the Cape Basin to the northern Weddell Gyre in the Southern Ocean

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    A.-J. Cavagna


    Full Text Available The combination of concentrations and δ13C signatures of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC and sterols provides a powerful approach to study ecological and environmental changes both in the modern and ancient ocean, but its application has so far been restricted to the surface area. We applied this tool to study the biogeochemical changes in the modern ocean water column during the BONUS-GoodHope survey (Feb–Mar 2008 from Cape Basin to the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. Cholesterol and brassicasterol were chosen as ideal biomarkers of the heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon pools, respectively, because of their ubiquitous and relatively refractory nature.

    We document depth distributions of concentrations (relative to bulk POC and δ13C signatures of cholesterol and brassicasterol from the Cape Basin to the northern Weddell Gyre combined with CO2 aq. surface concentration variation. While relationships between surface water CO2 aq. and δ13C of bulk POC and biomarkers have been previously established for surface waters, our data show that these remain valid in deeper waters, suggesting that δ13C signatures of certain biomarkers could be developed as proxies for surface water CO2 aq. Our data suggest a key role of zooplankton fecal aggregates in carbon export for this part of the Southern Ocean. We observed a general increase in sterol δ13C signatures with depth, which is likely related to a combination of particle size effects, selective feeding on larger cells by zooplankton, and growth rate related effects Additionally, in the southern part of the transect south of the Polar Front (PF, the release of sea-ice algae is hypothesized to influence the isotopic signature of sterols in the open ocean. Overall, combined use of δ13C and concentrations measurements of both bulk organic C and specific sterol markers throughout the water

  7. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

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    Xiaowei Feng


    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  8. Syn- to post-Taconian basin formation in the Southern Québec Appalachians, Canada: constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology (United States)

    Perrot, Morgann; Tremblay, Alain; David, Jean


    In Southern Québec, In the Southern Quebec Appalachians, the Laurentian continental margin (Humber zone) and adjacent oceanic domain of the Dunnage zone were amalgamated during the Ordovician Taconian orogeny. The Dunnage zone includes ophiolites, overlying synorogenic Ordovician deposits of both the Saint-Daniel Mélange and Magog Group and the remnants of a peri-Laurentian volcanic arc, the Ascot complex. However, recently-acquired detrital zircons geochronological data challenge some aspects of the formation and evolution the Magog Group as documented so far. The Magog Group consists of ~3 km pile of sandstone, felsic volcaniclastic rocks, graphitic slate and sandstone at the base (Frontière, Etchemin and Beauceville formations) overlain by a ~7 km-thick of a turbidites flysch sequence, constituting the St-Victor Formation at the top. The maximum age limit for the Magog Group is currently considered to be Caradocian based on graptolite fauna. This has been proven consistent with a 462 +5/-4 Ma (U-Pb ID-TIMS) from a felsic tuff of the Beauceville Formation, but in obvious contradiction with a detrital zircon U-Pb age of 424  6 Ma recently measured in the St-Victor Formation. A detrital zircon U-Pbgeochronology study (LA-HR-ICPMS), focused on the St-Victor Formation, has been therefore initiated in order to better constrain the age and tectonic evolution of the Magog Group. Results were treated according to a Bayesian mixture modeling to highlight different age populations. A feldspar-rich sandstone, directly overlying the Ascot Complex (ca. 460 Ma) and belonging to the base of the St-Victor Formation, yielded ages as young as 431 ± 3 Ma (Wenlockian). Higher in the stratigraphy, a quartz-feldspars sandstone sample contains zircons as young as 419 ±2 Ma (Pridolian). Finally, another sandstone sample from the stratigraphic top of the analyzed sequence yielded a bimodal age distribution, showing prominent populations clustering around ca. 950 Ma and ca. 435 Ma

  9. Karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Tapajós River basin, Southern Amazon: occurrence of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) and their evolutionary implications. (United States)

    Oliveira, L C; Ribeiro, M O; Dutra, E S; Zawadzki, C H; Portela-Castro, A L B; Martins-Santos, I C


    Hypostomus is a group of fish with numerical and struc-tural karyotypic variability. Among them, only six species, three of which belong to the Amazon basin, show a sex chromosome. In this study, we present the karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecos-tomus from the Teles Pires river basin in the municipality of Alta Flo-resta, MT. The species has 2n = 68 and the karyotype formula 14m+ 24sm+ 14st+ 16a [fundamental number (FN) = 120] in males and 15m+ 24sm+14st+15a (FN = 121) in females and sex chromosomes ZZ/ZW. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were identified in two pairs of chromosomes at different positions: short arm of the pair 21and long arm of the pair 27, matching the signals displayed by 18S FISH and indicating multiple NORs. Analysis of band C detected few blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and the telomeric regions of some pairs, includ-ing the nucleolar pair 21. However, large blocks on the long arm of the nucleolar pair 27 still stood out. GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA3) was visualized only coincidently with nucleolar sites. Mapping of 5S rDNA sites with FISH revealed markings in eight chromosomes, demonstrat-ing synteny between the 18S and 5S sites. The data obtained for H. cf. plecostomus are important for taxonomic studies of this Amazon com-plex "H. plecostomus group". The occurrence of sex chromosomes in Amazon species of Hypostomus suggests an evolutionary event that is independent of other species in the group.

  10. Intra-field variability in microbial community associated with phase-separation-controlled hydrothermal fluid chemistry in the Mariner field, the southern Lau Basin (United States)

    Takai, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Lupton, J.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Hirayama, H.; Horikoshi, K.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.


    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field at the northernmost central Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the Lau Basin was explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The hydrothermal fluid (max. 365 u^C) emitting from the most vigorous vent site (Snow chimney) was boiling just beneath the seafloor at a water depth of 1908 m and two end-members of hydrothermal fluid were identified. Mineral and fluid chemistry of typical brine-rich (Snow chimney and Monk chimney) and vapor-rich (Crab Restaurant chimney) hydrothermal fluids and the host chimney structures were analyzed. Microbial community structures in three chimney structures were also investigated by culture-dependent and - independent analyses. The 16S rRNA gene clone analysis revealed that both bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities at the chimney surface zones were different among three chimneys. The bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities of the Snow chimney surface were very similar with those in the dead chimneys, suggesting concurrence of metal sulfide deposition at the inside and weathering at the surface potentially due to its large structure and size. Cultivation analysis demonstrated the significant variation in culturability of various microbial components, particularly of thermophilic H2- and/or S-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs such as the genera Aquifex and Persephonella, among the chimney sites. The culturability of these chemolithoautotrophs might be associated with the input of gaseous energy and carbon sources like H2S, H2 and CH4 from the hydrothermal fluids, and might be affected by phase-separation- controlled fluid chemistry. In addition, inter-fields comparison of microbial community structures determined by cultivation analysis revealed novel characteristics of the microbial communities in the Mariner field of the Lau Basin among the global deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  11. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

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    Sreejith S. Nair


    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  12. Gender Variables and Reproductive Behaviour of Women from Rural Mangalore, South Karnataka, India

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    Radha Y. Aras


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a growing sense that health and development programs can contribute to transforming gender norms and achieving good health and gender equality. Married women in India lack control over decisions related to their sexual and reproductive behavior due to gender inequities, cultural norms, limited economics and social autonomy. Gender disparities in the form of adverse sex ratio, wage differentials and various health and education dimensions are still prevalent in the Karnataka State. Hence a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community of Mangalore, Karnataka, India.Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the reproductive health of women and their associations with gender variables prevailing in the community. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Shantibagh and Vaidyanath Nagar Community in a Kotekar Panchayat at Mangalore from December 2009 to January 2010. A pretested semi structured interview tool was used to collect the information on the epidemiological variables related to reproductive health and gender issues. By systematic random sampling techinique, 214 women in the reproductive age groups were interviewed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 15.0. Results: There is a strong association between religion and type of Family as well as religion and women’s education status (p < 0.001. Average age at marriage is 21 years and average age at first pregnancy is 22.75 years. Average family size is 2.66. Prevalence of home deliveries is 11.5%. 91% of home deliveries are attended by Dai (Birth Attendants (26% of Dai’s are not trained. 57% of women (n=114- 91 Hindu, 17 Muslim & 6 Christian are using family planning measures and 90% of them decided with joint consultation (both husband and wife. Practice of family planning and traditional mis-belief that “every couple must have a son” are strongly associated with type of religion (p < 0.001. Variables

  13. Value Creation in Collaborative Supply Chain Network in Automobile Industry in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj S


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose : This paper aims to determine the key factors that influence the value based supply chain in the collaborative network of Automotive sector in India and the extent of information sharing in a B2B set up and its implication on business decisions in the Automobile sector. The paper makes an attempt to examine the value creation in the supply chain network of e-commerce based automobile companies. The predominant factors that influence the Collaborative practices of Automobile Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in Karnataka and their dealership network in the background of e-commerce is thoroughly examined. Design/methodology/approach : In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of value creation expert research made over the past several years is used and statistical analysis(Exploratory Factor Analysis has been conducted based on the survey results of perceptions of the dealers assimilated through online survey. Findings : Major empirical findings based on automobile companies’ data analysis vide Exploratory factor analysis allow stating that adoption of e-based collaborative arrangements and information sharing based on trust and long term alliance between partners enhances the value creation and results in the improvement in Supply chain management. It thus results in: Savings in cost, Timely decisions based on superior information, Better and positive relationships with Manufacturer-Suppliers and Dealers, Superior and strong collaboration, Integrated customer service and Enhancement of ultimate consumer value. Originality value: This paper has thoroughly examined the Collaborative network of the e-commerce based automobile co’s. and empirical findings suggest that the entire supply chain network has reaped the benefits of technology adoption and its impact on business results is tangible which could be evidenced in positive outcomes like improvement in Manufacturer-Supplier-Dealer co-ordination and

  14. The organic and mineral matter contents in deposits infilling floodplain basins: Holocene alluviation record from the Kłodnica and Osobłoga river valleys, southern Poland (United States)

    Wójcicki, K. J.; Marynowski, L.


    The work examines the timing and environmental conditions of floodplain sedimentation in the valleys of the upland Kłodnica and piedmont Osobłoga rivers in the Upper Odra River basin. A distribution of 52 14C-ages shows relatively high floodplain sedimentation at the Late Glacial-Holocene transition, more stable floodplain environments since the Early (in the Kłodnica Valley) and Middle Holocene (in the Osobłoga Valley) and a gradual increase in floodplain deposition in the Late Holocene (since hydrological events) as well as factors affecting the local record of sedimentation (i.e. valley morphology, hydrologic conditions and episodes of local erosion). A clear relationship is shown between an increase in alluviation and climate- or human-induced extension of unforested areas. The deposition of mineral-rich sediments increases rapidly during periods characterized by non-arboreal pollen values exceeding approximately 8% in pollen diagrams. On the other hand, the results obtained do not confirm significant interactions between Holocene changes in forest composition and alluviation. Despite the settlement of agrarian groups, the sedimentary record of human activity in the Osobłoga catchment is very poor during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. A large-scale alluviation of the Osobłoga and Kłodnica valleys was initiated during the settlement of people of the Lusatian culture from the middle Bronze Age and escalated in the early Middle Ages and Modern Times. The deposition of products of soil erosion was limited to between ca. 1.9-1.2 kyr BP, probably due to demographic regression during the Migration Period. Comparison of OM/MM fluctuations with phases of increased fluvial activity does not show a relationship between Holocene wetter phases and catchment sediment yield. Sedimentary episodes in the Upper Odra basin also show a low degree of correlation with the probability density curve of the 14C-ages. The results obtained in the Kłodnica and Osob

  15. Geochemistry and geodynamics of a Late Cretaceous bimodal volcanic association from the southern part of the Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Northern Croatia) (United States)

    Pamic, J.; Belak, M.; Bullen, T.D.; Lanphere, M.A.; McKee, E.H.


    In this paper we present petrological and geochemical information on a bimodal basaltrhyolite suite associated with A-type granites of Late Cretaceous age from the South Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Croatia). Basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites, associated in some places with ignimbrites, occur in volcanic bodies that are interlayered with pyroclastic and fossiliferous Upper Cretaceus sedimentary rocks. The petrology and geochemistry of the basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites are constrained by microprobe analyses, major and trace element analyses including REE, and radiogenic and stable isotope data. Basalts that are mostly transformed into metabasalts (mainly spilites), are alkalic to subalkalic and their geochemical signatures, particularly trace element and REE patterns, are similar to recent back-arc basalts. Alkali-feldspar rhyolites have similar geochemical features to the associated cogenetic A-type granites, as shown by their large variation of Na2O and K2O (total 8-9%), very low MgO and CaO, and very high Zr contents ranging between 710 and 149ppm. Geochemical data indicate an amphibole lherzolite source within a metasomatized upper mantle wedge, with the influence of upper mantle diapir with MORB signatures and continental crust contamination. Sr incorporated in the primary basalt melt had an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7039 indicating an upper mantle origin, whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the alkalifeldspar rhyolites and associated A-type granites is 0.7073 indicating an apparent continental crust origin. However, some other geochemical data favour the idea that they might have mainly originated by fractionation of primary mafic melt coupled with contamination of continental crust. Only one rhyolite sample appears to be the product of melting of continental crust. Geological and geodynamic data indicate that the basalt-rhyolite association was probably related to Alpine subduction processes in the Dinaridic Tethys which can be correlated with

  16. Use of geochemical, isotopic, and age tracer data to develop models of groundwater flow: A case study of Gafsa mining basin-Southern Tunisia (United States)

    Hamed, Younes; Ahmadi, Riadh; Demdoum, Abdeslam; Bouri, Salem; Gargouri, Imed; Ben Dhia, Hamed; Al-Gamal, Samir; Laouar, Rabah; Choura, Abedjabar


    Hydro-(major and trace elements: Cd, F and Sr), isotope (18O, 2H, 3H and 13C) geochemistry and radiogenic carbon (14C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were used to investigate the sources of groundwater contamination and the hydrodynamic functioning of the multilayer aquifer system in the mining Gafsa basin (Southwestern Tunisia). The groundwater of the study area is subject to intense exploitation to accommodate all the water demands of this arid area. The Gafsa basin contains a multi-layered aquifer with four principal levels: Upper Zebbag (Cenomanian-Turonian), Abiod (Campanien-Maastrichian), Beglia (Miocene) and Segui (Plio-Quaternary) Formations. The hydrogeology of this system is largely affected by tectonics (Gafsa-Tebessa, Sehib, Negrine-Tozeur, Tabeddit and Metlaoui faults…). The groundwater of these aquifers undergoes a significant decline in water level (≈0.5 m y-1), increasing salinity (TDS increase from 400 to 800-6000 mg l-1: generally, TDS increases from the mountainous regions towards the discharge area) due to a long time of aridity, irregular rainfall and overexploitation (irrigation and industrial activities). Groundwater pumped from the semi-confined Complex Terminal (C.T) aquifers (Cretaceous and Mio-Plio-Quaternary: MPQ) and from the confined Continental Intercalaire (C.I) aquifers is an important production factor in irrigated oases agriculture and phosphate washing in Southwestern Tunisia. A rise in the groundwater salinity has been observed as a consequence of increasing abstraction from the aquifer during the last few decades. The salinization phenomena in the region are complex. Several possible causes for salinization exist: (1) the upwelling of saline and "fossil" water from the underlying, confined "C.I" aquifer; (2) as well as the backflow of agricultural drainage water; (3) phosphate and domestic wastewater; (4) brine intrusion from the salt lake (Sebkha/Garaat); (5) evaporate meteoric water dams (El Khangua and El Oude

  17. The impact of Manjil and Tarik dams (Sefidroud River, southern Caspian Sea basin on morphological traits of Siah Mahi Capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Heidari


    Full Text Available It has been postulated that the building of the Manjil and Tarik dams on Sefidroud River has led to the body shape variation of Capoeta gracilis in up- and downstream populations due to the isolation. In this study, Geometric morphometric approach was used to explore body shape variations of Capoeta gracilis populations in up- and downstream Manjil and Tarik dams in Sefidroud River from south of the Caspian Sea basin. The shape of 90 individuals from three sampling sites was extracted by recording the 2-D coordinates of 13 landmark points. PCA, CVA, DFA and CA analysis were used to examine shape differences among the populations. The significant differences were found among the shape of the populations and these differences were observed in the snout, the caudal peduncle and head. The present study indicated the body shape differences in the populations of Capoeta gracilis in the Sefidroud River across the Manjil and Tarik dams, probably due to the dam construction showing anthropogenic transformation of rivers influences body shape in an aquatic organism.

  18. New evidence of an early Pridoli barrier reef in the southern part of the Baltic Silurian basin based on three-dimensional seismic survey, Lithuania

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    Donatas Kaminskas


    Full Text Available Reefs and a barrier reef have been newly identified and mapped by three-dimensional (3D seismic survey in Lithuania. Seismic data analysis has allowed the size and geometry of these reefs to be determined. The largest reefs occur at Pavasaris and South Bliudziai. They have a similar shape and are about 1.5 km long and 1 km wide. A circle-shaped smaller patch reef at North Bliudziai is 1 km in diameter. The overall heights of the studied structures do not exceed 30–40 m. The reefs consist of coarse-grained bioclastic stromatoporoid limestone. A barrier reef rising structurally from SW to NE was established in the west of the mapped area. The stratigraphic position (early Minija Regional Stage and lateral distribution of the barrier reef suggest it started to form earlier than the group of patch reefs. The development of patch reefs was related to the transgression of the Silurian Baltic basin.

  19. Understanding the groundwater dynamics in the Southern Rift Valley Lakes Basin (Ethiopia). Multivariate statistical analysis method, oxygen (δ 18O) and deuterium (δ 2H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate statistical analysis is very important to classify waters of different hydrochemical groups. Statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, can provide a powerful tool for analyzing water chemistry data. This method is used to test water quality data and determine if samples can be grouped into distinct populations that may be significant in the geologic context, as well as from a statistical point of view. Multivariate statistical analysis method is applied to the geochemical data in combination with δ 18O and δ 2H isotopes with the objective to understand the dynamics of groundwater using hierarchical clustering and isotope analyses. The geochemical and isotope data of the central and southern rift valley lakes have been collected and analyzed from different works. Isotope analysis shows that most springs and boreholes are recharged by July and August rainfalls. The different hydrochemical groups that resulted from the multivariate analysis are described and correlated with the geology of the area and whether it has any interaction with a system or not. (author)

  20. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin (United States)

    Ben-Gharbia, Hela; Yahia, Ons Kéfi-Daly; Amzil, Zouher; Chomérat, Nicolas; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Sibat, Manoella; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Nouri, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed


    Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d−1 for O. cf. ovata, 0.35 ± 0.01 d−1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d−1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis, a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m/z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed. PMID:27754462

  1. Sickness Absenteeism, Morbidity and Workplace Injuries among Iron and Steel workers – A Cross Sectional Study from Karnataka, Southern India

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    Manjunatha R


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study of illnesses causing absence of workers from workin industries is a practical method to study the health statusof industrial workers and to identify occupational healthhazards. The iron and steel industries are particularlyhazardous places of work. Published data from India onhealth status of iron and steel workers is limited, thereforethis study was undertaken to investigate the sicknessabsenteeism, morbidity and workplace injuries among thispopulation.MethodWorkers were selected using stratified random sampling. Astructured pre-tested interview schedule was used tocollect the data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered forstatistical significance.ResultsFrom a total of 2525 workers, 353 (mean age 55.1 yrs, male69.4% participated in the study. The overall proportion ofsickness absenteeism was 66.9% (95% CI: 0.62 – 0.71.Overall 16.4 days were lost per worker per year (male = 16.5& female = 16.2 due to sickness absence. A blue collarworker lost 21.5 days compared to 11.9 days by a whitecollar worker (p < 0.01. Among workers, health ailmentsrelated to the musculoskeletal system (31.4%,gastrointestinal system (25.8%, hypertension (24.4%,respiratory system (18.1% and other minor ailments(19.3% were found to be high.ConclusionSickness absenteeism is significantly higher among iron andsteel workers when compared to other occupations in India.Blue collar workers and shift workers loose higher numberof days due to sickness absence, and they face problemsrelated to musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal systemand hypertension in higher proportions compared to theircounterparts. Women experienced hypertension as thecommon health problem and higher proportions of injuriesoutside the work environment.

  2. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka for IPCC SRES scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aavudai Anandhi


    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, due to the choice of scenarios, season type and number of seasons. Based on the type of season, the monthly sequences of variables (predictors) were selected from datasets of NCEP and Canadian General Circulation Model (CGCM3). Seasonal stratifications were carried out on the selected predictors using K-means clustering technique. The results of cluster analysis revealed increase in average, wet season length in A2, A1B and B1 scenarios towards the end of 21st century. The increase in season length was higher for A2 scenario whereas it was the least for B1 scenario. COMMIT scenario did not show any change in season length. However, no change in average warm and cold season length was observed across the four scenarios considered. The number of seasons was increased from 2 to 5. The results of the analysis revealed that no distinct cluster could be obtained when the number of seasons was increased beyond three.

  3. Genetic variation and population structure of interleukin genes among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srilakshmi M. Raj; Diddahally R. Govindaraju; Ranajit Chakraborty


    The extent of genetic variation and the degree of genetic differentiation among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India (Bunt, Havyak, Iyengar, Lingayath, Smartha, Vaishya, Vokkaliga), was investigated using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: IL-1A 4845, IL-1B 3954, IL-1B 511 and IL-1RA 2018) of the interleukin gene cluster. Allele frequencies varied by threefold among these populations, which also differed for gene diversity and heterozygosity levels. The average degree of population subdivision among these castes was low ($F_{ST} = 0.02$). However, pair-wise interpopulation differentiation ranged from 0–7%, indicating no detectable differentiation to moderate differentiation between specific populations. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distances between populations agreed with known social and cultural data on these ethnic groups. Variation in the allele frequencies, as well as differentiation, may be attributed to differential selection and demographic factors including consanguinity among the ethnic groups. Information on the distribution of functionally relevant polymorphisms among ethnic populations may be important towards developing community medicine and public health policies.

  4. Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India (United States)

    Sadashivaiah, C.; Ramakrishnaiah, C. R.; Ranganna, G.


    Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13° 06′30″ to 13° 31′ 00″ North latitude and 76° 59′ 00″ to 77° 19′ 00″ East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram. PMID:19139534

  5. Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ranganna


    Full Text Available Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13º 06'30" to 13º 31' 00" North latitude and 76º 59' 00" to 77º 19' 00" East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram.

  6. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely 90Sr and 137Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of 90Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of 137Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of 90Sr through diet was 0.42 μSv year-1 for the vegetarian population and 0.32 μSv year-1 for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of 137Cs was found to be 0.34 μSv year-1 and 0.26 μSv year-1 respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pregnancy is usually a serene time of unparalleled joy and expectation in a women's life. However , sometimes it can be complicated by illnesses or medical conditions. Although only 10 - 30% of the mothers seen in antenatal period can be classified as high ri sk they account for 70 - 80% of perinatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES : To determine casual blood pressure recordings among primi and multigravida women in a rural block of Karnataka state. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present cross - sectional study was carried out in all the sub - centers under Primary Health Centre (PHC , the rural field practice area of Bangarpet taluk of Kolar district during April 2013 to September 2013. Blood pressure was recorded with sphygmoman ometer by auscultatory method in 200 registered pregnant women attending the particular sub - center at that point of time. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following conclusions were drawn after statistical analysi s . 1. There was statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure as age advanced among the pregnant women . 2. There was statistically significant increase in diastolic blood pressure among primigravida as compared to multigravida . But nonethel ess no cases of pregnancy induced hypertension was detected in our study group .

  8. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka

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    Mayuri Banerjee


    Full Text Available Background: India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8% of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  9. Beyond internalised stigma: daily moralities and subjectivity among self-identified kothis in Karnataka, South India. (United States)

    Thompson, Laura H; Khan, Shamshad; du Plessis, Elsabé; Lazarus, Lisa; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Hafeez Ur Rahman, Syed; Pasha, Akram; Lorway, Robert


    The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has poured a tremendous amount of resources into epidemic prevention in India's high HIV prevalence zones, through their Avahan initiative. These community-centred programmes operate under the assumption that fostering community-based organisational development and empowering the community to take charge of HIV prevention and education will help to transform the wider social inequalities that inhibit access to health services. Focusing on the South Indian state of Karnataka, this paper explores a troubling set of local narratives that, we contend, hold broader implications for future programme planning and implementation. Although confronting stigma and discrimination has become a hallmark in community mobilisation discourse, communities of self-identified kothis (feminine men) who were involved in Avahan programme activities continued to articulate highly negative attitudes about their own sexualities in relation to various spheres of social life. Rather than framing an understanding of these narratives in psychological terms of 'internalized stigma', we draw upon medical anthropological approaches to the study of stigma that emphasise how social, cultural and moral processes create stigmatising conditions in the everyday lives of people. The way stigma continues to manifest itself in the self-perceptions of participants points to an area that warrants critical public health attention. PMID:23941386

  10. Study of natural radioactivity and estimation of radiation dose in the environment of Tumkur, Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Jayasheelan, A; Manjunatha, S; Yashodhara, I; Karunakara, N


    The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was measured for soil samples collected from 34 locations of Tumkur District, Karnataka, India, using HPGe detector. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K varied from 9.6 to 71.6, 12.3 to 333.3 and 194.3 to 1527.7 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 33.15, 123.01 and 877.76 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed and annual effective outdoor doses were found to be highest at Ponnasamudra with 258.98 nGy h(-1) and 317.62 μSv and lowest at Sira with 36.42 nGy h(-1) and 44.67 μSv, respectively. The external hazard index ranged from 0.21 to 1.58 with an average of 0.75. It was significant in 11 locations as it exceeded unity. PMID:23907323

  11. Evaluation of re-aeration equations for river Ghataprabha, Karnataka, India and development of refined equation. (United States)

    Kalburgi, P B; Jha, R; Ojha, C S P; Deshannavar, U B


    Stream re-aeration is an extremely important component to enhance the self-purification capacity of streams. To estimate the dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the river, estimation of re-aeration coefficient is mandatory. Normally, the re-aeration coefficient is expressed as a function of several stream variables, such as mean stream velocity, shear stress velocity, bed slope, flow depth and Froude number. Many empirical equations have been developed in the last years. In this work, 13 most popular empirical re-aeration equations, used for re-aeration prediction, have been tested for their applicability in Ghataprabha River system, Karnataka, India, at various locations. Extensive field data were collected during the period March 2008 to February 2009 from seven different sites located in the river to observe re-aeration coefficient using mass balance approach. The performance of re-aeration equations have been evaluated using various error estimations, namely, the standard error (SE), mean multiplicative error (MME), normalized mean error (NME) and correlation statistics. The results show that the predictive equation developed by Jha et al. (Refinement of predictive re-aeration equations for a typical Indian river. Hydrological Process. 2001;15(6):1047-1060), for a typical Indian river, yielded the best agreement with the values of SE, MME, NME and correlation coefficient r. Furthermore, a refined predictive equation has been developed for river Ghataprabha using least-squares algorithm that minimizes the error estimates.

  12. Immunization status of infants residing in an urban community of North Karnataka, India

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    Shobha Ram Bhandari


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Immunization is proven cost effective intervention to reduce the child morbidity and mortality. Immunization is the cost-effective intervention which provides protection to infants and children. The objectives of study were to assess the immunization coverage and factors associated with utilization of immunization of 12-23 months children. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area of Belgaum city, Karnataka with a sample size of 370. Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the required information. Result: It was found that 79.5% were fully immunized, 20.5% were partially immunized and no children were found unimmunized. Immunization status of children was significantly associated with mother’s educational level (p<0.05 and socioeconomic class (p<0.001. Conclusion: As the immunization coverage of children was found still low then expected level of coverage prescribed by the Government, there is need of adequate health education proper training, motivation, better monitoring, supervision and strengthening of services to ensure adequate coverage for all doses of vaccine.

  13. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail:; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)


    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

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    H Manjunatha


    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  15. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K


    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  16. Identification of homogeneous rainfall regimes in parts of Western Ghats region of Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Venkatesh; Mathew K Jose


    In view of the ongoing environmental and ecological changes in the Western Ghats, it is important to understand the environmental parameters pertaining to the sustenance of the region. Rainfall is one such parameter governing the hydrological processes crucial to agriculture planning, afforestation and eco-system management. Therefore, it is essential to understand rainfall distribution and its variation in relevance to such activities. The present study is an attempt to gain in-depth understanding in this direction. The study area comprises of one coastal district and its adjoining areas in Karnataka State. Mean annual rainfall data of 93 rain gauge stations distributed over the study area for a period of 10–50 years are used for the study. In order to assess the variation of rainfall across the ghats, several bands were constructed parallel to the latitudes to facilitate the analysis. The statistical analyses conducted included cluster analysis and analysis of variance. The study revealed that there exist three distinct zones of rainfall regimes in the study area, namely, Coastal zone, Transition zone and Malanad zone. It is observed that, the maximum rainfall occurs on the windward side ahead of the geographical peak. Further, mean monthly rainfall distribution over the zones has been depicted to enable agricultural planning in the study area.

  17. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.


    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S


    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry.

  19. Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

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    C. N. Prasanna Kumar


    Full Text Available Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.


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    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To assess the awareness and perception of nursing students towards eye donation in rural Karnataka. METHOD: A Cross - sectional study was conducted. A pretested, semi - structured questionnaire was used for collecting the information from 200 nursing students. RESULTS: The majority 184(92% of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 64(32% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants 144(72% were either willing or had already pledged to donate their eyes. Only 60(30% knew about organ donation act. Majority 182(91% knew that HIV patient cannot donate their eyes. Most of the students 162(81% knew that eyes were removed by an eye specialist. Among students who are willing to donate eyes, 122(84.7% students felt that donating eye is a noble act. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: t he unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body 34(60.7%, lack of awareness 26(46.4% and objection by family members 22(39.3%. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that although awareness regarding eye donation is high, there is lack of knowledge and motivation related to eye donation

  1. Current public health perspective of fluorosis mitigation project in Pavagada taluk, Karnataka

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    Halappa Mythri


    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has become a recurring theme in discussing water issues in India. In Karnataka, where groundwater sources are concentrated with fluorides the impact is devastating. Dental and spine-related ailments are showing up in many cities and villages. Several villages in Pavagada taluk in Tumkur district have fluoride concentration 5 times more than the permissible level. The different aspects to the problem are many defluoridation interventions were failure. Objective: To determine and compare fluoride level in water samples from Fluorosis mitigation project area. Materials and Methods: Samples of municipal water were collected in sterile containers in an unannounced visit. All the samples of water were assigned a code so that those undertaking analysis would be blind to the source. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode (Orion 94-09 method. Results: Mean fluoride level in the water samples collected in the project was 0.8 which was within the normal range. Conclusion: Even though the fluoride level was within the normal limits after implementation of flourosis mitigation project, ground reality was numbers of beneficiaries were less. Hence, proper planning and monitoring always becomes essential for any project to be successful.

  2. Sedimentology, diagenesis, clay mineralogy and sequential analysis model of Upper Paleocene evaporite-carbonate ramp succession from Tamerza area (Gafsa Basin: Southern Tunisia) (United States)

    Messadi, Abdel Majid; Mardassi, Besma; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel


    Integrated sedimentological studies, diagenesis, sequential analysis and clay mineralogy on the Upper Paleocene rocks in Tamerza area provide important information on the reconstruction of the depositional basin, cyclicity, and paleoclimatic contexts. Facies analysis and petrographic studies have led to the recognition of nine facies that were deposited in three facies belts: Sebkha, inner ramp and outer ramp summarized in a carbonate ramp model: Homoclinal ramp under an arid climate. The upward and lateral changes in thickness and composition show a general regressive trend that records a transition from an outer ramp to Sebkha, creating different types of confinement. The facies stacking patterns constitute several kinds of meter-scale, shallowing-upward cycles. Nine different types of depositional cycles and several models of Sebkha sequences were defined. These different types of facies, characterized within the Thelja Formation, compose seven depositional sequences, mainly made of carbonates, marls and evaporates. Detailed multi approach analysis provides important information on evaporitic sequence stratigraphy. In carbonates beds, the diagenetic analysis provides an overview and chronology of diagenetic processes. A particular attention was paid to early stage cementation which enables us to characterize better the depositional environments. In addition to cementation, other features define the diagenetic history. X-ray diffraction reveals the presence of smectite suggesting an arid climate. Moreover, the clinoptilolite and the frequency of primary dolomite indicate different degrees of confinement. The seven depositional sequences showing a hierarchical organization of many cycles, as described above, suggested that eustatic sea level oscillations caused by cyclic perturbations of the Earth's orbit play a fundamental role in determining the formation of hierarchical cyclic rhythmicity.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic ground subsidence in the Sibari Plain basin (Southern Italy) detected by Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed InSAR time series analysis (United States)

    Cianflone, Giuseppe; Tolomei, Cristiano; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Dominici, Rocco


    We investigated surface ground deformations in the Sibari Plain (SP - Calabria, Southern Italy) which representing a Holocene coastal plain located along the boundary between Calabrian Arc and Southern Apennines. The plain is characterized by intense urbanization, groundwater exploitation, hydrogeological instability and the presence of capable faults. Our study is founded on the application of the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency) and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency) satellites. The Up component records a widespread subsidence, up to ~ 20 mm/yr (Envisat and COSMO-SkyMed sensors), along the whole coastal sector from Villapiana Lido to Marina di Schiavonea, while low positive values ( ~1 mm/yr) are present moving inland. Along the coastal area, the East component is characterized by common positive values (Eastward displacement), only in correspondence of the Laghi di Sibari and the Corigliano industrial area negative values are recorded. We investigate the possible triggering subsidence mechanisms through the interpretation of the interferometric results based on geological, hydrogeological and land use information. The thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession is reconstructed by deep exploration wells and seismic data and a direct correlation between it and the subsidence, recorded by the InSAR data, is observed. Recent study describes an active oblique-contractional belt (the Amendolara Ridge) in the Ionian Sea in front on the SP. We suggest that this active back thrusting can triggered a flexural subsidence mechanism. We try to find correlations among ground deformation, recent fault activity and earthquakes occurrence. In detail, we analyze the Envisat and COSMO-SkyMed both ascending and descending time series depending on the earthquakes happened, during the period of InSAR data availability, close to the capable faults present in the study

  4. Establishing the base of underground sources of drinking water (10,000ppm) using geophysical logs and chemical reports in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA (United States)

    Kong, David; Gillespie, Janice


    Recent concerns about well stimulation and oilfield disposal practices has resulted in the desire to learn more about the distribution of usable groundwater that might be impacted by these practices. Waters that require protection are classified by the US EPA as USDW's (Underground Sources of Drinking Water). These waters have a concentration of 10,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and are not within an exempt aquifer. Direct sampling and chemical analyses of the water from oil and gas producing formations provide the most accurate values for the formation water salinities, but the data is scarce. The method in this analysis uses open-hole geophysical logs and Archie's equation to calculate the salinity. The two methods used in the analysis are the spontaneous potential method that uses the spontaneous potential log and the mud and formation resistivity values to calculate a salinity, and the resistivity-porosity method that uses the resistivity and porosity logs. Sonic, density, and neutron logs are available in the southern San Joaquin as well as porosity values from cores. Results shows that the resistivity porosity method has a smaller error than the spontaneous potential method, therefore, the resistivity-porosity method is chosen for the analysis of the 10,000 parts per million boundary. Due to the lack of porosity logs in wells with chemical analyses, porosity values recorded in DOGGR reports are used in the Humble equation to link the formation water resistivity to salinity. In this way, we can back calculate the deep resistivity vales that should correspond to the 10,000 salinity boundary to determine the depth at which the base of the USDW is found.

  5. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States (United States)

    Hereford, R.


    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  6. Geothermal conditions south of the Kaiserstuhl. The Hartheim Basin in the southern upper rhine graben; Geothermische Verhaeltnisse suedlich des Kaiserstuhls. Das Hartheimer Becken im suedlichen Oberrheingraben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stober, Ingrid; Jodocy, Marco [Abteilung Umwelt, Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (Germany)


    The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg interpreted reflective seismic data for the region of Hartheim south of the Kaiserstuhl (Upper Rhine Graben). The seismic data were used to determine the position of the inner fault zone of the Upper Rhine Graben in this area, combined with parameters of depth and thickness for the most important hydrogeothermal reservoirs of the Hauptrogenstein (Middle Jura), Oberer Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein. The inner fault zone shows an offset of up to 3 000 m, that separates the deep subsided inner zone of the Upper Rhine Graben (basin of Hartheim) in the west from the shallower parts in the east (Tuniberg, Freiburger Bucht). In the subsided inner zone of the Upper Rhine Graben temperatures of 130 C at a depth of 3 000 m or 150 C in a depth of 3 500 m can be expected. Estimated hydraulic conductivities for the aquifers of the Hauptrogenstein and Oberer Muschelkalk average at T/H=2.10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s with significant standard deviations. The Buntsandstein delivered only a few values. The deep seated waters in the inner zone of the Upper Rhine Graben are dominated by natrium and chloride, showing total dissolved solids (TDS) of several 10s g/l. Waters with the highest value for TDS can be found in the Hauptrogenstein aquifer. (orig.) [German] Das Regierungspraesidium Freiburg hat im Oberrheingraben fuer das Hartheimer Becken suedlich des Kaiserstuhls reflexionsseismische Sektionen zusammengetragen und ausgewertet. Diese Daten wurden verwendet, um den Verlauf der inneren Grabenrandverwerfung zu kartieren und um die Tiefenlage und Maechtigkeit der einzelnen geothermischen Nutzhorizonte der Region festzustellen. Die innere Grabenrandverwerfung verursacht im Untersuchungsgebiet einen Schichtversatz von bis zu 3.000 m. Innerhalb der inneren Grabenzone sind in 3.000 m Tiefe 130 C und in 3.500 m Tiefe 150 C zu erwarten. Fuer den Hauptrogenstein- und den tiefer liegenden Oberen Muschelkalk-Aquifer werden mittlere

  7. The formation of early settled villages and the emergence of leadership: A test of three theoretical models in the Rio Ilave, Lake Titicaca Basin, southern Peru (United States)

    Craig, Nathan Mcdonald

    Despite obvious necessities for understanding later developments in the region, Preceramic cultures in the Titicaca Basin are poorly understood due to lacking empirical data. This dissertation focuses on examination of two processes occurring in the Rio Ilave drainage during the Late 5000--3100 B.C.E. (6000--4400 B.P.) and Terminal 3100--1500 B.C.E. Archaic (4400--3200 B.P.): the formation of settled villages and the emergence of leadership. These processes are tested against theoretical predictions derived from: population resource imbalance, human behavioral ecology, and agency theories. Resource imbalance theory predicts appearance of density dependent adaptive problems prior to major cultural transformations. Human behavioral ecology predicts increased dietary diversity and incorporation of greater processing costs occuring coincidentally with reduced residential mobility. Symbolic mate value advertising is a predicted leadership strategy. Agency theory predicts internal sources of social tension, potentially independent of external forces, as primary causes of cultural change. Feast hosting and the formation political economy are expected to be central to both social processes investigated from this perspective. Local paleoclimatic proxies suggest aridity from ca 4000--2000 B.C.E. Reanalysis of pedestrian survey data indicate population growth during the Late Archaic. Excavation and ground penetrating radar survey at Pirco and Jiskairumoko demonstrate reduced residential mobility and increased evidence for social differentiation appearing during the Late Archaic's (before 3000 B.C.E.) end. New cultural patterns include: pithouses, more groundstone, internal storage, costly non-local artifacts, domesticated plants and animals, costly grave goods, and use of ochre in symbolic contexts. No clear cut evidence for inter-community promotional feasting was identified but some finds suggest intra-community alliance feasts. By the end of the Terminal Archaic ca. 1500 B

  8. Fluids in the Palaeogene Formation of Gaoyou Sag in the Southern Part of North Jiangsu Basin, China: Evidence for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation (United States)

    LI, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.


    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of the Dongtai Depression in the North Jiangsu basin, China, has a well developed fault system and is characterised by structurally complicated oil and gas fields. Its oil-water relationship is very complicated. In the present study, we present the distribution of formation water chemistry, crude oil density, formation pressures and fluid potential in the Palaeogene formation of the Gaoyou Sag . The purpose of this article is to: (1) analyse the cause of hydrochemical diversity; (2) identify the flow pattern and evolution; and (3) understand the interplay between the flow of formation water and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The results showed that large variances in formation water chemistry occur in different oilfields of the Gaoyou Sag (Figure 1) due to dilution by meteoric water recharge, concentration by membrane filtration and complexity of geological structure. The low salinity (mean values from 8.53 g/L to 9.67 g/L) of the formation water and heavy crude oil density (up to 0.94g/cm3) in the Xuchuang oilfield indicate influence from meteoric water infiltration; the deep depression areas are mainly of connate origin. Geofluids in the Xuchuang, Zhenwu and Yang'an oilfields mainly flow vertically through the Zhenwu and Hanliu faults, while geofluids in the Shanian oilfield mainly migrate laterally through the reservoirs and are adjusted vertically along some cutting faults. Palaeo-hydrodynamic evolution had an affinity with the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In the depositional stages of the Dainan and Sanduo formations, formation water was expelled outward and upward from lacustrine mudstones of the deep depression into shallow sands of nearby oilfields, driven by compaction and overpressure. Hydrocarbon migrated with formation water and gathered in appropriate traps, forming primary reservoirs. During the Zhenwu and Sanduo movements, there were tectonic uplifts and the strata

  9. Multi-method provenance model for early Paleozoic sedimentary basins of southern Peru and northern Bolivia (13°-18°S) (United States)

    Reimann Zumsprekel, Cornelia R.; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Carlotto, Victor; Boekhout, Flora; Berndt, Jasper; Lopez, Shirley


    In early Paleozoic time the Peru-Bolivia Trough at the South American Gondwana margin accommodated large volumes of siliciclastic detritus of hitherto largely unknown provenance. A multi-method provenance study of framework components, heavy minerals and whole rock geochemistry of Ordovician to Devonian formations of southern Peru and northern Bolivia reveals the predominant contribution from upper crustal sources. Main heavy minerals include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, apatite, garnet, epidote, monazite, and titanite and are strongly biased diagenetically towards the stable phases. Electron microprobe single grain analysis of tourmaline and rutile indicate that detrital tourmalines were derived mainly from metasedimentary, and subordinately, from granitic sources. Cr/Nb ratios in rutiles point to a metamafic derivation for 20-40% of grains, the remainder originating in felsic lithologies. Zr in rutile thermometry indicates a provenance from relatively high-grade metamorphic rocks transformed at temperatures between 500 °C and 900 °C, with clusters at c. 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. U-Pb geochronological analysis of rutiles was largely unsuccessful due to high concentrations of common Pb. Three ages could be obtained and fall between 525 and 545 Ma, probably linking this detritus to the hidden Neoproterozoic orogen in what are now Cordillera Oriental and Sierras Subandinas. The most notable feature of the whole rock geochemical data is a high Cr content in the majority of samples, which otherwise have a composition similar to weathered upper continental crust. The elevated Cr contents indicates that ophiolitic rocks were either exposed to erosion abundantly in the source areas or had previously supplied significant volumes of detritus to intermittent sediment storage systems now eroded into the studied sedimentary rocks. Potential source candidates include the Ordovician metamorphic Tapo Ultramafic Complex in the Cordillera Oriental of central Peru, and the

  10. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy- a study in tertiary care centre and medical college in Hubli, North Karnataka, India

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    Sahaja Kittur


    Conclusions: Hysterectomy is a lifesaving procedure to control postpartum hemorrhage, but is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Uterine atony, uterine ruptures, also due to prior caesarean delivery, placenta previa were identified as risk factors. The incidence in this part of Karnataka was found to be significantly high due to referral cases from neighboring 5 government district hospitals. Hence only proper awareness, timely referral and correction of anemia are the key factors to be addressed to this part of the state. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1097-1101

  11. A study on Helicobacter pylori infection in different parts of Karnataka using 14C urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-invasive 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) technique was used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The test utilises 14CO2 released due to the action of urease produced by H pylori. 14C UBT is found to be a simple alternative for endoscopic examinations for diagnosing H pylori infection. The test was performed on 664 subjects from various parts of Karnataka. Among them 34.9% of the subjects were found to be H pylori positive, and the infection rate varied from 16.9% to 38.6%. (author)

  12. Morbidity Pattern Among the Elderly Population in a Rural Area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka - A Cross Sectional Study


    Shahul Hameed, Nanjesh Kumar, Prashanth M Naik, Sachidananda K., Prasanna K S


    Introduction: As the ageing population is increasing, the burden of their health problems is on a rise. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above residing in the rural field practice area of A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Results: The mean age of the participants was 66.9±6.3years. Out of 375 elderly participants, females were 57.9%. In the st...

  13. 川南地区下寒武统筇竹寺组页岩储层特征%Shale reservoir characteristics of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同; 熊亮; 徐猛; 董晓霞; 周瑞琦; 付晓宁


    Experimental source-reservoir data from three wells in the Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag in the southern Sichuan Basin showed that the Qiongzhusi Formation in the study area features high TOC, thick black shale, high maturity, and high brittleness. Although the southern Sichuan Basin has experienced multiple episodes of tectonic movement, the B1 well block still has favorable preservation conditions. Micro⁃reservoir space includes organic pores, inorganic pores ( intercrystal pores in clay minerals, intergranular pores and intra⁃granular dissolution pores in brittle minerals, and intergranular pores in pyrites), and micro⁃cracks ( micro⁃structural seams, diagenetic shrinkage joints and dissolution seams) , and can be further subdivided into 9 types. Most of the pores have narrow necks, and some are slit type holes. Fractures are tablet or wedge shaped. Mesopores were abundant , and there also exist micropores and macropores. High quality shales have high entrance and BET specific surface area, which is favorable for the preservation of free and adsorbed gas. TOC, maturity, diagenesis and pore fluid pressure determined the difference of pore type and distribution.%根据川南地区绵阳—长宁拉张槽3口井的源储实验资料研究表明,川南地区筇竹寺组具有有机质丰度高、富有机质页岩厚度大、演化程度高、高脆性等特征,经历多期构造运动改造,B1井区保存条件较好。微观储集空间分为有机孔、无机孔(黏土矿物晶间孔、脆性矿物粒间孔、粒内溶蚀孔及黄铁矿晶间孔)和微裂缝(构造微缝、成岩收缩缝和溶蚀缝)3大类,并可进一步细分为9种类型,孔隙形态表现为细颈墨水瓶广体孔含少量狭缝形孔和平板、楔形缝2种结构,孔径分布复杂,以中孔为主,少量微孔及大孔。优质页岩孔容、BET比表面积较大,为页岩游离气及吸附气提供良好的储集吸附空间。其孔隙类型与

  14. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal. (United States)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana


    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were

  15. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns (United States)

    Suter, Max


    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  16. Contribution of allochthonous organic carbon across the Serrano River Basin and the adjacent fjord system in Southern Chilean Patagonia: Insights from the combined use of stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers (United States)

    Lafon, Alejandra; Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.


    Chilean Patagonia is characterized by an irregular geography involving many islands, peninsulas, channels, sounds and fjords, that prevent direct interaction between oceanic water masses and freshwater river discharges at the head of the continental fjords. In this paper, we evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter along the Serrano River basin and the adjacent channels and fjords in Southern Chilean Patagonia (51-52°S), as well as their importance for marine planktonic organisms. In spring of 2009, evidence of C:N ratio, δ13C, δ15N and fatty acids composition in particulate organic carbon (POC), surface sediment, soil, plankton, and vegetal tissue, as well some physical and chemical characteristics (i.e. salinity, dissolved oxygen, NO3-, NH4+, PO4-3, Si(OH)4), were measured in samples collected during the CIMAR 14 Fiordos oceanographic cruise. Significant differences in δ13C-POC were found between the terrestrial and marine environments but not within fjord stations. Along the fjord region, the high C:N ratio and depleted δ13C values in POC samples suggest that particulate organic matter (POM) in the upper level of the water column (0-10 m depth) is supported by different sources. Terrestrial organic carbon exported by rivers may constitute a significant subsidy, up to 70% based on two end-member mixing model, to the fjord ecosystem. Furthermore, terrestrial carbon might account for a significant percentage of the zooplankton body carbon, estimated both by using isotopic (∼24-61%) and fatty acid analysis (∼14-61%). Isotopic analyses in marine sediment samples suggest that POC seems to be decoupled from terrestrial-influenced surface sources at the fjord stations, and the contribution of surrounding vegetation seemingly unimportant for carbon export to the benthos. Local hydrographic and geomorphological characteristics might determine the presence of oceanographic frontal zones, which in turn might explain differences in carbon


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wei


    Ke-qin, 1997. Paleoclimatic and environmental change since 2000a B. P. recorded in ice Core[J]. The Front of Ceo-science, 4(1): 95-100.(in Chiniese)[13]ZHANG Zhen-ke, WU Rui-jin, WANG Su-min, 1998. Paleoenvironmeal evolution during historic time reflected by frequency susceptibility of the lacustrine sediment in Daihai[J]. Geography Reaserch. 17(3) :297-300. (in Chinese)[14]ZHANG Pi-yuan, 1996. Climatic Changes During Historic Time in China[J]. Jinan: Shandong Science and Technology Press, 434-435. (in Chinese)[15]ZHANG Pi-yuan, GE Quan-sheng, 1997. The stage and abrupt ness of climatic evolution[J]. The Front of Geo-science, 4(1):122-126. (in Chinese)[16]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, Tashplati etal., 1998a. The preliminary study on the Spore-pollen combination of the Tagele section in Cele oasis[J]. Arid Zone Research, 15 (3):14-17. (in Chinese)[17]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, 1998b. Preliminary study on paleoclimatic evolution since about 12ka B.P. in Bosten Lake, southern Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Enviorment, 12(3) :28-35. (in Chinese)[18]ZHU Ke-zhen. 1973, Preliminary study of climatic changes since about 5000 years in China[J]. Science in China, (2):291-296. (in Chinese)

  18. Natural radioactivity in some major rivers of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India. (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Rajashekara, K M; Siddappa, K


    Systematic studies on radiation level and distribution of radionuclides have been carried out in riverine environs of three major rivers of coastal Karnataka, viz. Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi. The ambient gamma radiation levels along three rivers were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, sediment and rock were measured using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi riverbanks, the median values of absorbed gamma dose rates in air were found to be 44 nGy h(-1), 35 nGy h(-1) and 57 nGy h(-1), respectively. The highest activity of (226)Ra was found in riverbank soil samples of Sharavathi River. The highest activities of (232)Th and (40)K were found in riverbank soil and sediment samples of Netravathi River. In Kali River, the highest (226)Ra activity was recorded for rock samples. To assess the radiological hazard of natural radioactivity in the samples, absorbed gamma dose rates in air, radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external hazard index and internal hazard index associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values. The representative level index (I(gammar)) values are high in sediment samples of Netravathi River. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) values are high in rock samples of Kali River. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper.

  19. Pattern of fractures and dislocations in a tertiary care hospital, north east Karnataka

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    Bhaskara K, Padmanabha T S, Nandini T, Sindhu


    Full Text Available Background: Trauma including accidents are today’s world concern forming a major non-communicable epidemic accounting for mortality and morbidity. The aim of the study was to determine and account the types of fractures and dislocations presented to Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences (BRIMS, Bidar, Karnataka, India. Methods and Material: This study is of retrospective in nature with a review of hospital inpatient case sheets of orthopaedic department in our hospital presented between July 2011 to Dec 2011. The data gathered was analysed by percentages. Results: Out of 132 cases analysed males (82.56%, outnumbered female (17.42%; 67.42 % of cases were between 18-45 years age group; femur (22.17 % was the most commonly involved bone followed by tibia (13.21%, foot (10.85%; tibia & fibular (8.96% involvement. Less common were spine (0.47%, vertebra (0.94% and scapula (0.94%. Fracture-dislocation was more common in lower limb (59.91% – ankle joint was most common-50% compared to upper limb (30.66%- shoulder joint: 12.5%. Conclusions: Among of 132 cases admitted 212 fractures & dislocation was noted. Male (82.56% was more common than females (17.42%. Age group most commonly involved was between 18-45 years (67.42%. Fracture was more common in femur (22.17% & dislocation was common in hip (42.86% because of high velocity injury. Approach towards the prevention of accidents by effective safety education, good roads and early intervention which is the need of the hour. Effective drugs should be made available in the casuality so that crush injuries are managed without complications like septicemia and tetanus.

  20. Heartwood, sapwood and bark content of teak trees grown in Karna-taka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari; K.M. Mariswamy


    We evaluated heartwood, sapwood and bark content in teak trees. A total of 27 sample plots were laid out in teak plantations raised by State Forest Department in Karnataka covering different age groups (11−36 years), density (516−2061 trees/ha) and sites. From these planta-tions, a total of 130 trees were felled for estimating the yield and bark content in relation to diameter at breast height (DBH), age and density. Bark content ranged from 22.2%−54.3%. Heartwood and sapwood con-tent were analyzed by sampling five trees each from two different planta-tions, one 30 years old at 553 trees⋅ha-1 and the other 32 years old at 911 trees⋅ha-1. The highest heartwood proportion of stem wood volume (over-bark) was 56.3%and the lowest was 37.1%. The sapwood propor-tion ranged from 12.9%−23.0%, while the bark content ranged from 27.8%−43.5%. The heartwood proportion increased with DBH, while the proportion of bark decreased. The sapwood proportion did not vary with DBH. The bark content decreased with increasing age, but increased with stand density. There was no significant difference in heartwood content with respect to age or stand density because the ages of the two stands were similar. A larger dataset from young to mature stands is needed to describe the relationships between age and stand density and heartwood, sapwood and bark content of trees.

  1. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn--a community based study in rural Karnataka, India.

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    Chandra S Metgud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in many developing countries, especially so in India. Although we do not know all the causes of LBW, maternal and environmental factors appear to be significant risk factors in its occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To know the factors affecting the birth weight of a newborn and to estimate the prevalence of LBW. METHODS: The present study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women and their newborns residing in area covered by Kinaye Primary Health Centre in rural Karnataka, India. The study was conducted from 1(st June 2008 to 31(st December 2009. RESULTS: The mean birth weight of newborns was 2.6 kg with a range of 1.2 to 3.8 kg. The prevalence of LBW was 22.9%. Among the studied risk factors, 25 of them were significantly associated with the birth weight of a newborn on univariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education [Odds Ratio (OR 3.2], exposure to passive smoking [OR 2.3], age at first pregnancy ≥25 years [OR 3.6], birth interval <2 years [OR 2.4], previous history of LBW baby [OR 3.3], weight gain ≤4 kg during pregnancy [OR 7.0], maternal weight at last week of gestation ≤45 kg [OR 2.3], pregnancy induced hypertension [OR 3.3], high risk pregnancy [OR 3.6] and late antenatal registration [OR 3.6] emerged as significant risk factors on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The problem of LBW is multidimensional, and hence, we need an integrated approach incorporating medical, social, economical and educational measures to address this issue.

  2. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

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    Tonita M Noronha


    Full Text Available Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%. Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7% was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%. Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka.

  3. Social cost-benefit analysis of a watershed development project in Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Ninan, K N; Lakshmikanthamma, S


    Watershed Development Programmes (WDPs) have been initiated in India to improve and sustain productivity and the production potential of the dry and semiarid regions of the country at higher levels, through adoption of appropriate production and conservation techniques. The aim is also to meet the needs of rural communities for food, fuel, fodder, and timber and, thereby, reduce pressure on natural forests. In view of their potential for growth, for improving income, and the natural resource base of the disadvantaged regions of the country, WDPs are being accorded importance in the development plans for India and by donor agencies. This paper presents a social cost-benefit appraisal of a watershed development project in Karnataka, India. Using alternate viability measures, i.e. Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and rigorous tests and sensitivity analyses, the results show that if expected full benefits are realized, the benefits derived from the watershed project are quite high, with the IRRs ranging from 19 to 96%. If, however, expected full benefits were to fall short by 25%, and net costs of (including the opportunity cost of grazing benefits foregone by the villagers on account of establishing community woodlots on degraded forestlands and village commons used earlier for free grazing of their cattle) the project will report losses. Even these losses can be contained if the direct benefits from some community woodlots, for which information was not available, and other indirect benefits, mostly of an environmental nature, are included. The findings of this study suggest that watershed development projects initiated to improve the economy and ecology of India's dry and semiarid regions are economically viable and socially desirable. PMID:11436663

  4. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka. (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R


    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  5. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh


    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  6. Decentralization and decision space in the health sector: a case study from Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Parab, Suraj; Kotte, Sandesh; Latha, N; Subbiah, Kalyani


    Various attempts have been made in India with respect to decentralization, most significantly the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India (1993) which provided the necessary legal framework for decentralization to take place. However, the outcome has been mixed: an evaluation of the impact of decentralization in the health sector found virtually no change in health system performance and access to health services in terms of availability of health personnel or improvement in various health indicators, such as Infant Mortality Rates or Maternal Mortality Ratio. Subsequently, there has been a conscious effort under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)-launched in 2005-to promote decentralization of funds, functions and functionaries to lower levels of government; and Karnataka had a head-start since devolution of all 29 functions prescribed by the 73rd Amendment had already taken place in the state by the late 1990s. This study presents the findings of an on-going research effort to build empirical evidence on decentralization in the health sector and its impact on system performance. The focus here is on analyzing the responses of health personnel at the district level and below on their perceived 'Decision Space'-the range of choice or autonomy they see themselves as having along a series of functional dimensions. Overall, the data indicate that there is a substantial gap between the spirit of the NRHM guidelines on decentralization and the actual implementation on the ground. There is a need for substantial capacity building at all levels of the health system to genuinely empower functionaries, particularly at the district level, in order to translate the benefits of decentralization into reality. PMID:25967105

  7. 四川盆地南部地区寒武系油气勘探前景%Oil and Gas Exploration Prospects of Cambrian in Southern Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 刘树根; 黄文明; 张长俊; 曾祥亮


    为明确四川盆地南部地区寒武系常规油气和页岩气的勘探前景,应用岩相学和地球化学分析手段相结合,对研究区中上寒武统娄山组和下寒武统清虚洞组的厚度、孔隙度、渗透率、孔隙类型和下寒武统筇竹寺组的厚度、总有机碳质量分数w(TOC)、镜质体反射率Ro、矿物组分等进行了深入剖析.结果表明:①川南地区烃源岩厚度大(80~100m),w(TOC)高(3%~5%),为一套中—好的过成熟后期阶段烃源岩(Ro为3.0%~4.8%),矿物组分与美国重要页岩气产层Barnett页岩相似,其中石英、长石和黄铁矿的体积分数为31%~50%,黏土矿物体积分数为29%~53%;②威远地区下寒武统九老洞组黑色页岩含气量达0.43~0.86 m3/t;微孔隙发育,主要为粒间孔,孔隙直径达5~10μm,裂缝密度一般为30~50条/m;③中上寒武统娄山组和下寒武统清虚洞组总体上是寒武系最重要的常规储层,储层内部沥青质量分数一般为3%~6%,储集空间主要为粒间溶孔—晶间孔等,平均孔隙度为1.85%,平均渗透率为2.25×10-3μm2;④在川东南地区靠近盆地边缘的斜坡带,寒武系具有较好的常规油气藏勘探前景,而川东南缘和川西南地区筇竹寺组下部具有较大的页岩气勘探潜力.%In order to identify the exploration prospect of Cambrian conventional oil and gas and shale gas in southern Sichuan Basin, this paper, combining the petrographic and geochemical methods, makes a tho-rugh analysis of the thickness, porosity, permeability, porosity type of Middle-Upper Cambrian Loushan-guan Formation and Lower Cambrian Qingxudong Formation, as well as the thickness, TOC, Ro, mineral composition of Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation. The results show that: (1) The hydrocarbon source rocks in southern Sichuan Basin are thick(80 -100 m)and of high organic matter content (3%-5%). It is a set of general-good late-mature stage of hydrocarbon source

  8. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

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    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  9. New record of Psyllaephagus phylloplectae Sushil & Khan (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae from Karnataka, with notes on its taxonomy and host, Megatrioza hirsuta (Crawford (Hemiptera: Triozidae

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    A. Gupta


    Full Text Available Psyllaephagus phylloplectae Sushil & Khan (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae is reported for the first time from Karnataka on Megatrioza hirsuta (Crawford (Hemiptera: Triozidae, which forms galls on Terminalia spp. The parasitoid is briefly described, with notes on its taxonomy and its host.

  10. Scaling up antiretroviral treatment services in Karnataka, India: impact on CD4 counts of HIV-infected people.

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    Suresh Shastri

    Full Text Available SETTING: Twelve antiretroviral treatment centres under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP, Karnataka State, India. OBJECTIVE: For the period 2004-2011, to describe the trends in the numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV registered for care and their median baseline CD4 counts, disaggregated by age and sex. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving analysis of routinely captured data (year of registration, age, sex, baseline CD4 count under NACP. RESULTS: 34,882 (97% of total eligible PLHIV were included in analysis. The number registered for care has increased by over 12 times during 2004-11; with increasing numbers among females. The median baseline CD4 cell count rose from 125 in 2004 to 235 in 2011--the increase was greater among females as compared to males. However, about two-thirds still presented at CD4 cell counts less than 350. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend of median CD4 counts among PLHIV presenting to ART centres in Karnataka, an indicator of enhanced and early access to HIV care. Equal proportion of females and higher baseline CD4 counts among them allays any fear of differential access by gender. Despite this relative success, a substantial proportion still presented at low CD4 cell counts indicating possibly delayed HIV diagnosis and delayed linkage to HIV care. Universal HIV testing at health care facilities and strengthening early access to care are required to bridge the gap.

  11. Sédimentation et tectonique dans le bassin marin Eocène supérieur-Oligocène des Alpes du Sud Sedimentation and Tectonics in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene Marine Basin in the Southern Alps

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    Riche P.


    'exprime nettement moins que précédemment. Le toit des grès est marqué par une surface de discontinuité fortement érosive correspondant à des canyons sous-marins de direction NE-SO. Cette surface peut être mise en relation avec l'écoulement des olistostromes qui termine le remplissage du bassin. La mise en place de ces olistostromes et des olistolithes qui les accompagnent n'est pas paléontologiquement datée : elle débute avec la fin de la sédimentation gréseuse. L'ensemble est encore affecté par une distension E-O ce qui tend à montrer que cette mise en place est antérieure à la phase de serrage miocène. La confrontation entre les observations de terrain, les expériences de sédimentation en canal et l'interprétation sismique de bassins offshore argumente les interprétations proposées. This paper is based on local field surveys performed recently by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM in the western part of the southern Alps nummulitic basin, to help interpret seismic data. It underlines the role of extensional tectonics during sedimentation. It questions the geodynamic interpretation of the basin as a foredeep basin in the Alpine orogenic belt. On a Mesozoic basement folded by the Pyreneo-Provençale orogeny, as early as the Lutetian the nummulitic transgression flooded the eastern area, which was subsequently obscured by the Pennine main fault during Mio-Pliocene times. It spread westward during the Upper Eocene. In the meantime, an E-W extension, shown clearly along the Var River faults and along the edge of the Pelvoux range, fragmented the fringes of the basin with blocks tilted during sedimentation. The result is fast changes of facies within the basal carbonates, which pass from platform types to slope types and to thin gravitational sediments farther into the basin. The overlying marls correspond to slope facies wrapping the inherited topography. The Gres d'Annot s. l

  12. El Paleozoico inferior de la sierra del Campo, provincia de Tucumán: Nuevos datos sobre la prolongación austral de la cuenca eopaleozoica del noroeste argentino The lower Paleozoic in the Sierra del Campo, province of Tucumán: New data on the southern extension of the Eopaleozoic basin in northwestern Argentina

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    MG Mángano


    Full Text Available El estudio de afloramientos del Paleozoico inferior de la sierra del Campo, provincia de Tucumán, proporciona información sobre el borde sur de la cuenca eopaleozoica del noroeste argentino. El análisis de facies indica que estos depósitos registran sedimentación en un complejo de barras arenosas submareales en un ambiente marino dominado por mareas. Una comparación con otros afloramientos de la cuenca sugiere una correlación regional con el Grupo Mesón.Study of Lower Paleozoic outcrops from the Sierra del Campo, Tucumán province, provides information on the southern margin of the Early Paleozoic basin of northwest Argentina. Facies analysis indicates that these deposits record sedimentation in a subtidal sandbar complex of a tide-dominated shallow sea. Comparison with other outcrops in the basin suggests a regional correlation with the Mesón Group.


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    Arun Kumar B.


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  14. Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation in Dongying Basin

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    Li Chunguang; Shang Weirong


    @@ Dongying basin is a faulted basin rich in hydrocarbon and is under more exploration (wildcat well density is 0.155 well/km ) in the southern Bohai Bay area of China, covering an area of 5700 km. Based on the paleotopographic setting of Paleozoic basement rocks, the basin was evolved into Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin which was faulted in the north and overlapped in the south by the blockfaulting movement in J2-J3. So, each formation of the source rocks in Paleogene is characterized by thick deposit in the north and thin deposit in the south.

  15. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.


    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar RAMANATHAN


    Full Text Available The banking industry in India is going through a unique competitive situation: on the one hand, the proliferation of new banks has increased competition multi-fold; on the other hand, given the rigid regulatory environment, banks have very little liberty to innovate products. The entry of multinational banking giants with superior service operations has further amplified the competition for customers. This paper examines the business performance of Karnataka bank during the period between 2006 and 2014 in order to bring home some of these challenges. Based on feedback from the branch managers, savings and current accounts - two classic banking products – suffered the most in the onslaught. Practicing managers as well as customers that we interviewed held that banking services in terms of customer experience ought to be improved and that various value added services could be introduced. Customers also expected reduced penalty for minimum balance and enhanced insurance cover for their accounts.

  17. Status of potato husbandry and farmer's socio-economic profile in moisture and heat prone karnataka, india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)

  18. Risk factors and drug-resistance patterns among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in northern Karnataka region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan S Gaude


    Full Text Available Background: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB-burden countries in the world. Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drugs has already become an important and alarming threat in most of the regions worldwide. India ranks second in the world in harbouring multi-drug resistant cases (MDRTB. Prevalence of MDR-TB mirrors the functional state and efficacy of TB control programmes and realistic attitude of the community towards implementation of such programmes. The most important risk factor in the development of MDRTB is improper implementation in the guidelines in the management of TB, and high rate of defaults on the part of the patients. The study was carried out to evaluate the drug resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs in Northern Karnataka region, India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at J. N. Medical College and its associated Hospitals, Belgaum. Between January 2011 and December 2012, 150 sputum samples of suspected pulmonary TB patients based on the history were examined for the AFB culture by Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture technique. A total of two early morning samples were collected for the smear [Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining] and culture methods. It was observed that ZN staining for AFB was positive in 113 patients (75%, while AFB culture by LJ medium yielded growth in 66 cases (44%. Thus, a total of 66 AFB culture-positive samples by LJ medium were subjected for AFB drug-sensitivity testing (DST. DST was done for Isoniazid (INH, Rifampicin (RIF, Pyrazinamide (PZA, Ethambutol (EMB and Streptomycin (SM after isolation by using the resistance proportion method. Results: A total of 66 AFB culture-positive specimens, 20 (30.3% cases were sensitive to all the five drugs while 46 (69.7% cases showed resistance to one or more drugs. Among these, the resistance to rifampicin was highest (80.4%, while resistance to isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin were observed to be 60%, 58.7%, 52

  19. A study of maternal mortality at the teaching hospital, Hubli, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahaja Kittur


    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in the developing world. Maternal mortality is a vital index of the effectiveness of obstetric services prevailing in a country. The present study was conducted at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, which caters to 250 PHC’s/CHC’s and is a major referral centre for 4 districts with an average of 800-1000 deliveries per month. Methods: Data on the maternal deaths at KIMS, Hubli from October 2010 to March 20011 during pregnancy and within 42 days of delivery of any cause, irrespective of the duration and site of pregnancy were collected. Results: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was per 1,00,000 live births. Among the 40 maternal deaths, 7 deaths (17.5% occurred in primigravida, 14 deaths (35% had occurred in primipara, 4 deaths (10% in gravida 2 and above, 7 deaths (17.5% in para 2, 5 deaths (12.5% in para 3 and 3 deaths (7.5% had occurred in para 4 and above. During the study period, 8 deaths (20% occurred within 1 hour of admission, 5 deaths (12.5% within 1-6 hours of admission, 7 deaths (17.5% between 7-12 hours of admission, 6 deaths (15% between 13-24 hours, 8 deaths (20% between 1-2 days and 6 deaths occurred after 2 days of admission. Maternal deaths had occurred mostly in delivered women (75% compared to undelivered women (25%. During the study period, among the 40 maternal deaths, 34 deaths (85% occurred due to direct obstetric causes and 6 deaths (15% due to indirect causes. Among the direct obstetric causes, haemorrhage (30% and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (30% were the leading causes. Pulmonary embolism (10%, rupture uterus (5%, chorioamnionitis (5%, septic abortion (2.5% and acute inversion of uterus (2.5% were the other direct causes of maternal deaths. Among the indirect obstetric causes, 4 deaths (10% occurred due to anaemia which was the leading cause. One death (2.5% occurred due to cardiac disease and 1 death

  20. Study of prevalence of work related stress and co-morbidities and its effect on work performance in KSRTC workers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Prabhu


    Conclusions: Very few studies have been conducted to assess stress levels in organized sectors in India and Karnataka. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the stress levels and associated health disorders amongst the KSRTC workers of Dakshina Kannada district and to suggest suitable measures to improve occupational health, if necessary. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3161-3166

  1. A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among medical and para medical students in a medical college, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India


    Pooja Mapala; Rajendra Holla; Swathi Acharya; Tittu Zachariah; Puneeth Aipanjiguly


    Background: Self-medication is defined as use of medicines without a doctor's prescription and is frequently practiced among students in professional colleges. The purpose of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among second year medical and paramedical students in K. S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India. Methods: A prospective, observational, questionnaire based study conducted where two groups of students, Medical and Paramedic...



    Sudheendra; Hiremath; Pramod S


    Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic...

  3. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program.


    Beattie Tara SH; Bhattacharjee Parinita; Ramesh BM; Gurnani Vandana; Anthony John; Isac Shajy; HL, Mohan; Ramakrishnan Aparajita; Wheeler Tisha; Bradley Janet; Blanchard James F; Moses Stephen


    Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if a...



    Seema, H.M.; Chandrakanth, Mysore G.; Nagaraj, N.


    In this study, economic impact of water harvesting and groundwater recharging was analyzed in the context of Sujala watershed equity and efficiency in the distribution of benefits in Chitradurga district, Karnataka. Field data for 2004-05 (drought year) and 2005-06 (normal year) from 30 sample farmers in Sujala watershed form the data base for the study. Another sample of 30 farmers from Non-Sujala (or DPAP) watershed, and 30 from outside watershed area form the control. Farmers were further ...

  5. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.


    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  6. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.


    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  7. Evaluation of nutrient index using organic carbon, available P and available K concentrations as a measure of soil fertility in Varahi River basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravikumar


    Full Text Available Varahi River basin is in the midst of Udupi district in the western part of Karnataka state, covering parts of Kundapura and Udupi taluks in Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Spatial distributions for twenty physical and chemical properties were examined in the soil samples of selected agricultural fields in 28 different locations in Varahi River basin. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area as the soils were having low to medium in organic carbon (0.06 to 1.20 % and available nitrogen (6.27 to 25.09 Kg/ha content; low to medium in available P (2.24 to 94.08 Kg/ha and deficient to doubtful in available K (20.10 - 412.3 Kg/ha contents. The soils of Varahi River basin were characterized as low-medium-low (LML category based on the nutrient index calculated w.r.t. available organic carbon, available P and available K. Further, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.

  8. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin (United States)

    Mohammad, O. A.; Jones, B. G.; Fergusson, C. L.


    The Sydney Basin is a foreland basin forming the southern part of the Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basin system in Eastern Australia. Tectonically the Sydney Basin is regarded as a retro-arc foreland basin that developed through Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic. Constructing a tectonstratigraphic framework for the basin is difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and poor age control, along with its complex tectonic history. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin is presented based on literature synthesis combined with new data analysis. The chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework will provide an up-to-date and easy to follow detailed basin history which can be utilize in the exploration for conventional and unconventional resources in the Sydney Basin.

  9. Hydrocarbon accumulation pattern of Kayindike region in southern Junggar Basin%准噶尔盆地南缘卡因迪克地区油气成藏模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小云; 覃军; 聂婉; 倪倩


    Based on the static elements for reservoir formation, taking the dynamic evolution process of the ele-ments as the main line, the comparison of biomarkers and the analyses of source rock thermal evolutions, fluid inclusions and typical reservoirs were made to study the hydrocarbon source and accumulation process in the Ka-yindike region in the southern Junggar Basin. A hydrocarbon accumulation model was established to guide hydro-carbon exploration. Crude oils in the Kayindike region were classified into 3 types, respectively, from the Jura-ssic coal series, the Paleogene lacustrine mudstones and the two mixed, and the Jurassic coal series were more contributive. There were 2 major charging periods, about 10-8 and 2 Ma, respectively, and the ancient reser-voirs charged in the 1st period adjusted during the 2nd period. The permeable sand series in the Kayindike region were controlled by the northern source materials, and were poorly connected with the south. Hydrocarbon migra-ted mainly along regional unconformities, and faults played important roles in communicating deep source rocks and ancient reservoirs. Controlled by faults and anticlines, the reservoirs were mainly fault-controlled and squeeze anticline type. The main controlling factor for hydrocarbon accumulation was the faults communicating source rocks. The hydrocarbon accumulation model was featured by mixed sources, vertical migration and 2 accumula-tion periods, among which the 2nd period was the major one.%以油气藏形成的静态要素为基础、以各要素的动态演化过程为主线,通过生物标志化合物对比、烃源岩热演化、流体包裹体分析以及典型油气藏解剖,厘清了准噶尔盆地南缘卡因迪克地区油气来源、成藏过程,建立油气成藏模式。卡因迪克地区原油可分为3类,分别源自侏罗系煤系地层、古近系湖相泥岩以及二者混源,以侏罗系油源为主。该地区主要接受了2期油气充注,分别距今10

  10. Approach to the Lower Pliocene marine-continental correlation from southern Spain. The micrommamal site of Alhaurín el Grande-1 (Málaga Basin, Betic Cordillera, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra-Merchán, A.


    Full Text Available A new micromammal site at Alhaurín el Grande (Málaga, southern Spain located above early Pliocene marine deposits allows an approach to the marine-continental correlation for this age. The early Pliocene marine filling throughout the Málaga Basin is developed in three transgressive-regressive sequences (Pl-1, Pl-2, and Pl-3 units bounded by discontinuities. At the top of the intermediate sequence Pl-2, peaty sediments have yielded fossils of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora, and Crocodylia. The presence of Cricetus barrieri Mein & Michaux, 1970 in combination with murids, both of primitive morphology, such as Apodemus gudrunae Van de Weerd, 1976, something clearer (i.e. Occitanomys brailloni Michaux, 1969 and Stephanomys donnezani cordii Ruiz Bustos, 1986, points to an early Ruscinian age(MN14 biozone. Based on the planktonic foraminifers, the biostratigraphic data indicate that marine sediments just below the micromammal beds belong to the the MPl-2 biozone of the early Zanclean. Available paleomagnetic data from the marine sediments show that the micromammal bed must be located between the normal geomagnetic subchron C3n3n (4.89-4.80 Ma and the subchron C3n2n (4.63-4.49 Ma, limiting the age of this site to the late part of the early Zanclean.Un nuevo yacimiento de micromamíferos en Alhaurín el Grande (Málaga, Sur de España situado sobre depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior permite una aproximación a la correlación marino-continental para esa época. El relleno sedimentario marino del Plioceno inferior en el conjunto de la cuenca de Málaga comprende tres secuencias transgresivas-regresivas (unidades Pl-1, Pl-2 y Pl-3 limitadas por discordancias. A techo de la secuencia intermedia Pl-2, sedimentos turbosos han liberado restos de Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora y Crocodylia. La presencia de Cricetus barrieri Mein & Michaux, 1970 en asociación con dos múridos, uno con morfología primitiva (Apodemus gudrunae Van de Weerd, 1976 y

  11. Applications of molecular analysis for the study of early land plant evolution during the upper Silurian - Lower Devonian: borehole M.G.1, Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia, North Africa (United States)

    Romero, M. F.; Vecoli, M.; Riboulleau, A.; Versteegh, G.


    in the palynofacies of all sampling levels. REFERENCES [1]Spina, A., Vecoli, M., 2008. Palynostratigraphy and miospore biodiversity dynamics across the Silurian-Devonian boundary in North Africa (Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-09147. [2]Grice, K., Backhouse, J., Alexander, R., Marshall, N., Logan, G., 2005. Correlating terrestrial signatures from biomarker distributions, 13C, and palynology in fluvio-deltaic deposits from NW Australia (Triassic - Jurassic). Organic Geochemistry 36, 1347 - 1358. [3]Ellis, L., Singh, R., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 1996. Formation of isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from aromatization-rearrangement of terpenoids in the sedimentary environment: A new class of biomarker. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 60, No. 23. 4747 - 4763. [4]Van Aarssen, B., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 2000. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 64, No. 8. 1417 - 1424. [5]Wen, Z., Ruiyong, W., Radke, M., Qingyu, W., Guoying, S., Zhili, L., 2000. Retene in pyrolysates of algal and bacterial organic matter. Organic Geochemistry 31, 757 - 762.

  12. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  13. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications


    A. Argnani


    Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Ty...

  14. Development of a freshwater lens in the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, Laurien; Oude Essink, Gualbert


    The Mesozoic Broad Fourteens Basin is a northwest-southeast trending structural element, situated in the southern North-Sea,Netherlands offshore. Biodegraded and water-washed oils in the southern Broad Fourteens Basin indicate topography-driven meteoric water flow during Late Cretaceous inversion. D

  15. Document on fluoride accumulation in ground and surface water of Mysore, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha S.V.


    Full Text Available We have documented various levels of fluoride in groundwater, running water (i.e streams, canals, river and lake water in 130 samples collected from various sources in Mysore District. Mysore is one of the most popular tourist places in India. Fluoride is one of the parameter of water analysis, which is non-degradable and persists in the environment. Fluoride was assessed by Zirconyl- SPADNS method. Fluoride level varied from 0.2 mg/L to 3.0 mg/L with the highest level at Dalvoy Lake (3.0 ppm followed by Lingambudi Borewell water (2.9 ppm giving a cautious alarm for an awareness to the Mysoreans.Water samples from north-eastern part of Piriyapatna, a small pocket of southern part of H.D.Kote and an extreme southern part of Mysore taluk (urban were having fluoride concentration above acceptable range of WHO and BIS standard.

  16. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S) (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.


    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  17. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  18. Tectonic and climatic controls on late quaternary sedimentary processes in a neotectonic intramontane basin. (The Pitalito Basin, South Colombia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.


    The present study deals with the influence of tectonics and climatic changes on sedimentation patterns in the Quaternary Pitalito Basin (lat. 1°52'N, long. 76°02'W). This intramontane sedimentary basin is 15 km in width and 20 kin in length and is located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern Co

  19. Control factors of coalbed methane well depressurization cone under drainage well network in southern Qinshui basin%沁水盆地南部煤层气井网排采压降漏斗的控制因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世奇; 桑树勋; 李梦溪; 刘会虎; 王立龙


    Under the condition of drainage by well network, this study established a mathematic model of coalbed methane (CBM) well depressurization cone from drainage stage to initial pro- duction-gas stage on the basis of the radial fluid flow theory, superposition principle of pres- sure drop, and the production data of 15 CBM wells in southern Qinshui basin. Visualization of the depressurization cone was realized using Matlab. Based on the analysis of the shape and e- volution characteristics of depressurization cones, this study proposes a defining method for single well depressurization cone and evaluation methodology for superposition degree of composite depressurization cone, and discusses the control factors of the shape for depressurization cone. The results show that: from drainage stage to initial production-gas stage, when the per- meability is bigger than 8 X 10.3 ptm2 , ground water level is higher than 680 m and daily aver- age displacement is less than 3 ma/d, daily average gas production of CBM wells are usually larger than 250 mS/d, the ratio of flush-flow radius to depth of depressurization cone is gener- ally less than 40, and the flush-flow radius is relatively small, accompanied by a rise in decrea- sing amplitude of pressure, and the depressurization cone belongs to the first type; when the permeability is bigger than 8 × 10-3μm2 , ground water level is lower than 680 m and daily av- erage displacement is less than 3 ma/d, daily average gas production of CBM wells are usually less than 250 ma/d and the ratio of flush-flow radius to depth of depressurization cone is gener- ally more than 40, and the flush-flow radius is relatively big, replaced by a drop in decreasing amplitude of pressure, and this depressurization cone belongs to the second type; the ratio of maximum radius of superposed area to well spacing is higher, the degree of superposition improves, the area of superposition increases, and the decrease amplitude of the coal reservoir pressure

  20. U-Pb geochronology of modern river sands from the flat-slab segment of the southern central Andes, Argentina, 29-31°S: Implications for Neogene foreland and hinterland basin evolution (United States)

    Capaldi, T.; Horton, B. K.; McKenzie, R.; Stockli, D. F.


    This study investigates how Andean river sediments in the flat-slab segment of western Argentina record active mixing of lithologically and geochemically distinct source regions comprising the Principal Cordillera, Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera fold-thrust belt, Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and recycled Neogene basin fill. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results for modern river sands discriminate variations from hinterland source regions, through river tributaries and main trunks of the Bermejo, Jachal, San Juan, and Mendoza rivers, and their respective fluvial megafans within the active foreland basin. Proportions of proximal zircon populations in the hinterland trunk rivers (with extensive Permian-Triassic and Cenozoic igneous exposures) diminish downstream with progressive contributions from the frontal Precordillera fold-thrust belt (dominantly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks) and Pampean basement uplifts. However, this systematic downstream dilution is perturbed in several catchments by significant recycling of older foreland basin fill. The degree of recycling depends on the position and extent of Oligocene-Pliocene exposures within the catchments. To discern the effects of the variable detrital zircon sources, multiple statistical methods are utilized. Quantitative comparisons suggest that variations in detrital zircon age distributions among the modern sands, and with older foreland basin fill and exposed bedrock, are dependent on spatial and temporal variations in exhumation and drainage network evolution within their respective Andean catchments. The present surface area of competing source regions and the configuration of hinterland tributary rivers largely dictate the degree of downstream dilution and/or recycling. This study provides a modern analogue and baseline for reconstructing Neogene shifts in foreland basin provenance, depositional systems, and drainage configurations during a critical transition to flat-slab subduction.

  1. Petroleum geology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palo Duro Basin, Permian Basin, Texas is an asymmetric, relatively shallow, intracratonic basin in the southern Texas Panhandle filled mostly by Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian sedimentary rocks. Although deeper and prolific prolific petroleum-producing basins adjoin it on the north (Anadarko Basin), south (Midland Basin), and east (Hardeman Basin), the Palo Duro Basin has produced remarkably small amounts of oil and gas to date. This is all the more noteworthy because the sedimentary sequence and rock types of the basin are similar to those of the adjacent basins. Analyses of the stratigraphic succession and structural configuration of the Palo Duro Basin suggest that adequate reservoir rocks, top-seals, and geologic structures are present. Most of the structures formed early enough to have trapped hydrocarbons if they were migrating in the rock column. Although additional work is under way to properly address the question of the petroleum source rocks, generation, and migration, the general absence of production in the basin may relate to an overall deficiency in hydrocarbon generation within the basin. Geologic information in this report will form part of the basis for further analysis and conclusions on hydrocarbon potential in the Palo Duro Basin

  2. Suitability Assessment of Deep Groundwater for Drinking and Irrigation Use in the Parts of Hoskote and Malur Taluks, Karnataka (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravikumar


    Full Text Available Groundwater samples from thirty four bore wells used for drinking and irrigation in parts of Hoskote and Malur taluks, Karnataka State (India, were collected and geochemically analysed during December 2014. The hydrochemical characteristics was dominated by Ca2+-Mg2+ -Cl--SO42- (58.82% and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3- (38.24%, with alkaline earth (Ca+Mg exceeding alkalies (Na+K and strong acidic anions dominating weak acidic anions. Weathering of rock-forming minerals regulated chemistry of the groundwater in the study area as indicated by Gibbs plot. The groundwater chemistry in the study area is influenced by silicate dissolution of host rock with contribution from weathering of carbonate rocks while positive CAI values indicated exchange of Na and K from the water with Mg and Ca of the rocks in the study area. The Ca2+/Mg2+ molar ratio plot further supported the fact that dissolution of calcite with effect of silicate minerals contributes calcium and magnesium to 97.06% of the groundwater. SAR, percent sodium, WQI and permeability index values demonstrated the suitability of a majority of the samples for irrigation.DOI:

  3. Bedside Availability of Prepared Oxytocin and Rapid Administration After Delivery to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage: An Observational Study in Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Gass, Jonathon; Lipsitz, Stuart; Spector, Jonathan; Agrawal, Priya; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Kodkany, Bhala


    Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Rapid provision of uterotonics after childbirth is recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of postpartum hemorrhage. Data obtained through