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Sample records for basin karnataka southern

  1. Bhima Basin, Karnataka, India uranium mineralisation in the Neoproterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achar, K.K.; Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Kumar, M.K.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the geological analogy of known uranium mineralisation in other Proterozoic basins of India, the Bhima basin in northern Karnataka, covering an area of 5200 sq km, was taken up for uranium exploration. An integrated approach involving exploration techniques such as terrain analysis using satellite imageries, jeep-borne radiation survey, regional hydrogeochemical sampling and ground radiometric surveys were used. In addition gamma-ray logging of borewells drilled for water have enabled delineation of subsurface mineralisation at Gogi. Uranium mineralisation is associated with: (1) altered phosphatic limestone along the cherty limestone-shale boundary as at Ukinal, (2) brecciated non-phosphatic limestone as at Gogi, and (3) basic enclaves in the basement granites, as at Gogi East. Uranium occurs essentially as adsorbed phase on limonite and absorbed in collophane in the phosphatic limestone as at Ukinal. Mineralisation at Gogi is characterised by intense fracturing and brecciation apparently related to E-W trending Kurlagere-Gogi fault and is essentially low temperature (c.200 deg. C) hydrothermal nature represented by coffinite (thin veins and globular aggregates) along with pitchblende, pyrite (both framboidal and euhedral), pyrrhotite, haematite and anatase. Mineralisation is both syngenetic - remobilised as in the phosphatic limestones (Ukinal) and epigenetic hydrothermal (Gogi). The spatial relation of the unconformity, basement faults, and uranium - bearing basic enclaves within the basement points to the importance of the unconformity as a surface for fluid transport and fixation in conducive hosts. Presence of labile uranium in the basement granites with significant groundwater anomalies (up to 309 ppb U) enhances such possibilities. (author)

  2. Prevalence of Genital Prolapse among Married Women in Southern Karnataka

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    Sahana A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.

  3. Low- to high-grade metamorphic transition in the Southern part of Karnataka Nucleus, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    The southern part of Karnataka Nucleus has a strong imprint of 2.6 Ga metamorphism. This has affected the schist belts of Karnataka Nucleus from greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. The higher grades of metamorphism are in the Holenarasipur, Nuggihalli, Krishnarajpet, Hadnur and Melkote schist belts. In the high grade transition zone, around Sargur only keels of schist belts are preserved and occur as highly dismembered, disconnected belts with the top and bottom of the stratigraphic column obliterated due to high grade metamorphism and accompanying migmatization. Absence of high-grade metamorphic minerals in the sediments of the Dharwar schist belts supports the contention that high grade metamorphism post-dated the Dharwar sedimentation and occurred around 2.6 Ga ago. Sargur type metamorphism occurred at upper crustal levels and charnockite type metamorphism occurred in lower crustal levels. The P-T conditions for the mineral assemblage in metapelites of Sargur Group indicate burial depths up to at least 15 km suggesting that they were subducted and later obducted during the development of Early Proterozoic Mobile Belt along the southern border of the Karnataka Nucleus.

  4. Decomposition and Nutrient Release Dynamics of Ficus benghalensis L. Litter in Traditional Agroforestry Systems of Karnataka, Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    B. Dhanya; Syam Viswanath; Seema Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Decomposition and nutrient release dynamics of leaf litter of Ficus benghalensis, a common agroforestry species in southern dry agroclimatic zone of Karnataka, were studied using the standard litter bag technique in surface and subsurface methods of application. Results revealed a marginally higher rate of decay in subsurface placement (22.5% of initial litter mass remaining after one year of decomposition) compared to surface treatment (28.3% of initial litter mass remaining). Litter quality...

  5. CONCENTRATION OF RADON IN DWELLINGS OF HEMAVATHI RIVER BASIN, KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, R S; Ningappa, C; Yashaswini, T

    2018-02-15

    Indoor radon, thoron and their progeny levels were measured in various types of dwellings during 2016-17 in Hemavathi river basin, Karnataka by using solid state nuclear track detector based pin-hole dosemeters; dwellings of various types were chosen for the measurement. The dosemeters containing the detector (LR-115, Type II Film) was used for this purpose. The concentration of indoor radon in the study area varied from 30.72 to 196.08 Bq m-3 with a median of 83.13 Bq m-3 and thoron concentration varied from 15.56 to 227.78 Bq m-3. Higher concentrations of radon and its progeny were observed in granite flooring and cement roofing dwellings compared to other types of dwellings. The reason for higher concentration of indoor radon and its progeny is due to activity of radium present in granite and provision of less ventilation in dwellings. The equilibrium equivalent radon, thoron concentrations and annual effective dose are discussed.

  6. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

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    Ramachandra Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  7. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

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    Ramachandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  8. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emerging extra-intestinal infections with Aeromonas hydrophila in coastal region of southern Karnataka

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    Mukhopadhyay C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. They have been occasionally reported as a cause of extra-intestinal infections such as cellulitis, cholangitis, necrotizing fascitis, meningitis, bacteremia, or peritonitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients . Aim: To determine the role and possible pathogenesis of Aeromonas in extra-intestinal infections.Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis carried out at Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka in the months of January and February 2007. Materials and Methods: Clinical manifestations and management of eight cases of extra-intestinal infections caused by A. hydrophila , from the south Karnataka coastal region were reviewed. The isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests using standard guidelines.Results: All patients acquired Aeromonas infections in the community. Five (62.5% had underlying illnesses, such as liver disease, diabetes mellitus or malignancy. Five (62.5% had polymicrobial infections, and three (37.5% were complicated with bacteremia. These included three patients with ulcers or abscess over the lower leg, two with cellulitis due to snake bite and one each with pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia. A. hydrophila was found to be a causative agent of pelvic inflammatory disease or cellulitis following sea snake bite, and such a clinical scenario has not been previously described. Seven patients survived the illness. Conclusions: Isolation of A. hydrophila from extra-intestinal specimens demands utmost clinical and microbiological vigilance in diagnosis, since the organism can cause serious infections among immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.

  10. Water Resource Planning Under Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainty in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Conway, Declan; Dessai, Suraje; Stainforth, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India. A water resources model is calibrated and validated satisfactorily using observed streamflow. Plausible future changes in Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation and water demand are used to drive simulations of water resources from 2021 to 2055. Two stakeholder-identified decision-critical metrics are examined: a basin-wide metric comprising legal instream flow requirements for the downstream state of Tamil Nadu, and a local metric comprising water supply reliability to Bangalore city. In model simulations, the ability to satisfy these performance metrics without adaptation is reduced under almost all scenarios. Implementing adaptation options can partially offset the negative impacts of change. Sequencing of options according to stakeholder priorities into Adaptation Pathways affects metric satisfaction. Early focus on agricultural demand management improves the robustness of pathways but trade-offs emerge between intrabasin and basin-wide water availability. We demonstrate that the fine balance between water availability and demand is vulnerable to future changes and uncertainty. Despite current and long-term planning challenges, stakeholders in developing countries may engage meaningfully in coproduction approaches for adaptation decision-making under deep uncertainty.

  11. 210Po and 210Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb varied in the range of 4.7–42.9 Bq kg −1 (dry weight) and 36.1–124 Bq kg −1 (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3–63.7 Bq kg −1 (dry weight) and 12.0–406 Bq kg −1 (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. - Highlights: • 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in medicinal plants were estimated. • Concentrations are higher in leaves than in rhizome or bark. • 210 Po and 210 Pb were in disequilibrium, but correlated very well. • Study helps to form database of radionuclides in medicinal plants.

  12. The Cauvery river basin in southern India: major challenges and possible solutions in the 21st century.

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    Vanham, D; Weingartner, R; Rauch, W

    2011-01-01

    India is facing major challenges in its water resources management (WRM) sector. Water shortages are attributed to issues such as an explosion in population, rapid urbanization and industrialization, environmental degradation and inefficient water use, all aggravated by changing climate and its impacts on demand, supply and water quality. This paper focuses on the contemporary and future situation in the Cauvery river basin in Southern India, shared by different states, predominantly Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. As water issues largely fall under the authority of the states, inter-state water disputes have a long tradition in the Cauvery river basin. Future changes in precipitation during the two monsoon seasons will only increase these tensions. Both states depend on the arrival of these monsoon rains to water their crops and to replenish the groundwater. The paper identifies the major challenges and general possible solutions for sustainable WRM within the river basin. It synthesises the relevant literature, describes practices that should be addressed in the scope of integrated WRM--including water availability increase and demand management--and stresses the need for further quantitative analyses.

  13. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  14. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution aero-radiometric data from three radio-elements (Uranium, Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern Anambra basin for the prospect of producing radiogenic heat. The rock types in the study area were outlined while processing the elements in each rock ...

  15. Hydrogeophysical investigation of Southern Anambra Basin Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical relationship between the Dar Zarrouk parameters and the hydraulic characteristics were used to assess the hydrogeological condition of the basin. These have led to inferences about the aquifer hydraulic conductivities and transmissivities and K product across the area. Consequently favourable areas have ...

  16. An appraisal of uranium exploration in the Kaladgi-Badami and Bhima basins in Karnataka and identification of potential targets by geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan; Achar, K.K.; Pandit, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Concerted exploration efforts by the Atomic Minerals Directorate in the Kaladgi-Badami and Bhima basins, has resulted in the identification of a number of favourable targets for uranium mineralisation of the unconformity-related type, in both the basins. In the Bhima basin, uranium mineralisation associated with brecciated limestones and granites is spatially related to fault/shear zones at the basin margin close to the unconformity, implying the epigenetic character of the mineralisation. In all, eighteen faults have been mapped in the Bhima basin. Distribution of the various types of anomalies, viz., ground radiometric, hydrogeochemical and aero-radiometric, indicate that while the maximum frequency of these anomalies is along the Gogi-Kurlegere fault, significant clusters are located in areas along other faults also, such as a) the Banhatti-Wajhal fault, b) At Malla, along the Gogi-Kurlegere fault and c) near Kurkunta and Bondampalle along extensions of the Farhatabad and Mogalavadikavagu faults. The geological setting and characteristics of the anomalies in these faults qualify their classification as priority targets. In the southern parts of Kaladgi-Badami basin, low-order but significant uranium anomalies have been located at Hanbarhatti and Jallikatti-Basidoni. These anomalies associated with overlying extensions of mega shears traversing/bounding the Chitradurga Supracrustals, beneath the basinal sediments, are considered important targets. Additionally, in the northeastern parts of the basin, the Kushtagi schist belt extends beneath the Kaladgi sediments, between Bagalkot and Amingarh. Geological settings with tectonically disturbed carbonaceous/pelitic sediments intruded by younger granites, such as those of the Chitradurga and Kushtagi belts, under a cover of younger sediments, are ideal loci for hosting unconformity-related uranium deposits. Therefore, the above three areas are considered as favourable targets. Airborne electromagnetic (EM) surveys

  17. Tree ring reconstructed rainfall over the southern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lidio; Stahle, David; Villalba, Ricardo; Torbenson, Max; Feng, Song; Cook, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Moisture sensitive tree ring chronologies of Centrolobium microchaete have been developed from seasonally dry forests in the southern Amazon Basin and used to reconstruct wet season rainfall totals from 1799 to 2012, adding over 150 years of rainfall estimates to the short instrumental record for the region. The reconstruction is correlated with the same atmospheric variables that influence the instrumental measurements of wet season rainfall. Anticyclonic circulation over midlatitude South America promotes equatorward surges of cold and relatively dry extratropical air that converge with warm moist air to form deep convection and heavy rainfall over this sector of the southern Amazon Basin. Interesting droughts and pluvials are reconstructed during the preinstrumental nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the tree ring reconstruction suggests that the strong multidecadal variability in instrumental and reconstructed wet season rainfall after 1950 may have been unmatched since 1799.

  18. 76 FR 10914 - Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... 261A; 11-08807; MO 4500020093; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin...) Mojave- Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Las Vegas, Nevada. The meetings... are not limited to: District Manager's reports on current program of work, Southern Nevada Public Land...

  19. The birth of the Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; An, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2017-05-01

    The stratigraphic succession of a forearc basin provides crucial information on the history of a convergent plate margin. In particular, it helps to establish the origin of the underlying ophiolites and to unravel the earliest evolutionary stage of arc-trench systems, which remain poorly understood. The Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet is one of the best examples of a fossil forearc basin. This study illustrates detailed stratigraphic and high-precision SIMS U-Pb zircon geochronological and Hf isotopic data from the Chongdui Formation, representing the very base of the Xigaze forearc-basin succession, and reconstructs when and how the basin was formed. The Chongdui Formation includes tuffaceous chert and siliceous mudrocks deposited directly on top of pillow basalts of the Xigaze ophiolite and conformably overlain by volcaniclastic turbidites. Tuff layers are interbedded throughout the unit, and their U-Pb zircon ages range from 119 to 113 Ma in the lower member and from 113 to 110 Ma in the upper member, broadly consistent with the established radiolarian biostratigraphy. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope signatures of zircons contained in both tuff layers and turbiditic sandstones indicate clear affinity with magmatic rocks of the Lhasa terrane. Direct depositional and chronostratigraphic relationship with the underlying oceanic crust, dated between 131 and 124 Ma, proves that the Xigaze ophiolite is the basement of the Xigaze forearc basin. After an initial prolonged stage of starved siliceous sedimentation, influx of terrigenous detritus began at 113-110 Ma, reflecting the onset of topographic growth and erosion of the Lhasa terrane in response to intense magmatic activity. Formation of the ophiolitic basement during the early stage of subduction and the subsequent topographic growth of the arc source induced by subduction-related magmatism are thus two critical factors for the birth of the Xigaze forearc basin. Similar stratigraphies were identified in the Great

  20. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

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    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  1. Gulf of California Rift Structure and Magmatism: Guaymas Basin and Comparison With Southern Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, D.; Axen, G. J.; Fletcher, J. M.; Fernandez, A. G.; Harding, A. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Kent, G. M.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Brown, H.; Paramo, P.; Sutherland, F.

    2005-12-01

    We present a detailed seismic velocity model of the crust from margin to margin across the Guaymas Basin and compare this model with basins in the southern Gulf of California. These results are based on data from a 2002 crustal-scale, active-source seismic experiment, where multi-channel and wide-angle seismic data were acquired along three flow-line transects across Guaymas Basin, Alarcon Basin, and between Puerto Vallarta and Cabo San Lucas. Each of these transects was instrumented with ocean-bottom seismometers spaced 10-15 km apart and similarly spaced seismometers on land recording the offshore shots. The seafloor morphology of the Gulf has suggested to many that the mode of extension transitions from localized extension followed by seafloor spreading (a narrow rift) in the southern Gulf to a wide-rift mode of distributed extension in the north. This is not the case, however. The thickly sedimented Guaymas basin is a narrow rift. Lithospheric necking occurred after ~150 km of extension, and a subsequent ~300 km of extension has been accommodated by the formation of new lithosphere. The spreading center has been robustly magmatic, forming new igneous crust 7 to 10 km thick. To the south, the Alarcon basin is a wider rift, experiencing ~290 km of extension, including rift relocations, prior to the onset of seafloor spreading (~160 km of extension), which produces crust ~6 km thick. Thus, total extension for these two basins is similar (~450 km), but the mode of extension and manifestation of magmatism are very different. Differences in sedimentation may provide an explanation for the variation in magmatism between these basins, with the thicker sediments in the north providing a thermal blanket that enables more complete melt extraction from the mantle. Magmatism does not provide a sufficient explanation for the difference in rift width, however, since rifting between Cabo San Lucas and Puerto Vallarta, just one segment south of Alarcon, was particularly narrow

  2. Basin inversion by distributed deformation: the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin, England

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    Glen, R. A.; Hancock, P. L.; Whittaker, A.

    Several models of basin inversion described in the literature are tested in a study of Triassic and Early Jurassic strata exposed along the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin in Somerset, England that has been exhumed by 95% of them are still in net extension, despite widespread kinematic evidence for reverse reactivation. When coupled with the general absence of thin-skinned thrusts and the widespread occurrence of regional contractional folds, it appears that none of three main inversion models—the fault-reactivation model, the thin-skinned model and the buttress model—are by themselves applicable. We erect a new model of basin inversion, the distributed deformation model, which consists of three stages of basin inversion. Stage one involved early partial reactivation of large-displacement steep normal faults. Stage two was dominated by folding, wherein fault blocks underwent oblique (non-coaxial) shortening by map scale folding, accompanied by formation of outer arc normal faults, minor cleavage and neoformed thrusts. Stage three involved reverse reactivation of outer arc normal faults and activation of oblique and strike-slip faults that partitioned deformation into compartments.

  3. Soil moisture monitoring in Candelaro basin, Southern Italy

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    Campana, C.; Gigante, V.; Iacobellis, V.

    2012-04-01

    The signature of the hydrologic regime can be investigated, in principle, by recognizing the main mechanisms of runoff generation that take place in the basin and affect the seasonal behavior or the rainfall-driven events. In this framework, besides the implementation of hydrological models, a crucial role should be played by direct observation of key state variables such as soil moisture at different depths and different distances from the river network. In fact, understanding hydrological systems is often limited by the frequency and spatial distribution of observations. Experimental catchments, which are field laboratories with long-term measurements of hydrological variables, are not only sources of data but also sources of knowledge. Wireless distributed sensing platforms are a key technology to address the need for overcoming field limitations such as conflicts between soil use and cable connections. A stand-alone wireless network system has been installed for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths along a transect located in Celone basin (sub-basin of Candelaro basin in Puglia, Southern Italy). The transect consists of five verticals, each one having three soil water content sensors at multiple depths: 0,05 m, 0,6 m and 1,2 m below the ground level. The total length of the transect is 307 m and the average distance between the verticals is 77 m. The main elements of the instrumental system installed are: fifteen Decagon 10HS Soil Moisture Sensors, five Decagon Em50R Wireless Radio Data Loggers, one Rain gauge, one Decagon Data Station and one Campbell CR1000 Data Logger. Main advantages of the system as described and presented in this work are that installation of the wireless network system is fast and easy to use, data retrieval and monitoring information over large spatial scales can be obtained in (near) real-time mode and finally other type of sensors can be connected to the system, also offering wide potentials for future

  4. Albian roveacrinids from the southern Congo Basin off Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bruno; Granier, Bruno

    2001-06-01

    Microfacies study of the Albian of the Pinda Formation in Well BAGRE 1 (Block 2, Angola offshore) revealed several echinoderm-rich layers. Contrary to other fossil remains, the echinoderms have not been dolomitized and are therefore potentially useful for stratigraphic purposes. The remains are compared to those found in the Sergipe Basin in Brazil and assigned to the Roveacrinidae, a group of stemless microcrinoids. The following species were identified: Roveacrinus communis Douglas, 1908; Roveacrinus cf. communis Douglas, 1908; Roveacrinus aff. geinitzi Schneider, 1989; Roveacrinus pyramidalis Peck, 1943; Roveacrinus sp. The assemblage provides a relatively precise stratigraphic framework in comparison to previous age determinations. Although some species have a wide stratigraphic range, the occurrence of the genus Roveacrinus and the species R. pyramidalis Peck, 1943 suggests a late Albian age, which makes the Angolan assemblages among the oldest known. The main area of distribution of roveacrinids is the Tethyan realm, so these extremely southern occurrences in Angola appear to support the theory of a seaway through the Gulf of Guinea in the late Albian.

  5. Seismological investigations in the Gioia Tauro Basin (southern Calabria, Italy

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    S. Gresta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides new seismological information to characterize the seismically active area of the Gioia Tauro basin (southern Calabria, Italy. Seismic activity recorded by a temporary network from 1985 to 1994 was analyzed for focal mechanisms, stress tensor inversion, P-wave seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters estimation. Fault plane solutions of selected events showed a variety of different mechanisms, even if a prevalence of normal dip-slip solutions with prevalent rupture orientations occurring along ca. NE-SW directions was observed. Stress tensor inversion analysis disclosed a region governed mainly by a NW-SE extensional stress regime with a nearly vertical ?1. These results are consistent with the structure movements affecting the studied area and with geodetic data. Furthermore, evaluation of P-waves seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters of a subset of events highlighted a strong heterogeneity of the crust and the presence of fault segments and/or weakened zones where great stress accumulation or long-rupture propagation are hindered.

  6. Reforestation and land use change in a drainage basin of southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    D’Ippolito A; Ferrari E; Iovino F; Nicolaci A; Veltri A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the land use change in a large basin of Calabria region (southern Italy) subjected to extensive reforestation at the end of the ’50 has been carefully reconstructed and compared with the current situation. The runoff capacity of the basin was estimated using data available for the temporal periods before and after the reforestation interventions. The results show that the surface of the basin interested by former reforestation activities did not affect the runoff, probably due ...

  7. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  8. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  9. Plate interactions control middle late Miocene, proto-Gulf and Basin and Range extension in the southern Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christopher D.; Aranda-Gomez, J. Jorge

    2000-03-01

    Middle-late Miocene (proto-Gulf; ˜12-6 Ma) extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and east-northeast extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. We propose that this mechanism also applies to kinematically similar, predominantly east-northeast extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province, from southern Arizona and New Mexico to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. New field and 40Ar/ 39Ar data in Sinaloa and Durango confirm that this episode of extension occurred on the mainland side of the Gulf and in the Basin and Range east of the Sierra Madre Occidental, which is generally considered the eastern margin of the Gulf Extensional Province. Published data indicate the middle-late Miocene episode also occurred across the northern and southern ends of the Sierra Madre where the Gulf Extensional Province connects with the Basin and Range: (1) from central Sonora into southern Arizona and New Mexico, and (2) from Nayarit into central Mexico north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This episode appears to have affected an area that continues to the eastern edge of the Basin and Range province in Texas and San Luis Potosi. Recognition that this episode of extension affected the entire southern Basin and Range resolves the discrepancy between the amount of extension calculated based on plate reconstructions and that based on field data within the Gulf Extensional Province alone. Published plate reconstructions require 160 to 110 km of east-northeast extension between ˜12 and 6 Ma. If taken up solely within the Gulf Extensional Province, this would have generated 66 to 78% extension, which is much greater than observed. Spread across the entire southern Basin and Range it requires only ˜20% total extension, which is more

  10. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    JASEM https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i4.15. Key Words: Aero-radiometric; Radiogenic Heat; Anambra Basin; Geothermal. Anambra basin has not really been subjected to detailed radiogenic heat production despite the geological features that suggest that the area has prospect for geothermal energy production. This.

  11. Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikpal, Ramesh L.; Renuka Prasad, T. J.; Satish, K.

    2017-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of drainage system is an important aspect of characterization of watersheds. Using watershed as a basin unit in morphometric analysis is the most logical choice because all hydrological and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed. The Budigere Amanikere watershed a tributary of Dakshina Pinakini River has been selected for case illustration. Geoinformatics module consisting of ArcGIS 10.3v and Cartosat-1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 of resolution 1 arc Sec ( 32 m) data obtained from Bhuvan is effectively used. Sheet and gully erosion are identified in parts of the study area. Slope in the watershed indicating moderate to least runoff and negligible soil loss condition. Third and fourth-order sub-watershed analysis is carried out. Mean bifurcation ratio ( R b) 3.6 specify there is no dominant influence of geology and structures, low drainage density ( D d) 1.12 and low stream frequency ( F s) 1.17 implies highly infiltration subsoil material and low runoff, infiltration number ( I f)1.3 implies higher infiltration capacity, coarse drainage texture ( T) 3.40 shows high permeable subsoil, length of overland flow ( L g) 0.45 indicates under very less structural disturbances, less runoff conditions, constant of channel maintenance ( C) 0.9 indicates higher permeability of subsoil, elongation ratio ( R e) 0.58, circularity ratio ( R c) 0.75 and form factor ( R f) 0.26 signifies sub-circular to more elongated basin with high infiltration with low runoff. It was observed from the hypsometric curves and hypsometric integral values of the watershed along with their sub basins that the drainage system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic development. Additionally, Hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral value proves that the infiltration capacity is high as well as runoff is low in the watershed. Thus, these mormometric analyses can be used as an estimator of erosion status of watersheds leading to prioritization for taking

  12. USING SRTM TO QUANTIFY SIZE PARAMETERS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDORHEIC BASINS IN SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  13. Accumulation conditions of Lower Paleozoic shale gas from the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the raw data of the organic-rich shale in the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation and Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation which were collected from the drilling core, we investigated the accumulation conditions of the Lower Paleozoic marine shale gas in the southern Sichuan Basin, China. The results indicate that the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations' black shales in this region are mainly deposited in the deep water shelf sedimentary environment. Both the Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations in the southern Sichuan Basin have great organic-rich shale thickness (mainly 50–300 m. The marine shales of the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are characterized by high total organic carbon contents (average TOC>2%, I–II1 kerogen types, highthermal maturity level (equivalent RO>1.9%, abundant rich brittle mineral (average > 50%, micro- and nanometer pore development, as well as high gas content of shale (average > 1.8 m3/t. All these features are favorable for marine shale gas generation and enrichment in the southern Sichuan Basin. Compared to the Barnett shale in North America, in which shale gas has been explored and developed successfully, it is suggested that the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin would possess good conditions for shale gas accumulation. Therefore, the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are considered as potential targets for marine shale gas exploration, and favorable areas for shale gas enrichment are also purposed. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Qiongzhusi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Zhigong-Yibin, Changning-Gongxian, Jianwei-Muchuan, and Weiyuan areas. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Longmaxi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Longchang-Rongchang, Yibin-Luzhou-Changning, and Weiyuan areas.

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing in Coalbed Methane Development, Raton Basin, Southern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneer Natural Resources has performed hydraulic fractures on 2400 shallow CBM wells in the Raton Basin with no impact to drinking water. This presentation, given by Pioneer Natural Resources, discusses why might be.

  15. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  16. Foraminiferal patterns in two trophically different regions: the northern Adriatic Sea and the southern Levantine Basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, N.T.; Duijnstee, Ivo; van der Zwaan, Bert

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the northern Adriatic Sea and southern Levantine Basin are trophically quite different, the benthic foraminiferal standing stocks through the seasons were found to be in the same range. This suggests that the amount offood (organic matter) available at the sediment-water

  17. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  18. [Vegetation change of Yamzho Yumco Basin in southern Tibet based on SPOT-VGT NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Mei; Liu, Jing-Shi; Yuan, Jin-Guo

    2010-06-01

    The area we studied is Lake Yamzho Yumco Basin (28 degrees 27'-29 degrees 12'N, 90 degrees 08'-91 degrees 45'E), the largest inland lake basin in southern Tibetan Plateau, China. Using the SPOT-VGT NDVI vegetation index from 1998 to 2007 in the basin, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of NDVI and its correlation with the major climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation) were analyzed. The results show that the average NDVI of the lake basin ranges from 0.12 to 0.31 and its seasonal change is obvious; the NDVI begins to rise rapidly in May and reaches the maximum value in early September. The average NDVI of the basin shows the slow increasing trend during 1998 to 2007, and it indicates that the eco-environment of the basin is recovering. The high value of NDVI has close relationships with water supply, altitude and vegetation types, so NDVI is relatively high near water sources and is the highest in meadow grassland. The summer air temperature and precipitation are the important climate elements that influence the vegetation in the basin, and the linear correlation coefficients between NDVI and air temperature and precipitation are 0.7 and 0.71, respectively. In recent years, warm and humid trend of the local climate is prevailing to improve the ecological environment in Yamzho Yumco Basin.

  19. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  20. Geodetic measurement of deformation in the Ventura basin region, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Hager, Bradford H.; King, Robert W.; Herring, Thomas A.

    1993-12-01

    We have measured the deformation in the Ventura basin region, southern California, with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out over 4.6 years between 1987 and 1992. The deformation within our network is spatically variable on scales of tens of kilometers, with strain rates reaching 0.6 +/- 1 micro-rad/yr in the east-central basin. Blocklike rotations are observed south and northwest of the basin where the maximum shear strain rates are an order of magnitude lower (0.06 +/- 1 micro-rad/yr to the south). We also observed clockwise rotations of 1 deg - 7 deg/m.y. Shear strain rates determined by comparing angle changes from historical triangulation spanning several decades and GPS measurements give consistent, though less precise, results. The geodetic rates of shortening across the basin and Western Transverse Ranges are lower than those estimated from geological observations, but the patterns of deformation from the two methods agree qualitatively.

  1. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  2. Geometric Reconstruction of Bedrock and Overlying Recent Deposits In An Intra-mountain Basin: The Clusone Basin (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caielli, G.; Berra, F.

    Regione Lombardia (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica) and the National Research Council (CNR-IDPA Milano) acquired seismic reflection profiles in the Clu- sone basin (Middle Val Seriana, Southern Alps). In the study area, the bedrock is rep- resented by late Triassic carbonate units (Formazione di Castro, Dolomia Principale and coeval basinal facies, bordered northward by an important alpine fault) covered by a large amount of recent deposits that covers an area of more than 10 km2, with a maximum thickness of more than two hundreds meters, as documented by available well data. The aim of the seismic prospecting was to identify the sediments layering and the rock basement depth. The acquisition parameters were as follows: group in- terval 10 m; shot interval 5 m; geophone frequency 14 Hz; sample rate 1 ms; record length 2 s, energy source hydrapulse. The cable, with 120 channels, remained dur- ing all the experiment allowing reflection/refraction events acquisition. The data were processed by a standard procedure using PROMAX and SUNT5 processing codes. The statics were calculated starting from the refracted first arrivals using a two layer inversion based on least square optimisation. Standard seismic reflection processing was applied to obtain reflection images and it was integrated with seismic refraction data inversion. Seismic profiles allow to reconstruct both the main reflectors in the recent deposits and the geometry of the bedrock. The first results document a complex history in the drainage patterns of the Clusone basin, allowing to identify, in an intra- mountain basin, drainage directions that in some cases are different from the ones that can be observed today. The integration of well data and seismic profiles in this study of an intra-mountain basin allows on one side the identification of the bedrock geome- tries and, on the other, gives constrains for the reconstruction of the geomorphologic evolution of a sector of a mountain chain.

  3. Soil erosion vulnerability in the verde river basin, southern minas gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Vinícius Augusto de; Mello, Carlos Rogério de; Durães, Matheus Fonseca; Silva, Antônio Marciano da

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental degradation processes. Mapping and assessment of soil erosion vulnerability is an important tool for planning and management of the natural resources. The objective of the present study was to apply the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using GIS tools to the Verde River Basin (VRB), southern Minas Gerais, in order to assess soil erosion vulnerability. A annual rainfall erosivity map was derived from the geographical model a...

  4. THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varija BOLAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Karnataka is the sixth largest state in India. It was directly under the Muslim ruleof the Bahamani Sultans, the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, the Barid Shahis and theMughals since the middle of the 14thcentury. After the rise of Haider and TipuSultan in the 18thcentury, South Karnataka, including the old Mysorestates wasunder the Muslim rule. Thus the Muslims, though only a minority in Karnataka,wielded great political power over many parts of Karnataka since medieval times,which for our purposes in reviewing the history ofKarnataka, we may assumeended with the end of the 18thcentury i.e., the conquest of Srirangapatna by theBritish and the death of Tipu. This paper examinesthe role of Islam in Karnatakaand its influence on the life and culture of its people. Islam played an importantrole in Karnataka in the introduction of arts and crafts based on Persian models. Alarge number of Persian words belonging to the field of public administrationentered Karnataka. In the same way, in business andlegal proceedings, especiallythose of courts of justice, words of Persian originabound in Kannada language.Many words of apparel, words denoting kinds of foodentered Kannada throughPersian Language. Islamic influence can be seen inthe fields of economy,education, religion, language, art and architecture, paintings and music. In thispaper an attempt is made to highlight the role of Islamic dynasties and theircontributions to Karnataka in all fields.

  5. Three new species of Alburnoides from the southern Black Sea basin (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Davut; Kaya, Cüneyt; Bayçelebi, Esra; Bektaş, Yusuf; Ekmekçi, F Güler

    2017-03-13

    Three new Alburnoides species are described from the southern Black Sea basin. Alburnoides kurui, new species, from the Yeşilırmak drainage, is distinguished from other species of Alburnoides in the southern Black Sea basin, the Marmara basin and the Anatolian Aegean basin by having a scaleless keel between the posterior pelvic fin base and the anus or with rarely 1 scale covering the anterior part of the keel; 50-59 total lateral-line scales; 13½-15½ branched anal-fin rays and 7-9 gill rakers. Alburnoides freyhofi, new species, from the Kızılırmak drainage, is distinguished by having a scaleless keel between the posterior pelvic fin base and the anus, 44-53 total lateral-line scales; 14½-16½ branched anal-fin rays and 5-7 gill rakers. Alburnoides kosswigi, new species, from the Sakarya drainage, is distinguished by having a scaleless keel between the posterior pelvic fin base and the anus or rarely with 1-3 scales covering the anterior part of the keel; 43-57 total lateral-line scales; 11½-13 (14)½ branched anal-fin rays and 5-7 gill rakers.

  6. In-situ stress, pore pressure and stress-dependent permeability in the Southern Qinshui Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.P.; Zhang, J.C.; Wang, R. [Shell Exploration & Production Co, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study focuses on the in-situ stress, pore pressure and permeability in the Southern Qinshui Basin, one of largest coalbed methane basins in China. Well tests show that permeability in this basin is higher than other coalbed methane reservoirs. This is because it is located in an extensional basin, where the normal faulting stress regime is dominated. This in-situ stress regime is advantageous to keep coal cleats open. Hydraulic fracturing tests indicate that the fracture gradient or minimum horizontal stress is much lower than the shales in the Gulf of Mexico and other oil basins. The minimum horizontal stress model is proposed with consideration of the stress coefficient based on the uniaxial strain method. This model provides a fairly good prediction on the minimum stress. Permeability data show that the effective stress-dependent permeability is pronounced in the coalbed methane reservoir. This is significant for the dual-porosity and dual-permeability coal reservoirs, which consist of coal porous matrices and cleats. The reason is that a rapid increase in effective stress can induce the closure of cleats, which may cause a permanent loss of permeability in the cleats. This reduces the connectivity between the cleats and coal matrices, hence the coal matrices cannot deliver gas pressure to the cleats for supporting the cleat space. Therefore, slowing down the effective stress change during production (e.g. slowing reservoir drawdown) can decelerate the permeability reduction. This is particularly important for the reservoir in which the pore pressure is not significantly overpressured, such that in the Southern Qinshui Basin.

  7. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  8. Insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins: the Atlantis Basin of southern Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T.; Bouriak, S.; Volkonskaya, A.; Monteiro, J.; Ivanov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Single-channel seismic reflection and sidescan (OKEAN) data acquired in an unstudied region of the North Atlantic give important insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins. Located on the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, south of the Azores Islands, the study area contains more than 1,000 ms two-way travel-time of sediments with a similar seismic stratigraphy to that of ODP sites 950-952 in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Processed thickness values correspond to a maximum thickness of about 1450 m and an average thickness of more than 500 m based on velocity data from ODP sites 950-952. The structure of the surveyed area and its location in relation to the Madeira Abyssal Plain and Mid-Atlantic Ridge indicate the existence, south of Azores, of two distinct sedimentary basins separated by major structural lineaments (Azores-Gibraltar and Atlantis Fracture Zones) and by seamount chains (Cruiser-Great Meteor Chain, Plato-Atlantis Chain). The basement of the sedimentary basins is irregular, showing multiple dome-shaped volcanic structures identical to those in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and Madeira Abyssal Plain. However, half-graben/graben basement blocks predominate east of 30ºW underneath a moderately deformed overburden. The complex structure observed most likely reflects changes in the direction and velocity of ocean spreading plus variations in the regional thermal gradients induced by local hot spots. In parallel, some of the sub-surface structures identified next to basin-bounding Fracture Zones may have resulted from transtensional and transpressional tectonism.

  9. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P H; Badari, V S

    1991-12-01

    An overview, objectives, implementation, and research and evaluation studies of 2 India Population Projects in Karnataka are presented. The India Population Project I (IPP-I) was conducted in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. India Population Project III (IPP-III) took place between 1984-92 in 6 districts of Karnataka: Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwad, Bidar, Gulbarga, and Raichur, and 4 districts in Kerala. The 6 districts in Karnataka accounted for 36% (13.2 million) of the total national population. The project cost was Rs. 713.1 million which was shared by the World Bank, and the Indian national and regional government. Due to poor past performance, these projects were undertaken to improve health and family welfare status. Specific project objectives are outlined. IPP-I included an urban component, and optimal Government of India program, and an intensive rural initiative. The urban program aimed to improved pre- and postnatal services and facilities, and the family planning (FP) in Bangalore city. The rural program was primarily to provide auxiliary nurse-midwives and hospitals and clinics, and also supplemental feeding program for pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 2 years. The government program provided FP staff and facilities. IPP-I had 3 units to oversee building construction, to recruit staff and provide supplies and equipment, and to establish a Population Center. IPP-III was concerned with service delivery; information, education, and communication efforts (IEC) and population education; research and evaluation; and project management. Both projects contributed significantly to improving the infrastructure. A brief account of the types and kinds of studies undertaken is given. Studies were grouped into longitudinal studies of fertility, mortality, and FP; management information and evaluation systems for health and family welfare programs; experimental strategies; and other studies. Research and evaluation studies in IPP-III encompassed studies in

  10. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  11. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) in black shale sequences: US Southern Midcontinent, Illinois Basin, and northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) boundary in the Woodford Shale of the US southern Midcontinent, Sweetland Creek Shale of the Illinois Basin, and the Hanover Shale of the northern Appalachian Basin is recognized to a discrete horizon. In each locality the boundary is marked by evidence of a disconformity: phosphate nodules, concentration of conodonts, or coated and corroded grains. The Woodford Shale consists of finely laminated pyritic organic-rich shale containing interbeds of greenish shale and chert. The F/F boundary horizon is marked by a concentration of conodonts and phosphatic nodules. The boundary lag horizon contains Pa. linguliformis, Pa. subperlobtata, Pa. delicatula delicatula, and Pa. triangularis. Underlying laminations contain Ancyrognathus ubiquitus and Pa. triangularis indicating that the disconformity is within the uppermost MN Zone 13 or Lower triangularis Zone. The upper portion of the Type Sweetland Creek Shale consists of dark organic-rich shales. The F/F boundary is located within an interval containing three green shale interbeds. Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian species first occurs in the middle green shale. In the thick Upper Devonian clastic sequence of the northern Appalachian Basin the F/F boundary is within an interval of interbedded pyritic green and organic-rich silty shales of the Hanover Shale. At Irish Gulf strata containing Pa. triangularis overlie finely laminated dark shales containing Pa. bogartensis, Pa. triangularis, Pa. winchell, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus. The conodont fauna transition is below a conodont-rich laminae containing a Famennian fauna that marks the boundary horizon.

  12. Clustering and interpretation of local earthquake tomography models in the southern Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Braeuer, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) marks the boundary between the Arabian and the African plates. Ongoing left-lateral relative plate motion and strike-slip deformation started in the Early Miocene (20 MA) and produced a total shift of 107 km until presence. The Dead Sea basin (DSB) located in the central part of the DST is one of the largest pull-apart basins in the world. It was formed from step-over of different fault strands at a major segment boundary of the transform fault system. The basin development was accompanied by deposition of clastics and evaporites and subsequent salt diapirism. Ongoing deformation within the basin and activity of the boundary faults are indicated by increased seismicity. The internal architecture of the DSB and the crustal structure around the DST were subject of several large scientific projects carried out since 2000. Here we report on a local earthquake tomography study from the southern DSB. In 2006-2008, a dense seismic network consisting of 65 stations was operated for 18 months in the southern part of the DSB and surrounding regions. Altogether 530 well-constrained seismic events with 13,970 P- and 12,760 S-wave arrival times were used for a travel time inversion for Vp, Vp/Vs velocity structure and seismicity distribution. The work flow included 1D inversion, 2.5D and 3D tomography, and resolution analysis. We demonstrate a possible strategy how several tomographic models such as Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs can be integrated for a combined lithological interpretation. We analyzed the tomographic models derived by 2.5D inversion using neural network clustering techniques. The method allows us to identify major lithologies by their petrophysical signatures. Remapping the clusters into the subsurface reveals the distribution of basin sediments, prebasin sedimentary rocks, and crystalline basement. The DSB shows an asymmetric structure with thickness variation from 5 km in the west to 13 km in the east. Most importantly, a well-defined body

  13. TRANSGRESSIVE SEQUENCES ON FORELAND MARGINS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NEOGENE CENTRAL GUADALQUIVIR BASIN, SOUTHERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GABRIEL PENDÓN

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir foreland basin, located between the Iberian basement northward and the Betic orogen to the South, represents the western sector of the earlier foredeep basin of the Betic Cordillera. Along the northern foreland margin, the sedimentary fill of this basin includes a Tortonian Basal Transgressive Complex (BTC, composed of five internal sequences bounded by transgressive surfaces. Two main parts are distinguished within each sequence: the lower transgressive lag deposits, and the upper stillstand/prograding sediments. Three facies associations were distinguished within this stratigraphic succession along the central sector of this basin margin: unfossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (A, fossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (B, and yellow medium-coarse-grained fossiliferous sands (C. A fourth facies association (D: blue silty marlstones and shales overlies the BTC. Deposits of alluvial sediments (facies association A and shallow-marine/foreshore sediments (facies association C, were recurrently interrupted by transgressive pulses (facies associations B and C. Every pulse is recorded by an erosional, cemented sandy-conglomerate bar with bivalves (Ostreidae, Isognomon, balanids, gastropods and other marine bioclasts; or their transgressive equivalents. The lateral facies changes in each individual sequence of the BTC are related to: (1 the influence on the northern foreland margin of the tectonic activity of the southern orogenic margin; (2 the palaeorelief formed by irregularities of the substrate which controls the sediment dispersal; and (3 the evolution stages of the sedimentary systems. 

  14. A sub-basin scale dust plume source frequency inventory for southern Africa, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Kathryn J.; Eckardt, Frank D.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2013-10-01

    present a dust plume source inventory for southern Africa. In order to locate and track the local, short-lived plume events, source and frequency data have been derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) thermal infrared composite data (4 km data using 8.7, 10.8, and 12.0 µm) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) visible composite data (0.25 km data utilizing 0.620 - 0.670 µm, 0.545 - 0.565 µm, and 0.459 - 0.479 µm). Between January 2005 and December 2008, a total of 328 distinct daytime dust plumes more than 10 km in length were detected. These plumes were attributed to 101 distinct point sources, consisting largely of ephemeral inland lakes, coastal pans as well as dry river valleys in Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. These data also provided sub-basin scale source observations for large basins such as Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans.

  15. Modelling drought and recovery in the southern Murray-Darling basin

    OpenAIRE

    Wittwer, Glyn; Griffith, Marnie

    2011-01-01

    The prolonged drought from 2006–07 to 2008–09 in south-eastern Australia presented severe difficulties for dry-land and irrigation farmers in the southern Murray-Darling basin. A dynamic multi-regional computable general equilibrium model (TERMH2O) is used to estimate the economy-wide small region impacts during and after drought. Drought reduces real GDP in some small regions by up to 20 per cent. Irrigation water trading and farm factor movements alleviate losses. The drought results in an ...

  16. A new species of Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ferrer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Ituglanis associated to the grasslands of the Pampa biome is described from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the low number of ribs and by a unique color pattern composed of an outer layer with scattered round black blotches equivalent in size to the eye circumference over a reddish brown background on the lateral surface of the body. We provide the genetic sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I (COI for three of the paratypes and discuss aspects about the recent discovery of the new species.

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE IN NORTHERN AFRICA: TOWARDS A RETURN OF RAINFALL ON THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOUACEUR ZEINEDDINE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine to what extent climate change affects the rainfall recorded on the southern Mediterranean basin, a trend analysis is proposed. This study is based on the chronological graphic method of processing information (MGCTI of type "Matrice Bertin". Results show an extreme variability of the precipitations and a severe drought, especially for Morocco, observed since 1970s. Finally, a gradual return to humid conditions is observed from the beginning of the 2000s in Algeria and Tunisia and since 2008 in Morocco. This new trend is also confirmed by recent results provided by agricultural data of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013.

  18. Seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: 1987 through 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, S.C.; Bufe, C.G.

    1991-12-31

    For the calendar year 1987, the southern Great basin seismic network (SGBSN) recorded about 820 earthquakes in the southern Great Basin (SGB). Local magnitudes ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 (December 30, 1987, 22:50:42 UTC at Hot Creek Valley). Five earthquakes epicenters in 1987 within the detection threshold of the seismic network are at Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential national, high-level nuclear waste repository. The maximum magnitude of those five earthquakes is 1.1, and their estimated depths of focus ranged from 3.1 to 7.6 km below sea level. For the calendar year 1988, about 1280 SGB earthquakes were catalogued, with maximum magnitude-4.4 for an Owens Valley, California, earthquake on July 5, 1988. Eight earthquake epicenters in 1988 are at Yucca Mountain, with depths ranging from three to 12 km below sea level, and maximum magnitude 2.1. For the calendar year 1989, about 1190 SGB earthquakes were located and catalogued, with maximum magnitude equal to 3.5 for earthquake about ten miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, on January 9. No Yucca Mountain earthquakes were recorded in 1989. An earthquake having a well-constrained depth of about 30 km below sea level was observed on August 21, 1989, in eastern Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  19. Late Permian non-marine-marine transitional profiles in the central Southern Permian Basin, northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, B.; Gebhardt, U.; Schneider, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The transition from Rotliegend to Zechstein within the Southern Permian Basin is one from continental desert to a marine environment. During the Upper Rotliegend II a huge playa lake existed there. This lake was temporarily influenced by precursors of the Zechstein transgression. Therefore the mega-playa evolved into a sabkha system. One of these early marine ingressions is known from an outcrop in Schleswig-Holstein. Laminated silt- and claystones, deposited within a standing water body, are intercalated in siltstones of a salt-flat environment. The lake sediments are characterised by high frequency cyclicity, shown by the sedimentary record and also by palaeontological data. The section contains fresh water as well as brackish-marine and marine fauna. Climatically forced cycles interact with marine incursions. After the Zechstein transgression had flooded the basin completely, sedimentation was controlled by sea-level fluctuations. Two sections, in the southern North Sea and in Schleswig-Holstein, are presented in this paper. Cyclicities with different frequencies controlled the sedimentation of the Kupferschiefer (T1) and the Werra Carbonate (Ca1). Sediments of the North Sea sequence were deposited within a shallow bay at the margin of an elevation. Therefore, the high frequency cyclicity became obvious within the sedimentary patterns and in the faunal content.

  20. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    erosion of a highland is the appearance of abundant feldspar in the Late Cretaceous Vermejo Formation. Above the Vermejo, unconformities overlain by conglomerate indicate continued thrusting and erosion of highlands from late Cretaceous (Raton) through Eocene (Cuchara) time. Eocene alluvial-fan conglomerates in the Cuchara Formation may represent erosion of the Culebra thrust block. Deposition in the Raton Basin probably shifted north from New Mexico to southern Colorado from Paleocene to Eocene time as movement on individual thrusts depressed adjacent segments of the basin.

  1. Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cuzco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Cuzco basin forms a 80-wide, relatively flat valley within the High Andes of southern Peru. This larger basin includes the regional capital of Cuzco and the Urubamba Valley, or "Sacred Valley of the Incas" favored by the Incas for its mild climate and broader expanses of less rugged and arable land. The valley is bounded on its northern edge by a 100-km-long and 10-km-wide zone of down-to-the-south systems of normal faults that separate the lower area of the down-dropped plateau of central Peru and the more elevated area of the Eastern Cordillera foldbelt that overthrusts the Amazon lowlands to the east. Previous workers have shown that the normal faults are dipslip with up to 600 m of measured displacements, reflect north-south extension, and have Holocene displacments with some linked to destructive, historical earthquakes. We have constructed topographic and structural cross sections across the entire area to demonstrate the normal fault on a the plateau peneplain. The footwall of the Eastern Cordillera, capped by snowcapped peaks in excess of 6 km, tilts a peneplain surface northward while the hanging wall of the Cuzco basin is radially arched. Erosion is accelerated along the trend of the normal fault zone. As the normal fault zone changes its strike from east-west to more more northwest-southeast, normal displacement decreases and is replaced by a left-lateral strike-slip component.

  2. Soil erosion vulnerability in the verde river basin, southern minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Augusto de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental degradation processes. Mapping and assessment of soil erosion vulnerability is an important tool for planning and management of the natural resources. The objective of the present study was to apply the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE using GIS tools to the Verde River Basin (VRB, southern Minas Gerais, in order to assess soil erosion vulnerability. A annual rainfall erosivity map was derived from the geographical model adjusted for Southeastern Brazil, calculating an annual value for each pixel. The maps of soil erodibility (K, topographic factor (LS, and use and management of soils (C were developed from soils and their uses map and the digital elevation model (DEM developed for the basin. In a GIS environment, the layers of the factors were combined to create the soil erosion vulnerability map according to RUSLE. The results showed that, in general, the soils of the VRB present a very high vulnerability to water erosion, with 58.68% of soil losses classified as "High" and "Extremely High" classes. In the headwater region of VRB, the predominant classes were "Very High" and "Extremely High" where there is predominance of Cambisols associated with extensive pastures. Furthermore, the integration of RUSLE/GIS showed an efficient tool for spatial characterization of soil erosion vulnerability in this important basin of the Minas Gerais state.

  3. Availability of ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin, central and southern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sufficient amounts of water to supply single family homes are available from the bedrock aquifer nearly everywhere in the middle Merrimack River basin in central and southern New Hampshire. Relatively this and narrow, unconsolidated aquifers of sand or sand and gravel commonly capable of yielding more than 200 gallons per minute to properly located and constructed wells are found only in major stream valleys. The map provides a preliminary assessment of the availability of ground water in the basin, as determined by estimating the capability of the aquifers to store and transmit water. On the map, aquifers are rated as having high, medium, or low potential to yield water. Ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin is generally of good chemical quality. Most of it is clear and colorless, contains no suspended matter and practically no bacteria, water may be affected by land-use practices. Degradation of water quality may occur in unsewered residential and village areas, near solid-waste-disposal sites, agricultural land, and major highways. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Pore characteristics of shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data was acquired from both the drillings and core samples of the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations' marine shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin by means of numerous specific experimental methods such as organic geochemistry, organic petrology, and pore analyses. Findings helped determine the characteristics of organic matter, total porosity, microscopic pore, and pore structure. The results show that the Lower Paleozoic marine shale in the south of the Sichuan Basin are characterized by high total organic carbon content (most TOC>2.0%, high thermal maturity level (RO = 2.3%–3.8%, and low total porosity (1.16%–6.87%. The total organic carbon content and thermal maturity level of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale are higher than those of the Longmaxi Formation shale, while the total porosity of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale is lower than that of the Longmaxi Formation shale. There exists intergranular pore, dissolved pore, crystal particle pore, particle edge pore, and organic matter pore in the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi Formation and Longmaxi Formation shale. There are more micro-nano pores developed in the Longmaxi Formation shales than those in the Qiongzhusi Formation shales. Intergranular pores, dissolved pores, as well as organic matter pores, are the most abundant, these are primary storage spaces for shale gas. The microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shales are mainly composed of micropores, mesopores, and a small amount of macropores. The micropore and mesopore in the Qiongzhusi Formation shale account for 83.92% of the total pore volume. The micropore and mesopore in the Longmaxi Formation shale accounts for 78.17% of the total pore volume. Thus, the micropores and mesopores are the chief components of microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin.

  5. Organic geochemistry and petroleum geology, tectonics and basin analysis of southern Tarim and northern Qaidam basins, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew Dean

    Organic geochemistry of oils from the Tarim basin, NW China, distinguish at least seven genetic groups of oils. The largest group are derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician anoxic slope-facies marls coincident with the margins of structural uplifts. Other groups include non-marine derived oils in the Luntai uplift, from southwest Tarim, in the Kuqa depression, and west of the Bachu uplift. A seep sample from west of Kashi clusters with Luntai oils. These results suggest that numerous source-rock horizons occur, but they are really restricted. Organic geochemistry of oils from northern Qaidam defines a family of hypersaline, anoxic lacustrine derived oils. Cenozoic outcrop samples from northern Qaidam are too organic lean to be of source quality, but dark laminated upper Oligocene mudstones from the Shi 28 well are of fair to good quality. Biomarkers provide a good correlation between the oils and the core samples. Organic matter is from algae and bacteria and lacks terrestrial material. Hydrocarbons are contained in upper Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene reservoirs. Eight oils are from NW Qaidam, but one sample comes from NE Qaidam, an area previously believed to only produce oils derived from Jurassic source rocks. Thus an unidentified Cenozoic source rock occurs in NE Qaidam. Thermal modeling indicates generation occurred in northwestern Qaidam within the last 3 million years, agreeing with observed low maturity biomarker parameters. Cenozoic stratigraphy in northern Qaidam and southern Tarim basins record the tectonic history of the surrounding structural/topographic elements. Paleocurrents record flow away from adjacent ranges from the Miocene to the present. Provenance data tie sediments to adjacent structural elements. Petrography indicates increasingly immature sandstones in Miocene and younger sediments relative to pre-Miocene samples. Apatite fission-track results from southeastern Tarim yield a cooling age of 17 +/- 1 Ma indicative of unroofing since at

  6. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate.

  7. Geomorphic evolution of the San Luis Basin and Rio Grande in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, Cal; Machette, Michael; Thompson, Ren A.; Miggins, Dan M; Goehring, Brent M; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The San Luis Basin encompasses the largest structural and hydrologic basin of the Rio Grande rift. On this field trip, we will examine the timing of transition of the San Luis Basin from hydrologically closed, aggrading subbasins to a continuous fluvial system that eroded the basin, formed the Rio Grande gorge, and ultimately, integrated the Rio Grande from Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico. Waning Pleistocene neotectonic activity and onset of major glacial episodes, in particular Marine Isotope Stages 11–2 (~420–14 ka), induced basin fill, spillover, and erosion of the southern San Luis Basin. The combined use of new geologic mapping, fluvial geomorphology, reinterpreted surficial geology of the Taos Plateau, pedogenic relative dating studies, 3He surface exposure dating of basalts, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate supports a sequence of events wherein pluvial Lake Alamosa in the northern San Luis Basin overflowed, and began to drain to the south across the closed Sunshine Valley–Costilla Plain region ≤400 ka. By ~200 ka, erosion had cut through topographic highs at Ute Mountain and the Red River fault zone, and began deep-canyon incision across the southern San Luis Basin. Previous studies indicate that prior to 200 ka, the present Rio Grande terminated into a large bolson complex in the vicinity of El Paso, Texas, and systematic, headward erosional processes had subtly integrated discontinuously connected basins along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift and southern Rocky Mountains. We propose that the integration of the entire San Luis Basin into the Rio Grande drainage system (~400–200 ka) was the critical event in the formation of the modern Rio Grande, integrating hinterland basins of the Rio Grande rift from El Paso, Texas, north to the San Luis Basin with the Gulf of Mexico. This event dramatically affected basins southeast of El Paso, Texas, across the Chisos Mountains and southeastern Basin and Range province, including the Rio

  8. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based ...

  9. Tracing the lateral movement of sediments through a shrubland environment using fallout radionuclides, Jornada Basin, Southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-arid grassland and savanna communities in many parts of the world have been displaced by woody shrubs. In the Jornada Basin of southern New Mexico, the displacement of perennial grasslands is well documented beginning in 1858. As shrubs invade semi-arid perennial grasslands, the length, number,...

  10. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of recent sediments at selected sites in the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Merk, G.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1976 field season, sediment traps and current meters were set out in the southern basin of Lake Michigan to study the relationship between suspended material and currents. The gross mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the bottom sediments at the locations of these experiments were determined

  11. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

      The 2,265 km2 Andarax river basin located in Southern Spain is one of the most arid regions in Europe with a mean annual precipitation of 250-350 mm, which mainly falls (70%) in autumn and winter. The terrain changes from sea level at the coast to more than 2,500 m in the Sierra Nevada Mountains...... into the Andarax river. When the river reaches the medium and lower-laying areas most of the water infiltrates into the highly permeable Detritic aquifer. River discharge into the Mediterranean Sea only occurs at rare occasions and for high rainfalls. The total recharge within the catchment determines the water....... Most of the precipitation falling in the mountainous areas, where the unit Triassic schists dominates, is converted into overland flow, which runs directly to the rivers. In areas with limestone most of the precipitation infiltrates and is subsequently routed through fractures before discharging...

  12. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

      The 2,265 km2 Andarax river basin located in Southern Spain is one of the most arid regions in Europe with a mean annual precipitation of 250-350 mm, which mainly falls (70%) in autumn and winter. The terrain changes from sea level at the coast to more than 2,500 m in the Sierra Nevada Mountains....... Most of the precipitation falling in the mountainous areas, where the unit Triassic schists dominates, is converted into overland flow, which runs directly to the rivers. In areas with limestone most of the precipitation infiltrates and is subsequently routed through fractures before discharging...... into the Andarax river. When the river reaches the medium and lower-laying areas most of the water infiltrates into the highly permeable Detritic aquifer. River discharge into the Mediterranean Sea only occurs at rare occasions and for high rainfalls. The total recharge within the catchment determines the water...

  13. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

    availability in the delta region. Due to the high evapotranspiration in semi-arid or arid regions groundwater recharge can be as low as 1 % of the precipitation. Thus it is essential to accurately predict the seasonal and regional distribution of actual evapotranspiration (ET) within the river catchment......  The 2,265 km2 Andarax river basin located in Southern Spain is one of the most arid regions in Europe with a mean annual precipitation of 250-350 mm, which mainly falls (70%) in autumn and winter. The terrain changes from sea level at the coast to more than 2,500 m in the Sierra Nevada Mountains....... Most of the precipitation falling in the mountainous areas, where the unit Triassic schists dominates, is converted into overland flow, which runs directly to the rivers. In areas with limestone most of the precipitation infiltrates and is subsequently routed through fractures before discharging...

  14. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  15. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene–Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Paleocene–Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet, which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa. The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation—from the Miscellanea–Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites–Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites. Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P–E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  16. Basin Response to Climatic Forcing from Geochemical, Isotope and Biomarker Records (Pujada Bay, southern Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraula, C.; Mateo, Z. R. P.; Siringan, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    Locus of the warmest sea surface temperatures is the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool which play a significant role in the heat and hydrodynamic coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere. The coupled terrestrial and marine system from the Pujada Bay of southern Philippines, where Pacific waters enter and influence the hydrodynamics of the embayment and where sedimentation rates are high enough to preserve decadal variability demonstrate a basin response to climatic forcing. Sea surface temperatures reconstructed from isoprenoidalglycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers show temperature shifts at the heart of the warm pool for the Little Ice Age, Medieval Warm period, and El Niño Southern Oscillation perturbations, and that these temperature shifts reflect the strong influence of the Mindanao Current, a northerly western boundary current formed from the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current. Sedimentological and multi-element analyses from an X-Ray Fluorescence core scan at 1 cm resolution distinctly indicate two stratigraphic units that are either strongly terrestrial- or marine-associated deposits. Ti used as a proxy for precipitation, whereas δ13C, δ15N and C/N for organic matter source and preservation, and Ba/Ti for paleoproductivity. Warming events are associated with increased productivity in the marine environment whereas the terrestrial response is a decrease in productivity. Strong marine productivity are in-phase with Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Southern Oscillation Index, and Multivariate ENSO Index. More recent environmental shift in the last few decades are traced to intensification of agriculture and deforestation in the watershed.

  17. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, J

    2015-01-01

    The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolussororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species.

  18. Determining Deep Basin Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (< 750,000 years) movement along basin bounding and low level (M<4) seismicity. Over the past 4 years we have been using a conjunction of microgravity, magnetic, water well logs and electrical resistivity studies to image the complex structure of these basins within a heavily urbanized environment. These studies suggest the presence of several northwest-southeast striking cross faults within the southern Mesilla Bolson as well as an extensive subsurface andesite body related to the Cristo Rey laccolith. Intrabasin faults in the Hueco Bolson appear to cut the basin into at least 3 smaller subbasins and to control the boundary between fresh and saline water within the aquifer system beneath El Paso. We are also able to trace the East Franklins Mountain fault (last movement < 15,000 ya) at least 15 km south of the U.S.-Mexico border.

  19. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  20. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Résumé. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une épaisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste région à faible perméabilité. Le modèle conceptuel conventionnel pour la présence d'eau souterraine à Hawaii et dans les autres îles de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si épaisse. Dans ce modèle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont formés la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes régions à relativement forte perméabilité, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu épaisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sédiments constituent une région étendue à faible conductivité hydraulique régionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est saturée presque jusqu'à sa surface; les surfaces pi

  1. Identifying needs for streamflow forecasting in the Incomati basin, Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Robert; Werner, Micha; Masih, Ilyas; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    Despite being widely recognised as an efficient tool in the operational management of water resources, rainfall and streamflow forecasts are currently not utilised in water management practice in the Incomati Basin in Southern Africa. Although, there have been initiatives for forecasting streamflow in the Sabie and Crocodile sub-basins, the outputs of these have found little use because of scepticism on the accuracy and reliability of the information, or the relevance of the information provided to the needs of the water managers. The process of improving these forecasts is underway, but as yet the actual needs of the forecasts are unclear and scope of the ongoing initiatives remains very limited. In this study questionnaires and focused group interviews were used to establish the need, potential use, benefit and required accuracy of rainfall and streamflow forecasts in the Incomati Basin. Thirty five interviews were conducted with professionals engaged in water sector and detailed discussions were held with water institutions, including the Inkomati Catchment Management Agency (ICMA), Komati Basin Water Authority (KOBWA), South African Weather Service (SAWS), water managers, dam operators, water experts, farmers and other water users in the Basin. Survey results show that about 97% of the respondents receive weather forecasts. In contrast to expectations, only 5% have access to the streamflow forecast. In the weather forecast, the most important variables were considered to be rainfall and temperature at daily and weekly time scales. Moreover, forecasts of global climatic indices such as El Niño or La Niña were neither received nor demanded. There was limited demand and/or awareness of flood and drought forecasts including the information on their linkages with global climatic indices. While the majority of respondents indicate the need and indeed use the weather forecast, the provision, communication and interpretation were in general found to be with too

  2. Low flows and reservoir management for the Durance River basin (Southern France) in the 2050s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River is one of the major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Water resources are under high pressure due to significant water abstractions for human uses within and out of the natural boundaries of the river basin through an extended open channel network. Water demands are related to irrigation, hydropower, drinking water, industries and more recently water management has included water needs for recreational uses as well as for preserving ecological services. Water is crucial for all these activities and for the socio-economic development of South Eastern France. Both socio-economic development and population evolution will probably modify needs for water supply, irrigation, energy consumption, tourism, industry, etc. In addition the Durance river basin will have to face climate change and its impact on water availability that may question the sustainability of the current rules for water allocation. The research project R²D²-2050 "Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development within the Durance river basin in 2050" aims at assessing future water availability and risks of water shortage in the 2050s by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. R²D²-2050 is partially funded by the French Ministry in charge of Ecology and the Rhône-Méditerranée Water Agency. This multidisciplinary project (2010-2014) involves Irstea, Electricité de France (EDF), the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris), LTHE (CNRS), the Société du Canal de Provence (SCP) and the research and consultancy company ACTeon. A set of models have been developed to simulate climate at regional scale (given by 330 projections obtained by applying three downscaling methods), water resources (provided by seven rainfall-runoff models forced by a subset of 330 climate projections), water demand for agriculture and drinking water, for different sub basins of the Durance River basin upstream of Mallemort under present day and under future conditions

  3. New Insights into the Provenance of the Southern Junggar Basin in the Jurassic from Heavy Mineral Analysis and Sedimentary Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T. Q.; Wu, C.; Zhu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Being a vital component of foreland basin of Central-western China, Southern Junggar Basin has observed solid evidences of oil and gas in recent years without a considerable advancement. The key reason behind this is the lack of systematic study on sedimentary provenance analysis of the Southern Junggar basin. Three parts of the Southern Junggar basin, including the western segment (Sikeshu Sag), the central segment (Qigu Fault-Fold Belt) and the eastern segment (Fukang Fault Zone), possess varied provenance systems, giving rise to difficulties for oil-gas exploration. In this study, 3468 heavy minerals data as well as the sedimentary environment analysis of 10 profiles and 7 boreholes were used to investigate the provenances of the deposits in the southern Junggar basin . Based on this research, it reveals that: Sikeshu sag initially shaped the foreland basin prototype in the Triassic and its provenance area of the sediments from the Sikeshu sag has primarily been situated in zhongguai uplift-chepaizi uplift depositional systems located in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin. From the early Jurassic, the key sources were likely to be late Carboniferous to early Permain post-collisional volcanic rocks from the North Tian Shan block to Centrao Tian Shan. In the Xishanyao formation, Abundant lithic metamorphic, epidote and garnet that suggests the source rocks were possibly late Carboniferous subduction-related arc volcanic rocks of the Central Tian Shan. In the Toutunhe formation, Bogda Mountains began uplifting and gradually becoming the major provenance. Moreover, the sedimentary boundaries of Junggar basin have also shifted towards the North Tian Shan again. In the late Jurassic, the conglomerates of the Kalazha formation directly overlie the fine-grained red beds of Qigu formation, which throw light on the rapid tectonic uplift of the North Tian Shan. In the eastern segment, meandering river delta and shore-lacustrine environments were fully developed

  4. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  5. Sedimentary provenance in the southern sector of the São Francisco Basin, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Macedo de Paula-Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We present new Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Hf isotope geochronological data for the siliciclastic rocks in the southern sector of the São Francisco Basin. An abrupt change in the Sm-Nd data is observed from the Carrancas Formation’s oligomitic conglomerates (TDM ages between 2.7 and 3.3 Ga; εNd(550 Ma values between -25.09 and -17.98, its finer facies, and the finer facies of the the Moema Laminite (TDM ages from 1.4 to 2.1 Ga; εNd(550 Ma values between -9.46 and -5.59. No further significant changes in the Sm-Nd data occur farther upwards in the Bambuí Group (Sm-Nd TDM ages within the 1.3-2.0 Ga interval; εNd(550 Ma values from -9.53 to -4.09, showing a lack of reorganization in the source areas throughout the deposition of the basin. This is yet another argument to dismiss an unconformity within the Bambuí Group. The presence of the index fossil Cloudina sp. in the lower Sete Lagoas Formation makes the glaciation probably Late Ediacaran in age. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons of the Bambuí Group range from the Archean to the early Ediacaran, but the current data is insufficient to distinguish between the contribution from sources in the Brasília and Araçuaí belts.

  6. A tridimensional reconstruction of the Forenza-Venosa Basin (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Tartarello, Maria; Bigi, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    The study area comprises a sector of the Southern Apennine thrust front and of the close foreland (Bradanic Foredeep). In this area Plio-Pleistocene continental deposits extensively crops out whereas the chain is represented by the Miocenic turbidites and the Allochtonous. The substratum is known only in exploration wells logs: it is represented by Jurassic - Miocene carbonate successions, composed by: Jurassic limestones and dolomites (Dolomitic Complex of Murge), Cretaceous limestones of Cupello Fm., Eocene to Miocene calcareous breccias with intercalation of basaltic layer of Lavello Breccias. Several seismic lines, isochrones maps and wells logs have been used to reconstruct the 3D model of the Forenza-Venosa Basin. It is characterized by the occurrence of Pre-Pliocene normal faults, that offset the carbonate complex with an horst and graben structure. The main regional normal fault has a NW-SE trend and a displacement of about 700 ms; this fault appears to be dislocated by an E-W trasfer fault. In the inner part of the area, it is clearly visible the thrust of the chaotic complex (Allochthonous Fm.) onto the foredeep deposits. The foredeep, filled by the Plio-Pleistocene deposits, has an NW-SE elongated geometry and only few kilometers of amplitude. The occurrence of pre Pliocene normal fault can be connected to the flexure of the Apulian platform during the Apennines evolution; the age of these faults can be considered as active during the Upper Miocene, as testified by the Miocene syn-sedimentary deposits, clearly visible in the seismic line, showing strong thickness variation. The low angle thrust plane placed the Allhocthonous Fm. on the Early Pliocene sequence, testify the migration of the compressional front of the chain after Early Pliocene. Even the E-verge folds involving the carbonate succession can be referred to this younger contractional phase. The folding affects also the Pliocene sequence, with a gentle bending in the northern part of the

  7. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  8. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  9. Preliminary assessment of the risk of volcanism at a proposed nuclear-waste repository in the southern Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Carr, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Volcanic hazard studies of the southern Great Basin are being conducted on behalf of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program. Current work is chiefly concerned with characterizing the geology, chronology, and tectonic setting of Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism in the Nevada Test Site region, and assessing volcanic risk through consequence and probability studies, particularly with respect to a potential site in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. Young ( - 6 volcanic events per year. Based on this rate, the annual probability of disruption of a 10-km 2 repository located within a 25-km radius circle centered at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada Test Site, is 10 - 8 . A larger area, 50-km radius, yields a disruption probability of 10 - 9 per year. Current tectonic zonation studies of the southern Great Basin will reduce the calculated probabilities of basaltic eruption for certain areas. 21 references, 3 figures

  10. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Salmoral, Gloria; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain) over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading bot...

  11. PLIOCENE PARALIC ENVIRONMENTS OF IRPINIA-DAUNIA BASIN (BARONIA MOUNTAINS, SOUTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIUSEPPE AIELLO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes and interprets two stratigraphic sections across the regressive part of Baronia Synthem, located near the villages of Flumeri and Vallesaccarda (Ariano Irpino area, Southern Italy. Four different depositional environments have been recognized: fluvial, lagoon, foreshore and shoreface. Fluvial deposits, occurring in the Flumeri section, consist of clast-supported conglomerates, horizontal laminated sands and muddy silts with freshwater ostracod assemblages, indicating deposition in braided river low-sinuosity channels. In the Flumeri section lagoonal deposits are generally represented by structureless layers of dark clay including ostracods of brackish coastal lagoon connected with shallow-marine waters. In the Vallesaccarda section lagoonal sediments only occur as muddy clasts. Foreshore deposits are represented by well sorted yellow sands with low-angle cross lamination; a horizontal layer of stratified gravels outcrops in Vallesaccarda section. The shoreface deposits consist of poorly sorted sands with trough cross stratification formed in a bar and trough system, of symmetric ripples layers, and of abundant mollusc shell debris; in the Vallesaccarda section a tempestite interval generated by storm activity has been found. In Flumeri section littoral and lagoonal facies assemblages alternate; in Vallesaccarda section only nearshore sediments crop out. Nearshore deposits denote a wave-dominated coastal marine environments. These data contribute to a better knowledge of the distribution of paralic facies on the Western margin of the Pliocene Irpinia-Daunia Basin

  12. Diamondoid Hydrocarbons as Maturity Indicators for Condensates from Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamondoid hydrocarbons have been examined in condensates reservoired in the Southern Indus Basin using GC-MS. Bulk properties reveal that samples are waxy and low sulfur with the exception of Pakhro and Gopang which are nonwaxy. TIC show bimodal distribution of n-alkanes along with high abundance of C20+ n-alkanes indicating substantial contribution of terrigeneous OM in these samples. CPI close to one is consistent with mature nature of oils. The samples show two ranges of Pr/Ph ratios. Those within the range of 2.2–2.7 reflect marine depositional settings for OM while others with Pr/Ph >3 may have originated from terrestrial OM deposited under marine oxic conditions. The cross plot of Pr/n-C17 versus Ph/n-C18 indicate type III kerogen as main source of OM deposited under marine to marine oxic conditions. The values of diamondoid based maturity parameters, like methyladamantane index 54.1–75.8% and methyldiamantane index 34.9–56.3% indicate high level of thermal maturity corresponding to vitrinite reflectance 1.1–1.6%. No biodegradation is observed in any of these samples as shown by methyladamantanes/adamantane 3.99–5.52 and methyldiamantanes/diamantane 2.16–2.99 and supported by high values of API gravity (45.13°–60.02° and absence of UCM.

  13. Future ecosystem services in a Southern African river basin: a scenario planning approach to uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohensky, Erin L; Reyers, Belinda; Van Jaarsveld, Albert S

    2006-08-01

    Scenario planning is a promising tool for dealing with uncertainty, but it has been underutilized in ecology and conservation. The use of scenarios to explore ecological dynamics of alternative futures has been given a major boost by the recently completed Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a 4-year initiative to investigate relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales. Scenarios, as descriptive narratives of pathways to the future, are a mechanism for improving the understanding and management of ecological and social processes by scientists and decision makers with greater flexibility than conventional techniques could afford. We used scenarios in one of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment's subglobal components to explore four possible futures in a Southern African river basin. Because of its ability to capture spatial and temporal dynamics, the scenario exercise revealed key trade-offs in ecosystem services in space and time and the importance of a multiple-scale scenario design. At subglobal scales, scenarios are a powerful vehicle for communication and engagement of decision makers, especially when designed to identify responses to specific problems. Scenario planning has the potential to be a critical ingredient in conservation as calls are increasingly made for the field to help define and achieve sustainable visions for the future.

  14. Geochemical characteristics and reservoir continuity of Silurian Acacus in Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, S.; Mohamed, A. Belhaj; Saidi, M.; Rezgui, F.

    2017-11-01

    The present work is dealing with the study of lateral and vertical continuity of the multi-layers Acacus reservoir (Ghadames Basin-Southern Tunisia) using the distribution of hydrocarbon fraction. For this purpose, oil-oil and source rock-oil correlations as well as the composition of the light fractions and a number of saturate and aromatic biomarkers parameters, including C35/C34 hopanes and DBT/P, have been investigated. Based on the ratios of light fraction and their fingerprints, the Acacus reservoir from Well1 and Well2 have found to be laterally non-connected although the hydrocarbons they contain have the same source rock. Moreover, the two oil samples from two different Acacus reservoir layers crossed by Well3-A3 and A9, display a similar hydrocarbons distribution, suggesting vertical reservoir continuity. On the other hand, the biomarker distributions of the oils samples and source rocks assess a Silurian ;Hot shale; that is the source rock feeding the Acacus reservoir. The biomarker distribution is characterized by high tricyclic terpanes contents compared to hopanes for the Silurian source rock and the two crude oils. This result is also confirmed by the dendrogram that precludes the Devonian source rocks as a source rock in the study area.

  15. Historical evolution of slope instability in the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Soriano, Marcella; Bellocchi, Gianni; Fiorillo, Francesco; Cevasco, Andrea; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in knowing historical spatio-temporal patterns of landslide activity. However, this is challenging to reconstruct because it is difficult to obtain detailed records for past landslide activity. Here, we deal with hydro-geomorphological signatures, such as storms, downpours, floods, snowmelt and mass movement, to detect annual slope instability events (ASIEs) over historical times. In order to obtain ASIEs for each year, a monthly Instability Density Index (IDI) was used and then monthly values were summed up to obtain a yearly value. Classes of monthly IDI varying between 0 (no instability) and 4 (highest instability) were determined from historical documents. We present an application for the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy, using data from a 313-year long series (1701-2013 CE). After 1880 CE the information becomes more valuable with directly observed landslide frequency. By this cataloguing, 129 ASIEs were obtained. Their evolution shows slight instability during the 18th century. Uneven and greater slope instability occurred instead across the 19th century, when an important phase of deforestation coincided with intensification of agricultural activities. Slope instability events continued during the 20th century but their causes are mainly related to anthropisation and the effects of recent climate change. It was determined that stormy autumns until the 19th century and successive winter-times with enhanced snowmelt, may have driven the reactivation of widespread instability events. We also found that mountainous and hilly terrains have an acute sensitivity to climate change.

  16. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  17. Herbivorous and parasitic insect guilds associated with Great Basin wild rye (Elymus cinereus) in southern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youtie, B.A.; Stafford, M.; Johnson, J.B.

    1987-10-31

    Insects inhabiting Great Basin wild rye (elymus cinereus Scribn. and Merr.) were surveyed at two sites on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho during 1982 and 1983. Forty-six species of phytophagous insects were observed. In addition, eight parasitoid species were reared from insect hosts in the plant culms and identified. Life stage, abundance, plant part utilized, and study site were recorded for each insect species collected. Insect guilds at the two sites were compared based on species presence utilizing Sorensen's similarity index. Overall, 26 insect species were common to both sites, yielding a moderate similarity index of 0.62. The majority of the species that constitute the wild rye herbivore guilds were oligophagous (restricted to grasses). Many of these insects feed on grain crops as well as other native and introduced grasses. The relatively high diversity of phytophages on wild rye may be due to its tall, bunchgrass growth form, its abundance within its habitat, its broad geographic range, and the large number of related species of grasses in the region.

  18. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  19. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Shuchismita; Parande, Mahantesh V; Parande, Aisha M; Lakkannavar, S L; Rathore, Poonam K; Mantur, B G; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Roy, Subarna

    2014-09-01

    Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. While 101 people (0.38%) were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94%) were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  20. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchismita Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  1. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S Vinayaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  2. Population Policy For Karnataka: A Suggested Framework

    OpenAIRE

    P H Rayappa; T V Sekher; M Ramakrishna Reddy

    2000-01-01

    In a vast country like India, with a population of one billion, having high demographic diversity and heterogeneity, and varying levels of socio-economic development among states, a common national population policy might not serve the purpose. An effective population stabilisation programme must be state-specific and address regional disparities, socio-cultural differentials and infrastrucutral problems. This paper discusses the need for a state policy for Karnataka, within the broad framewo...

  3. The bi-decadal rainfall cycle, Southern Annular Mode and tropical cyclones over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available contribution to rainfall by tropical cyclones and depressions. The findings suggest that a broadening of the Hadley circulation underpinned by an anomalous anticyclonic pattern to the east of southern Africa altered tropospheric steering flow, relative...

  4. Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2008-03-03

    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

  5. Hydrogeologic investigations of the southern Española Basin, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earney, T.; Christensen, D.; Horton, A.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 5 years, students participating in the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) have been studying groundwater conditions in the southern Española Basin, in northern New Mexico, with a goal of developing a better understanding of both regional and local scale geothermal anomalies. A regional geothermal gradient map constructed over the study area indicates that there are two regions with anomalously high geothermal gradients, one associated with the Buckman municipal wellfield (BMWF) and the other in the vicinity of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. Overproduction at the BMWF was responsible for a 100 meter drop in groundwater levels between 1989 and 2003, leading to a significant amount of land subsidence. Repeat measurements of thermal profiles for several monitoring wells at Buckman reveal incremental warming over a 5 year period from 2013 to 2017. Additionally, land elevation recovery was documented between 2007 and 2010 using InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar). These observations are inferred to be a response to decreased production rates in nearby wells Buckman 1 and 8. This suggests that the groundwater flow system at Buckman is still in a state of recovery from the years of overproduction. The proximity of the well field to a small mapped fault near Buckman 8 potentially explains why geothermal gradients are anomalously high at the BMWF. Monitoring well SF-2b received special attention in an attempt to explain a localized thermal anomaly between 200 and 230 meters down hole. Explanations including geology (faults and stratigraphy) and interference from nearby production wells do not seem to account for the anomaly. The anomaly is therefore interpreted as the result of a damaged casing. Elevated geothermal anomalies at the Cerros del Rio volcanic field could be explained by structural and textural changes to groundwater flow units that occurred when aligned plug and dikes feeding volcanic vents intruded along faults. A

  6. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  7. Late Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the southern Marmara shelf and sub-basins: middle strand of the North Anatolian fault, southern Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Denizhan; Öztürk, Kurultay; Yaltırak, Cenk; Alpar, Bedri; Tur, Hüseyin

    2014-03-01

    Although there are many research studies on the northern and southern branches of the North Anatolian fault, cutting through the deep basins of the Sea of Marmara in the north and creating a series of pull-apart basins on the southern mainland, little data is available about the geometrical and kinematical characteristics of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault. The first detailed geometry of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault along the southern Marmara shelf, including the Gemlik and Bandırma Bay, will be given in this study, by a combined interpretation of different seismic data sets. The characteristic features of its segments and their importance on the paleogeographic evolution of the southern shelf sub-basins were defined. The longest one of these faults, the Armutlu-Bandırma segment, is a 75-km long dextral strike-slip fault which connects the W-E trending Gençali segment in the east and NE-SW trending Kapıdağ-Edincik segment in the west. In this context, the Gemlik Bay opened as a pull-apart basin under the control of the middle strand whilst a new fault segment developed during the late Pleistocene, cutting through the eastern rim of the bay. In this region, a delta front forming the paleoshoreline of the Gemlik paleolake was cut and shifted approximately 60 ± 5 m by the new segment. The same offset on this fault was also measured on a natural scarp of acoustic basement to the west and integrated with this paleoshoreline forming the slightly descending topset-foreset reflections of the delta front. Therefore the new segment is believed to be active at least for the last 30,000 years. The annual lateral slip rate representing this period of time will be 2 mm, which is quite consistent with modern GPS measurements. Towards the west, the Bandırma Bay is a rectangular transpressional basin whilst the Erdek Bay is a passive basin under the control of NW-SE trending faults. When the water level of the paleo-Marmara lake dropped down

  8. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  9. Gas geochemistry and methane emission from Dushanzi mud volcanoes in the southern Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodong; Ma, Xiangxian; Guo, Zhengfu; Hilton, David R.; Xu, Wang; Liang, Shouyun; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Wenxing

    2017-11-01

    There are many mud volcanoes in the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, of which the Dushanzi area is the most typical and active one, emitting large amount of greenhouse gases associated with water and mud. The emitted gas is dominated by methane (average 90.1%), together with other gases, such as ethane (4.84-5.46%), propane (0.06-0.90%), CO2 (0.67-1.0%), and N2 (2.8-3.3%). The carbon (δ13C1) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic ratios of methane are in the ranges of -40.6‰ to -45.0‰ and -221‰ to -249‰, respectively, whereas carbon isotope ratios of ethane (δ13C2) are -25.2‰ to -27.6‰. Based on δ13C values, the released gas is characterized as a thermogenic coal-type and possibly originated from the middle-low Jurassic coal-bearing sequences according to the gas-source correlation and regional geology. Helium isotopes show a crustal source. The methane flux of Dushanzi mud volcanoes from both macro-seepage (craters/vents) and micro-seepage (ground soil exhalation) ranged over the orders of magnitude, from 0.4-2.7 kg d-1 and 4950 mg m-2 d-1 on average, respectively. Positive CH4 fluxes from dry soil were widespread throughout the investigated areas. The total CH4 emission from Dushanzi mud volcanoes is estimated to be at least 22.6 tons a-1, of which about 89% is from micro-seepage surrounding the mud volcano vents.

  10. Sediment transport analysis at event scale in a semi-arid basin of Southern-Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisantino, T.; Gentile, F.; Milillo, F.; Romano, G.; Trisorio Liuzzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion at basin scale is a main issue in nowadays research since it plays a role of first level in sustainable management of natural resources (land and water). In particular, in arid and semi-arid regions natural vegetative cover is sparse and runoff events cause high rates of sediment transport, while long periods of drought can be observed. Several types of erosion phenomena affect the torrents in the north-western area of the Puglia Region (Southern-Italy) where flood events are characterised by a considerable amount of suspended solids. In this area the solid load was monitored until 1989 by the National Hydrographic Service using manual sampling. To accurately estimate the sediment transport during flood events and in order to improve the methodologies to assess and predict soil erosion, a watershed representative of the area (Carapelle torrent) was selected, where an experimental station was set up for the continuous measuring of suspended solids. The station is equipped with a dual function infrared sensor (turbidity/suspended solids), a remote data acquisition system, an electromechanical and an ultrasound stage meter. A laboratory test of the turbidity sensor was preliminary performed to evaluate the dual functionality of the instrument (turbidity and suspended sediment concentration) in relation to the variations of sediment concentration and grain size distribution. Successively a field calibration was carried out to determine the relationship between optical and gravimetric data and to check the housing device. Afterwards, the high temporal resolution data collected over a 3-years period (2007-2009) were used to analyze the sediment transport dynamics. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationships in unsteady flows between the sediment concentration and the discharge, and to analyze the relationships at event scale between the sediment budget and some hydrological variables, in order to select the model that best represents the local

  11. Deformation-driven fluid escape in the Levant Basin, offshore southern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eruteya, Ovie Emmanuel; Waldmann, Nicolas; Reshef, Moshe; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    Submarine fluid emissions are global phenomena, which can be inferred from the presence of seafloor morphologies (e.g. pockmarks, mud volcanoes) occurring in various geological settings. However, despite the Levant Basin been a prolific hydrocarbon province, only a paucity of fluid escape morphologies have been identified on the present-day seafloor. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of a newly available high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset from offshore southern Israel. Evidences of subsurface fluid plumbing and escape are manifested here as present-day seafloor pockmarks, paleo-pockmarks, pipe structures and enhanced reflectivity patterns. Interestingly, these pockmarks are situated on and around bathymetric highs, which are ridges related to the Palmachim Disturbance. Our initial results show the fluid flow structures are spatially localized above a region of complex evaporites evacuation at depth, and likewise proximal to a shallower region characterized by high amplitude reflectors. The latter may be evidences for a shallow gas system. Our initial hypothesis proposes a dual shallow-source driven focused fluid flow system. Yet, we favour a deeper Messinian plumbing system driving fluid flow across the overburden in the study area. Corroborating this are fault systems characterized near the pipes feeding the seafloor pockmarks and paleo-pockmark, detaching in the upper Messinian evaporite. We further suggest that a combined supra-salt deformation system arising from the evacuation of the Messinian evaporites coupled with gravitational tectonics are in charge of modulating focused fluid flow. Under this scenario the emplaced mass transport complex acts as a transient reservoir for fluid flow, dewatering under deformation and channelling fluids towards the seafloor for expulsion. However, the contributions from microbially-generated methane in the shallow Quaternary overburden associated with the channel-levee complex cannot be neglected.

  12. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE CARNIAN - NORIAN CALCARI CON SELCE FORMATION IN THE LAGONEGRO BASIN, SOUTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RIGO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic Calcari con Selce Formation, cropping out in the southern Apennines (S Italy, consists of 400 m of micritic limestones, often nodular, with chert beds and nodules, organized in dm to m beds intercalated with mm (rarely centimetric marly horizons. Three intervals characterized by higher siliciclastic content have been recognized within this formation, and stratigraphically ordered after an accurate conodont biostratigraphical investigation: 1 the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, previously named in literature with the informal expression of “livello argilloso ad Halobia superba”, Tuvalian (upper Carnian; 2 an interval of some tens of meters of limestones and brown shales with abundant chert beds, here informally termed the "brown member", Tuvalian/Lacian (upper Carnian/lower Norian; 3 the ca. 3 m thick red shale horizon, Sevatian (upper Norian in age. All these intervals are characterized by micritic limestones or marly limestones with bivalves, radiolarians and conodonts alternating with shales (green, brown or red having thicknesses of 50 cm or more. These intervals are also associated to an increase of calciturbidites, consisting of echinoderm fragments, isolated thin-shelled bivalves and reworked, partially lithified intraclasts of the Calcari con Selce Fm. The Carnian green clay-radiolaritic horizon and the Sevatian red siliciclastic interval are useful lithostratigraphic markers recognizable throughout the Lagonegro Basin and have been used as guide horizons to evaluate the lateral continuity of contiguous limestone beds. The green clay-radiolaritic horizon has been logged in 4 sections (Pignola 2, Mt. Armizzone, Pezza la Quagliara, San Michele. The sections are presently at approximately 50 km distance - but Tertiary thrusts occur between the sections, suggesting a larger separation at the time of the deposition of the Formation. Above the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, single carbonate beds or banks with the same

  13. Drought management plans and water availability in agriculture: A risk assessment model for a Southern European basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dionisio Pérez-Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drought Management Plans (DMPs are regulatory instruments that establish priorities among the different water uses and define more stringent constraints to access to publicly provided water during droughts, especially for non-priority uses such as agriculture. These plans have recently become widespread across EU southern basins. However, in some of these basins the plans were approved without an assessment of the potential impacts that they may have on the economic activities exposed to water restrictions. This paper develops a stochastic methodology to estimate the expected water availability in agriculture that results from the decision rules of the recently approved DMPs. The methodology is applied to the particular case of the Guadalquivir River Basin in southern Spain. Results show that if DMPs are successfully enforced, available water will satisfy in average 62.2% of current demand, and this figure may drop to 50.2% by the end of the century as a result of climate change. This is much below the minimum threshold of 90% that has been guaranteed to irrigators so far.

  14. Characterization of water quality for streams in the southern Yampa River basin, northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the Yampa River basin in northwestern Colorado has been an area of coal-mining development. Coal mining generally has been developed in the southern part of the basin and at lower elevations. The purpose of the report is to characterize the stream water quality by summarizing selected major dissolved constituents for the streams that drain the southern part of the Yampa River basin. Characterization is done initially by providing a statistical summary of the constituents for individual water-quality sites in the study area. These statistical summaries can be used to help assess water-quality within specified stream reaches. Water-quality data are available for sites on most perennial streams in the study area, and these data provide the best information about the immediate stream reach. Water-quality data from all sites are combined into regions, and linear-regression equations between dissolved constituents and specific conductance are calculated. Such equations provide an estimate of the water-quality relations within these regions. The equations also indicate an increase in error as individual sites are combined

  15. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Parana Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Menegat, R.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Basei, M.A.; Barboza, E.; Simas, M.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 {+-} 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Parana Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Parana Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 {+-} 3 Ma and 299.2 {+-} 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  16. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  17. Cassipourea ceylanica (Gardn. Alston (1925 (Rhizophoraceae in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Mesta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassipourea ceylanica (Gardn. Alston (1925 belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae has been collected from Uttara Kannada (North Kanara District in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka. Report of this plant is after a gap of 130 years from Karnataka. Its rarity in the Western Ghats, Orissa and in Sri Lanka indicates threatened status and draws attention for conservation.

  18. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was ... So to mitigate the seismic hazard, it is necessary to make some scientific earthquake studies for identi- fying the regions having high intensity of seismic risk. The state ... Hazard Analysis (PSHA) and Deterministic Seis-.

  19. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožič, Boštjan; Jurkovšek, Tea Kolar; Rožič, Petra Žvab; Gale, Luka

    2017-08-01

    In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia), the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic) Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides). These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh) section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections) the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen) area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  20. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožič Boštjan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia, the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides. These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  1. Hydrologic analysis of the challenges facing water resources and sustainable development of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Diab, Maghawri S.

    2018-04-01

    Wadi Feiran basin is one of the most promising areas in southern Sinai (Egypt) for establishing new communities and for growth in agriculture, tourism, and industry. The present challenges against development include water runoff hazards (flash flooding), the increasing water demand, and water scarcity and contamination. These challenges could be mitigated by efficient use of runoff and rainwater through appropriate management, thereby promoting sustainable development. Strategies include the mitigation of runoff hazards and promoting the natural and artificial recharge of aquifers. This study uses a watershed modeling system, geographic information system, and classification scheme to predict the effects of various mitigation options on the basin's water resources. Rainwater-harvesting techniques could save more than 77% of the basin's runoff (by volume), which could be used for storage and aquifer recharge. A guide map is provided that shows possible locations for the proposed mitigation options in the study basin. Appropriate measures should be undertaken urgently: mitigation of groundwater contamination (including effective sewage effluent management); regular monitoring of the municipal, industrial and agricultural processes that release contaminants; rationalization and regulation of the application of agro-chemicals to farmland; and regular monitoring of contaminants in groundwater. Stringent regulations should be implemented to prevent wastewater disposal to the aquifers in the study area.

  2. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Salmoral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading both water quality indicators are exports from upland areas and agricultural intensification. Water quality conditions have improved in regions where there has been abandonment and/or deintensification. The decoupling process has reduced the concentration of nitrates and suspended solids in a number of subbasins. Although agricultural production and water efficiency in the basin have improved, high erosion rates have not yet been addressed. 

  3. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  4. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC

  5. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1994-06-01

    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC.

  6. A late Pleistocene tephra layer in the southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau derived from Mono Craters, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, D.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Thompson, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A newly identified tephra in stratified deposits in southwestern Utah, dated ???14,000 14C yr B.P., may aid in correlating late Pleistocene deposits across parts of the southern Great Basin and west-central Colorado Plateau. Geochemical analyses of the ash suggest the tephra originated from Mono Craters, California, and most probably correlates with Wilson Creek ash #3. Because the ash is 2 mm thick ???550 km from its source, the event may have been larger than others correlated to Mono Craters eruptions. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  7. Tobacco use amongst children in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, G; Girish, N

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence, pattern and correlates of tobacco use amongst the 13-15 year olds in schools of Karnataka. A three stage (area, school level and class level) cluster sample design was adopted and 80 schools from 12 districts of the state were selected. A total of 4,110 students participated in the study with an overall response rate of 87%. Point prevalence of tobacco use amongst 13-15 year old was 4.9%. Current tobacco use was predominantly a male feature and use of smokeless variety predominated (transitional Karnataka (8.2%); metropolis (6.8%); rural (3.4%). One third of current tobacco users (30.8%) purchased tobacco product in a store and one-fifth used it at home. Nearly half of the never smokers (43% to 56.7%) were exposed to tobacco smoke outside home and 83% favored a ban on smoking in public places. A male tobacco user was perceived to have more friends and was reported to make them look attractive. Print media was a predominant source of message, more so in the metropolitan region. Only one-third (31.6%) reported that the reasons of tobacco usage amongst youth was discussed in formal school settings. GYTS Karnataka has provided reliable estimates and shown the feasibility of implementing a surveillance programme. Specific challenges for Public health that emerge from the study are increasing number of users in transitional areas, continued media exposure, tobacco users being perceived to be popular and attractive, easy and relatively unrestricted access, lack of systematic support within schools and social acceptance of tobacco use at home. The need of the hour is to target and focus interventions through comprehensive programmes aimed at children, school authorities, parents and policy makers.

  8. Ethnomedicobotany of Uttara Kannada District in Karnataka, India--plants in treatment of skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, V H; Hebbar, S S; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R

    2003-01-01

    Present paper deals with the herbal remedies for skin diseases in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka--a Southern State in India, which is located in the hearts of Western Ghats. In an ethnobotanical exploration of this area 52 herbal preparations from 31 plants belonging to 21 families have been recorded. This also includes 17 new claims to the ethnomedical knowledge. The parts used and methods of preparation are discussed along with the family and local name for all the plants. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  9. Detecting changes in extreme precipitation and extreme streamflow in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydro-meteorological events have become the focus of more and more studies in the last decade. Due to the complexity of the spatial pattern of changes in precipitation processes, it is still hard to establish a clear view of how precipitation has changed and how it will change in the future. In the present study, changes in extreme precipitation and streamflow processes in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China are investigated with several nonparametric methods, including one method (Mann-Kendall test for detecting trend, and three methods (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Levene's test and quantile test for detecting changes in probability distribution. It was shown that little change is observed in annual extreme precipitation in terms of various indices, but some significant changes are found in the precipitation processes on a monthly basis, which indicates that when detecting climate changes, besides annual indices, seasonal variations in extreme events should be considered as well. Despite of little change in annual extreme precipitation series, significant changes are detected in several annual extreme flood flow and low-flow series, mainly at the stations along the main channel of Dongjiang River, which are affected significantly by the operation of several major reservoirs. To assess the reliability of the results, the power of three non-parametric methods are assessed by Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation results show that, while all three methods work well for detecting changes in two groups of data with large sample size (e.g., over 200 points in each group and large differences in distribution parameters (e.g., over 100% increase of scale parameter in Gamma distribution, none of them are powerful enough for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points and small distribution parameter difference (e.g., 50% increase of scale parameter in Gamma distribution. The result of the present study raises the concern of the

  10. Study of the hydrological functionning of the irrigated crops in the southern mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Er-Raki, Salah; Le Page, Michel; Merlin, Olivier; Ezzahar, Jamal; Kharrou, Mohamed H.

    2015-04-01

    In southern Mediterranean region water consumption has significantly increased over the last decades, while available water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. In Morocco, irrigation is highly water demanding: it is estimated that 83% of available resources is dedicated to agriculture with efficiency lower than 50% (Plan Bleu, 2009). In the semiarid region of Tensift Al-Haouz (center of Morocco), typical of southern Mediterranean basin, crop irrigation is inevitable for growth and development. In this situation, and to preserve water resources, the rational management of water irrigation is necessary. This objective is one of the priorities of the research program SudMed (Chehbouni et al., 2008) and the Joint Mixed Laboratory TREMA (Khabba et al. 2013), installed in Marrakech since 2002 and 2011, respectively. In these two programs, the scientific approach adopted, to monitor water transfers in soil-plant-atmosphere system, is based on the synergistic use of the mathematical modeling, the satellite observations and in situ data. Thus, during the decade 2002-2012, 17 experiments on dominant crops in the region (wheat, olive, orange, sugar beet, apricot) were performed. In these experiments, the different terms of water and heat balances exchanged between land surface and atmosphere are controlled with different devices. Results showed that the water losses by evaporation can reach 28% of water inputs for the flooding irrigation site and are obviously lower (about 18-20 % on average) for the drip irrigation sites. Concerning the deep percolation, results are surprising: water losses for the drip irrigation are in the range 29-41% of water input, whereas theses losses are between 26 and 31% for flooding irrigation. Concerning the modeling component, several models ranging from the most simple (FAO-56) to the most complex (i.e. SVAT: Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) were implemented to estimate the spatio-temporal variability of ET. The results showed that

  11. Sedimentology and paleoenvironmental evolution of Messinian evaporites in the Iskenderun-Hatay basin complex, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Erdoğan; Varol, Baki; Ayyıldız, Turhan

    2010-08-01

    Messinian evaporites, which resulted from the salinity crisis during the final closure of the Mediterranean Sea, are exposed in SE Turkey. These evaporites formed in two isolated sub-basins, Iskenderun-Arsuz (IA) and Hatay-Samandağ (HS), which belong to different depositional configurations and tectonic structures. The Neogene fill of these sub-basins consists of a thick sedimentary succession that started with Early Miocene terrestrial clastics, followed by reefs (Middle Miocene) and shallow water siliciclastics (Tortonian - Early to Late Miocene) and finally Messinian evaporates. These sub-basins accumulated in a diverse range of depositional environments from very shallow to deeper water. Evaporite facies in the IA sub-basin consist of sabkhas, saline lagoons and ponds. They are mainly represented by chemical deposits such as scattered gypsum nodules and balls, nodular bedded gypsum, laminated gypsum (Type-A) and selenites (Type-S1). Evaporites in the HS sub-basin mainly consist of detrital gypsum composed of gypsum laminae (Type-B, C), gypsum arenite-rudites and deeper water selenites (≤ 20 m), and resedimented selenites (Type-S2), which were deposited on a sulfate platform with a slope-basin transitional zone. Secondary gypsum with alabastrine and porphyroblastic textures as well as satin spar veins is commonly associated with the sabkha-type evaporites of the IA sub-basin. Deeper-water clastic evaporites of the HS sub-basin have generally remained as primary gypsum or have only been slightly affected by diagenetic alterations. The isotope values ( 87/86Sr; δ 18O SMOW; and δ 34S CDT) from the different kinds of gypsum lithofacies of the sub-basin are similar to those of the Messinian evaporites in other peri-Mediterranean basins, indicating an origin from marine water without external or basinal contributions. The Messinian evaporites examined in this paper are overlain by Early Pliocene (Zanclean) deposits composed of shallow- and deep

  12. Estimated water use and availability in the South Coastal Drainage Basin, southern Rhode Island, 1995-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    The South Coastal Drainage Basin includes approximately 59.14 square miles in southern Rhode Island. The basin was divided into three subbasins to assess the water use and availability: the Saugatucket, Point Judith Pond, and the Southwestern Coastal Drainage subbasins. Because there is limited information on the ground-water system in this basin, the water use and availability evaluations for these subbasins were derived from delineated surface-water drainage areas. An assessment was completed to estimate water withdrawals, use, and return flow over a 5-year study period from 1995 through 1999 in the basin. During the study period, one major water supplier in the basin withdrew an average of 0.389 million gallons per day from the sand and gravel deposits. Most of the potable water is imported (about 2.152 million gallons per day) from the adjacent Pawcatuck Basin to the northwest. The estimated water withdrawals from the minor water suppliers, which are all in Charlestown, during the study period were 0.064 million gallons per day. The self-supplied domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the basin were 0.574 million gallons per day. Water use in the basin was 2.874 million gallons per day. The average return flow in the basin was 1.190 million gallons per day, which was entirely from self-disposed water users. In this basin, wastewater from service collection areas was exported (about 1.139 million gallons per day) to the Narragansett Bay Drainage Basin for treatment and discharge. During times of little to no recharge, in the form of precipitation, the surface- and ground-water system flows are from storage primarily in the stratified sand and gravel deposits, although there is flow moving through the till deposits at a slower rate. The ground water discharging to the streams, during times of little to no precipitation, is referred to as base flow. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at the

  13. Lower Badenian coarse-grained Gilbert deltas in the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehyba, Slavomír

    2018-02-01

    Two coarse-grained Gilbert-type deltas in the Lower Badenian deposits along the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep (peripheral foreland basin) were newly interpreted. Facies characterizing a range of depositional processes are assigned to four facies associations — topset, foreset, bottomset and offshore marine pelagic deposits. The evidence of Gilbert deltas within open marine deposits reflects the formation of a basin with relatively steep margins connected with a relative sea level fall, erosion and incision. Formation, progradation and aggradation of the thick coarse-grained Gilbert delta piles generally indicate a dramatic increase of sediment supply from the hinterland, followed by both relatively continuous sediment delivery and an increase in accommodation space. Deltaic deposition is terminated by relatively rapid and extended drowning and is explained as a transgressive event. The lower Gilbert delta was significantly larger, more areally extended and reveals a more complicated stratigraphic architecture than the upper one. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary and occurs around the Karpatian/Badenian stratigraphic limit. Two coeval deltaic branches were recognized in the lower delta with partly different stratigraphic arrangements. This different stratigraphic architecture is mostly explained by variations in the sediment delivery and /or predisposed paleotopography and paleobathymetry of the basin floor. The upper delta was recognized only in a restricted area. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary probably reflecting a higher order cycle of a relative sea level rise and fall within the Lower Badenian. Evidence of two laterally and stratigraphically separated coarse-grained Gilbert deltas indicates two regional/basin wide transgressive/regressive cycles, but not necessarily of the same order. Provenance analysis reveals similar sources of both deltas. Several partial source areas were identified (Mesozoic

  14. Headache yesterday in Karnataka state, India: prevalence, impact and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Stovner, Lars J

    2016-12-01

    The Global Campaign against Headache has pioneered evaluation of the prevalence and impact of headache on the preceding day ("headache yesterday") as a new approach to the estimation of headache-attributed burden, avoiding recall error. We report its application in Karnataka State, southern India. In a door-to-door survey, biologically unrelated adults (aged 18-65 years) were randomly sampled from urban and rural areas in and around Bengaluru and interviewed by trained researchers using a validated, structured questionnaire. Enquiry into headache applied ICHD-II diagnostic criteria and included questions about headache on the day preceding the interview (headache yesterday [HY]). There were 2329 participants (participation proportion 92.6 %; males 1141 [49.0 %], females 1188 [51.0 %]; mean age 38.0 [±12.7] years; 1103 [47.4 %] from rural areas, 1226 [52.6 %] urban). HY was reported by 138 participants (males 33 [2.9 %], females 105 [8.8 %]): the 1-day prevalence of headache was 5.9 %. Mean duration of HY was 7.0 ± 8.5 h, so that 1.7 % of the population (5.9 % * 7.0/24), on average, had headache at any moment in time yesterday. Mean intensity on a scale of 1-3 was 2.0 [±0.8]. Lost productivity due to HY was reported by 83.3 % of participants with HY: 37.7 % able to do less than half of what they had planned and 13.0 % able to do nothing. Productivity loss at population level (being the productivity loss within the entire adult population, every single day, attributable to headache) was 3.0 %. This method of enquiry, free from recall error, confirmed a very high level of headache-attributed burden in Karnataka: previous estimates based on 3-month recall may even have been too low. Until another study is done in the country, these are the best data for all India. They demonstrate need for action nationwide to mitigate this burden, and correct action will ultimately almost certainly be cost-saving.

  15. Biological characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Nair, K.K.C; Ansari, Z.A.

    Phytoplankton biomass, taxonomy, primary productivity, and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) were studied as part of baseline data collection for prospective nodule mining in the Central Indian Basin during the ORV Sagar Kanya cruise SK...

  16. Assessment of radiation background level of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Daping; Xu Jiaang; Zhu Jianguo; Chen Yingmin; Lu Feng; Song Gang; Cao Jingli

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiation background levels of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river. Methods: The activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were measured by national standard methods respectively. The values of the dose conversion factor given by UNSCEAR 2000 were adopted for dose estimation. Results: The average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were pooled in order to analyze dose estimation. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U, 90 Sr, 232 Th and 137 Cs from lake water for residents are 1.46, 4.95 x 10 -1 , 1.24 x 10 -1 , 2.58 x 10 -2 and 7.93 x 10 -3 μSv per year respectively. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U and 90 Sr from cyprinoid fish are 5.49 x 10 -2 , 3.69 x 10 -2 and 1.77 x 10 -2 μSv per year respectively. Conclusions: The results show that the average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples from Shandong basin of northward rerouting of southern river are within the background levels. And in the main lake basin, the estimated exposures of public caused by the radionuclide in water and cyprinoid fish are so low that they can be ignored unless there ate some radioactive contamination in the future. (authors)

  17. Long-term fore-arc basin evolution in response to changing subduction styles in southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, Emily S.; Enkelmann, Eva; Falkowski, Sarah; Hedeen, Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track double-dating and Hf isotopes from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in the southern Alaska fore-arc basin system reveal the effects of two different modes of flat-slab subduction on the evolution of the overriding plate. The southern margin of Alaska has experienced subduction of a spreading-ridge ( 62-50 Ma) and an oceanic plateau ( 40-0 Ma). When a subducting spreading ridge drives slab flattening, our data suggest that after the ridge has moved along strike retro-arc sediment sources to the fore arc become more predominant over more proximal arc sources. Spreading-ridge subduction also results in thermal resetting of rocks in the upper plate that is revealed by thermochronologic data that record the presence of young age peaks found in subsequent, thin sedimentary strata in the fore-arc basin. When a subducting oceanic plateau drives slab flattening, our data suggest that basin catchments get smaller and local sediment sources become more predominant. Crustal thickening due to plateau subduction drives widespread surface uplift and significant vertical uplift in rheologically weak zones that, combined, create topography and increase rock exhumation rates. Consequently, the thermochronologic signature of plateau subduction has generally young age peaks that generate short lag times indicating rapid exhumation. The cessation of volcanism associated with plateau subduction limits the number of syndepositional volcanic grains that produce identical geochronologic and thermochronologic ages. This study demonstrates the merit of double-dating techniques integrated with stratigraphic studies to expose exhumational age signatures diagnostic of large-scale tectonic processes in magmatic regions.

  18. Hydrological Responses to Changes in the Rainfall Regime are Less Pronounced in Forested Basins: an Analysis of Southern Brazil, 1975-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, V. B. P.; Chaffe, P. L. B.

    2017-12-01

    It is unknown to what extent the hydrological responses to changes in the rainfall regime vary across forested and non-forested landscapes. Southern Brazil is approximately 570000 km² and was naturally covered mostly by tropical and subtropical forests. In the last century, a large proportion of forests were replaced by agricultural activities. The rainfall regime has also changed substantially in the last decades. The annual rainfall, number and magnitude of extreme events, and number of non-rainy days have increased in most of the area. In this study, we investigated the changes in the regime of 142 streamflow gauges and 674 rainfall gauges in Southern Brazil, from 1975 to 2010. The changes in the regime were analyzed for forested basins (i.e., with more than 50% forest coverage) and non-forested basins (i.e., with less than 20% forest coverage). The area of the river basins ranged from 100 to 60000 km². We analyzed a total of six signatures that represent the regime, including annual averages, seasonality, floods, and droughts. The statistical trends of the signatures were calculated using the Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slope. The results showed that the majority of basins with opposing signal trends for mean annual streamflow and rainfall are non-forested basins (i.e., basins with higher anthropogenic impacts). Forested basins had a lower correlation between trends in the streamflow and rainfall trends for the seasonality and the average duration of drought events. There was a lower variability in the annual maximum 1-day streamflow trends in the forested basins. Additionally, despite a decrease in the 31-day rainfall minima and an increase in the seasonality, in forested basins the 7-day streamflow minima increases were substantially larger than in non-forested basins. In summary, the forested basins were less responsive to the changes in the precipitation 1-day maxima, seasonality, number of dry days, and 31-day minima.

  19. Middle-late Holocene climate variability in La Paz Basin, southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lizárraga, L. E.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments from DIPAL III-K47 core collected at 830 m depth in the western slope within the oxygen minimum zone of La Paz Basin, southern Gulf of California provide a detailed record of paleoceanography and paleoclimatology for the tropical Pacific on centennial time scales for the past 7300 years. The sedimentary sequence is compose of hemipelagic sediments and is laminated throughout its entire length (145 cm). According to the preliminary age model based on radiocarbon AMS dates, core covers the period from ca 7300 to 1000 cal yr BP. The estimated sedimentation rates are between 0.20 and 0.29 mm/yr. Radiolarian assemblages, geochemical (major and trace elements Al, Ba, Ca, K, Si Ti, Zr and Zr/Al and Ba/Al ratios) and magnetic susceptibility are used as proxies of variations of oceanic circulation patterns, paleoproductivity, aeolian activity and precipitation. Eighty-two intervals were sampled for radiolarians and the core was sampled at 1-cm intervals to produce records of major and trace elements. Factor Analysis of the radiolarian abundances counted in sediments samples identified three assemblages. The first one (Arachnocorallium calvata, Lithomelissa setosa, Lithomelissa thoracites and Peridium longispinum) suggests winter-spring like conditions (cold and dry), Gulf of California Water persistence and a relative increase in productivity that might become from the east-to-west upwelling gradient. The second radiolarian assemblage (Tetrapyle octacantha group and Phorticium pylonium group) was interpreted as stratification of the column water and the incursion of warm, oligotrophic Tropical Surface Water that remind summer-fall like conditions. The third assemblage (Clathrocircus stapedius, Phorticium pylonium group, Lithomelissa pentacantha, Phormacantha hystrix, Phormospyris stabilis scaphipes, Lithomelissa thoracites, Pseudocubus obeliscus, Druppatractus irregularis and Druppatractus variabilis), suggests a mix water column that favors the organic carbon

  20. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  1. A preliminary investigation of the structure of southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on geophysical modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Leigh Justet; Barry C. Moring, and Carter W. Roberts

    2006-03-17

    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  2. GIS analysis for the marine environmental data off Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Amit, V.S.

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to develop the Oceanographic Information System (OIS) for marine environmental data off Karnataka coast. Its goal is to provide a set of tools for oceanographic and bathymetry data assessment and products...

  3. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  4. Regional Deformation of the Southern Puna Plateau, Central Andes, Recorded by Basin Evolution and Bedrock Exhumation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, R.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Sobel, E. R.; Carrapa, B.; Davis, D. W.; Glodny, J.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The regional deformation history of the southern Puna Plateau remains poorly constrained but is key to understanding the growth and dynamics of the central Andes, an important example of orogeny along a non-collisional plate boundary. Several lines of evidence lead us to propose that the southern Puna Plateau was occupied by an uninterrupted sedimentary basin during the late Eocene to early Oligocene (~38-28 Ma). First, oldest strata in the Antofagasta de la Sierra region (SW Puna) and the Pasto Ventura region (SE Puna) both contain little volcanic material, suggesting they predate the most recent arc activity at ~28 Ma. Second, detrital zircons from the Antofagasta de la Sierra region yield youngest U-Pb ages of ~39 Ma and detrital apatites from the Pasto Ventura region yield youngest fission-track ages of ~38 Ma, giving a maximum depositional age. Third, provenance analysis reveals a single, western source for the Antofagasta de la Sierra region (SW Puna) and dual, eastern and western sources for the Pasto Ventura region (SE Puna), supporting the presence of a regional basin. This regional basin was disrupted and compartmentalized by uplift of ~N-S trending bedrock ranges starting as early as in late Oligocene time. Bedrock samples from the eastern foot of the Sierra de Calalaste (SW Puna) yield an apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He age of 19.9±2.0 Ma, consistent with modeled apatite fission-track data that show onset of exhumation at ~25-20 Ma. Modeling of apatite fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He data shows that the Sierra Laguna Blanca (SE Puna) experienced exhumation at ~15-10 Ma, the youngest bedrock exhumation documented in the plateau region, implying that deformation and erosion of basement-bounding structures continued into the middle Miocene. We suggest that the post-late Eocene regional deformation history of the southern Puna Plateau documents an important dynamic shift from flexure-controlled foreland dynamics to flexure-limited broken foreland dynamics during the

  5. Indoor radon levels in coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor radon levels have been measured in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films and it is found to vary from 28.4 to 45.6 Bq m -3 with a geometric mean value of 35.7 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose equivalent to the population of the region due to inhalation of radon was estimated from the measured data on radon level and is found to be in the range 1.9 - 3.1 mSv y -1 with a mean value 2.4 mSv y -1 . The correlation between indoor radon level and radium content in the underlying soil were studied. No definite correlation was observed to exist between indoor radon level and radium content in soil. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  7. 75 FR 4582 - Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Meetings, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: In... Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All... issues associated with public land management in Nevada. Meeting locations and topics for discussion...

  8. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  9. Early Devonian (Late Emsian) shark fin remains (Chondrichthyes) from the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Martha; Bosetti, Elvio P; Horodyski, Rodrigo S

    2017-01-01

    We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials). No elements such as teeth or prismatic cartilage have been preserved with the fins rays. This can be attributed to the dissolution of calcium-phosphatic minerals at the early stages of fossilization due to diagenetic processes possibly linked to strong negative taphonomic bias. This may have contributed to the fact that fishes remained elusive in the Devonian strata of this basin, despite substantial geological work done in the Paraná State in recent decades. In addition, the scarcity of fish fossils may be explained by the fact that the Devonian rock deposits in this basin originated in a vertebrate impoverished, cold marine environment of the Malvinokaffric Realm, as previously suspected.

  10. Early Devonian (Late Emsian shark fin remains (Chondrichthyes from the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA RICHTER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials. No elements such as teeth or prismatic cartilage have been preserved with the fins rays. This can be attributed to the dissolution of calcium-phosphatic minerals at the early stages of fossilization due to diagenetic processes possibly linked to strong negative taphonomic bias. This may have contributed to the fact that fishes remained elusive in the Devonian strata of this basin, despite substantial geological work done in the Paraná State in recent decades. In addition, the scarcity of fish fossils may be explained by the fact that the Devonian rock deposits in this basin originated in a vertebrate impoverished, cold marine environment of the Malvinokaffric Realm, as previously suspected.

  11. Polyphase tectonic evolution of the Aksu Basin, Isparta Angle (Southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üner, Serkan; Özsayin, Erman; Kutluay, Alkor; Dirik, Kadir

    2015-04-01

    The Aksu Basin, within the Isparta Angle, is located to the north of the intersection of the Aegean and Cyprus arcs and has been evolving since the Middle Miocene. Correlation of: (1) kinematic analysis of fault planes that cut the basin fill, (2) the reactivation/inversion of fault planes and (3) sedimentological data indicate that the Aksu Basin has evolved by four alternating compressional and extensional tectonic phases since its formation. The first phase was NW-SE oriented compression caused by the emplacement of the Lycian Nappe units which ended in Langhian. This compressional phase that induced the formation and the initial deformation of the basin was followed by a NW-SE extensional phase. This tectonic phase prevailed between the Langhian and Messinian and was terminated by a NE-SW compressional regime known as the Aksu Phase. The neotectonic period is characterized by NE-SW extension and began in the Late Pliocene. Correlation with the existing tectonic literature shows that the order of deformational phases proposed in this study might also be valid for the entire Isparta Angle area.

  12. Fluvial landscapes evolution in the Gangkou River basin of southern Taiwan: Evidence from the sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Lin, Li-Hung; Yen, I.-Chin; Yu, Neng-Ti; Ho, Lih-Der; Jen, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-01

    The Gangkou River basin is the largest basin in the eastern Hengchun Peninsula of Taiwan. Its main river length is 31km and the basin area is 102sq. km. The width of the active channel is relatively narrow, but the valley from the middle to downstream is remarkably wide, indicating a feature of underfit stream. We drilled two sediment cores in the downstream area, including a 30m core (core-A) from a higher terrace, which is 14m above mean sea level, and a 20m core (core-B) from a lower terrace, which is 4m above mean sea level. Most of the sediments in the core-A are mud, which represents the flood plain facies, and 14C dates in the core-A range from 11ka to 7ka BP. Furthermore, the sediment layers reveal signals of marine events at the core depths of 5m to 11m by X-ray fluorescence. In the core-B, there is an erosional surface at the core depth of 5m. The age of the fluvial gravel layer above the erosional surface is about 0.4ka BP, and the mud layer top the surface is about 8.5ka BP. The preliminary results show that (1) as the tectonic uplift rate induced by the marine terraces around the basin is 1.0 to 2.5 mm/yr, and the accumulation rate of the mud layer in the basin is 6.7 to 8.7 mm/yr, the sediments infilling (more than 30-meters-thick) in the downstream area of the basin should be the results of the lower tectonic uplifting and the higher post-glacial sea level rise and; (2) the marine sediment layer with 14C dates of 7.5ka to 8.5ka BP is very likely the remain of the maximum flooding surface (MFS) in the early Holocene. These results indicate that the fluvial landscapes evolution of the basin was controlled by the sea-level; (3) the erosional surface in the core-B indicates the Gangkou River continuously erode the infilling sediments from 7ka to 0.4ka BP. Previous studies show that the sea-level around Taiwan gradually declined from its high stand since 6ka, we proposed that the continuous erosion was probably the results of tectonic uplifting and

  13. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Southern Eurasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekretov, Sergey B.

    2002-07-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired by Marine Arctic Geological Expedition (MAGE) of Murmansk, Russia in 1990 provide the first view of the geological structure of the Arctic region between 77-80°N and 115-133°E, where the Eurasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean adjoins the passive-transform continental margin of the Laptev Sea. South of 80°N, the oceanic basement of the Eurasia Basin and continental basement of the Laptev Sea outer margin are covered by 1.5 to 8 km of sediments. Two structural sequences are distinguished in the sedimentary cover within the Laptev Sea outer margin and at the continent/ocean crust transition: the lower rift sequence, including mostly Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene deposits, and the upper post-rift sequence, consisting of Cenozoic sediments. In the adjoining Eurasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean, the Cenozoic post-rift sequence consists of a few sedimentary successions deposited by several submarine fans. Based on the multichannel seismic reflection data, the structural pattern was determined and an isopach map of the sedimentary cover and tectonic zoning map were constructed. A location of the continent/ocean crust transition is tentatively defined. A buried continuation of the mid-ocean Gakkel Ridge is also detected. This study suggests that south of 78.5°N there was the cessation in the tectonic activity of the Gakkel Ridge Rift from 33-30 until 3-1 Ma and there was no sea-floor spreading in the southernmost part of the Eurasia Basin during the last 30-33 m.y. South of 78.5°N all oceanic crust of the Eurasia Basin near the continental margin of the Laptev Sea was formed from 56 to 33-30 Ma.

  14. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  15. Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Renda, Pietro; Schiattarella, Marcello; Tramutoli, Mariano

    1999-12-01

    Stratigraphic studies and facies analysis integrated with a new geological and structural survey of the Meso-Cenozoic units outcropping in the Campania-Lucania Apennines, southern Italy, allowed us to restore the palaeogeographic pattern and the tectonic evolution of the chain during Oligo-Miocene times. The southern Apennines are a N150°-striking and NE-verging fold-and-thrust belt mainly derived from the deformation of the African-Apulian passive margin. Four wide belts with different features have been recognized in the chain area. From east to west the following units outcrop: (a) successions characterized by basinal to marginal facies, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene, tectonically lying on Plio-Pleistocene foredeep deposits; (b) successions characterized by shallow-water, basinal and shelf-margin facies, ranging in age from middle Triassic to Miocene ('Lagonegro units'), overthrust on the previous ones; (c) Triassic to Miocene carbonate platform successions ('Apenninic platform units'), overthrust on the Lagonegro units; (d) Jurassic-Cretaceous to Miocene deep-water successions (ophiolite-bearing or 'internal' units and associated siliciclastic wedges), outcropping along the Tyrrhenian belt and the Calabria-Lucania boundary, overthrust on the Apenninic platform units. All these units tectonically lie on the buried Apulian platform which is covered, at least in the eastern sector of the chain, by Pliocene to Pleistocene foredeep deposits. Stratigraphic patterns of the Cretaceous to lower Miocene Lagonegro successions are coherent with the platform margin ones. Calcareous clastics of the Lagonegro basin are in fact supplied by an adjacent western platform, as inferred by several sedimentological evidences (slump and palaeocurrent directions and decreasing grain size towards the depocentre of the basin). Tectonic relationships among the different units of the chain — with particular emphasis on the Lagonegro and Apenninic platform units of the

  16. Arsenic concentrations in soils and sediments of the southern Pampean Plain, within Claromecó River Basin (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, N. N.; Datta, S.; Zarate, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampean plain is an extensive flatland covering ~1000000 km2 of central and northern Argentina. The region, dominated by Neogene and quaternary volcanoclastic loess and loess-like deposits, shows one of the highest groundwater As concentrations of the world which cause serious problems to human health. The oxidising and high pH conditions of the Pampean groundwater leads to the dissolution of volcanic glass and Fe oxy-hydroxides and the release of As to water. Variation of As content related to lithogenic factors is evident from our study in Claromecó River Basin (Southern Pampean plain): the Mio-Pliocene fluvial facies (MPFF) show low As content (2.6mg/kg) compared to the Late Pleistocene fluvial facies (11.6mg/kg; LPFF). Furthermore, the pedogenic calcrete and the paleosols developed in fluvial facies present significantly different As content: 3.9 mg/Kg in MPFF pedogenic calcrete and 16.5 mg/Kg in LPFF paleosols. Modern soils show the highest As content, especially in the illuvial horizons (23.3 mg/Kg) controlled by grain size and clay mineralogy constituents. Preliminary results demonstrate a sedimentological control embarking differences in As concentrations. These differences are probably attributed to a major hydraulic gradient during the MPFF, which is reflected in grain size and in fluvial structures, which probably was followed by washed out sediments. A geomorphological control was observed through an increase of As concentrations from the interfluves (MPFF) to the valleys (LPFF) as well as from the upper to the lower basin zone within the LPFF. Pedogenic calcrete and paleosols developed in MPFF and LPFF respectively reflect the different geomorphological conditions showing high As content in LPFF paleosols (attributed to Fe oxy-hydroxides). This study relates mineralogy and sedimentological environment to groundwater, surface water from wetlands to understand the hydrochemical processes in controlling As within the Claromecó basin.

  17. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  18. Effects of Faults on Petroleum Fluid Dynamics, Borderland Basins of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B.; Garven, G.; Boles, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Multiphase flow modeling provides a useful quantitative tool for understanding crustal processes such as petroleum migration in geological systems, and also for characterizing subsurface environmental issues such as carbon sequestration in sedimentary basins. However, accurate modeling of multi-fluid behavior is often difficult because of the various coupled and nonlinear physics affecting multiphase fluid saturation and migration, including effects of capillarity and relative permeability, anisotropy and heterogeneity of the medium, and the effects of pore pressure, composition, and temperature on fluid properties. Regional fault structures also play a strong role in controlling fluid pathlines and mobility, so considering hydrogeologic effects of these structures is critical for testing exploration concepts, and for predicting the fate of injected fluids. To address these issues on spatially large and long temporal scales, we have developed a 2-D multiphase fluid flow model, coupled to heat flow, using a hybrid finite element and finite volume method. We have had good success in applying the multiphase flow model to fundamental issues of long-distance petroleum migration and accumulation in the Los Angeles basin, which is intensely faulted and disturbed by transpressional tectonic stresses, and host to the world's richest oil accumulation. To constrain the model, known subsurface geology and fault structures were rendered using geophysical logs from industry exploration boreholes and published seismic profiles. Plausible multiphase model parameters were estimated, either from known fault permeability measurements in similar strata in the Santa Barbara basin, and from known formation properties obtained from numerous oil fields in the Los Angeles basin. Our simulations show that a combination of continuous hydrocarbon generation and primary migration from upper Miocene source rocks in the central LA basin synclinal region, coupled with a subsiding basin fluid

  19. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groshong, R.H.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2009-09-15

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same sigma(1) direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend.

  20. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, Richard H., Jr.; Pashin, Jack C.; McIntyre, Marcella R.

    2009-09-01

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same σ1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend.

  1. Urbanization effects on fishes and habitat quality in a southern Piedmont river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Leigh, D.S.; Freeman, B.J.; Pringle, C.P.; Brown, Larry R.; Gray, Robert H.; Hughes, Robert H.; Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the relationships among urban land cover, fishes, and habitat quality to determine how fish assemblages respond to urbanization and if a habitat index can be used as an indirect measure of urban effects on stream ecosystems. We sampled 30 wadeable streams along an urban gradient (5?37% urban land cover) in the Etowah River basin, Georgia. Fish assemblages, sampled by electrofishing standardized stream reaches, were assessed using species richness, density, and species composition metrics. Habitat quality was scored using the Rapid Habitat Assessment Protocol (RHAP) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Urban land cover (including total, high-, and low-density urban) was estimated for the drainage basin above each reach. A previous study of these sites indicated that stream slope and basin area were strongly related to local variation in assemblage structure. We used multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis to account for this variation and isolate the urban effect on fishes. The MLR models indicated that urbanization lowered species richness and density and led to predictable changes in species composition. Darters and sculpin, cyprinids, and endemics declined along the urban gradient whereas centrarchids persisted and became the dominant group. The RHAP was not a suitable indicator of urban effects because RHAP-urban relationships were confounded by an overriding influence of stream slope on RHAP scores, and urban-related changes in fish assemblage structure preceded gross changes in stream habitat quality. Regression analysis indicated that urban effects on fishes accrue rapidly (<10 years) and are detectable at low levels (~5?10% urbanization). We predict that the decline of endemics and other species will continue and centrarchid-dominated streams will become more common as development proceeds within the Etowah basin.

  2. Source and mobility of Rare Earth Elements in a sedimentary aquifer system: Aquitaine basin (Southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    Négrel, Philippe; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle; Millot, Romain; Malcuit, Eline

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The large Eocene Sand aquifer system of the Aquitaine sedimentary basin was studied through various hydrological, chemical and isotopic tools. This system extends over 116,000 km² in the South west part of the French territory. The aquifer being artesian in the west of the district and confined with piezometric levels around 250-m depth in the east. The 'Eocene Sands', composed of sandy Tertiary sediments alternating with carbonate deposits, is a multi-layer system wit...

  3. Risk assessment of desertification using GIS in parts of Mond Basin, Southern Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, M.; Asrari, E.

    2009-07-01

    The present paper attempts to evolve a new model by considering various indicators of different types of land degradation desertification, namely water erosion, soil salinity, vegetation degradation, and lowering of ground water table. the Mond river basin, located centrally to this zone, has been selected as a test area to assess the risk and kind of desertification. For this purpose two sub basins of the Payab and Quareh Aghaj have been chosen for detailed study. The thresholds for the severity classes of indicators have been established and then the hazards map for each indicator of types of desertification has been prepared in a GIS. The risk maps of water erosion, soil salinization, lowering of water table, vegetation degradation have been produced for each of the two sub basins. It was possible to distinguish the areas under actual risk from areas under potential risk of desertification types. Also areas under potential risk are classified to subclasses with different probability level to show a statistical picture of risk in future. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. Evaluation of Petroleum Source Rock Potentials of Imo Shale Southern Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushie, F. A.; Uzoho, N. C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to search economically for oil and gas resources a detailed assessment of the petroleum potential of sedimentary basins is necessary. To achieve this, most explorationists aim to obtain information about the abundance and type of organic matter in the source rock, and to ascertain its maturity. This is usually done using cores and cuttings from wells but sometimes the work must be with samples form a single wall,Initially, this assessment in Nigeria had been restricted mainly to the Niger delta with the resultant discovery of large petroleum deposits both onshore and offshore of the delta. Recently, some oil companies like Agip, Elf and even individuals became interested in the Anambra basin and have studied the source rock potential of some of its formation. An analysis applying geochemical techniques was used to determine the origin of the absorbed bitumen as well as distribution of he organic facies in the Palcocene Imo shale in the Anambra basin, Nigeria. The soluble organic matter (SOM) was examined for the quantity, type, distribution and thermal evolution of the organic matter. AS a basic preliminary screening method all sample were subjected to total organic carbon (TOC) measurement. Sample had TOC values between 0.5-0.6% which proved them to be fair sources. Maturation test using SOM/TOC (transformation ratio) gave a mean value of 0.01 pointing to immaturity of samples. The dominate of aromatics over saturates indicate a gas source for the shales encountered in the locations

  5. Coastal changes along the coast of Tadri River, Karnataka West coast of India and its implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tirodkar, G.M.; Pathak, K.C.; Vaz, S.C.

    Present study of the coastal changes in Tadri, Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, comparing Survey of India Toposheet, Coastal Zone Management Plan of Karnataka and traditional ground survey measurement merged with multi temporal satellite...

  6. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-11-15

    Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an

  7. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio, E-mail: ormachea@kth.se [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Thunvik, Roger [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Quintanilla, Jorge [Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bundschuh, Jochen [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO{sub 3} type or the Ca–Na–HCO{sub 3} type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and

  8. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO 3 type or the Ca–Na–HCO 3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed

  9. Water resource planning and water quality in the Riu Cixerri Basin (Southern Sardinia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coni, M.; Ferralis, M; Madonia, P.; Sechi, C.; Verde, C.

    2000-01-01

    Present paper deals with a hydrogeological and biological study of the Riu Cixerri watershed (Southern Sardinia), carried out in order to evaluate volumes and quality of surface waters. Variables of hydrogeological balance have been derived by the use of a G.I.S. based method. The obtained results underline the low reliability of data used for past water resource planning and the good self purification capability of the Cixerri river [it

  10. Soil erosion and desertification: a combined approach using RUSLE and ESAs models in the Tusciano basin (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paola, F.; Ducci, D.; Giugni, M.

    2009-04-01

    To identify the desertification prone areas the ESAs (Environmentally Sensitive Areas) model was developed in 1999 in the framework of MEDALUS (MEditerranean Desertification And Land USe) European project; this method has been used in many Mediterranean Countries (Greece, Portugal Italy, Egypt, etc.). The identification of areas sensitive to desertification by using the ESAs model has been carried out in the Tusciano river basin (261 km2) located in southern Italy (Campania region). All data defining the four groups of parameters related to soil quality, climate quality, vegetation quality, and management quality have been introduced in a geographical database, and overlain using a GIS. Afterwards, a sensitivity analysis highlighted the different impact of the desertification parameters on the mountainous, hilly, and downstream areas of the catchment, strongly different in terms of morphological, geological, climatic and land-use features. The assessment of desertification sensitivity shows a clear vulnerability status in the Tusciano river basin, where more than half of the area is susceptible to desertification risk. The results of the ESAs model have been combined with those of the soil loss, achieved using the RUSLE method, based approximately on the same environmental factors; nevertheless, ESAs model considers a wider range of parameters, allowing to characterize in detail the catchment, from the climatic, geomorphological, vegetational and socio-economical point of view. The comparison between the desertification prone areas map and the potential erosion map of the Tusciano river basin shows fundamental differences. The areas at higher erosion risk are located in the mountain and hilly sectors of the basin, while the downstream areas, at high desertification risk, are characterized by a low erosion risk. The hilly sector is especially prone to both risks, desertification and erosion. Finally, a correlation analysis for the risk classes was developed using

  11. Origin of Boron and Brine Evolution in Saline Springs in the Nangqen Basin, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-long Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nangqen Basin is a typical shearing-extensional basin situated in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. It contains abundant saline spring resources and abnormal trace element enrichments. The hydrochemical molar ratios (Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl, H-O isotopes, and B isotopes of the saline spring were systematically measured to describe the evolution of brines and the origin of the boron. The sodium chloride coefficient of the water samples in this area is around 1.0 or slightly greater, which is characteristic of leached brines; the highest B/Cl value is 4.25 (greater than that of seawater. The Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl values of the springs are clear indicators of a crustal origin. The δ18O values of the spring waters range from −12.88‰ to −16.05‰, and the δD values range from −100.91‰ to −132.98‰. Meanwhile the B content and B isotopes in the saline springs are in the ranges of 1.00 to 575.56 ppm and +3.55‰ to +29.59‰, respectively. It has been proven that the saline springs in the Nangqen Basin are a type of leached brine, suggesting that the saline springs have a terrestrial origin. The δ11B-B characteristics of the springs are similar to those observed in the Tibetan geothermal area, indicating that these two places have the same B source. Moreover, they have a crustal origin (marine carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks instead of a deep mantle source.

  12. Consumptive Water Use Analysis of Upper Rio Grande Basin in Southern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Jonathan; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2017-04-18

    Water resource management and governance at the river basin scale is critical for the sustainable development of rural agrarian regions in the West. This research applies a consumptive water use analysis, inspired by the Water Footprint methodology, to the Upper Rio Grande Basin (RGB) in south central Colorado. The region is characterized by water stress, high dessert conditions, declining land health, and a depleting water table. We utilize region specific data and models to analyze the consumptive water use of RGB. The study reveals that, on an average, RGB experiences three months of water shortage per year due to the unsustainable extraction of groundwater (GW). Our results show that agriculture accounts for 77% of overall water consumption and it relies heavily on an aquifer (about 50% of agricultural consumption) that is being depleted over time. We find that, even though potato cultivation provides the most efficient conversion of groundwater resources into economic value (m 3 GW/$) in this region, it relies predominantly (81%) on the aquifer for its water supply. However, cattle, another important agricultural commodity produced in the region, provides good economic value but also relies significantly less on the aquifer (30%) for water needs. The results from this paper are timely to the RGB community, which is currently in the process of developing strategies for sustainable water management.

  13. Minerals and trace elements in silcretes of the Sado basin (Alentejo, southern Portugal) and implications for silcrete formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Kullmann, Sarah; Zarei, Mehdi; Stahr, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the eastern part of the Sado basin (southern Portugal) are often characterized by massive cementations caused by silica. The thickness and massive character of these silcretes led to the hypothesis that accumulation of silica took place not only vertically within a soil profile, but also by enrichment through lateral water and element flow into the Sado basin. The aims of the study reported here were: 1) to characterize the cementing agent with regard to its mineralogy; 2) to test the hypothesis that silification was enhanced through lateral silica transport from the adjacent Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Aim 1) was achieved by scratching silica coatings from ped surfaces of the silicified soil horizons and cleaning them manually in the lab under a binocular microscope. After careful smashing with a mortar, density separation by sodium polytungstate solution was applied to remove any remaining mineral grains from the silica samples. The cleaned silica samples were then subjected to XRD and SEM in combination with EDS. Aim 2) was attained by using trace element contents of predominant rock types of the Alto Alentejo and of the silcretes in the Sado basin for identifying lateral pathways of water and silica in the landscape. Ten rock samples from the assumed source area of silica were combusted by fusion melt, and their contents of Ba, Co, Cs, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were analyzed by ICP-MS. The same elements were analyzed in NaOH extracts of the cemented soil horizons in the Sado basin. The X-ray diagrams of the silica coatings show the expected broad hump of amorphous silica. In addition, quartz, kaolinite, and surprisingly high amounts of halloysite are identified, the latter reflecting conditions of intensive weathering and pedogenesis during the formation of the silica coatings. This intensive soil formation and hence silification most likely took place during Pliocene. Greater age is impossible, because the silification took place in Pliocene

  14. Meso-/Cenozoic long-term landscape evolution at the southern Moroccan passive continental margin, Tarfaya Basin, recorded by low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrt, Manuel; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Jabour, Haddou; Kluth, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the first regional study of low-temperature thermochronology to be undertaken in the Tarfaya Basin at the southern Moroccan passive continental margin. The basin is characterised by vast subsidence since Mid-Triassic times, whereby up to 12 km of Meso- to Cenozoic sedimentary rocks accumulated. The study focused on the post-rift vertical movements along a typical ;passive; margin and besides dealt with the timing and maximum temperature reached by potential source rocks of the basin. To unravel the t-T development, thermochronological analyses were performed on 50 outcrop and well samples from Meso-Cenozoic rocks. Thermochronological data reveal a continuous subsidence phase in the offshore basin from Mid-Triassic to recent times. In contrast, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission-track data as well as thermal modelling point to an inversion of the northeastern onshore basin starting in the Palaeogene at 65-55 Ma. The rock uplift and exhumation period resulted in the erosion of a 1.0-1.4 km thick Cretaceous-Palaeogene sedimentary pile contemporaneously with peak Atlas surface uplift in the Cenozoic. The exhumation stage could be an explanation for the increasing periodic influx of detrital material into the offshore and southern onshore Tarfaya Basin since Palaeocene. Detrital apatite fission-track ages from 92 (± 16) to 237 (± 35) Ma of the Upper Cretaceous-Neogene succession indicate no heating above 60 °C confirming immature to early mature Cenomanian to Campanian and Eocene source rocks in the onshore Tarfaya Basin.

  15. Seismic Data Interpretation: A Case Study of Southern Sindh Monocline, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sindh monocline in Lower Indus Basin is an important oil and gas producing area of Pakistan where a large number of oil, gas and condensate fields have been discovered from structural traps. This research involves the interpretation of stratigraphic and structural styles of Sindh Monocline using 2D (Two-Dimensional seismic reflection and well log. Four reflectors of different formations have been marked and were named as Reflector-1 as of Khadro Formation, Reflector-2 as Upper Goru Member, Reflector-3 as Lower Goru Formation and Reflector-4 as Chiltan Limestone. The average depth of Khadro Formation was marked at 449.0m, Upper Goru Member at 968m, Lower Goru Formation at 1938m and Chiltan Limestone at 2943m. Faults were marked on seismic sections which collectively form horsts and grabens which is the evidence of extensional tectonic in the area. Seismic interpretation was carried out through window based Kingdom Software

  16. Four-thousand-year-old gold artifacts from the Lake Titicaca basin, southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenderfer, Mark; Craig, Nathan M; Speakman, Robert J; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel

    2008-04-01

    Artifacts of cold-hammered native gold have been discovered in a secure and undisturbed Terminal Archaic burial context at Jiskairumoko, a multicomponent Late Archaic-Early Formative period site in the southwestern Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. The burial dates to 3776 to 3690 carbon-14 years before the present (2155 to 1936 calendar years B.C.), making this the earliest worked gold recovered to date not only from the Andes, but from the Americas as well. This discovery lends support to the hypothesis that the earliest metalworking in the Andes was experimentation with native gold. The presence of gold in a society of low-level food producers undergoing social and economic transformations coincident with the onset of sedentary life is an indicator of possible early social inequality and aggrandizing behavior and further shows that hereditary elites and a societal capacity to create significant agricultural surpluses are not requisite for the emergence of metalworking traditions.

  17. Rhyolitic ignimbrites in the Rogerson Graben, southern Snake River Plain volcanic province: volcanic stratigraphy, eruption history and basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Branney, Michael J.; Bonnichsen, Bill; McCurry, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The 80 km long NNE-trending Rogerson Graben on the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA, hosts a rhyolitic pyroclastic succession, 200 m thick, that records a period of successive, late-Miocene, large-volume explosive eruptions from the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic province, and contemporaneous extension. The succession, here termed the Rogerson Formation, comprises seven members (defined herein) and records at least eight large explosive eruptions with numerous repose periods. Five high-grade and extremely high-grade ignimbrites are intercalated with three non-welded ignimbrites and two volcaniclastic deposits, with numerous repose periods (palaeosols) throughout. Two of the ignimbrites are dominantly rheomorphic and lava-like but contain subordinate non-welded pyroclastic layers. The ignimbrites are typical Snake River Plain high-silica rhyolites, with anhydrous crystal assemblages and high inferred magmatic temperatures (≤ 1,025°C). We tentatively infer that the Jackpot and Rabbit Springs Members may have been emplaced from the Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive centre on the basis of: (1) flow lineation trends, (2) crystal assemblage, and (3) radiometric age. We infer that the overlying Brown’s View, Grey’s Landing, and Sand Springs Members may have been emplaced from the Twin Falls eruptive centre on the basis of: (1) kinematic indicators (from the east), and (2) crystal assemblage. Furthermore, we have established the contemporaneous evolution of the Rogerson Graben from the emplacement of the Jackpot Member onwards, and infer that it is similar to younger half-graben along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain, formed by local reactivation of Basin and Range structures by the northeastwardly migration of the Yellowstone hot-spot.

  18. The 2001 - Present Triggered Seismicity Sequence in the Raton Basin of Southern Colorado/Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of an earthquake of magnitude (M) 5.3 near Trinidad, CO, on 23 August 2011 renewed interest in the possibility that an earthquake sequence in this region that began in August 2001 is the result of industrial activities. Our investigation of this seismicity, in the Raton Basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, led us to conclude that the majority, if not all of the earthquakes since August 2001 have been triggered by the deep injection of wastewater related to the production of natural gas from the coal-bed methane field here. The evidence that this earthquake sequence was triggered by wastewater injection is threefold. First, there was a marked increase in seismicity shortly after major fluid injection began in the Raton Basin. From 1970 through July of 2001, there were five earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger located in the Raton Basin. In the subsequent 10 years from August of 2001 through the end of 2011, there were 95 earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger. The statistical likelihood of this rate increase occurring naturally was determined to be 0.01%. Second, the vast majority of the seismicity is located close (within 5km) to active disposal wells in this region. Additionally, this seismicity is primarily shallow, ranging in depth between 2 and 8 km, with the shallowest seismicity occurring within 500 m depth of the injection intervals. Finally, these wells have injected exceptionally high volumes of wastewater. The 23 August 2011 M5.3 earthquake, located adjacent to two high-volume disposal wells, is the largest earthquake to date for which there is compelling evidence of triggering by fluid injection activities; indeed, these two nearly-co-located wells injected about 4.9 million cubic meters of wastewater during the period leading up to the M5.3 earthquake, more than 7 times as much as the disposal well at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal that caused damaging earthquakes in the Denver, CO, region in the 1960s. Much of the seismicity

  19. The tight reservoir microscopic classification of southern part of Qijia area in Songliao Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Fu

    2018-02-01

    With the decreasing of the conventional oil and gas reserves, the unconventional tight oil and gas are gradually becoming the focus of the study. The casting thin section, conventional mercury injection, constant velocity and pressure mercury and other experimental methods, tight reservoir microscopic characteristics in southern part of Qijia area were studied in this paper. Based on the above conditions, combined with the parameters of pore type, pore throat radius, the reservoir is divided into two types, conventional reservoir and low permeability tight reservoir. Reservoir conventional reservoir permeability values are greater than 1mD, low permeability tight reservoirs are classified into IIa type and IIb type, which provides some reference value for the actual exploration and development.

  20. Controls on Cenozoic exhumation of the Tethyan Himalaya from fission-track thermochronology and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology in the Gyirong basin area, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tianyi; Wang, Guocan; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; van der Beek, Peter; Bernet, Matthias; Cao, Kai; Wang, An; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Kexin

    2016-07-01

    The Gyirong basin, southern Tibet, contains the record of Miocene-Pliocene exhumation, drainage development, and sedimentation along the northern flank of the Himalaya. The tectonic controls on basin formation and their potential link to the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) are not well understood. We use detrital zircon (ZFT) and apatite (AFT) fission-track analysis, together with detrital zircon U-Pb dating to decipher the provenance of Gyirong basin sediments and the exhumation history of the source areas. Results are presented for nine detrital samples of Gyirong basin sediments (AFT, ZFT, and U-Pb), two modern river-sediment samples (ZFT and AFT), and six bedrock samples (ZFT) from transect across the Gyirong fault bounding the basin to the east. The combination of detrital zircon U-Pb and fission-track data demonstrates that the Gyirong basin sediments were sourced locally from the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence. This provenance pattern indicates that deposition was controlled by the Gyirong fault, active since 10 Ma, whose vertical throw was probably slab during the middle Miocene, inducing dynamic uplift of the Indian plate overriding its own slab.

  1. Soil response to long-term projections of extreme temperature and precipitation in the southern La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pántano, Vanesa C.; Penalba, Olga C.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes were estimated considering the main variables which take part in soil-atmosphere interaction. The analysis was focused on the potential impact of these changes on soil hydric condition under extreme precipitation and evapotranspiration, using the combination of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and observational data. The region of study is the southern La Plata Basin that covers part of Argentine territory, where rainfed agriculture production is one of the most important economic activities. Monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures were used from high quality-controlled observed data from 46 meteorological stations and the ensemble of seven CMIP5 GCMs in two periods: 1970-2005 and 2065-2100. Projected changes in monthly effective temperature and precipitation were analysed. These changes were combined with observed series for each probabilistic interval. The result was used as input variables for the water balance model in order to obtain consequent soil hydric condition (deficit or excess). Effective temperature and precipitation are expected to increase according to the projections of GCMs, with few exceptions. The analysis revealed increase (decrease) in the prevalence of evapotranspiration over precipitation, during spring (winter). Projections for autumn months show precipitation higher than potential evapotranspiration more frequently. Under dry extremes, the analysis revealed higher projected deficit conditions, impacting on crop development. On the other hand, under wet extremes, excess would reach higher values only in particular months. During December, projected increase in temperatures reduces the impact of extreme high precipitation but favours deficit conditions, affecting flower-fructification stage of summer crops.

  2. An organic geochemical correlation study of some Drmno depresssion crude oils (southern part of the Pannonian Basin, Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VITOROVIC

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of crude oils originating from the Sirakovo and Bradarac-Maljurevac localities (southern part of the Pannonian Basin are reported in this paper. The aim was to estimate the organic geochemical similarity of the crude oils from the Drmno (Kostolac depression oil fields. The nine selected samples originated from reservoir rocks of various depths. Reliable source and organic geochemical maturation parameters served as the basis for the correlation studies. The similar origin of the investigated Drmno depression crude oils was corroborated, characterized by a significant participation of terrestrial precursor biomass. They were shown to be of relatively low maturity and to have been formed during the earlier stages of the diagenet- ic-catagenetic sequence of processes leading to the formation of crude oils, most probably in source rocks ofTertiary age, corresponding to vitrinite reflectances between Ro = 0.70 % and Ro = 0.80 %. The crude oils from Bradarac-Maljurevac seemed to be somewhat less homogeneous with respect to organic geochemical parameters compared to Sirakovo crude oils.

  3. Modelling the impact of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    2011-06-01

    Groundwater modelling is widely used as a management tool to understand the behaviour of aquifer systems under different hydrological stresses, whether induced naturally or by humans. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the Palar River basin, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Groundwater is supplied to a nearby nuclear power plant and groundwater also supplies irrigation, industrial and domestic needs. In order to meet the increasing demand for groundwater for the nuclear power station, a subsurface barrier/dam was proposed across Palar River to increase the groundwater heads and to minimise the subsurface discharge of groundwater into the sea. The groundwater model used in this study predicted that groundwater levels would increase by about 0.1-0.3 m extending out a distance of about 1.5-2 km from the upstream side of the barrier, while on the downstream side, the groundwater head would lower by about 0.1-0.2 m. The model also predicted that with the subsurface barrier in place the additional groundwater requirement of approximately 13,600 m3/day (3 million gallons (UK)/day) can be met with minimum decline in regional groundwater head.

  4. River-Basin Politics and the Rise of Ecological and Transnational Democracy in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sneddon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, debates over 'deliberative', 'transnational' and 'ecological' democracy have proliferated, largely among scholars engaged in discussions of modernisation, globalisation and political identity. Within this broad context, scholars and practitioners of environmental governance have advanced the argument that a democratic society will produce a more environmentally conscious society. We want to make a volte-face of this argument and ask: to what extent does engagement with environmental politics and, specifically, water politics, contribute to processes of democratisation? After reviewing some of the contributions to debates over 'ecological' and 'transnational' democracy, we explore this question within the context of conflicts over river-basin development in Southeast Asia and southern Africa. We argue that there are multiple pathways to democratisation and that, in some cases, the environment as a political issue does constitute a significant element of democratisation. But notions of 'ecological' and 'transnational' democracy must embody how both 'environment' and 'the transnational', as mobilised by specific social movements in specific historical and geographical circumstances, are politically constructed.

  5. Direct evidence of 1,900 years of indigenous silver production in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Carol A; Stanish, Charles; Scott, David A; Rehren, Thilo; Kuehner, Scott; Feathers, James K

    2009-10-13

    Archaeological excavations at a U-shaped pyramid in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru have documented a continuous 5-m-deep stratigraphic sequence of metalworking remains. The sequence begins in the first millennium AD and ends in the Spanish Colonial period ca. AD 1600. The earliest dates associated with silver production are 1960 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. 40 BC to AD 120) and 1870 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. AD 60 to 240) representing the oldest known silver smelting in South America. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of production debris indicate a complex, multistage, high temperature technology for producing silver throughout the archaeological sequence. These data hold significant theoretical implications including the following: (i) silver production occurred before the development of the first southern Andean state of Tiwanaku, (ii) the location and process of silverworking remained consistent for 1,500 years even though political control of the area cycled between expansionist states and smaller chiefly polities, and (iii) that U-shaped structures were the location of ceremonial, residential, and industrial activities.

  6. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  7. Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S S; Harsha, V H; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R

    2004-10-01

    The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal literature of India. Basella alba, Blepharis repens, Capparis sepiaria, Oxalis corniculata and Ricinus communis are used for the treatment of aphthae; Azima tetracantha, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cleome gynandra, Gossypium herbacium, Leucas aspera, Merremia chryseides, Pergularia daemia, Prosopis juliflora and Solanum nigrum are used to treat tooth ache and Cassia hirsuta and Cassia tora are used in the treatment of plaque and caries.

  8. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Furtado

    Full Text Available The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  9. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  10. Air temperature change in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change.

  11. Fault zone characteristics and basin complexity in the southern Salton Trough, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Ma, Yiran; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Fuis, Gary S.; Han, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing oblique slip at the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the Salton Trough produced the Imperial Valley (California, USA), a seismically active area with deformation distributed across a complex network of exposed and buried faults. To better understand the shallow crustal structure in this region and the connectivity of faults and seismicity lineaments, we used data primarily from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project to construct a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model down to 8 km depth and a velocity profile to 15 km depth, both at 1 km grid spacing. A VP = 5.65–5.85 km/s layer of possibly metamorphosed sediments within, and crystalline basement outside, the valley is locally as thick as 5 km, but is thickest and deepest in fault zones and near seismicity lineaments, suggesting a causative relationship between the low velocities and faulting. Both seismicity lineaments and surface faults control the structural architecture of the western part of the larger wedge-shaped basin, where two deep subbasins are located. We estimate basement depths, and show that high velocities at shallow depths and possible basement highs characterize the geothermal areas.

  12. ANALYSIS OF FAULT SEAL POTENTIAL FOR KNOX RESERVOIRS IN THE SOUTHERN ILLINOIS BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The presence of known faults near potential geologic CO2 sequestration sites significantly raises the uncertainty of having a sufficient seal to prevent leakage along the fault plane from the intended reservoir. In regions where relocating a large sequestration project a considerable distance away from any known faults is impractical, a detailed analysis of the sealing potential of any faults within the projected future injection plume must be performed. In order to estimate the sealing potential of faults within the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Knox Supergroup in the Illinois Basin, two well-based cross sections were produced across two different regional fault systems (Rough Creek Fault Zone in Kentucky, and the unnamed core fault of the LaSalle Anticlinorium in Illinois) to calculate subsurface stratigraphic juxtapositions across each fault zone. Using this stratigraphic and lithologic data, three different algorithms were used to calculate the sealing potential of a theoretical Knox reservoir at each section location. These results indicate a high probability for sealing within the Rough Creek Fault Zone, but a much lower probability for a continuous seal within the LaSalle Anticlinorium.

  13. Delayed tree mortality in the Atchafalaya Basin of Southern Louisiana following Hurricane Andrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeland, B.D.; Gorham, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes can damage trees in forested wetlands, and the potential for mortality related to these storms exists due to the effects of tree damage over time. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the forested wetlands of southern Louisiana with winds in excess of 225 kph. Although more than 78 of the basal area was destroyed in some areas, most trees greater than 2.5 cm dbh were alive and resprouting prolifically the following year (98.8). Survival of most tree species was similarly high two years after the hurricane, but mortality rates of some species increased dramatically. For example, Populus heterophylla (swamp cottonwood) mortality increased from 7.8 to 59.2 (n 76) and Salix interior (sandbar willow) mortality increased from 4.5 to 57.1 (n 21). Stem sprouts on many up-rooted hardwood trees of other species were still alive in 1998, 6 years after the hurricane. Due to the understory tree species composition, regeneration, and high levels of resprouting, there was little change in species composition or perhaps a slight shift toward more shade and flood tolerant species six years following the hurricane event. Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) was found on some of the sites heavily disturbed by Hurricane Andrew, and may proliferate at the expense of native tree species. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. Source and mobility of Rare Earth Elements in a sedimentary aquifer system: Aquitaine basin (Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, P. J.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Millot, R.; Malcuit, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural waters initially involved an examination of their occurrence and behavior in seawater and coastal waters such as estuaries. Since the 1990s, REE geochemistry has been applied to continental waters such as rivers and lakes and groundwaters. Rare earth elements) are of great interest because of their unique characteristics and have been used in the study of many geological processes like weathering and water-rock interaction processes, provenance of sediments, etc... With the evolution of analytical techniques like new generation ICP-MS, much attention had been paid towards the water geochemistry of REEs. However, there is a need of more investigations devoted to REEs in large groundwater systems, especially on the understanding of the distribution of REEs and their evolution in such systems. In this frame, large sedimentary aquifer systems often constitute strategic water resources for drinking water supply, agriculture irrigation and industry, but can also represent an energetic resource for geothermal power. Large water abstractions can induce complete modification of the natural functioning of such aquifer systems. These large aquifer systems thus require water management at the basin scale in order to preserve both water quantity and quality. The large Eocene Sand aquifer system of the Aquitaine sedimentary basin was studied through various hydrological, chemical and isotopic tools. This system extends over 116,000 km2 in the South west part of the French territory. The aquifer being artesian in the west of the district and confined with piezometric levels around 250-m depth in the east. The 'Eocene Sands', composed of sandy Tertiary sediments alternating with carbonate deposits, is a multi-layer system with high permeability and a thickness of several tens of metres to a hundred metres. The Eocene Sand aquifer system comprises at least five aquifers: Paleocene, Eocene infra-molassic sands (IMS), early Eocene

  15. On the Communities of Freshwater Gastropods on Aquatic Macrophytes in Some Water Basins of Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Y. Vasileva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted through the period 2008 - 2009 in the Upper Thracian Lowland: Maritsa River in the city of Plovdiv, flood area near the bridge at UFT; Eastern Rhodopes: Varbitsa River at around 3 km south of the town of Kardzhali; Perperek River, within the village of Perperk; a pond in the village of Chernoochene. The material was collected from total of 3427 g herbage biomass from 7 plant species. On the aquatic macrophytes we generally found approximately the same diversity of species of freshwater gastropods during the cold and during the warm seasons. During the warm period we found a total of 6 species, and during the cold - 7 species. Most species we found on C. demersum, and E. canadensis. Overall for the studied water basins and seasons, the species R. auricularia, Ph. acuta and G. albus were most numerous and prefer to live on C. demersum. We calculated a narrow ecological niche of the species in most cases, where slightly wider ecological niches were registered for R. auricularia and G. albus. Largest diversity of snail communities we found on C. demersum and E. canadensis. The value of the diversity index was very low for the other species of macrophytes. We calculated low values of Sörensen’s index between most of the freshwater macrophytes in relation to communities of gastropods. High similarity between the communities we indicated for C. demersum and P. pussilus, and C. muricatum, and Lemna sp., and very high between P. pussilus, and Lemna sp. We found an aggregated distribution on the macrophytes of the following species of gastropods: R. auricularia, Ph. acuta, P. corneus, P. planorbis, G. albus and occasional one for V. piscinalis, A. lacustris, and L. stagnalis.

  16. Air Temperature Change in the Southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benfu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB during 1964–2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST, 850 hPa temperature (T850, and 700 hPa temperature (T700 exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300 revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and −0.38~−0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964–1997 and then rose during 1998–2011. T700 declined during 1964–2005 and then rose during 2006–2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01 at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1, while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT to ST change.

  17. Simulation-optimization aids in resolving water conflict: Temecula Basin, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Lear, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The productive agricultural areas of Pajaro Valley, California have exclusively relied on ground water from coastal aquifers in central Monterey Bay. As part of the Basin Management Plan (BMP), the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) is developing additional local supplies to replace coastal pumpage, which is causing seawater intrusion. The BMP includes an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system, which captures and stores local winter runoff, and supplies it to growers later in the growing season in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A Coastal Distribution System (CDS) distributes water from the ASR and other supplemental sources. A detailed model of the Pajaro Valley is being used to simulate the coupled supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture from 1963 to 2006. Recent upgrades to the Farm Process in MODFLOW (MF2K-FMP) allow simulating the effects of ASR deliveries and reduced pumping for farms in subregions connected to the CDS. The BMP includes a hierarchy of monthly supply alternatives, including a recovery well field around the ASR system, a supplemental wellfield, and onsite farm supply wells. The hierarchy of delivery requirements is used by MF2K-FMP to estimate the effects of these deliveries on coastal ground-water pumpage and recovery of water levels. This integrated approach can be used to assess the effectiveness of the BMP under variable climatic conditions, and to test the impacts of more complete subscription by coastal farmers to the CDS deliveries. The model will help managers assess the effects of new BMP components to further reduce pumpage and seawater intrusion.

  18. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  19. Late Givetian ammonoids from Hassi Nebech (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bockwinkel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hassi Nebech area of the SE Tafilalt (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, Morocco yielded the richest and most diverse late Givetian ammonoid fauna on a global scale. Above the distinctive regional "Lower Marker Bed" (Synpharciceras clavilobum Zone, abundant loosely collected limonitic specimens derive from hypoxic shales of the Taouzites taouzensis to Petteroceras errans zones. The ontogenetic morphometry and intraspecific variability of a total of 30 species representing five families, the Acanthoclymeniidae, Taouzitidae, Pharciceratidae, Petteroceratidae, and Tornoceratidae, are documented. New taxa are: Pseudoprobeloceras praecox n. sp., Scaturites minutus n. gen. n. sp., Darkaoceras velox n. sp., Pharciceras decoratum n. sp., Ph. fornix n. sp., Ph. subconstans n. sp., Ph. involutum n. sp., Lunupharciceras incisum n. sp., Transpharciceras procedens n. gen. n. sp., Stenopharciceras progressum n. sp., Pluripharciceras n. gen. (type species: Synpharciceras plurilobatum Petter, 1959, Plu. orbis n. sp., Synpharciceras frequens n. sp., Lobotornoceras bensaidi n. sp., Nebechoceras eccentricum n. gen. n. sp., and Phoenixites lenticulus n. sp. The documentation of conch and particularly suture ontogeny and intraspecific variability necessitates a revised diagnosis for ten taxa. Manticoceras pontiformis Termier & Termier, 1950, Probeloceras costulatum Petter, 1959, and Pseudoprobeloceras nebechense Bensaïd, 1974 are regarded as subjective junior synonyms of Ps. pernai (Wedekind, 1918. Sandbergeroceras acutum Termier & Termier, 1950 is a subjective synonym of Taouzites taouzensis (Termier & Termier, 1950. Pharciceras applanatum Bensaïd, 1974 is transferred to Extropharciceras. Other forms (Ph. aff. tridens, Ph. cf. subconstans n. sp., Extropharciceras n. sp. 2, Ex. cf. arenicum, Ex. cf. applanatum, Synpharciceras sp., Plu. cf. plurilobatum are described in open nomenclature. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300001

  20. Geology and potential hydrocarbon play system of Lower Karoo Group in the Maamba Coalfield Basin, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Cryton; Wang, Pujun; Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa

    2016-06-01

    This study attempts to augment geology and potential hydrocarbon play system database not only in the Maamba Coalfield basin of southern Zambia but in other similar continental non-marine Karoo rift basins in the region as well. Geological analyses were conducted through extensive outcrops and exposures and subsurface boreholes. Six (6) major lithofacies (diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, coal and mudstones) represents Lower Karoo Group sequence. Four (4) mudstone core samples were prepared for thin section petrography. In addition, six (6) samples of sandstones obtained from outcrops, exposures and cores were impregnated with blue epoxy before thin sectioning in order to facilitate easy recognition of porosity. Quantification of framework grain composition and porosity was achieved by point counting a total of 300 points per thin section. The identification of diagenetic constituents and pore types was made possible by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses utilised 35 core samples of mudstones and coal. According to results of the analyses, three (3) deposition settings which include; alluvial, fluvial-lacustrine and lacustrine setting are envisaged. . Fluvial-lacustrine deposits are host to mudstones and coal source rocks and sandstone reservoir rocks. Mudstones and coal source rocks gave the total organic carbon (TOC) that is well above the recommended thresholds of 0.5 wt % and 2.5 wt % of gas and oil generation respectively. The hydrogen index (HI) values are mostly below 200 mg HC/g TOC, indicating fair quantities of type III kerogen. The thermal maturity readings measured by temperature Tmax range from 440 to 485 °C in agreement with calculated vitrinite reflectance (Rocalc) range of 0.76-1.57% indicating mature to post mature stages. This maturation is attributed to the burial temperatures and near-surface heat flows by faults. Production Index (PI) values are less than 0.1 suggesting some hydrocarbon

  1. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Laetacara dorsigera (Heckel, 1840): distribution extension and first record for Uruguay River basin, and state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lanés, Luis; Maltchik, Leonardo; Lucena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The present study records for the first time the small cichlidae fish Laetacara dorsigera (Heckel, 1840) at Uruguay River basin and state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, previously known from Amazon, Paraná and Paraguay River basins. Although the ichthyofauna of Uruguay River basin is relatively well known, this record suggests that there are still unexplored environments, such as wetlands, where there may be species not yet reported, and found in other hydrographic systems.

  2. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide ... Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. The world-class research teams ...

  3. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –9 m) locations (Malpe,. Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24. May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 ...

  4. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wave climate along the coast of Karnataka State in India which lies along the central portion of the west coast of India (figure 2). The data were col- lected for a month during June–July to represent ... data is US Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World Indian ..... wave data; In: Report of the Port and Harbour Research.

  5. Architecture of a low-angle normal fault zone, southern Basin and Range (SE California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, J. A.; John, B. E.; Campbell-Stone, E.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Pec, M.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures of the denuded Cenozoic detachment fault system in the southern Sacramento Mountains (SE California) delimit the architecture of a regional low-angle normal fault, and highlight the evolution of these enigmatic faults. The fault was initiated ~23 Ma in quartzo-feldspathic basement gneiss and granitoids at a low-angle (2km, and amplitudes up to 100m. These corrugations are continuous along their hinges for up to 3.6 km. Damage zone fracture intensity varies both laterally, and perpendicular to the fault plane (over an area of 25km2), decreasing with depth in the footwall, and varies as a function of lithology and proximity to corrugation walls. Deformation is concentrated into narrow damage zones (100m) are found in areas where low-fracture intensity horses are corralled by sub-horizontal zones of cataclasite (up to 8m) and thick zones of epidote (up to 20cm) and silica-rich alteration (up to 1m). Sub-vertical shear and extension fractures, and sub-horizontal shear fractures/zones dominate the NE side of the core complex. In all cases, sub-vertical fractures verge into or are truncated by low-angle fractures that dominate the top of the damage zone. These low-angle fractures have an antithetic dip to the detachment fault plane. Some sub-vertical fractures become curviplanar close to the fault, where they are folded into parallelism with the sub-horizontal fault surface in the direction of transport. These field data, corroborated by ongoing microstructural analyses, indicate fault activity at a low angle accommodated by a variety of deformation mechanisms dependent on lithology, timing, fluid flow, and fault morphology.

  6. Routing of terrigenous clastics to oceanic basins in the southern Gulf of California, inherited from features of the pre-spreading protogulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, P.; Kluesner, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The southern protogulf was a Miocene belt of continental rupture bounded on the northeast by the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) volcanic plateau, and on the southeast by the Main Gulf Escarpment of the Baja California (BC) rift shoulder. Since no later than 8-9Ma, before the depression became a deep inlet of the Pacific, the southern protogulf has hosted the principal shear zone between the Pacific and North American plates. As BC gradually acquired Pacific-plate motion, its vector wrt North America rotated and made the shear zone transtensional, leading to the development of several types of pull-apart basins. Some of them, at right steps between en echelon faults, evolved into the oceanic basins that are now the principal Gulf depocenters. Recent geophysical mapping and geologic sampling in the southern Gulf has clarified the location, structures, and composition of the oceanic/continental crustal boundary, and the mechanisms and routes by which terrigenous clastics reach the intracontinental and oceanic basins.Longitudinal (northwest-southeast) thermohaline and tidal currents transport significant volumes of hemipelagic sediment across the floors of gulf basins, but most of the coarser terrigenous clastics arrive there in density flows, primarily turbidity currents that have built channeled deep-sea fans at the mouths of canyons in the continental slopes. Mapped patterns of submarine canyons, channels and fans confirm that turbidity-current transport has primarily been from the northeast margin, which has permanent mainland rivers with large catchments in the SMO. Most of the arid BC peninsula, with ephemeral-stream drainage directed toward the Pacific, contributes little terrigenous input to the deep-water gulf basins, except in the far south: more than a third of the elevated Cabo Block drains into the gulf, building a large fan on the northwest side of Alarcon Basin. The canyons feeding this fan, cut through crystalline rock and probably subaerial in origin

  7. Estimating background denudation rates and delivery of landslide sediment from a time series of 10Be concentrations in landslide dominated basins in the southern Central Range of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Willett, S.; West, A. J.; Dadson, S. J.; Hovius, N.; Christl, M.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    The southern Central Range of Taiwan is located at a tectonic transition zone between an oceanic subduction zone and the arc-continent collision forming the Taiwan orogen. The rapidly evolving tectonic setting, tropical climate and frequent typhoons result in a complex uplift pattern, transient landscapes and extensive landslides. For this study, we obtained a series of 10Be concentrations over the last decade for 13 major drainage basins in the southern Central Range, bracketing the occurrence of a major typhoon, Morakot, which hit Taiwan in 2009 and triggered thousands of landslides. This time series allows us to simultaneously estimate the background erosion rate and assess the impact of Morakot-triggered landslides on 10Be concentrations. The time series of 10Be concentrations shows temporally lower concentrations of 10Be indicating dilution following the Morakot event in most basins. The diluted 10Be concentrations imply erosion rates up to three times higher than the lowest measured rates in the same basins. We constructed a simple sediment-mixing model parameterized by a sudden input of sediment supplied from landslides superimposed on a background denudation rate. This model was calibrated to measured landslide inventories and the series of 10Be data. We obtain a range of permissible background erosion rate and fraction of landslide sediments over time for each basin. The inferred background erosion rate reveals a northward increasing trend, reflecting the initial stage of the mountain building and indicating tectonic forcing is the main driver of the landscape evolution in the southern Central Range. The temporal changes in fraction of landslide sediments show that the available landslide material generated by the Morakot event is decreasing over time with a timescale of several years.

  8. Jurassic onychites (arm hooks) from squid-like cephalopods from the Wessex Basin, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Hughes, Zoe; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    of hook that are often arranged in pairs. Using the abundance of material available to us from the Wessex Basin, we are attempting to identify the host animals wherever this is possible. If this can be established then it may be possible, using micropalaeontological samples, to determine the stratigraphical and palaeoecological ranges of some of the host macro-fossils, many of which are otherwise rarely preserved outside known lagerstätte. A recently described specimen (Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, BRMSG Ce12385) of only the hooks associated with 4 arms can, therefore, be attributed to the Clarkeiteuthis lineage. Coming from the Lower Pliensbachian of the Dorset Coast this occurrence falls in the stratigraphical 'gap' between the known taxa of the Sinemurian (Clarkeiteuthis montefiore) and the Toarcian (Clarkeiteuthis conocauda). This specimen does, however, show paired hooks of different types, similar to another specimen in Manchester University Museum: this is not seen in C. conocauda and places the specimen in C. montefiore or a yet undescribed species of Clarkeiteuthis. Engeser, T.S. & Clarke, M.R. 1988. Cephalopod hooks, both recent and fossil. In: Clarke, M.R. & Trueman, E.R. (eds), Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, vol. 12,; Wilbur, K.M. (Ed.), The Mollusca, Academic press Inc., London, 133-151. Hart, M.B. & Hutchinson, D. in press. A newly described 'clarkeiteuthid' from the Lias Group of Dorset. Geoscience in South-West England. Hart, M.B., De Jonghe, A., Page, K.N., Price, G.D. & Smart, C.W. 2016. Exceptional accumulations of statoliths in association with the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Callovian, Jurassic) in Wiltshire, United Kingdom. Palaios, 31, 203-220. Kulicki, C. & Szaniawski, H. 1972. Cephalopod arm hooks from the Jurassic of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 17, 379-419. Wilby, P.R., Hudson, J.D., Clements, R.G. & Hollingworth, N.T.J. 2004. Taphonomy and origin of an accumulate of soft-bodied cephalopods in the Oxford Clay

  9. Hydrologic Evaluation of Integrated Multi-satellite Retrivals for GPM over Nanliu River Basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenqing, L.; Sheng, C.; Chaoying, H.

    2017-12-01

    The core satellite of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched on 27 February2014 with two core sensors dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and microwave imager (GMI). The algorithm of Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) blends the advantages of currently most popular satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) algorithms, i.e. TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) ADDIN EN.CITE ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA , Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS).Therefore, IMERG is deemed to be the state-of-art precipitation product with high spatio-temporal resolution of 0.1°/30min. The real-time and post real-time IMERG products are now available online at https://stormpps.gsfc.nasa.gov/storm. Early studies about assessment of IMERG with gauge observations or analysis products show that the current version GPM Day-1 product IMERG demonstrates promising performance over China [1], Europe [2], and United States [3]. However, few studies are found to study the IMERG' potentials of hydrologic utility.In this study, the real-time and final run post real-time IMERG products are hydrologically evaluated with gauge analysis product as reference over Nanliu River basin (Fig.1) in Southern China since March 2014 to February 2017 with Xinanjiang model. Statistics metrics Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Critical Success Index (CSI), and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSCE) index will be used to compare the stream flow simulated with IMERG to the observed stream flow. This timely hydrologic evaluation is expected to offer insights into IMERG' potentials in hydrologic utility and thus provide useful feedback to the IMERG algorithm developers and

  10. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  11. [Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the southern and central Haihe River Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Lin; Cheng, Xian; Sun, Ran-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Several heavy metals, including Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd, were investigated at 80 sampling sites in the southern and central areas of Haihe River Basin. The spatial patterns and potential anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals were evaluated by several methods, such as the potential ecological risk index and enrichment factors (EFs). Results showed that, (1) The concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments were higher than the background values in most sites except for Cr, Ni. The concentration of Cd was 2.64 times higher than its background value. Based on the potential ecological risk index for single heavy metal, Cd in river sediments showed a high potential ecological risk while the other elements showed a slight potential ecological risk at most sampling sites. Generally, the decreasing order of the heavy metals was Cd > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. (2) The concentration of heavy metals in surface sediment varied in different regions. The concentration of heavy metals and the potential ecological risks were higher in the Ziya river (RI = 155. 64) and Daqing river (RI = 111.84) than those in the other rivers. For example, slight pollution of heavy metals was found in the Tuhai, Majia river (RI = 69. 54) and Heilonggang river (RI = 84. 50) due to a relatively low level of industrialization. (3) Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr were positively correlated with each other and might be derived from similar sources. The increasing order of anthropogenic impacts on heavy metals was Ni impacts differed in different rivers. For example, strong impacts were found in the Ziya, Daqing, Yongding and Zhangwei rivers whereas weak impacts were showed in Tuhai, Majia and Heilonggang rivers.

  12. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  13. Cenozoic deep-water sedimentary basin formation at the Australia-Pacific plate boundary, southern New Caledonia Trough and Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, J. R.; Sutherland, R.; Stern, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Investigation of four petroleum exploration wells and seismic-reflection interpretation reveal >2 km of tectonic subsidence related to Cretaceous rift structures, and 2-3km of Cenozoic subsidence with little faulting of the upper crust. Comparisons to thermal cooling models require stretching factors that are incompatible with the continental foundations of the basin. In addition, up to 50 % of the subsidence signal occurred in the Mid-Cenozoic, hundreds of kilometres from potential contemporary plate boundaries. Thus, upper crustal faulting, thermal relaxation or flexure cannot explain the 300-500 km wide and 2000 km long sedimentary basin system. We suggest that not all deep-water basins are the evolved products of processes that form shallow-water sedimentary basins, but instead they may be influenced by different processes such as convection in the asthenospheric mantle, instabilities in the mantle lithosphere and/or detachment fault zones that inevitably lead to deeper water.

  14. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Marsella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  15. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  16. The Quequén Salado river basin: Geology and biochronostratigraphy of the Mio-Pliocene boundary in the southern Pampean plain, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Tomassini, R. L.; Zárate, M. A.; Deschamps, C. M.; Barendregt, R. W.; Rabassa, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Quequén Salado river basin has been the focus of several contributions since the first decades of the XX century, namely dealing with the general geological features of the deposits and with the vertebrate remains. In this paper, the Neogene geological history documented by the Quequén Salado river exposures is reconstructed by means of stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies along with the paleontological analysis of vertebrate remains. The study area is a crucial setting not only to better understand the evolution of the southern Pampas basin during the late Miocene-early Pliocene interval, but also to test the validity of the biochronologic and biostratigraphic schemes, especially the "Irenense". A geological model for the Quequén Salado river valley is proposed: a case of downcutting and headward erosion that contributes with a coherent interpretation to explain the spatial distribution of facies and fossil taxa: the younger in the distal sector of the Quequén Salado middle basin and the older in the lower basin. The sedimentary record is believed to represent the distal reaches of a distributary fluvial system that drained from the Ventania ranges. The stratigraphic section of Paso del Indio Rico results a key stratigraphic site to fully understand the stratigraphic nature of the boundary between the Miocene and the Pliocene (the Huayquerian and Montehermosan stages/ages). In this sense, two stratigraphically superposed range zones have been recognized in the area: Xenodontomys ellipticus Range Zone (latest Miocene-early Pliocene; late Huayquerian), and Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone (early Pliocene; Montehermosan). Taking into account the available geological and paleontological evidences, the "Irenense" would not represent a valid biostratigraphic unit, since, according to the geological model here proposed, it would be represented by elements of the Xenodontomys ellipticus Range Zone in the lower QS basin and by elements of the

  17. Tectonic stages in Southern Greater Caucasus and Adjara Trialeti belt in Georgia: new results on timing and structures of inverted basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candaux, Zoé; Sosson, Marc; Adamia, Shota; Sadradze, Nino; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onise; Chabukiani, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus mountain belt is the result of a long live subduction process and collisions of continental microplates (e.g. Dercourt et al., 1986; Barrier and Vrielynck, 2008). The northward subduction of Tethys beneath Eurasian plate initiated a back-arc basin: the Greater Caucasus basin (e.g. Adamia et al., 1981; Zonenshain and Le Pichon, 1986; Roberston et al., 1996; Stephenson and Schellart, 2010 among others). It took place from Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. First compression stage started at the end of Cretaceous in the Lesser Caucasus (e.g. Rolland et al., 2010; Sosson et al. 2010, 2016) and Palaeocene-early Eocene in Crimean Mountains (northwestern continuation of the Greater Caucasus) (Sheremet et al., 2016). In southern Greater Caucasus (Georgian area) the age of deformation during the beginning of the collision is still a subject of debate: Oligocene-Lower Miocene at the frontal part (e.g. Adamia et al. 2010) or Eocene (Mosar et al., 2010). The deformation continues at Miocene, Pliocene and actual time in Kura and Rioni foreland basins (Forte et al., 2010; 2013; Mosar et al., 2010). The different timing is interpreted to be the result of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenian microcontinent collision with Eurasia, followed by the collision with Arabia. During the first collision, during Paleocene-Eocene, the so-called Adjara-Trialeti basin opened north of the volcanic arc. One question is if this local extension affect the timing of compression observed in the Greater Caucasus or not. In Georgia, we investigated new structural analyses, and considered unconformities and growth strata at the frontal part of deformations in Kura and Rioni forelands basins (in front of the Greater Caucasus). Our results evidence different tectonic stages and their timing. In Adjara-Trialeti, Kura and south Rioni basins deformation starts at Middle-Late Miocene. In northern Rioni basin Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleocene compression is evidenced. The structures

  18. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of a Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian channeled slope sequence in the Darwin Basin, southern Darwin Hills, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.; Ritter, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The complex stratigraphy of late Paleozoic rocks in the southern Darwin Hills consists of regionally extensive Mississippian and Early to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks overlain by latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks, herein called the Darwin Hills sequence. Deposition of this latter sequence marked the beginning of the Darwin Basin. In Mississippian time, a carbonate platform prograded westward over slightly older slope deposits. In the Late Mississippian this platform was exposed to erosion and siliciclastic sediments were deposited. In Early to Middle Pennsylvanian time the area subsided, forming a west-facing ramp that was subjected to deformation and erosion in Middle or early Late Pennsylvanian time. Later this area was tilted westward and deep-water sediments were deposited on this slope. In latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian time, a major channel was cut through the older Pennsylvanian rocks and into the Upper Mississippian strata. This channel was gradually filled with increasingly finer grained, deep-water sediment as the area evolved into a basin floor by Early Permian (Sakmarian) time. Expansion of the Darwin Basin in Artinskian time led to a second phase of deposition represented by strata of the regionally extensive Darwin Canyon Formation. The geology in this small area thus documents tectonic events occurring during the early development of the Darwin Basin.

  19. Tectonic framework of the southern portion of the Paraná Basin based on magnetotelluric method: a contribution to the understanding of unconventional reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of the tectonic framework of Paleozoic terrains is crucial for the investigation of unconventional fractured volcanic reservoirs. In recent years, the need for exploitation of these areas showed the value of the non-seismic methods in Brazil. Here we present the results of a magnetotelluric imaging (MT) to identify and characterize the structural framework of the southern portion of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil. We carried out a SW-NE ,1200 km-long MT profile, with 68 stations spaced between 5-15 km on the southernmost states in Brazil. The observation of the PSI profile highlights the presence of large scale NW-SE faults and emphasize the presence of two major regional structures: (i) the Rio Grande Arc in the southern portion, and (ii) the Torres Syncline in the northern portion. The Rio Grande Arc is a horst highlighted by the basement uplift and the thicker layers of sedimentary rocks in the extremes south and north of this structure. The fault system observed along the profile suggests simultaneously uplifting of the basement and deposition of the sedimentary sequences of the Paraná Basin. This hypothesis is in agreement with stratigraphic, borehole and geochronological data, which have shown that the Rio Grande arc is contemporaneous with the deposition of the Triassic to Early Jurassic sediments. The Torres Syncline is a structure characterized by the increasing thickness of sedimentary layers in the north section of our MT profile. The continuity of the layers is interrupted by large regional fault systems, which also affect the volcanic rocks of the Serra Geral Formation, indicating that the faults were active after the Cretaceous. The results show that the MT modeling brings a distinct contribution to the understanding of the present structural architecture of the Paraná basin and the construction of a model for potential fractured volcanic reservoirs.

  20. Crust and upper-mantle structure of Wanganui Basin and southern Hikurangi margin, North Island, New Zealand as revealed by active source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. L.; Henrys, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded during the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) are used to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity (Vp) structure along two profiles spanning the length and width of Wanganui Basin, located landwards of the southern Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. These models provide high-resolution constraints on the structure and crustal thickness of the overlying Australian and subducted Pacific plates and plate interface geometry. Wide-angle reflections are modelled to show that the subducted oceanic Pacific plate crust is anomalously thick (∼10 km) below southern North Island and is overlain by a ∼1.5-4.0 km thick, low Vp (4.8-5.4 km s-1) layer, interpreted as a channel of sedimentary material, that persists landwards at least as far as Kapiti Island. Distinct near vertical reflections from onshore shots identify a ∼4 km high mound of low-velocity sedimentary material that appears to underplate the overlying Australian plate crust and is likely to contribute to local rock uplift along the Axial ranges. The overriding Australian plate Moho beneath Wanganui Basin is imaged as deepening southwards and reaches a depth of at least 36.4 km. The Moho shape approximately mirrors the thickening of the basin sediments, suggestive of crustal downwarping. However, the observed crustal thickness variation is insufficient to explain the large negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (-160 mGal) centred over the basin. Partial serpentinization within the upper mantle with a concomitant density decrease is one possible way of reconciling this anomaly.

  1. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  2. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  3. Paleoenvironments, organic petrology and Rock-Eval studies on source rock facies of the Lower Maastrichtian Patti Formation, southern Bida Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, S. O.; Ojo, O. J.; Erdtmann, B. D.; Hetenyi, M.

    2005-06-01

    The southern Bida Basin in central Nigeria forms a part of the larger Bida or Middle Niger Basin, which is contiguous with the south east trending (petroliferous) Anambra Basin. These basins were major depocenters for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in southern and central Nigeria prior to the build up of the Tertiary Niger delta. The successions in the southern Bida Basin consist of the basal Lokoja Formation, overlain by the Patti Formation and capped by the Agbaja Formation. The Lokoja Formation is a sequence of matrix supported conglomerates and sandstones overlying the Pre-Cambrian to Lower Paleozoic basement. Depositional environments are predominantly within fluvial systems of a continental setting. The Patti Formation consists of dark grey carbonaceous shales; mudstone and siltstones representing flood plains to shallow marine deposits with likely organic rich intervals. The overlying Agbaja Formation is made up of ferruginised oolitic and kaolinitic mudstone of a marginal marine environment. Twenty samples of shales of the Patti Formation were studied by incident light microscopy and geochemical analysis to determine the maceral components, geochemical type and potential yield of the pyrolysate. Maceral analysis indicate a large abundance of vitrinite (50-85%; mean = 66%); moderate abundance of liptinites (10-33%; mean = 18%) and lesser amounts of inertinite (9-40%; mean = 16%). Total organic carbon (TOC) values vary from 0.17 to 3.8 wt.% (mean = 2.1 wt.%) with most samples having greater than 2 wt.% TOC. Three of the samples yield greater than 2 kg (HC)/ton of rock suggesting a fair source rock potential. Most of the samples are thermally immature to marginally mature with vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.4 to 0.6% Rom and Tmax values of 407-426 °C. Given the prevalence of the humic Type III kerogen, maturity and hydrocarbon potential yields, we conclude that the Patti Formation source rock facies have moderate to fair potential for gaseous

  4. Growth and Diversification of Horticulture Crops in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Komol Singha; Rohi Choudhary; Kedar Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of technology, modernization, and changes in food habits, agricultural cropping pattern of the country has undergone a major shift in the recent past, moving away from the cereal to non-cereal crops cultivation, especially toward the horticulture crops. Horticulture has been one of the fastest growing sectors within the larger agriculture activities in India, and the State of Karnataka is at the forefro...

  5. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S

    2017-01-01

    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  6. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  7. Dissolved Ba in the complex frontal system of the Crozet - Kerguelen Basin and comparison with other Southern Ocean frontal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, S.; Cattaldo, T.; Cardinal, D.; Navez, J.; Dehairs, F.

    2003-04-01

    Dissolved Ba profiles in the Southern Ocean have been documented during the GEOSECS (Chan et al., 1979) and INDIGO programs (Jeandel et al., 1996), but zonal coverage of these data sets is still limited. Especially the major frontal systems, through which strong concentration gradients can be expected, are still poorly documented today. During the ANTARES-4 expedition (Jan. 1999) we have analyzed dissolved Ba over the whole water column in the Crozet-Kerguelen basin (43°-46°S and 62°-65°E). This Subantarctic region is characterized by the confluence (about 200km wide) of 3 major fronts which induce strong latitudinal gradients in physico-chemical and biogeochemical conditions. The fronts present are, from north to south: the Agulhas Return Current Front (AF), the Subtropical Front (STF) and the Subantarctic Front (SAF). In surface and subsurface waters a positive gradient of Ba concentrations appears from north to south, while for deep waters, below 2000m, latitudinal differences tend to fade away. Surface water is most depleted in Ba in the Subtropical zone north of the AF (38nmol/l) and is most enriched in the Polar Front Zone (subantarctic waters) south of the SAF (61nmol/l). In deep and bottom waters Ba concentrations reach up to 100nmol/l. Northward exchange of surface waters (upper 100m) through the SAF and the STF was clearly reflected by the latitudinal distributions of dissolved oxygen and Ba. The Polar Front Zone, south of the SAF, is characterized by the occurrence of slight depletions of dissolved Ba in the mesopelagic waters between 100m and 400m, with in general, a minimum at 300m. This same depth zone is characterized by interleaving processes resulting from the diapycnal mixing between warm, salty, O2-poor Subtropical water and cold, fresh, O2-rich Subantarctic water. The possible controls by mixing and/or biogeochemical processing are discussed in comparison with other physico-chemical data. Furthermore, results will be discussed in comparison

  8. Occurrence of Arsenic in Soils and Paleosols of the Claromecó River Basin, Southern Pampean Plain (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, N. N.; Datta, S.; Zarate, M.; Porfido, C.; Spagnuolo, M.; Terzano, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Chacopampean plain is an extended flatland characterized by high As within sediments and drinking waters. The volcanic glass shards, normally present as a major constituent of the Chacopampean plain sediments, are classically considered the main source of As. Nevertheless, thick volcanic ash layers and Fe-Mn (Al) oxy-hydroxides are also contemplated as a reasonable source of As. In order to understand the main source of As in the Claromecó river basin (southern Chacopampean plain) sediments, paleosols, present-day soils and groundwaters were sampled. Three sedimentological units were identified: a deeper early Pliocene fluvial unit (mean sediment As 4.6 mg/kg), a shallower late Pleistocene fluvial unit (mean As 11.6mg/kg) and Holocene Loess (mean As 2.5 mg/kg). Two types of paleosols were characterized: a Pliocene pedogenic calcrete (mean As 3.6 mg/kg) and a Late Pleistocene hydromorphic paleosol (mean As 16.5 mg/kg). The present-day soils were taken into account where mean As is 10.5 mg/kg. Although mean values for each unit are quite different, statistical analyses (ANOVA) reveal no statistically significant difference between As concentrations within the various sedimentological units. However, the hydromorphic paleosols and present day soils show a statistically significant difference from the rest of the units. In these pedogenetic units, the highest As concentrations are located in the Fe-Mn(Al) oxy-hydroxide phases (nodules and rhizo-concretions) as shown by sequential extractions and µ-XRF analysis. From this context, Pliocene pedogenic calcrete shows low content of oxy-hydroxides and therefore low As. Additionally, As concentrations in waters (mean As 78.42 µg/L) shows higher values in shallower groundwaters coinciding with Pleistocene paleosols. This preliminary study highlights that the sediment deposition may not necessarily represent a systematic control in the As concentrations even though an increment from the Pliocene to the Holocene in

  9. The role of internal waves in the formation of layered structure at exchange flows between two closed basins (Middle and southern basins of the Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bidokhti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Layered structures in the oceans have always attracted the attention of oceanographers. The formation of these structures have been attributed to phenomena such as double – diffusive convection, internal waves and turbulent modulated mixing .In this paper, the vertical structures of temperature, salinity, density and the layered structure in the middle parts of Caspian Sea have been studied. Counters of iso-quantities of these physical properties, show the existence of regular structures, which indicate that internal waves which are produced by exchanging flow between two basins, as a result of horizontal density gradients (usually from north basin to south basin may generate these layers. Froude number of this flow is about one. The length of wave of the internal waves is found to be about 200 km and the flow velocity associated with this gravity drive flow is about 0.2 m/s, the frequency of these waves is of order of inertial frequency. The normal modes of these waves have a near steady structure and can fold the inflow front from the North Caspian sea to South Caspian Sea basins, then the layered structure are formed. The thickness of these layers so formed is found to be about 10-20 m. These are in agreement with the values predicted by the model of Wong et al, (2001. In these waters density ratio is negative. Thus, double – diffusive convection does not often happen and cannot produce these layered structures.

  10. New age constraints on the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the late Paleozoic back-arc basin along the western Gondwana margin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, F.; Reitsma, M. J.; Spikings, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Ulianov, A.; Gerdes, A.; Schaltegger, U.

    2018-03-01

    The tectonic evolution of the western Gondwana margin during Pangaea amalgation is recorded in variations in the Permo-Carboniferous back-arc basin sedimentation of Peru. This study provides the first radiometric age constraints on the volcanic and sedimentary sequences of south-central eastern Peru up to the western-most tip of Bolivia, and now permits the correlation of lateral facies variations to the late Paleozoic pre-Andean orogenic cycle. The two phases of Gondwanide magmatism and metamorphism at c. 315 Ma and c. 260 Ma are reflected in two major changes in this sedimentary environment. Our detrital U-Pb zircon ages demonstrate that the timing of Ambo Formation deposition corroborates the Late Mississipian age estimates. The transition from the Ambo to the Tarma Formation around the Middle Pennsylvanian Early Gondwanide Orogeny (c. 315 Ma) represents a relative deepening of the basin. Throughout the shallow marine deposits of the Tarma Formation evidence for contemporaneous volcanism becomes gradually more pronounced and culminates around 312 - 309 Ma. Continuous basin subsidence resulted in a buildup of platform carbonates of the Copacabana Formation. Our data highlights the presence of a previously unrecognized phase of deposition of mainly fluvial sandstones and localized volcanism (281-270 Ma), which we named ´Oqoruro Formation'. This sedimentary succession was previously miss-assigned to the so-called Mitu Group, which has recently been dated to start deposition in the Middle Triassic (∼245-240 Ma). The emersion of this marine basin coincides with the onset of a major plutonic pulse related to the Late Gondwanide Orogeny (c. 260). Exhumation lead to the consequent retreat of the epeiric sea to the present-day sub-Andean region, and the coeval accumulation of the fluvial Oqoruro Formation in south eastern Peru. These late Paleozoic palaeoenvironmental changes in the back-arc basins along the western Gondwana margin of southern reflect changes in

  11. How to solve the technical problems in CBM development: A case study of a CBM gas reservoir in the southern Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The low average single-well production, resulting in low economic benefit, has become the main bottleneck of CBM development in China. In view of this issue, through case study of a CBM gas reservoir in the southern Qinshui Basin, we summarized the present status of CBM technology and development there and also pointed out some major problems in CBM development: (1 the engineering technology for the CBM development needs to adapt to the particular geological characteristics; (2 a large number of inefficient zones still exist in mature blocks in the southern Qinshui Basin; (3 single-well production can not be effectively enhanced only by increasing the fracturing scale; (4 the production of multi-lateral wells is higher, but the fulfillment rate of production capacity overall is still low; and (5 on-site management lacks scientific evidence. On this basis, we present the following suggestions for subsequent coalbed gas development: (1 the production construction mode should be changed, and the fulfillment rate of production capacity construction should be improved; (2 CBM geological research should be improved and well types and locations should be designed reasonably and scientifically; (3 main technologies should be built in a dialectical thinking mode; (4 horizontal well design should be optimized to improve the applicability of relevant technologies; (5 fracturing mode should be changed to improve single-well production; and (6 the drainage technology should be changed to improve economic efficiency.

  12. Flexural analysis of the Magallanes retroarc basin of southern South America: A 1-D elastic-plastic model for deflection of attenuated lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, J. C.; Hilley, G. E.; Graham, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of inelastic bending of attenuated lithosphere on foreland flexure and basin geometry in the Upper Cretaceous Magallanes Basin of southern South America. The lack of correlation between topographic load from the present-day Patagonian Andes and the distribution of total sediment thickness in the adjacent Magallanes Basin suggests that that foreland lithosphere has accumulated irrecoverable strain and thus, inelastic flexure should be considered. We present a 1-D numerical analysis using an elastic-plastic model for plate bending and explore the effects of yield stress, spatially-variable flexural rigidity, and size of the tapered topographic load. The Upper Cretaceous Magallanes retroforeland basin formed during Andean orogenesis after closure of a Late Jurassic quasi-oceanic backarc basin. The unusually thick (>5 km) succession of Cenomanian-Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks were deposited in a deep-marine axial foredeep. Sediment thickness profiles across the Cenomanian-Turonian basin fill define a curve with high amplitude and long-wavelength deflection and a substantially suppressed forebulge. Secondly, observed thicknesses across the basin show a distinct inflection point, located ~200 km east of the palinspastically-restored thrust front, that separates a deep (>2.5 km thick) depocenter that thins abruptly toward the craton. Linear elastic models using a range of flexural rigidities (3.6 x 1022 to 2.8 x 1023 N-m) corresponding to elastic thicknesses of 20-40 km for both line loads and distributed loads do not fit observed sediment thicknesses. We explore the effects of obducted high-density oceanic blocks in the thrust belt, spatial variations in elastic thickness of attenuated lithosphere, and permanent strain on foreland flexure. In elastic-plastic models, the plate deforms elastically when the fiber stress is less than the maximum yield stress. When the bending stress in the plate reaches the yield stress, the outer

  13. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  14. U-Pb zircon constraints on the age of the Cretaceous Mata Amarilla Formation, Southern Patagonia, Argentina: Its relationship with the evolution of the Austral Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Augusto N; Poire, Daniel G; Martin, Thomas; Gerdes, Axel; Goin, Francisco J; Gelfo, Javier N; Hoffmann, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant fossil content of the Mata Amarilla Formation (Southern Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina), its age has always generated a considerable number of questions and debates. The chronological data provided by invertebrates, dinosaurs, fish, turtles, plesiosaurs and fossil flora are contradictory. In this work, twenty U-Pb spot analyses by laser ablation were carried out on the outer parts of the zoned zircon crystals from a tuff layer of the middle section of the Mata Amarilla Formation, yielding a U-Pb concordia age of 96.23±0.71 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Cenomanian. The deposition of the lower section of the Mata Amarilla Formation marks the onset of the foreland stage of the Austral Basin (also known as Magallanes Basin); this transition is characterized by the west-east shift of the depositional systems, which is consistent with the progradation of the Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the onset of the foreland stage could have occurred between the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian, as the underlying Piedra Clavada Formation is lower Albian in age. On comparing the data obtained with information from the Ultima Esperanza Province in Chile, it can be suggested that the initiation of the closure of the Rocas Verdes Marginal Basin occurred simultaneously

  15. Crustal structure of the southern Okinawa Trough: Symmetrical rifting, submarine volcano, and potential mantle accretion in the continental back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yuka, Kaiho; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Back-arc basins are a primary target to understand lithospheric evolution in extension associated with plate subduction. Most of the currently active back-arc basins formed in intraoceanic settings and host well-developed spreading centers where seafloor spreading has occurred. However, rift structure at its initial stage, a key to understand how the continental lithosphere starts to break in a magma-rich back-arc setting, is poorly documented. Here we present seismological evidence for structure of the southern Okinawa Trough, an active rift zone behind the Ryukyu subduction zone. We find that the southern Okinawa Trough exhibits an almost symmetric rift system across the rift axis (Yaeyama Rift) and that the sedimentary layers are highly cut by inward dipping normal faults. The rift structure also accompanies a narrow (2-7 km wide) on-axis intrusion resulted from passive upwelling of magma. On the other hand, an active submarine volcano is located 10 km away from the rift axis. The P wave velocity (Vp) model derived from seismic refraction data suggests that the crust has been significantly thinned from the original 25 km thick arc crust and the thinnest part with 12 km thickness occurs directly beneath the rift axis. The velocity model also reveals that there exists a thick layer with Vp of 6.5-7.2 km/s at lower crustal levels and may indicate that mantle materials accreted at the bottom of the crust during the crustal stretching. The abrupt crustal thinning and the velocity-depth profile suggest that the southern Okinawa Trough is at a transitional stage from continental rifting to seafloor spreading.

  16. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  17. Pb/Pb isochron ages and Pb isotope geochemistry of Bambui Group carbonate rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the establishment of chemical and analytical procedure for Pb/Pb dating of Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks and their application to obtaining isochron ages of Bambui Group rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin, Minas Gerais State. The Pb isotopic compositions and U and Pb concentrations determined on more than 90 samples (≅ 600 analyses) from Sete Lagoas do Jacare formations, Bambui Group, from different parts of the basin, showed four distinct types of Pb, here called types I, II, III and IV. Type I Pb was found in samples with low Pb concentrations and relatively high U concentrations. Type II Pb is present in samples with relatively high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations it is non-radiogenic crustal Pb. Type III Pb is also found in samples with high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations but it is radiogenic crustal Pb. Type IV Pb occurs in samples with U/Pb ratios lower than 1 and is intermediate in composition between Type III and Type I Pb. According to the data presented in this paper it is suggested that carbonate rocks from Sete Lagoas Formations were deposited before 686±69 Ma. Rocks from the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, contained only Type II Pb, which does not permit determination of a Pb/Pb age. During the interval from 690 to 500 Ma, the Pb isotope system of the carbonate rocks from the Sao Francisco Basin was disturbed, and in some areas it was totally reset. The imprecise U/Pb ages of 550-600 Ma obtained from some of the carbonate rocks reflect this disturbance. The ages determined in this study are in agreement with most of the published ages of the tectonism from the Brasiliano fold belts marginal to Sao Francisco Craton, showing that the isotopic systems of Sao Francisco Basin rocks were largely affected by brasiliano tectonism. (author)

  18. The flux and recovery of bioactive substances in the surface sediments of deep basins off southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sediment microbial community biomass and activity in Santa Monica Basin, a nearshore basin in the California Continental Borderland, were examined in October 1985, 1986 and 1987, May 1986, April 1987 and January 1990. Millimeter-scale ATP profiles and incubation of intact cores with 3 H-adenine indicated a high-biomass interface microbial population in the low-oxygen central basin, which was absent in samples from the basin slope sediments. A majority of microbial activity and organic matter mineralization occurred in the top cm of sediment. Comparison of measured ATP and total organic carbon profiles suggest that the C:ATP ratio (wt:wt) ranges between 47:1 and 77:1 in central basin interfacial populations, substantially lower than reported for other aquatic environments. Carbon production estimated from DNA synthesis measurements via 3 H-adenine incorporation was compared with TCO 2 fluxes measured by in situ benthic chamber experiments. Within the uncertainty of the C:ATP ratio, an overall microbial carbon assimilation efficiency of 75--90% was indicated. The low C:ATP ratios and high carbon assimilation efficiencies significantly affect estimates of microbial growth and respiration and are substantially different than those often assumed in the literature. These results suggest that without independent knowledge of these ratios, the uncertainty in tracer-derived microbial growth and respiration rates may be larger than previously reported. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. The flux and recovery of bioactive substances in the surface sediments of deep basins off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, R.A.

    1990-06-11

    Sediment microbial community biomass and activity in Santa Monica Basin, a nearshore basin in the California Continental Borderland, were examined in October 1985, 1986 and 1987, May 1986, April 1987 and January 1990. Millimeter-scale ATP profiles and incubation of intact cores with {sup 3}H-adenine indicated a high-biomass interface microbial population in the low-oxygen central basin, which was absent in samples from the basin slope sediments. A majority of microbial activity and organic matter mineralization occurred in the top cm of sediment. Comparison of measured ATP and total organic carbon profiles suggest that the C:ATP ratio (wt:wt) ranges between 47:1 and 77:1 in central basin interfacial populations, substantially lower than reported for other aquatic environments. Carbon production estimated from DNA synthesis measurements via {sup 3}H-adenine incorporation was compared with TCO{sub 2} fluxes measured by in situ benthic chamber experiments. Within the uncertainty of the C:ATP ratio, an overall microbial carbon assimilation efficiency of 75--90% was indicated. The low C:ATP ratios and high carbon assimilation efficiencies significantly affect estimates of microbial growth and respiration and are substantially different than those often assumed in the literature. These results suggest that without independent knowledge of these ratios, the uncertainty in tracer-derived microbial growth and respiration rates may be larger than previously reported. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -(sulphides-)rich deposits occur. However most of the sulphides seems to be associated with an important tectonic structure. The structural study suggests that these sulphide-bearing horizons originally localised within relatively low-angle thrusts that later rotated into a subvertical orientation. The suggested model......The ancient basins are of a wide interest to geoscientists as they archive the early development of plate tectonics, life, and ore-bearing systems. Several basins, especially those involving volcanic-derived materials, contain ore and mineral deposits. The formation of these ores is often related...... implies that early gently dipping thrusts acted as both channels and traps for the mineralising fluids that possibly sourced from relatively shallow depths from the base of the basin infill. The origin of the fluids might therefore be either in relation with early metamorphosis of the sedimentary pile and...

  1. Rainfall contributes ~30% of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen exported from a southern Great Barrier Reef river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packett, Robert

    2017-08-15

    A study was conducted to estimate how much of the annual load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) river basins could come from rainfall. Results suggest rainfall contributed ~37% of the average annual DIN load from the Fitzroy Basin over three wet seasons. Rainfall DIN contribution at plot to sub-catchment scale ranged from 5 to >100% for study sites in the Fitzroy and Pioneer Basins. An estimate using measured and modelled data indicates ~28% of the longer-term average annual DIN load from the entire GBR catchment may originate from rainfall. These estimates may affect current GBR management and water quality targets. Numerous studies predict increases in atmospheric nitrogen pollution from Asia via fossil fuel combustion and more frequent severe La Nina events via global warming. Future GBR rainfall chemistry data may be required for assessing catchment management outcomes and regional trends in atmospheric DIN deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  3. Quantification of input and compositional variations of calciturbidites in a Middle Triassoc basinal succession (Seceda, Dolomites, Southern Alps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, F.; Reijmer, J.G.G.; Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Triassic calciturbidites were studied in a 100-m long core and nearby outcrops of the basinal Buchenstein Formation to determine composition and thickness variations. The quantity of recognized turbidite sediment relative to background sediment changes from 15% (by volume) in the lower part to 60%

  4. Study of fault configuration related mysteries through multi seismic attribute analysis technique in Zamzama gas field area, southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seismic attribute analysis approach has been applied for the interpretation and identification of fault geometry of Zamzama Gas Field. Zamzama gas field area, which lies in the vicinity of Kirthar fold and thrust belt, Southern Indus Basin of Pakistan. The Zamzama fault and its related structure have been predicted by applying the Average Energy Attribute, Instantaneous Frequency Attribute, relative Acoustic Impedance Attribute and Chaotic Reflection Attribute on the seismic line GHPK98A.34. The results have been confirmed by applying the spectral decomposition attribute on the same seismic line that reveal the geometric configuration of Zamzama structure. The fault is reverse and started from 0 s and ended at the depth of 2.5 s on the vertical seismic section. Hanging wall moves up along the fault plane under the action of eastward oriented stress, which formed a large north–south oriented and eastward verging thrusted anticline.

  5. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  6. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  7. Bentonites of the Irati Formation in the southern sector of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Bentonitas da Formacao Irati no setor sul da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurelio Fagundes; Dani, Norberto; Remus, Marcus Vinicius Dornelles; Sommer, Margot Guerra, E-mail: norberto.dani@ufrgs.br, E-mail: marcus.remus@ufrgs.br, E-mail: margot.sommer@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl, E-mail: brunoldhorn@gmail.com [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Recife, PE (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional

    2017-01-15

    This paper aims to identify and to present mineralogical and chemical arguments that demonstrate the existence of bentonite levels in the Irati Formation, found in outcrops to the west Acegua in southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). These levels are thin, on average 4 cm thick, large in area, and are composed of grayish-white to greenish massive clay stones that contrast, in the field, with the shales of the Irati Formation. The bentonite levels of the Irati Formation are predominantly composed of Ca-montmorillonite, which constitutes the fine matrix of the rock; and scattered primary or magmatic crystals not larger than very fine sand. Among the main primary minerals representative of volcanic setting, it is possible to identify β-quartz paramorphs, sanidine, biotite, zircon, apatite and ilmenite, in addition to quartz and feldspar shards (splinters). More rarely, fragments of meso and macrocharcoals are found within the bentonite layers, which contrast with the maturity and type of non-vegetal organic matter of the Irati shale. Therefore, the nature of the precursor volcanism is inferred on the basis of rock geochemistry and crystal chemistry of the neoformed montmorillonite in the bentonite levels. Both methodologies indicate that during this period the volcanic ashes that reached the Parana Basin were generated by volcanism of intermediate composition, which is in accordance with what is known about the Lower Choiyoi Volcanic Province manifestations, which were synchronous with the sedimentation of the Irati Formation in the Parana Basin. (author)

  8. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  9. Thermal evolution of the Sisters shear zone, southern New Zealand; Formation of the Great South Basin and onset of Pacific-Antarctic spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy J.; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2009-10-01

    The separation of Zealandia from West Antarctica was the final stage in the Cretaceous breakup of the Gondwana Pacific margin. Continental extension resulting in formation of the Great South Basin and thinning of the Campbell Plateau leading to development of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge was partially accommodated along the Sisters shear zone. This east-northeast striking brittle-ductile structure exposed along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand, is a greenschist facies extensional shear zone that separates a hanging wall of chloritic, brecciated granites, and undeformed conglomerate from a footwall of mylonitic Carboniferous and Early Cretaceous granites. This complex structure exhibits bivergent kinematics and can be subdivided into a northern and southern segment. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology indicates that cooling of the shear zone footwall began at ˜94 Ma with accelerated cooling over the interval ˜89-82 Ma. Structural and thermochronological data indicate a spatial and temporal link between the Sisters shear zone, initial sedimentation within the offshore Great South Basin, extension of the Campbell Plateau, and initiation of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge.

  10. Identification of spatial and temporal contributions of rainfalls to flash floods using neural network modelling: case study on the Lez basin (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, T.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Vayssade, B.; Johannet, A.; Pistre, S.

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods pose significant hazards in urbanised zones and have important implications financially and for humans alike in both the present and future due to the likelihood that global climate change will exacerbate their consequences. It is thus of crucial importance to improve the models of these phenomena especially when they occur in heterogeneous and karst basins where they are difficult to describe physically. Toward this goal, this paper applies a recent methodology (Knowledge eXtraction (KnoX) methodology) dedicated to extracting knowledge from a neural network model to better determine the contributions and time responses of several well-identified geographic zones of an aquifer. To assess the interest of this methodology, a case study was conducted in southern France: the Lez hydrosystem whose river crosses the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). Rainfall contributions and time transfers were estimated and analysed in four geologically delimited zones to estimate the sensitivity of flash floods to water coming from the surface or karst. The Causse de Viols-le-Fort is shown to be the main contributor to flash floods and the delay between surface and underground flooding is estimated to be 3 h. This study will thus help operational flood warning services to better characterise critical rainfall and develop measurements to design efficient flood forecasting models. This generic method can be applied to any basin with sufficient rainfall-run-off measurements.

  11. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  12. Cenomanian and Cenomanian-Turonian boundary deposits in the southern part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, S.; Hradecká, L.; Svobodová, Marcela; Švábenická, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2005), s. 321-354 ISSN 1210-3527 Grant - others:GA MŽP1(CZ) 1975/630/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Cenomanian * biostratigraphy * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/contents/2005/vol80no4/321_cech.pdf

  13. Distribution and transportation of mercury from glacier to lake in the Qiangyong Glacier Basin, southern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiwei; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Li, Chengding; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Sun, Xuejun; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2016-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the Polar Regions and is a source of fresh water to 1.4 billion people. Yet little is known about the transportation and cycling of Hg in high-elevation glacier basins on Tibetan Plateau. In this study, surface snow, glacier melting stream water and lake water samples were collected from the Qiangyong Glacier Basin. The spatiotemporal distribution and transportation of Hg from glacier to lake were investigated. Significant diurnal variations of dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations were observed in the river water, with low concentrations in the morning (8:00am-14:00pm) and high concentrations in the afternoon (16:00pm-20:00pm). The DHg concentrations were exponentially correlated with runoff, which indicated that runoff was the dominant factor affecting DHg concentrations in the river water. Moreover, significant decreases of Hg were observed during transportation from glacier to lake. DHg adsorption onto particulates followed by the sedimentation of particulate-bound Hg (PHg) could be possible as an important Hg removal mechanism during the transportation process. Significant decreases in Hg concentrations were observed downstream of Xiao Qiangyong Lake, which indicated that the high-elevation lake system could significantly affect the distribution and transportation of Hg in the Qiangyong Glacier Basin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Identification of hydrogeochemical processes and pollution sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming Basin of Hainan island, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaowen, Y.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the evolution of groundwater quality is important for the control and management of groundwater resources. The main aims of the present study are to identify the major factors affecting hydrogeochemistry of groundwater resources and to evaluate the potential sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming basin using chemical and isotopic methods. The majority of samples belong to Na-Cl water type and are followed by Ca-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Na-HCO3. The δ18O and δ2H values in groundwater indicate that the shallow fissure groundwater is mainly recharged by rainfall. The evaporated surface water is another significant origin of groundwater. The weathering and dissolution of different rocks and minerals, input of precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange and anthropogenic activities, especially agricultural activities, influence the hydrogeochemistry of the study area. NO- 3 concentration in the groundwater varies from 0.7 to 51.7 mg/L and high values are mainly occurred in the densely populated area. The combined use of isotopic values and hydrochemical data suggests that the NO- 3 load in Leiming basin is not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as waste water and atmospheric deposition. Fertilizer is considered as the major source of NO- 3 in the groundwater in Leiming basin.

  15. Re-discussion on the detrital zircon provenance of the lower Yanchang Formation in the southern Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ordos Basin is the second largest sedimentary basin in China. The Yanchang Formation is the key oilbearing layer in the Ordos Basin. The stratigraphic time interval and the stratigraphic division of the Yanchang Formation has been highly debated with estimates ranging from Middle Triassic to Late Triassic. According to the latest studies on the stratigraphical division of Yanchang Formation, it was considered to be deposited as early as the Middle Triassic. Based on this new understanding, we reexamined the previous studies of the detrital zircons from the lower Yanchang Formation. The detrital zircons from the lower Yanchang Formation were divided into three groups based on their U-Pb ages: Paleozoic, Paleoproterozoic, and Neoarchean. The lack of Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages indicates no input from either the Qinling Orogen or the Qilian Orogen. The two older age groups (Paleoproterozoic, and Neoarchean are likely derived from the North China Craton basement. The Paleozoic zircons were derived from the Inner Mongolia Paleo-uplift. The lower Yanchang Formation was mainly derived from the Inner Mongolia Paleo-uplift instead of being recycled from the previous sedimentary material from the central-eastern North China Craton as was previously hypothesized.

  16. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  17. Textural characteristics of foreshore sediments along Karnataka shoreline, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.; Vinayaraj, P.; Gowthaman, R.

    Grain character analysis of beach sediments along three selected beaches (Pavinkurve, Kundapura and Padukare) of Karnataka coast, west coast of India is carried out to identify the textural behavior of beach sediments during an annual cycle from...

  18. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    period. The objective of the study is to identify the tidal and nontidal variations along the coast. Analysis shows that astronomical tides are responsible for most of the observed sea level variability along the Karnataka coast. Ninety-seven percent...

  19. 100-kyr fluvial fill terrace cycles since the Middle Pleistocene in the southern Central Andes, Toro Basin, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Savi, Sara; Pingel, Heiko; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-04-01

    Fluvial fill terraces in intermontane basins are valuable sedimentary and geomorphic archives that record tectonic and/or climate- driven changes of river networks and their adjacent hillslopes. However, the rarely complete preservation of such geomorphic features, often combined with large distances from sediment source areas, complicates the identification of causal links between tectonic/climatic forcing mechanisms and landscape response, especially over timescales of 105 to 106 years. The intermontane Quebrada del Toro Basin in the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina contains at least five fluvial terrace-surface remnants that have been sculpted into a succession of several-hundred-meter-thick Quaternary gravel conglomerate. These terraces can be followed over several tens of kilometers and are located in the higher part of the basin, close to the sediment source areas. In this study, we determined the onset of multiple river incision phases by dating the abandonment of the three most extensive and best preserved terrace surfaces with nine cosmogenic 10Be-depth profiles. The timing of terrace-gravel deposition is based on four cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial ages and U-Pb zircon age estimates of three intercalated volcanic ashes in the conglomeratic fill. The 10Be depth profile ages suggest a successive abandonment of these terrace surfaces with a 100-kyr-cyclicity between 487 ± 34 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. Depositional ages of the conglomerates, determined by 26Al/10Be burial samples and U-Pb zircon ages, range from 936 ± 170 ka to 18 ± 141ka. They show a clear overlap with the terrace-surface abandonment ages and thus indicate the existence of multiple cut-and-fill cycles. Although the initial onset of aggradation of the Quaternary gravel conglomerate at ˜1 Ma and the overall net fluvial incision since ˜0.5 Ma can be linked to tectonic processes affecting the narrow basin outlet, the superimposed 100-kyr-cycles of aggradation and incision are best explained by

  20. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil Peixes da bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (sistema da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.Os ambientes aquáticos da Bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (Bacia da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil vêm sofrendo considerável transformação, principalmente em razão da implantação de barragens para geração de energia elétrica. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um diagnóstico amplo da ictiofauna da Bacia do Taquari-Antas, realizou-se um inventário das espécies dessa bacia a partir de dados primários e secundários. Foram obtidos 5.299 registros válidos de espécies de peixe na bacia, representando 119 espécies e 519 localidades amostradas. Ocorrem, na bacia, 13 espécies não nativas, seis das quais são oriundas de outras bacias neotropicais. Cerca de 24% de todas as espécies carecem de descrição taxonômica no nível específico. Foram registradas três espécies nativas migradoras de longa distância (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus e Salminus brasiliensis e

  1. Early migration and estuary stopover of introduced chinook salmon population in the Lapataia River Basin, southern Tierra del Fuego Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalde, T.; Fernández, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Established populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have recently been reported in South America, at both Atlantic and Pacific basins. Several studies have evaluated different aspects of their life histories; however, little is known about the use of the estuaries by the juveniles of these populations. We examined spawning time, seaward migration timing, growth rate, scale patterns, diet, and geometric morphometric, contrasting the early life history during freshwater and estuary residence of a chinook population established in Lapataia Basin. Fall run spawning took place in March-April and the parr emerged in September. Two distinct seaward migration patterns were identified from sein net fishing records: one population segment migrating earlier to the estuary in October and a second group migrating later in February. The growth rate of fish captured at the estuary was significantly higher than the fish captured in freshwater. In addition, higher scale intercirculi distances were observed in estuary fish showing differences in growth rate. The feeding habitat in fish captured in both environments changed through time from bottom feeding to surface feeding and from significant diet overlap to no overlap. The morphology of the fish captured at the estuary was associated with the elongation of the caudal peduncle and a decrease in the condition factor index, both changes related to smolt transformation. The earlier migration and the higher growth rate of juveniles in the estuary together with fish of 1 + yo captured in this environment reveal that the estuary of Lapataia Basin is not only a stopover for the chinook salmon, but also a key habitat to reside and feed previous to the final seaward migration.

  2. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  3. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  4. Growth and Diversification of Horticulture Crops in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komol Singha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of technology, modernization, and changes in food habits, agricultural cropping pattern of the country has undergone a major shift in the recent past, moving away from the cereal to non-cereal crops cultivation, especially toward the horticulture crops. Horticulture has been one of the fastest growing sectors within the larger agriculture activities in India, and the State of Karnataka is at the forefront in this context. With the help of secondary data and by employing Simpson’s Diversification Index, crop diversification toward horticulture across the districts of Karnataka was explored. Using regression growth trends, the districts have been categorized as high, medium, low, and negative growth trend of horticulture crop area, and the districts have been further regrouped according to their agro-climatic zones. The study found that the districts of Gulbarga, Raichur, Bijapur, Bidar, Koppal, Bagalkot, and Bellary showed a complete diversification toward horticulture crops, whereas the districts of Kolar, Udupi, and Dakshina Kannada were found to be diversified the least. The study also explored that the districts having complete diversification toward horticulture sector were found to have devoted a lesser share of their cultivable area under horticulture crops. Also, most of the highly diversified districts have come under the dry agro-climatic zones and experienced a high growth rate of horticulture crops cultivation from triennium ending (TE 2002-2003 to TE 2009-2010. However, the lesser diversified districts have got lesser growth rate of area under the horticulture crops, but devoted relatively a higher share of area under the crops.

  5. The character and causes of flash flood occurrence changes in mountainous small basins of Southern California under projected climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Modrick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Small watersheds (O[25 km2] in the mountain regions of southern California comprise the study region. Study focus: This paper examines changes in flash flood occurrence in southern California resulting from projected climatic change. The methodology synthesizes elements of meteorological modeling, hydrology and geomorphology into an integrated modeling approach to define flash flood occurrence in a systematic and consistent way on a regional basis with high spatial and temporal resolution appropriate for flash flooding. A single climate model with three-dimensional atmospheric detail was used as input to drive simulations for historical and future periods. New hydrological insights for the region: Results indicate an increase in flash flood occurrence for the study region. For two distributed hydrologic models employed, the increase in flash flood occurrence frequency is on average between 30% and 40%. Regional flash flood occurrence is characterized by near saturation of the upper soil layer, and wider ranges in lower soil layer saturation and in precipitation. Overall, a decrease in the total number of precipitation events was found, although with increased precipitation intensity, increased event duration, and higher soil saturation conditions for the 21st century. This combination could signify more hazardous conditions, with fewer precipitation events but higher rainfall intensity and over soils with higher initial soil moisture saturation, leading to more frequent occurrence of flash floods. Keywords: Flash flooding, Climate change, Soil moisture, Precipitation, Distributed hydrologic modeling

  6. Gully erosion and land degradation in the Souss Basin, southern Morocco - application of airborne and terrestrial imagery and SfM procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Brings, Christine; Iserloh, Thomas; Seeger, Manuel; Ghafrani, Hassan; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Marzolff, Irene; Ait Hssaine, Ali; Ries, Johannes B.

    2014-05-01

    Gully erosion is one major issue in soil erosion and land degradation. This major soil degradation process has affected the Souss Basin, located between the High and the Anti-Atlas, historically, and is increasing nowadays again. Since the 16th century, related to the production of sugar cane, gullies have been incising into the sedimentary fans and alluvial terraces. Today, the intensification of agro-industrial production of citrus fruit and vegetables has led to severe changes in surface geomorphology, and thus again to an increase of gully formation. For the understanding of the dynamics and formation of gullies, a combination of methods is needed, such as characterization of the precipitation patterns and quantification of infiltration and runoff generation dynamics as well as soil erosion rates within the gully catchments. In addition, the continuous and short-term monitoring of the gully morphology is essential in order to quantify the soil loss by gully erosion. Due to the complex 3-dimensional shapes of gullies, with overhangs and bank-cuttings, their assessment is a challenge. This paper aims at presenting a combination of terrestrial and airborne methods for quantifying the gully growth related to intensive agricultural productions in the Souss Basin (southern Morocco). Systematic series of images taken by a fixed-wing UAS are combined with detailed terrestrial images. Images were taken in different short-term to medium-term intervals of 11 months to 8 years, and 3D models were generated by means of structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. From these, gully growth volume and gully erosion rates could be quantified. In addition, the 3D visualization of the gully models - in contrast to more traditional 2.5D models common in GIS environments - allows new insights into the complex forms with undercuts, piping outlets etc and into the processes involved in their evolution.

  7. Petrology and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic lamproites from the Ramadugu field, NW margin of the Cuddapah basin, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Samarendra; Dongre, A. N.; Talukdar, Debojit

    2014-05-01

    Petrography, mineral chemistry, and major and trace element data are presented for the newly discovered Mesoproterozoic (1.33-1.43 Ga) lamproites from the Ramadugu field (RLF), at the NW margin of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, in the Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), southern India. RLF lamproites are emplaced as dykes, have a NW-SE trend and their petrography reveal the effects of low-temperature alteration. However, their textural features, mineralogy and geochemistry are closely similar to other well-characterised lamproites worldwide, including examples from the Eastern Dharwar craton, Leucite Hills, West Kimberley, Smoky Butte and Labrador. The RLF magmas have undergone varying degrees of olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation; yet their compatible and incompatible trace element concentrations are sufficiently high to signal a primitive character. Incompatible element ratios suggest limited contamination by continental crust. Geochemical evidence indicates the derivation of RLF magmas from metasomatised harzburgite within the garnet stability field. Rare earth element inversion modelling further highlights substantial involvement of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle in their genesis. The RLF lamproites are geochemically similar to the well-known extension-related ultrapotassic lavas from eastern Virunga and western Anatolia, and exclude an affinity with orogenic lamproites, such as those from the Mediterranean region. Bulk-rock geochemical models, recently developed to infer diamond potential, reveals that RLF lamproites are non-prospective. Lamproites of the RLF, together with those from the Krishna lamproite field and Cuddapah basin are interpreted as an expression of extensional events in the Eastern Dharwar craton possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia between 1.5 and 1.3 Ga.

  8. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  9. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    acquired to confirm the position of important intrusions and faults. The field measures have also been backed up with microstructural thin-section analysis and petrography. At a larger scale, public airborne geophysics data have been compared to the geology in order to extend geological contacts when...... with steeply dipping fold axial planes. Despite the evidently large amount of shortening, the primary sedimentary and volcanic structures are generally remarkably well preserved. The Tampere Basin, therefore, offers an excellent opportunity to examine the volcano-sedimentary evolution of an ancient convergent....../or to intense intrusion of igneous material. The continued compression caused a subsequent rotation of the thrusts into their present subvertical position. Some steeply dipping, mineralised fault zones might, therefore, in fact source from relatively shallow depths rather than from deep basement sources....

  10. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2014-07-10

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  11. Sone megafan: A non-Himalayan megafan of craton origin on the southern margin of the middle Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar; Dayal, Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Researchers in the last few decades have focused on the fluvial megafans at the base of Himalayan foothills in the Ganga Basin. No major effort has so far been made to delineate any such large depositional environment at the base of the northern Indian peninsular craton at the distal parts of the basin. In this work, for the first time, we document a megafan, unusually created by the cratonic Sone River in the marginal plains south of the Ganga. The geomorphology of the megafan surface, distribution of palaeochannels, sedimentology, and areal extent of the megafan are described. The study also reconstructs the tectonic and palaeoclimatic conditions, which might have helped in sediment supply from the cratonic catchment areas of the Sone. We suggest tectonic control over the Sone River channel dynamics and development of the megafan. The oval- and fan-shaped, craton-derived sediment body covers an area of around 12,000 km2 in the marginal plains and about 9000 km2 in the central alluvium north of the Ganga River. The megafan is around 190 km long and 240 km wide. The mean slope of the megafan surface is 0.03°. An onlap of Himalayan sediments has occurred over the megafan at its toe parts caused by southward encroachment of the Ganga during the Holocene. The megafan sediments comprise brownish yellow fine to coarse sand and gravels with an admixture of carbonaceous nodules (kankars). The thickness of the megafan sediment, which directly overlies the Precambrian basement, varies from only a few meters in the south near the peninsular craton to 1000 m at the north in the central alluvial plain. The granular zones form prolific aquifer systems in an otherwise poor hydrogeological setting of the marginal plains.

  12. Lamprophyres from the Harohalli dyke swarm in the Halaguru and Mysore areas, Southern India: Implications for backarc basin magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Shubhangi; Randive, Kirtikumar

    2018-05-01

    The Bangalore and Harohalli dyke swarms occur in the eastern part of the Dharwar craton. The older Bangalore dyke swarm is made up of dolerites, trending east-west, and the younger contains alkaline dykes that trend approximately north-south. The lamprophyres of the Harohalli dyke swarm occur in the Halaguru and Mysore industrial areas where they are exposed as fresh porphyritic - panidiomorphic dykes, containing crustal xenoliths, and showing chilled contacts with the country rock charnokites. They are chiefly composed of amphiboles which form well-developed phenocrysts. Clinopyroxenes are present in some of the dykes. Compositional zoning is observed in clinopyroxenes and amphiboles; their zoning patterns indicate that the magma experienced cryptic variations and that fractional crystallization was a dominant process in the evolution of the Harohalli Lamprophyres (HRL). The HRL are calc-alkaline with shoshonitic affinity and exhibit a K2O/Na2O ratio of ∼1. They show primitive (MORB-like) trace-element characters. LILE and LREE both show marginally enriched patterns; whereas HFSE and HREE show strongly depleted patterns. In the regional geologic sense, HRL dykes are characterised by two major influences; namely, (i) primary source region characteristics, which are geochemically more primitive, roughly falling within fields of primitive - MORB and enriched- MORB and (ii) the continental lithosphere. The data points for the HRL distinctly show their proximity to N-MORB and scatter towards the continental crust. Moreover, features like xenolith assimilation might influence the trace-element characteristics of the HRL dykes. Such magmas with mixed characters can be formed in a backarc basin environment. Geochemical proxies such as Ba/Nb vs Nb/Yb, Ba/Th vs Th/Nb, and the water content of magmas; which have been effectively used for discriminating backarc basin magmas worldwide, also indicate that the HRL magmas were generated in a backarc environment with inputs from

  13. Stratigraphic record of Pliocene-Pleistocene basin evolution and deformation within the Southern San Andreas Fault Zone, Mecca Hills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, James C.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.; Dimitroff, Cassidy W.; Messé, Graham T.

    2017-11-01

    A thick section of Pliocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Mecca Hills, California, provides a record of fault-zone evolution along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF). Geologic mapping, measured sections, detailed sedimentology, and paleomagnetic data document a 3-5 Myr history of deformation and sedimentation in this area. SW-side down offset on the Painted Canyon fault (PCF) starting 3.7 Ma resulted in deposition of the Mecca Conglomerate southwest of the fault. The lower member of the Palm Spring Formation accumulated across the PCF from 3.0 to 2.6 Ma during regional subsidence. SW-side up slip on the PCF and related transpressive deformation from 2.6 to 2.3 Ma created a time-transgressive angular unconformity between the lower and upper members of the Palm Spring Formation. The upper member accumulated in discrete fault-bounded depocenters until initiation of modern deformation, uplift, and basin inversion starting at 0.7 Ma. Some spatially restricted deposits can be attributed to the evolution of fault-zone geometric complexities. However, the deformation events at ca. 2.6 Ma and 0.7 Ma are recorded regionally along 80 km of the SAF through Coachella Valley, covering an area much larger than mapped fault-zone irregularities, and thus require regional explanations. We therefore conclude that late Cenozoic deformation and sedimentation along the SAF in Coachella Valley has been controlled by a combination of regional tectonic drivers and local deformation due to dextral slip through fault-zone complexities. We further propose a kinematic link between the 2.6-2.3 Ma angular unconformity and a previously documented but poorly dated reorganization of plate-boundary faults in the northern Gulf of California at 3.3-2.0 Ma. This analysis highlights the potential for high-precision chronologies in deformed terrestrial deposits to provide improved understanding of local- to regional-scale structural controls on basin

  14. VEGETATION RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU AT BASINAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has significantly affected vegetation variation in the third-polar region of the world – the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As one of the most important indicators of vegetation variation (growth, coverage and tempo-spatial change, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is widely employed to study the response of vegetation to climate change. However, a long-term series analysis cannot be achieved because a single data source is constrained by time sequence. Therefore, a new framework was presented in this paper to extend the product series of monthly NDVI, taking as an example the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, one of the most important river basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. NDVI products were acquired from two public sources: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and Moderate-Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS. After having been extended using the new framework, the new time series of NDVI covers a 384 months period (1982–2013, 84 months longer than previous time series of NDVI product, greatly facilitating NDVI related scientific research. In the new framework, the Gauss Filtering Method was employed to filter out noise in the NDVI product. Next, the standard method was introduced to enhance the comparability of the two data sources, and a pixel-based regression method was used to construct NDVI-extending models with one pixel after another. The extended series of NDVI fit well with original AVHRR-NDVI. With the extended time-series, temporal trends and spatial heterogeneity of NDVI in the study area were studied. Principal influencing factors on NDVI were further determined. The monthly NDVI is highly correlated with air temperature and precipitation in terms of climatic change wherein the spatially averaged NDVI slightly increases in the summer and has increased in temperature and decreased in precipitation in the 32 years period. The

  15. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Sollitto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  16. [Correlation Among Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon and the Environmental Factors in a Typical Oasis in the Southern Edge of the Tarim Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lu; Zhu, Mei-ling; Liu, Zeng-yuan; Zhang, Xue-ni; Xie, Li-na

    2016-04-15

    We analyzed the differentiation among the environmental factors and soil organic/inorganic carbon contents of irrigated desert soil, brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil by classical statistics methods, and studied the correlation between soil carbon contents and the environmental factor by redundancy analysis (RDA) in a typical oasis of Yutian in the southern edge of the Tarim Basin. The results showed that the average contents of soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon were 2.51 g · kg⁻¹ and 25.63 g · kg⁻¹ respectively. The soil organic carbon content of the irrigated desert soil was significantly higher than those of brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil, while the inorganic carbon content of aeolian sandy soil was significantly higher than those of other soil types. The soil moisture and nutrient content were the highest in the irrigated desert soil and the lowest in the aeolian sandy sail. All soil types had high degree of salinization except the irrigated desert soil. The RDA results showed that the impacts of environmental factors on soil carbon contents ranked in order of importance were total nitrogen > available phosphorus > soil moisture > ground water depth > available potassium > pH > total salt. The soil carbon contents correlated extremely significantly with total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil moisture and ground water depth (P soil carbon contents and other environmental factors (P > 0.05).

  17. Formation mechanisms and sequence response of authigenic grain-coating chlorite: evidence from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authigenic grain-coating chlorite is widely distributed in the clastic rocks of many sedimentary basins around the world. These iron minerals were mainly derived from flocculent precipitates formed when rivers flow into the ocean, especially in deltaic environments with high hydrodynamic conditions. At the same time, sandstone sequences with grain-coating chlorites also tend to have relatively high glauconite and pyrite content. EPMA composition analysis shows that glauconites with “high Al and low Fe” content indicate slightly to semi-saline marine environments with weak alkaline and weakly reducing conditions. By analyzing the chlorite-containing sandstone bodies of the southern Sichuan Xujiahe Formation, this study found that chlorite was mainly distributed in sedimentary microfacies, including underwater distributary channels, distributary channels, shallow lake sandstone dams, and mouth bars. Chlorite had a tendency to form in the upper parts of sandstone bodies with signs of increased base level, representing the influence of marine (lacustrine transgression. This is believed to be influenced by megamonsoons in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region during the Late Triassic Epoch. During periods of abundant precipitation, river discharges increased and more Fe particulates flowed into the ocean (lake. In the meantime, increases or decreases in lake level were only affected by precipitation for short periods of time. The sedimentary environment shifted from weakly oxidizing to weak alkaline, weakly reducing conditions as sea level increased, and Fe-rich minerals as authigenic chlorite and glauconite began to form and deposit.

  18. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  19. Late Archaic-Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2016-11-29

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins.

  20. Late Archaic–Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins. PMID:27849582

  1. Lacustrine Environment Reservoir Properties on Sandstone Minerals and Hydrocarbon Content: A Case Study on Doba Basin, Southern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumery, N. F. Mohd; Lo, S. Z.; Salim, A. M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of lacustrine environment as the hydrocarbon reservoir has been widely known. However, despite its growing importance, the lacustrine petroleum geology has received far less attention than marine due to its sedimentological complexity. This study therefore aims in developing an understanding of the unique aspects of lacustrine reservoirs which eventually impacts the future exploration decisions. Hydrocarbon production in Doba Basin, particularly the northern boundary, for instance, has not yet succeeded due to the unawareness of its depositional environment. The drilling results show that the problems were due to the: radioactive sand and waxy oil/formation damage, which all are related to the lacustrine depositional environment. Detailed study of geological and petrophysical integration on wireline logs and petrographic thin sections analysis of this environment helps in distinguishing reservoir and non-reservoir areas and determining the possible mechanism causing the failed DST results. The interpretations show that the correlation of all types> of logs and rho matrix analysis are capable in identifying sand and shale bed despite of the radioactive sand present. The failure of DST results were due to the presence of arkose in sand and waxy oil in reservoir bed. This had been confirmed by the petrographic thin section analysis where the arkose has mineral twinning effect indicate feldspar and waxy oil showing bright colour under fluorescent light. Understanding these special lacustrine environment characteristics and features will lead to a better interpretation of hydrocarbon prospectivity for future exploration.

  2. Economic Evaluation of Hydrological Ecosystem Services in Mediterranean River Basins Applied to a Case Study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mastrorilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use affects eco-hydrological processes with consequences for floods and droughts. Changes in land use affect ecosystems and hydrological services. The objective of this study is the analysis of hydrological services through the quantification of water resources, pollutant loads, land retention capacity and soil erosion. On the basis of a quantitative evaluation, the economic values of the ecosystem services are estimated. By assigning an economic value to the natural resources and to the hydraulic system, the hydrological services can be computed at the scale of catchment ecosystem. The proposed methodology was applied to the basin “Bonis” (Calabria Region, Italy. The study analyses four land use scenarios: (i forest cover with good vegetative status (baseline scenario; (ii modification of the forest canopy; (iii variation in forest and cultivated surfaces; (iv insertion of impermeable areas. The simulations prove that the variations of the state of forest areas has considerable influence on the water balance, and then on the provided economic value. Small economic changes derive from reducing the impermeable areas. Increasing the agricultural area to 50% of the total, and reducing the forest surface, affects soil erosion, reduces the storage capacity of the water, and consequently the water harvesting. The suggested methodology can be considered a suitable tool for land planning.

  3. Single basin double slope solar still: Year round performance prediction for local climatic conditions at Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulandaivel Kalidasa Murugavel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, performance of a single basin double slope solar still has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model is used to predict the year round performance of the still at the local climatic conditions for the year 2008. Average values of maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures, wind velocities were taken from meteorological data for last five years. Radiation models were used to predict the global and diffused irradiances on the inclined covers. The time to time variations in transmittance of the cover were considered. The rate of production variation and the total production for first day of the every month had been calculated. The overall production of the still was higher during March, April, August, November and December and it is around 4 liters/day. The average production of the still was 2.1 liters/day/m2. The economy of the still was also studied and the payback period of the still was three years.

  4. Characteristics of formation water and its relationship with hydrocarbon accumulation - preservation of Zhenwu area in southern Gaoyou sag, Subei basin,China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of Dongtai Depression in Subei Basin, China, has well developed fault system, especially in the Zhenwu area of southern Gaoyou sag. It is characterised by complicated fault-blcok oil & gas field, and the chemical properties of formation water in different blocks vary remarkably. The studies on the relationship between hydrocarbon and formation water in this area is relatively poor by far, as it is terribly complicated. Based on the test data of formation water chemistry, formation pressure and so on inXuzhuang, Zhenwu and Caozhuang oilfields, and combined with the features of hydrocarbon reservoir geology, the origin of formation water and its relationship with hydrocarbon accumulation and preservation were deeply discussed through further study on vertical and plane variation of hydrochemistry and hydrodynamics. It turns out that Xuzhuang oilfield is infiltrated by meteoric water discontinuously under gravity, which consequently leads to the desalination of formation water, because it locates in the southern fault-terrace belt of Gaoyou sagand has well-developed Zhen1 fault, together with broken stratum and severe strata denudation.Formation water in Zhenwu and Caozhuang oilfields, whose origin is interpreted to be sedimentary burial water, is less influenced by meteoric water infiltration. The chemical field of formation water in target area can be divided into three hydrochemical zones from south to north in the plane: meteoric water infiltration-leaching-desalination zone; the transfluence-concentration zone; and the mudstone compaction-drainage-desalination zone. The formation water concentrate gradually as the centrifugal flow of mudstone compaction-drainage and the centripetal flow of themeteoric water infiltration migrate, which leads to the high salinity of formation water in the transfluence-concentraition zone. The hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and the preservation are closely related to hydrodynamic field of

  5. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  6. Ring-Shaped Seismicity Structures in Southern California: Possible Preparation for Large Earthquake in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    Some characteristics of seismicity in Southern California are studied. It is found that ring-shaped seismicity structures with threshold magnitudes M th of 4.1, 4.1, and 3.8 formed prior to three large ( M w > 7.0) earthquakes in 1992, 1999, and 2010, respectively. The sizes of these structures are several times smaller than for intracontinental strike-slip events with similar magnitudes. Two ring-shaped structures are identified in areas east of the city of Los Angeles, where relatively large earthquakes have not occurred for at least 150 years. The magnitudes of large events which can occur in the areas of these structures are estimated on the basis of the previously obtained correlation dependence of ring sizes on magnitudes of the strike-slip earthquakes. Large events with magnitudes of M w = 6.9 ± 0.2 and M w = 8.6 ± 0.2 can occur in the area to the east of the city of Los Angeles and in the rupture zone of the 1857 great Fort Tejon earthquake, respectively. We believe that ring-structure formation, similarly to the other regions, is connected with deep-seated fluid migration.

  7. Evaluation of the Tindouf Basin Region in Southern Morocco as an Analog Site for Soil Geochemistry on Noachian Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Elizabeth A; Claire, Mark W; Kounaves, Samuel P

    2018-02-09

    Locations on Earth that provide insights into processes that may be occurring or may have occurred throughout martian history are often broadly deemed "Mars analog environments." As no single locale can precisely represent a past or present martian environment, it is important to focus on characterization of terrestrial processes that produce analogous features to those observed in specific regions of Mars or, if possible, specific time periods during martian history. Here, we report on the preservation of ionic species in soil samples collected from the Tindouf region of Morocco and compare them with the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile, the martian meteorite EETA79001, and the in situ Mars analyses from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The Moroccan samples show the greatest similarity with those from Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, and the Atacama, while being consistently depleted compared to University Valley and enriched compared to Taylor Valley. The NO 3 /Cl ratios are most similar to Victoria Valley and Atacama, while the SO 4 /Cl ratios are similar to those from Beacon Valley, Victoria Valley, and the Atacama. While perchlorate concentrations in the Moroccan samples are typically lower than those found in samples of other analog sites, conditions in the region are sufficiently arid to retain oxychlorines at detectable levels. Our results suggest that the Tindouf Basin in Morocco can serve as a suitable analogue for the soil geochemistry and subsequent aridification of the Noachian epoch on Mars. Key Words: Mars analogues-Antarctica-Morocco-Oxyanions-Perchlorate-Nitrate. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  8. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  9. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares

  10. Response of the diatom flora in the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic Sea) to eutrophication in the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    The diatom flora in six short cores (length of 10-20 cm) taken from Gdańsk Basin, southern Baltic Sea, was analyzed in order to response of diatoms to environmental changes over the past 100 years. This study is a part of CLISED project (Climate Change Impact on Ecosystem Health - Marine Sediments Indicators) funded from Norway Grants in the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme. Three cores P116, M1 and P1 were retrieved from the Gdańsk Deep region, whereas P104, BMPK10 and P110 were drilled from the shallower part - Gulf of Gdańsk. The sediment cores were dated by 210Pb and represented time interval of AD 1895-2015. In this period an artificial mouth of the Vistula River near Świbno was excavated and riverine waters flowed directly to the Gulf of Gdańsk. Urbanization, progressive industrialization and an increase in the inflow of waste water had a strong influence on ecosystem in the last 120 years. The transport of large amounts of nutrients, organic matter and pollutants by the rivers resulted in environmental degradation of the Gdańsk Basin and its progressive eutrophication in particular. Diatoms, being the major component of algal assemblages, are excellent bioindicators for assessing the state of basin ecosystems. They are usually abundant in marine sediments, diverse and sensitive to numerous environmental variables, including physical (e.g. light, temperature, water transparency) and chemical (e.g. pH, alkalinity, nutrient availability) factors. Changes in nutrients concentrations may lead to substantial transformations in the structure of diatom assemblages. Samples for diatom analyses (ca. 0.3-2.0 g dry sediment) were prepared following the standard procedure for diatom observation under light microscope (Battarbee, 1986). To estimate the concentration of siliceous microfossils per unit weight of dry sediment (absolute abundance), a random settling technique was used (Bodén, 1991). Permanent diatom preparations were mounted in Naphrax® (refractive

  11. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity-depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity-depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity-depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12-13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity-depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares favourably with

  12. Produced water disposal in the southern San Joaquin Basin: a direct analog for brine leakage in response to carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P. D.; Gillespie, J.

    2013-12-01

    Injection of CO2 during geologic carbon storage pressurizes reservoir fluid, which can cause its migration. Migration of saline water from the reservoir into underground sources of drinking water (USDW) via pathways such as permeable wells and faults is one concern. As of 2010, 2 billion cubic meters (MMMm3) of oil, 10 MMMm3 of water, and 400 MMMm3 of gas had been produced in the southern San Joaquin Valley. A considerable portion of the gas and a majority of the water were injected into production zones for pressure support, water flooding, or as steam for thermal recovery. However a portion of the produced water was disposed of by injection into zones without economic quantities of hydrocarbons, termed saline aquifers in the geologic carbon storage community. These zones often had the shallowest activity in a field, and so had no overlying pressure sink due to production and all oil and gas-related wells in the field encountered or passed through them. The subset of such zones at CO2 storage depths received disposed water volumes equivalent to tens of megatons (MT) of CO2 injected at overpressures of many MPa. For instance a water volume equivalent to over 20 MT of CO2 was injected at a depth of 900 m and an average wellhead pressure of 6 MPa in the Fruitvale oil field, which had almost a thousand wells. Use of USDW for irrigation and consumption is widespread in the area. An increase in total dissolved solids (TDS) in well water is acutely detectable either by taste or effect on crops. Consequently the produced water disposal injection in the southern San Joaquin Valley provides an analog for assessing the occurrence of water leakage impacts due to reservoir pressurization. Almost 230 articles regarding groundwater contamination published from 2000 to 2013 by The Bakersfield Californian, the main newspaper in the area, were assessed. These were written by 71 authors including 38 staff writers, covered 53 different types of facilities or activities that either

  13. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D P; Ajantha, G S; Shubhada, C; Jain, P A; Kalabhavi, A; Shetty, P C; Hosamani, M; Appannanavar, S; Kulkarni, R D

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT) using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  14. Geophysical Investigation of the Raton Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    65 miles wide, the Raton Basin is divided by the Cimarron Arch into the northern Raton Basin and the Las Vegas Basin on the south. The deepest...to the east, the Cimarron Arch on the north, and was linked by a low saddle to the Tucumcari Basin to the south. The Colorado and Rowe-Mora Basins...sedimentary rock thinning near the Apishipa, Cimarron , and Sierra Grande Arches; 2) presence of volcanic rock in the southern portion of the Basin; 3

  15. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  16. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  17. Vegetation Pattern and Woody Species Composition of a Broad-Leaved Forest at the Upstream Basin of Nantzuhsienhsi in Mid-southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuoh-Cheng Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 8.37-ha plot of the broad-leaved forest at an elevation of about 2000 m in the upstream basin of the Nantzuhsienhsi River in mid-southern Taiwan was set up for long-term monitoring of forest dynamics. All stems with diameter at breast height (d.b.h. ≧ 1 cm were identified, measured, tagged, and mapped to analyze the forest composition, structure and species diversity of the plot. A total of 18,790 woody plant individuals, belonging to 64 species in 27 families, were recorded. The dominant families were Lauraceae, Fagaceae, and Theaceae, accounting for 78.8% of total individuals. The dominant species were Castanopsis carlesii, Machilus japonica, Listea acuminate, and Cyclobalanopsis stenophylloides. The most abundant species in the canopy layer was Castanopsis carlesii, in the subcanopy layer was Listea acuminate, and in the shrub layer were Machilus japonica and Listea acuminata. Four plant communities were identified based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN classification, including three evergreen forest types and one deciduous forest type. The three evergreen types are Machilus japonica type, locating on the east and west valleys and partial lower slopes, Machilus japonica-Castanopsis carlesii type, locating on middle to lower slopes and the central dry valley, and Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii type, locating on eastern ridge and upper slopes. The deciduous type is Alnus formosana forest which is distributed on mid-west and southwestern ridges. The means of species number, density and basal area for different forest types declined gradually from ridge to valley habitats. These results reveal that topography is an important factor which is closely related to the distribution of evergreen broad-leaved forest types in the plot.

  18. Spatial/temporal patterns of Quaternary faulting in the southern limb of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic parabola, northeastern Basin and Range margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCalpin, J.P. (GEO-HAZ Consultants, Estes Park, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    During the period 1986--1991, 11 backhoe trenches were excavated across six Quaternary faults on the northeastern margin of the Basin and Range province. These faults comprise the southern limb of a parabola of Quaternary faults and historic moderate-magnitude earthquakes which is roughly symmetrical about the Snake River Plain, and heads at the Yellowstone hot spot. Fifteen Holocene paleoseismic events have been bracketed by radiocarbon or thermoluminescence ages. On the six central faults, the latest rupture event occurred in a relatively short time interval between 3 ka and 6 ka. The period between 6 ka and the end of the latest glaciation (ca. 15 ka) was a period of relative tectonic quiescence on the central faults, but not on the two end faults with higher slip rates (Wasatch and Teton faults). Southward-younging of events in the 3--6 ka period may indicate that temporally-clustered faulting was initiated at the Yellowstone hot spot. Faults at the same latitude, such as the Star Valley-Grey's River pair of faults, or the East Cache-Bear Lake-Rock Creek system of faults, show nearly identical timing of latest rupture events within the pairs or systems. Faults at common latitudes probably sole into the same master decollement, and thus are linked mechanically like dominoes. The timing of latest ruptures indicates that faulting on the westernmost fault preceded faulting on successively more eastern faults by a few hundred years. This timing suggests that slip on the westernmost faults mechanically unloaded the system, causing tectonic instabilities farther east.

  19. Climate change and hydropower in the Southern African Power Pool and Zambezi River Basin: System-wide impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding-Fecher, Randall; Joyce, Brian; Winkler, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines climate change impact on hydropower will affect the expansion of the regional electricity system, as well as system costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The output from major Zambezi hydropower plants could decline by 10–20% under a drying climate, while wetting of the basin produces only a marginal increase. At a regional level, the increases in electricity generation costs are relatively small (less than 1% over the long term), but could reach 20–30% in the near term for hydro-dependent countries (e.g. Mozambique and Zambia). Because some hydropower could be displaced by coal, regional greenhouse gas emissions could increase by the equivalent of a large coal-fired power station. The risks to regional electricity systems highlight the need for strong cooperative governance arrangements to manage shared water resources in the region, which could be bolstered by recent political initiatives. Beyond the level of individual investments, a policy shift is needed to integrate climate change and upstream development considerations into national and regional electricity planning, supported by relevant tools. In addition, the potential for increased carbon emissions has implications for the commitments of southern African countries under the Paris Agreement to the UNFCCC. - Highlights: • Zambezi hydropower output could decline by 10–20% under a drying climate. • Near term system generation costs could rise 20–30% for hydro-dependent countries. • GHG emissions could also increase under a dryer climate. • This could jeopardize countries’ climate mitigation commitments. • Regional infrastructure investments must consider potential climate impacts.

  20. Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Janakiram; Thankappan, K R; Sundaram, K R

    2010-12-01

    Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 17 states of India. Earlier studies have reported that Jowar (a type of millet) consumption interacts with fluoride (F) in the body and enhances fluorosis. We conducted this study to determine the association between jowar consumption and severity of dental fluorosis. A community based case control study was carried out in villages having different F levels (low, medium, and high) in drinking water in North Karnataka, India. 352 school Children (12-15 years, male 58%) with severe dental fluorosis classified by Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (1988) were selected as cases. 428 school children (12-15 years, male 48.8%) with no dental fluorosis were selected randomly from the same area as controls. Exposure ascertainment of jowar consumption was done by 24-h diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the F level in spot urine samples of subjects and in drinking water. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS V. 11.01 Children who consumed jowar had 2.67 times more chance of getting severe dental fluorosis compared to those who did not [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.67, CI 1.98-3.62]. Children from high F level villages (OR 1.91, CI 1.27-2.85) had higher odds of severe dental fluorosis compared to children from medium and low F level villages. Daily jowar consumers (OR 2.14, CI 1.64-3.09) and weekly consumers (OR 1.68, CI 1.31-3.45) had higher risk for dental fluorosis compared to non jowar consumers. Children who started consuming jowar before 8 years of age had significantly higher proportion of severe dental fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Urinary F excretion among jowar consumers was significantly lower than non-jowar consumers. Jowar consumption was positively associated with severity of dental fluorosis in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Occupational Dermatoses Among the Cashew Nut Workers in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five female workers employed in the cashew nut industry in Karnataka to slice off the outer hard shells from the nuts and thus exposed to the chashew nut shell oil had a characteristic cauterization type of reaction manifesting as brownish-black, thickened sheets of dead skin covering the dorsal as well as the palmar aspects of hands including the fingers and feet. Smaller but similer lesions were also seen on these parts of the forearms, abdomen, neck and face which were not covered with clothes. The fingers were thinned and tapering and several nails of the hands and feet were thickened, discolored and eaten away. The other changes included loss of the dermatoglyphic patterns, maceration of the hands, small pits on the finger tips and pitted keratolysis seen in some cases only. Similar changes were also seen on the feet of both the male workers exposed to the same oil, in the section which extracts the oil from the sliced shells. In contrast 29, feamle wokers engaged to peel off the thin reddish covering on the cashew nut had normal hands and feet, except for the two callosities on the flexural aspect of the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger and proximal interphalangeal joint of the right index finger respectively, caused by the friction of the peeling knife. An open patch test with the cashew nut shell oil used as such in 17 workers produced a cauterization type of reaction in 32 workers irrespective of the nature of their duties, while the standard occluded patch test with 10% cashew nut shell oil in polyethylene glycol showed a mild cauterization type of reaction in only 6 workers. Patch tests with 1% and 0.1% concentrations of the shell oil were negative in all the workers. Two barrier creams tested to protect the workers from the cashew nut shell oil produced reasonably effective results within a week.

  2. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  3. India - Karnataka : Secondary Education and the New Agenda for Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in Karnataka, on which there is little prior information, or research, namely whether the expansion in student places at the secondary, and higher secondary levels, is justified on economic grounds; how do secondary school drop-outs from disadvantaged, or poor backgrounds perform in the labor market, and in continuing into higher e...

  4. Bureaucrats in Business: State Trading in Foodgrains in Karnataka and Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. In the light of the World Bank's critical analysis of state owned enterprises, this paper discusses the functioning of two such organisations: the Karnataka Food and Civil Supplies Corporation and the Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation. Both are state trading corporations

  5. Comparing conventional and organic agriculture in Karnataka, India: Where and when can organic farming be sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, S.; Reidsma, P.; Shah, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Wolf, J.

    2014-01-01

    Karnataka is one of the south-western Indian states where agrarian distress as a major problem. Crop yields have been stagnant in the last decade, and coupled with increased input costs, this has led to reduced incomes and debts. There is an urgent need to study options to improve the sustainability

  6. Use of ICT in College Libraries in Karnataka, India: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Biradar, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose; The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of information communication technology (ICT) in 31 college libraries in Karnataka, India by investigating the ICT infrastructure, current status of library automation, barriers to implementation of library automation and also librarians' attitudes towards the use of ICT.…

  7. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita, J K; Yathindra Kumar, B N; Satish, G; Divya, K T; Ranjitha, J; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17-23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested.

  8. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  10. Les pratiques de sériciculture tropicale dans l'Etat du Karnataka, sud de l'Inde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boedts, B.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The practices of tropical sericulture in Karnataka State, South India. India has evolved a package of practices for tropical sericulture. The extension of improved techniques of moriculture and silkworm rearing in sericultural villages of Karnataka has increased the yield of cocoon production. However, the main innovation of these last years is the introduction of bivoltine races of silkworm and the creation of a new hybrid. The characteristics of sericulture practices related to bivoltine and hybrid rearing are surveyed for two regions of Karnataka.

  11. Characterization of the pore system in an over-mature marine shale reservoir: A case study of a successful shale gas well in Southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past two years the shale gas exploration in Southern Sichuan basin received some exciting achievements. Data of a new appraisal well showed that the gas producrtions of vertical well and horizontal well are ∼1.5 × 104 m3/day/well (with maximum ∼3.5 × 104 m3/day/well and ∼12.5 × 104 m3/day/well (with maximum ∼40 × 104 m3/day/well, respectively, indicating a good gas potential in this area. Eight core samples from the reservoir were investigated by using a carbon sulfur analyzer, microphotometry, x-ray diffractometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, mercury injection porosimetry (MIP, and low-pressure nitrogen adsorption to obtain a better understanding of the reservoir characteristics of the Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian organic-rich shale. Results show that the total organic carbon (TOC content ranges from 0.5% to 5.9%, whereas the equivalent vitrinite reflectance (VRr is between 2.8% and 3.0%. Pores in the studied samples were observed in three modes of occurrence, namely, interparticle pores, intraparticle pores, and intraparticle organic pores. The total porosity (P ranges from 1.6% to 5.3%, and MIP data sets suggest that pores with throats larger than 20 nm contribute little to the pore volume. Low-pressure N2 adsorption isotherms indicate that the total specific surface area (SBET ranges from 9.6 m2/g to 18.9 m2/g, and the pore volume (V ranges from 0.011 cm3/g to 0.020 cm3/g. The plot of dV/dW versus W shows that the fine mesopores (pore size(BJH 2% are more than 3.0 m3/ton. The observation can be a good reference for the future exploration and evaluation of reservoir in this area.

  12. Asymmetrical, inversely graded, upstream-migrating cyclic steps in marine settings: Late Miocene-early Pliocene Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenglin; Chen, Liuqin; West, Logan

    2017-10-01

    Cyclic steps are ubiquitous in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition remains sparse in the rock record. Here, we interpret three sets of undulating backsets (1 to 3) recognized in the late Miocene-early Pliocene Latrania Formation in the Anza-Borrego Desert, the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California, USA as the first cm- to dm-scale outcrop record of cyclic steps, based on asymmetrical cross-sections, upstream migration, and inversely graded laminae. Upstream migration and asymmetrical cross-sections of backsets and concomitant backset laminae are attributed to supercritical-to-subcritical flow transitions through weak hydraulic jumps, which are composed of: (i) thin (tens of centimetres) and slower (reported as flow velocities (Ū) of 0.45 to 1.45 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 0.89 m s- 1) subcritical (represented by internal Froude numbers (Fr) of 0.67 to 0.99, with mean value of Fr = 0.84) turbidity currents on the stoss sides, and (ii) thin (tens of centimetres) and faster (reported as Ū of 0.99 to 4.03 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 2.24 m s- 1) supercritical (represented by Fr of 1.84 to 3.07, with mean value of Fr = 2.42) turbidity flows on the lee sides. The inversely graded laminae in the troughs of backsets are 2 to 5 cm thick, and consist of two discrete divisions: (i) 1 to 2 cm thick, lower finer-grained divisions made up of parallel laminated siltstones, overlain by very fine- to fine-grained sandstones, and (ii) 2 to 3 cm thick, upper divisions composed of medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, with sporadic occurrence of subrounded pebbles. These inversely graded laminae are related to stratified, collisional and/or frictional traction carpets under conditions of high fall-out rates. Due to the poor preservation potential of cyclic steps, the rock record of cyclic steps is generally considered to be rare. The present outcrop-based study presents a detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, growth patterns, and flow

  13. Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesha Raju, K; Somashekar, R K; Prakash, K L

    2012-01-01

    ), Pb and Zn (slight contamination) principally in downstream stretch may perhaps deteriorate the sediment quality due to intensification anthropogenic influences. It also proves that extent of existing metal concentrations in sediments of river Cauvery in Karnataka not exceeded the toxic limit, and there is no peril to the aquatic life.

  14. Tectonic constraints on the development and individualization of the intermontane Ronda basin (external Betics, southern Spain): a structural and geomorphologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia

    2014-05-01

    As a result of progressive shortening and orogenic wedge thickening, marine foreland basins tend to emerge and divide. We have analyzed possible recent tectonic activity within the late evolution stage of the Ronda basin, an intermontane basin located in the external wedge of the Gibraltar Arc, formerly connected with the Betic foreland basin and infilled by marine Upper-Miocene sediments. We analyze (1) the structures responsible for the basinward relief drop along the arc strike and the different topography of their boundaries; (2) qualitative and quantitative geomorphologic indices to asses which structures could present recent activity; and 3) the structures causing the division of the former Betic foreland basin and the isolation of the Ronda basin. Within the deformational history of the Ronda basin, late structures that control high topographic gradients and generate remarkable fault scarps group into three main types: (a) Extensional structures represented by NW-SE striking normal faults, clustered close to the current SW and NE boundaries of the basin. They usually dip towards the basin and their vertical displacement is maximum up to 1,5 km. These structures partially affect the basal unconformity of the Upper Miocene basin infill and are scarcely developed inside the basin infill. (b) Shortening structures developed both in the basin infill and in the outcropping basement near the Northeastern and Southwestern basin boundaries. They are represented by NE-SW directed plurikilometric box-folds and reverse faults, responsible for the alternation of sierras (altitudes 1000-1500 m) and valleys. (c) Strike-slip dominated structural associations where WSW-ENE lateral faults combined with folds and normal and reverse faults defined a NE-SW directed deformation band constituting the NW basin boundary. This band includes some sierras up to 1.100 m. Regarding the relief of the Ronda basin area, the abrupt slopes of the outcropping basement (heights between 500

  15. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  16. Leprosy scenario in southern part of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, after 16 years of control work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, G H; Nandakishore, B

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the changes that occurred in epidemiological indices over a period of 16 years following the introduction of MDT in Ullal town, south of Mangalore city, having a population of 130,000. The analysis indicates that new case-detection rates and prevalence rates showed a declining trend due to shorter duration of treatment with MDT. There was a ten-fold reduction in the prevalence rate during the first 6 years, from 23 in 1987 (230 cases) to 2.76 per 10,000 (29 cases) at the end of 16 years. The number of nmultibacillary cases among the newly detected cases showed a downtrend (from 28 cases in 1987 to 5 in 2001). The number of newly detected cases presenting with single lesion also showed a declining trend.

  17. The role of post-collisional strike-slip tectonics in the geological evolution of the late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Guaratubinha Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Leonardo M.; Trzaskos, Barbara; Vesely, Fernando F.; de Castro, Luís Gustavo; Ferreira, Francisco J. F.; Vasconcellos, Eleonora M. G.; Barbosa, Tiago C.

    2017-12-01

    The Guaratubinha Basin is a late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary basin included in the transitional-stage basins of the South American Platform. The aim of this study is to investigate its tectonic evolution through a detailed structural analysis based on remote sensing and field data. The structural and aerogeophysics data indicate that at least three major deformational events affected the basin. Event E1 caused the activation of the two main basin-bounding fault zones, the Guaratubinha Master Fault and the Guaricana Shear Zone. These structures, oriented N20-45E, are associated with well-defined right-lateral to oblique vertical faults, conjugate normal faults and vertical flow structures. Progressive transtensional deformation along the two main fault systems was the main mechanism for basin formation and the deposition of thick coarse-grained deposits close to basin-borders. The continuous opening of the basin provided intense intermediate and acid magmatism as well as deposition of volcaniclastic sediments. Event E2 characterizes generalized compression, recorded as minor thrust faults with tectonic transport toward the northwest and left-lateral activation of the NNE-SSW Palmital Shear Zone. Event E3 is related to the Mesozoic tectonism associated with the South Atlantic opening, which generated diabase dykes and predominantly right-lateral strike-slip faults oriented N10-50W. Its rhomboidal geometry with long axis parallel to major Precambrian shear zones, the main presence of high-angle, strike-slip or oblique faults, the asymmetric distribution of geological units and field evidence for concomitant Neoproterozoic magmatism and strike-slip movements are consistent with pull-apart basins reported in the literature.

  18. Changes in denudation rates and erosion processes in the transition from a low-relief, arid orogen interior to a high-relief, humid mountain-front setting, Toro Basin, southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofelde, S.; Düsing, W.; Schildgen, T. F.; Wittmann, H.; Alonso, R. N.; Strecker, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    In tectonically active mountain belts positive correlations between denudation rates and hillslope angles are commonly observed, supporting the notion that landscape morphology may reflect tectonic forcing. However, this relationship generally breaks down at 30°, when hillslopes reach threshold angles. Beyond this threshold, faster denudation may occur by an increased contribution from mass-wasting processes. We test this idea in the 4000 km2 Toro Basin, a fault-bounded basin in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern Central Andes. This N-S oriented basin is located between low-relief, arid conditions in the orogen interior (N) and a high-relief, humid setting at its fluvial outlet (S). We measured in-situ produced 10Be concentration in fluvial sediments, which can be converted into basin-mean denudation rates, assuming a spatially uniform contribution of sediment from the catchment. However, in landslide-influenced areas, this assumption is often violated. Previous studies have suggested that clast-size material is mainly contributed by mass-wasting processes, whereas sand is derived from a broad range of erosional processes. Hence, a combination of clast and sand samples can reveal information about the basin-mean denudation rate as well as the contribution of mass-wasting processes. We sampled 13 pebble (1-3 cm) and sand (250-500 µm) pairs across the basin. The sand-derived denudation rates increase from N to S, ranging from 0.010 mm/yr to 1.337 mm/yr, and reveal a non-linear positive correlation with median basin slope. The clast/sand ratios also increase from N to S, indicating amplified mass-wasting processes with increasing slopes. To test if our ratios represent a real shift in erosional processes, we mapped different erosional processes in the study area (e.g. deep-seated landslides, scree erosion,.., diffusion). We assume that today's distribution of processes has not changed over the integration time of 10Be derived denudation rates. This detailed

  19. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mony, Prem K.; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B. M.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health fac...

  20. Palaeofluid evolution in a fractured basalt hosted reservoir in the Ulles-Ruzsa-Bordany area, southern sector of the Pannonian Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, B.; Schubert, F.; Toth, T.M.; Steinbach, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2016), s. 281-293 ISSN 1330-030X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fractured basalt reservoir * Pannonian Basin * zeolite minerals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2016

  1. The thermal history of the Miocene Ibar Basin (Southern Serbia: new constraints from apatite and zircon fission track and vitrinite reflectance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Nevena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ibar Basin was formed during Miocene large scale extension in the NE Dinaride segment of the Alpine- Carpathian-Dinaride system. The Miocene extension led to exhumation of deep seated core-complexes (e.g. Studenica and Kopaonik core-complex as well as to the formation of extensional basins in the hanging wall (Ibar Basin. Sediments of the Ibar Basin were studied by apatite and zircon fission track and vitrinite reflectance in order to define thermal events during basin evolution. Vitrinite reflectance (VR data (0.63-0.90 %Rr indicate a bituminous stage for the organic matter that experienced maximal temperatures of around 120-130 °C. Zircon fission track (ZFT ages indicate provenance ages. The apatite fission track (AFT single grain ages (45-6.7 Ma and bimodal track lengths distribution indicate partial annealing of the detrital apatites. Both vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track data of the studied sediments imply post-depositional thermal overprint in the Ibar Basin. Thermal history models of the detritial apatites reveal a heating episode prior to cooling that began at around 10 Ma. The heating episode started around 17 Ma and lasted 10-8 Ma reaching the maximum temperatures between 100-130 °C. We correlate this event with the domal uplift of the Studenica and Kopaonik cores where heat was transferred from the rising warm footwall to the adjacent colder hanging wall. The cooling episode is related to basin inversion and erosion. The apatite fission track data indicate local thermal perturbations, detected in the SE part of the Ibar basin (Piskanja deposit with the time frame ~7.1 Ma, which may correspond to the youngest volcanic phase in the region.

  2. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  3. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Paraná Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Paraná sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 1.84 Bqṡkg-1 for 232Th and 4.20 Bqṡkg-1 for 40K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bqṡkg-1), 232Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bqṡkg-1) and 40K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bqṡkg-1). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bqṡkg-1 for 232Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bqṡkg-1 for 40K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 43.69

  4. Vertical-axis block rotations linked to normal faulting: paleomagnetic and structural evidence from Miocene to Recent extensional basins in southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2017-04-01

    Paleomagnetism provides important constraints on complex patterns of vertical axis rotations in orogens. Where normally paleomagnetism is applied to constrain regional rotations, in the vicinity of fault zones often locally varying rotation patterns occur. Here we provide results of an extensive paleomagnetic survey constraining vertical axis rotation in Neogene extensional continental basins in the Taurides, in the eastern flank of the Isparta Angle (SW Turkey). In total, 437 oriented cores were sampled at 43 sites distributed within Miocene-Pliocene continental sedimentary rocks from the basins at the eastern limb (Ilgın and Altınapa Basins) and also central part (Yalvaç Basin) of the Isparta Angle. Despite the more or less coherent overall strike of the mountain belt and sedimentary basins, our results show different senses and varying amounts of vertical rotation within short distances; the Altınapa Basin has undergone only very minor rotations during and after the Miocene, but the paleomagnetic data from Yalvaç and Ilgın basins show 50° clockwise and 20° counter-clockwise rotation, respectively. Following a long history of shortening and thrusting, our study area has undergone regional extension since the mid-Miocene, which is still active in the present-day as portrayed by active seismicity, earthquake focal mechanisms, field data including fault plane solutions, and GPS measurements. This extension is accommodated along major normal faults that end in relay ramps with overlapping, adjacent normal faults. We show that the paleomagnetically determined rotations are related to such relay ramps, in places superimposed on rigid block rotations, and can be used as a first-order tool to quantify horizontal extension. As such, vertical axis rotations and paleomagnetism unravels important insights in the evolution of deformation in major normal fault zones.

  5. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  6. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  7. Study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg District, Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.M; KaliPrasad, C.S.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg district, Karnataka state. The level of terrestrial radiation are related to the geological composition of the region, and to the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in rock. Rocks are used in various construction activities, which also have these natural radionuclides. Hence, a study was done to assess the concentration of these radionuclides in rock samples. Coorg lies along the eastern slopes of Western Ghats, which is in the south western side of Karnataka state. The rock samples were collected from different locations of Coorg. The samples were crushed, ovendried and sieved through 240µm sieve. The sieved samples were sealed in a plastic container of 300ml and stored for 30 days

  8. Prevalence of fumonisin producing Fusarium verticillioides associated with cereals grown in Karnataka (India)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Deepa; H. Nagaraja; M.Y. Sreenivasa

    2016-01-01

    A total of 135 cereal samples were collected from different districts of Karnataka state, India in which 69 samples were infected with Fusarium species. Among these 51 samples were having Fusarium verticillioides infection and among them 42 samples were positive for fumonisin production. Per cent incidence and frequency were high in maize samples with 33.12% and 47.54%, respectively followed by paddy and sorghum, while pearl millet was free from F. verticillioides infection. Relative density ...

  9. From policy to practice: lessons from Karnataka about implementation of tobacco control laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati B Hebbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use accounts for eight to nine lakh adult deaths annually in India. India enacted a national legislation “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003” (COTPA to protect health of non-smokers and reduce tobacco consumption. However, even a decade after enacting this law, its implementation remains suboptimal and variable across the Indian states. Karnataka has shown leadership on this front by enacting a state law and implementing COTPA at (sub- district levels. We, therefore, aim to analyze COTPA implementation processes in Karnataka to understand how COTPA can be effectively implemented. Methods: We developed a case study of COTPA implementation in Karnataka using reports from health, police, education, and transport departments as well as government orders and media reports related to COTPA. We analyzed these data to map and understand the role played by the government agencies in COTPA implementation. We used the proportion of the districts reporting COTPA violations, the number of COTPA violations cases reported, and the proportion of schools reporting compliance with COTPA as proxy measures for COTPA implementation. Results: We found that five government agencies (police, education, health, transport, and urban development played a major role in COTPA implementation. All the police districts reported COTPA violations with 59,594 cases in a year (April 2013–March 2014. Three of the district anti-tobacco cells and two of the transport divisions reported 1130 and 14,543 cases of COTPA violations, respectively, in the same year. In addition, 84.7% of schools complied with signage requirements of COTPA. COTPA reporting was made part of the reporting systems within health, police, and education departments. The health department created awareness on tobacco harms and COTPA. Conclusions: COTPA implementation in Karnataka was made possible through integrating COTPA implementation within structure/functions of five

  10. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  11. Perception of radiation awareness among patients in Karnataka - a qualitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, Suresh; Kotian, Rahul P.; Rajagopal, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing concern has recently been expressed in the literature that the patients undergoing diagnostic Computer Tomography imaging and X-ray examinations have inadequate knowledge and awareness about radiation. The frequent use of Computed tomography and routine X-ray examinations for unnecessary indications is the most vital cause of increase in medical radiation exposure. Dose reduction techniques and radiation protection measures is a topic of public concern in which government should play a very important role. Radiologists and patients undergoing any radiological procedure involving ionizing radiation are becoming highly sensitized to the issue of radiation exposure from these diagnostic procedures. The attitudes and perceptions of these patients undergoing diagnostic imaging procedures that use ionizing radiation vary widely. Patients perception about radiation awareness strongly influence their consent or acceptance of any diagnostic imaging procedure. In this study we review the perceptions of radiation risk by laypersons i.e patients who have very little knowledge and awareness about the diagnostic procedure and X-ray examination for which they have been referred. Although the benefit vs risk ratio will outweigh the radiation risk involved in these X-ray and CT examinations but the patients awareness about radiation is a major concern in today's society. The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of radiation awareness among patients in the Karnataka population. Very less qualitative research work has been taken up in this field, as a result such study will gain impetus in the near future. The study was carried out in Karnataka. Qualitative case study was conducted based on Non-Probability purposive sampling and in-depth interview was conducted at the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal among ten patients who were referred for X-ray and CT examinations. An in-depth interview among patients in

  12. The sea-air exchange of mercury (Hg) in the marine boundary layer of the Augusta basin (southern Italy): concentrations and evasion flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E; Sproveri, M; Barra, M; Bitetto, M; Bonsignore, M; Calabrese, S; Di Stefano, V; Oliveri, E; Parello, F; Mazzola, S

    2013-11-01

    The first attempt to systematically investigate the atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the MBL of the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, Italy) has been undertaken. In the past the basin was the receptor for Hg from an intense industrial activity which contaminated the bottom sediments of the Bay, making this area a potential source of pollution for the surrounding Mediterranean. Three oceanographic cruises have been thus performed in the basin during the winter and summer 2011/2012, where we estimated averaged Hgatm concentrations of about 1.5±0.4 (range 0.9-3.1) and 2.1±0.98 (range 1.1-3.1) ng m(-3) for the two seasons, respectively. These data are somewhat higher than the background Hg atm value measured over the land (range 1.1±0.3 ng m(-3)) at downtown Augusta, while are similar to those detected in other polluted regions elsewhere. Hg evasion fluxes estimated at the sea/air interface over the Bay range from 3.6±0.3 (unpolluted site) to 72±0.1 (polluted site of the basin) ng m(-2) h(-1). By extending these measurements to the entire area of the Augusta basin (~23.5 km(2)), we calculated a total sea-air Hg evasion flux of about 9.7±0.1 g d(-1) (~0.004 tyr(-1)), accounting for ~0.0002% of the global Hg oceanic evasion (2000 tyr(-1)). The new proposed data set offers a unique and original study on the potential outflow of Hg from the sea-air interface at the basin, and it represents an important step for a better comprehension of the processes occurring in the marine biogeochemical cycle of this element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesozoic architecture of a tract of the European-Iberian continental margin: Insights from preserved submarine palaeotopography in the Longobucco Basin (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santantonio, Massimo; Fabbi, Simone; Aldega, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The sedimentary successions exposed in northeast Calabria document the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous tectonic-sedimentary evolution of a former segment of the European-Iberian continental margin. They are juxtaposed today to units representing the deformation of the African and Adriatic plates margins as a product of Apenninic crustal shortening. A complex pattern of unconformities reveals a multi-stage tectonic evolution during the Early Jurassic, which affected the facies and geometries of siliciclastic and carbonate successions deposited in syn- and post-rift environments ranging from fluvial to deep marine. Late Sinemurian/Early Pliensbachian normal faulting resulted in exposure of the Hercynian basement at the sea-floor, which was onlapped by marine basin-fill units. Shallow-water carbonate aprons and reefs developed in response to the production of new accommodation space, fringing the newborn islands which represent structural highs made of Paleozoic crystalline and metamorphic rock. Their drowning and fragmentation in the Toarcian led to the development of thin caps of Rosso Ammonitico facies. Coeval to these deposits, a thick (> 1 km) hemipelagic/siliciclastic succession was sedimented in neighboring hanging wall basins, which would ultimately merge with the structural high successions. Footwall blocks of the Early Jurassic rift, made of Paleozoic basement and basin-margin border faults with their onlapping basin-fill formations, are found today at the hanging wall of Miocene thrusts, overlying younger (Middle/Late Jurassic to Late Paleogene) folded basinal sediments. This paper makes use of selected case examples to describe the richly diverse set of features, ranging from paleontology to sedimentology, to structural geology, which are associated with the field identification of basin-margin unconformities. Our data provide key constraints for restoring the pre-orogenic architecture of a continental margin facing a branch of the Liguria-Piedmont ocean in the

  14. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):256-263.

  15. Adoption of solar home lighting systems in India: What might we learn from Karnataka?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Santosh M.; Iychettira, Kaveri K.; Raghavan, Shuba V.; Kandlikar, Milind

    2013-01-01

    Karnataka has been among the most successful markets for solar lighting systems (SLS) among Indian states. In order to understand the dynamics of systems adoption and operation, that have fostered market based adoption of solar lighting, we interviewed rural households from six districts that had purchased solar lighting systems using loans at market rates, the rural banks that provided loans and the solar firms that marketed the technology. We found that a large proportion of households in our sample were connected to the grid but chose to install solar lighting because they considered the power supply from the grid to be unreliable. Households in our sample reported savings on electricity costs and reduced kerosene usage for lighting. In addition to providing credit, banks also play a key role in ensuring good service and maintenance; the viability of the SLS market is thus critically dependent on the role that the banks play as intermediaries between consumers and solar firms in rural areas. Government programs should be carefully designed to match the incentives of firms, banks and consumers if the successes of the ‘Karnataka model’ are to be repeated and amplified. -- Highlights: •Solar lighting system (SLS) adoption in Karnataka largely through commercial sales. •Most surveyed households adopted SLS due to grid supply unreliability. •Rural banks critical in introducing consumers to firms and financing systems. •Banks also play support role in ensuring after-sales maintenance. •Institutional structure may limit choice of firms and products

  16. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of doctors regarding the provision of mental health care in Doddaballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural district, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialist mental health care is out of reach for most Indians. The World Health Organisation has called for the integration of mental health into primary health care as a key strategy in closing the treatment gap. However, few studies in India have examined medical practitioners’ mental health-related knowledge and attitudes. This study examined these facets of service provision amongst doctors providing primary health care in a rural area of Karnataka is Southern India. Methods A mental health knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was self- administered by participants. The questionnaire consisted of four sections; 1 basic demographics and practice information, 2 training in mental health, 3 knowledge of mental health, and self-perceived competence in providing mental health care, and 4 attitudes towards mental health. Data was analysed quantitatively, primarily using descriptive statistics. Results This study recruited 46 participants. The majority of participants (69.6% felt competent in providing mental health services to their patients. However, there was a substantial level of endorsement for several statements that reflected negative attitudes. Almost one third of participants (28.0% had not received any training in providing mental health care. Whilst three-quarters of participants correctly identified depression (76.1% and psychosis (76.1% in a vignette, fewer were able to name three common signs and symptoms of depression (50.0% and psychosis (28.3%. Conclusions Integrating mental health into primary health care requires evidence-based up-skilling programs. Doctors in this study desired such training and would benefit from it, with a focus on both depth of knowledge and uncovering stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental health problems.

  18. Cenozoic sedimentation and exhumation of the foreland basin system preserved in the Precordillera thrust belt (31-32°S), southern central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Mariya; Horton, Brian K.; Fuentes, Facundo; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-09-01

    Andean retroarc compression associated with subduction and shallowing of the oceanic Nazca plate resulted in thin-skinned thrusting that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin fill in the Precordillera of west-central Argentina. Evolution of the central segment of the Precordillera fold-thrust belt is informed by new analyses of clastic nonmarine deposits now preserved in three intermontane regions between major east directed thrust faults. We focus on uppermost Oligocene-Miocene basin fill in the axial to frontal Precordillera at 31-32°S along the Río San Juan (Albarracín and Pachaco sections) and the flank of one of the leading thrust structures (Talacasto section). The three successions record hinterland construction of the Frontal Cordillera, regional arc volcanism, and initial exhumation of Precordillera thrust sheets. Provenance changes recorded by detrital zircon U-Pb age populations suggest that initial shortening in the Frontal Cordillera coincided with an early Miocene shift from eolian to fluvial accumulation in the adjacent foreland basin. Upward coarsening of fluvial deposits and increased proportions of Paleozoic clasts reflect cratonward (eastward) advance of deformation into the Precordillera and resultant structural fragmentation of the foreland basin into isolated intermontane segments. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of basin fill constrains to 12-9 Ma the most probable age of uplift-induced exhumation and cooling of Precordillera thrust sheets. This apparent pulse of exhumation is evident in each succession, suggestive of rapid, large-scale exhumation by synchronous thrusting above a single décollement linking major structures of the Precordillera.

  19. The environmental legacy of historic Pb-Zn-Ag-Au mining in river basins of the southern edge of the Massif Central (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Resongles, Eléonore; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Delpoux, Sophie; Freydier, Rémi; Casiot, Corinne

    2017-09-01

    The main rivers (Aude, Orb, Herault) that discharge into the Gulf of Lions and the west bank tributaries of the Rhone River including the Gardon have former non-ferrous metal mines in their upper drainage basin. Using unpublished data and data from the literature, this study provides an integrated overview of the contamination of water and sediment along the continent-sea continuum and of its impacts on the biota and on human health. In the upper part of these basins, water and stream sediments are enriched in metal(-loids) compared to median European concentrations. Arsenic is the main contaminant in the rivers Aude and Gardon d'Anduze, Sb in the Orb and Gardon d'Alès, and Tl in the Herault river. A rapid reduction in dissolved and particulate concentrations was systematically observed along the river due to dilution and precipitation. The high concentrations of metal(-loid)s observed suggest that the former mining activity still represents a potential threat for the environment, but the lack of high temporal resolution monitoring, especially during Mediterranean floods, prevents accurate assessment of metal fluxes from these rivers to the Mediterranean Sea. Studies dedicated to the impacts on human health are too rare, given that studies have shown a higher rate of arsenic-specific cancer near Salsigne mine in the Aude River basin and cases of saturnism in children in the upper Herault River basin. These studies underline the need to take environmental health issues into consideration not only in these watersheds but around the entire Mediterranean basin, which harbors numerous metalliferous ores that have been mined for millennia.

  20. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  1. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  2. Seasonally warmer and humid climates in a lower paleolatitude position of southern Brazil (Paraná Basin): new findings of the Lueckisporites virkkiae zone (late Cisuralian-Guadalupian) in the Serra do Rio do Rastro and neighboring localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pasquo, Mercedes; Souza, Paulo A.; Kavali, Pauline Sabina; Felix, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    First palynological information from surface samples of the Serra Alta and Rio do Rasto formations (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin), exposed in the Serra do Rio do Rastro (White's Column) and Urubici regions in Santa Catarina State (Brazil) is presented. The Serra Alta Formation is transitionally deposited over the Irati Formation, which is constrained to the late Artinskian/Kungurian by different paleontological and radiometric data. Twelve productive samples (of forty) yielded fairly well preserved palynomorphs, dominated by striate and non striate bisaccate and asaccate pollen grains and subordinated trilete and monolete spores, monosaccate pollen grains and Botryococcus. Diagnostic species of the Lueckisporites virkkiae Zone (Artinskian-Guadalupian) in the Paraná Basin are recorded along with few species of Guadalupian-Lopingian age (e.g. Cladaitina veteadensis, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lophotriletes parryensis, Protohaploxypinus microcorpus, Staurosaccites quadrifidus, Weylandites cincinnatus). They support a Kungurian-?Roadian age for the Serra Alta, and a Capitanian (?Lopingian) age for the Rio do Rasto formations. Four samples from the Sete Quedas outcrop yielded scarce and poorly preserved specimens of Lueckisporites likely due to weathering. A statistic comparison among our assemblages and selected Permian palynozones and palynofloras from South America supports a closer correlation with the La Veteada Formation (Guadalupian-Lopingian) from western Argentina due to common occurrence of all the species, and with the Striatites Zone (late Artinskian-Kungurian) of the Chacoparaná Basin, and the I-S Zone Melo Formation in Uruguay. The botanical affinities of the palynomorphs from both assemblages indicate the presence of spores of hygro-mesophytic affinities along with meso-xerophyle pollen grains, which is in agreement with seasonally warmer and humid climates favored by a lower paleolatitude position. The presence of pyrite in some of the miospore

  3. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-gharbia, Hela; Yahia, Ons Kefi-daly; Amzil, Zouher; Chomerat, Nicolas; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Sibat, Manoella; Triki, Habiba Zmerli; Nouri, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identificati...

  4. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic

  5. Fault-Related CO2 Degassing, Geothermics, and Fluid Flow in Southern California Basins--Physiochemical Evidence and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  6. Fault-related CO2 degassing, geothermics, and fluid flow in southern California basins---Physiochemical evidence and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, James R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  7. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  8. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in semiarid and karstic environments: A field study in the Granada Basin (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohfahl, Claus [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kohfahl@zedat.fu-berlin.de; Sprenger, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Herrera, Jose Benavente [Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada, Ramon y Cajal, 4, 18071 Granada (Spain); Meyer, Hanno [Isotope Laboratory of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Chacon, Franzisca Fernandez [Dpto. Hidrogeologia y Aguas Subterraneas, Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Oficina de Proyectos, Urb. Alcazar del Genil 4, Edificio Zulema bajo, 18006 Granada (Spain); Pekdeger, Asaf [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this study is to refine the understanding of recharge processes in watersheds representative for karstic semiarid areas by means of stable isotope analysis and hydrogeochemistry. The study focuses on the Granada aquifer system which is located in an intramontane basin bounded by high mountain ranges providing elevation differences of almost 2900 m. These altitude gradients lead to important temperature and precipitation gradients and provide excellent conditions for the application of stable isotopes of water whose composition depends mainly on temperature. Samples of rain, snow, surface water and groundwater were collected at 154 locations for stable isotope studies ({delta}{sup 18}O, D) and, in the case of ground- and surface waters, also for major and minor ion analysis. Thirty-seven springs were sampled between 2 and 5 times from October 2004 to March 2005 along an altitudinal gradient from 552 masl in the Granada basin to 2156 masl in Sierra Nevada. Nine groundwater samples were taken from the discharge of operating wells in the Granada basin which are all located between 540 and 728 masl. The two main rivers were monitored every 2-3 weeks at three different altitudes. Rainfall being scarce during the sampling period, precipitation could only be sampled during four rainfall events. Calculated recharge altitudes of springs showed that source areas of mainly snowmelt recharge are generally located between 1600 and 2000 masl. The isotope compositions of spring water indicate water sources from the western Mediterranean as well as from the Atlantic without indicating a seasonal trend. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different sources of recharge which occur mainly by bankfiltration of the main rivers. Isotopic signatures in the southeastern part of the aquifer indicate a considerable recharge contribution by subsurface flow discharged from the adjacent carbonate aquifer. No evaporation effects due

  9. Groundwater Flow Modeling with Processing Modflow for Windows (pmwin) for Water Balance Assessment Under Climate Variability in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, A.; Diekkrüger, B.; Mariko, A.; Boukari, M.; Cisse, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater resources are particularly important for the inhabitants of Klela Basin due to the absence of surface water especially during dry season (from November to May). Groundwater is the only permanent water resources. Therefore, a good knowledge of water balance may help for integrated water resources management. The current study was investigated on modeling of groundwater resources to establish water balance in order to evaluate the sources and sinks of groundwater system. The sandstone of Sikasso of the study area (3,680 Km2) was modeled using PMWIN model. The model grid was discretized into 239 columns, 256 rows making total grid cell number of 57,834, with a grid dimension of 300 m * 300 m taking into account of aquifer extension and hydrogeological data availability. Digital Elevation Modem (DEM) from Hydroshed was used to interpolate hydraulic head which was entered to the model as starting hydraulic head. The borehole logs data were used to estimate aquifer thickness. The model was calibrated, in steady-state and transient simulations, by trial and error`s estimation of hydrodynamic coefficients (hydraulic conductivity and specific yield) and the results were optimized using Parameter ESTimation (PEST) code in PMWIN. The results show that most of the water (99.9%) entering to the aquifer system is coming from infiltration local precipitation in the Basin. The stream leakage entering to groundwater was negligible (only 0.1%). However, the maximum water leaving the aquifer is coming from storage and stream leakage 67% and 33% respectively Keywords: groundwater flow modeling, PMWIN, Klela Basin, DEM, water balance, climate variability.

  10. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Harish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  11. Mesoscale patterns in the floristic composition of forests in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, B. R.; Venugopal, P. D.; Pélissier, Raphaël; Patil, S. V.; Swaminath, M. H.; Couteron, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We describe the mesoscale floristic patterns in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, through combined analysis of woody species abundance and stand structure data from a network of ninety-six 1-ha sampling plots spread across 22,000 km2. A total of 61,906 individuals (>= 10 cm gbh) comprising 400 plant species from 254 genera and 75 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Moraceae families constituted 23.5 percent of the total number of species encountered. T...

  12. Medical ethnobotany of the Siddis of Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, M J; Chandrashekar, K R; Kaveriappa, K M

    1995-07-28

    A total of 98 medicinal preparations, involving 69 species of plants, used by the Siddis of Uttara Kannada in the state of Karnataka is described in this paper based on an ethnomedical field study. The finding includes 40 hitherto unknown medicinal uses of known medicinal plants. Among these, the use of the stem sap of Calamus thwaitesii as an antifertility drug, and the use of the flowers of Ichnocarpus frutescens and the rhizome of Hedychium coronarium in the treatment of diabetes are noteworthy. The knowledge of medicinal plants of the Siddis is distinct from that of another tribe of the same locality, the Gowlis.

  13. Rift brittle deformation of SE-Brazilian continental margin: Kinematic analysis of onshore structures relative to the transfer and accommodation zones of southern Campos Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Vítor Lamy Mesiano; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Mário Neto Cavalcanti de; Inocêncio, Leonardo Campos

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution drone-supported mapping and traditional field work were used to refine the hierarchy and kinematics of rift-related faults in the basement rocks and Early Cretaceous mafic dikes onshore of the Campos Basin, SE-Brazil. Two sets of structures were identified. The most significant fault set is NE-SW oriented with predominantly normal displacement. At mesoscale, this fault set is arranged in a rhombic pattern, interpreted here as a breached relay ramp system. The rhombic pattern is a penetrative fabric from the thin-section to regional scale. The second-order set of structures is an E-W/ESE-WNW system of normal faults with sinistral component. These E-W structures are oriented parallel with regional intrabasinal transfer zones associated with the earliest stages of Campos Basin's rift system. The crosscutting relationship between the two fault sets and tholeiitic dikes implies that the NE-SW fault set is the older feature, but remained active until the final stages of rifting in this region as the second-order fault set is older than the tholeiitic dikes. Paleostresses estimated from fault slip inversion method indicated that extension was originally NW-SE, with formation of the E-W transfer, followed by ESE-WNW oblique opening associated with a relay ramp system and related accommodation zones.

  14. Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the Context of Climate Change and Population Growth: Case of the Klela Basin in Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater in the Klela basin in Mali, a subbasin of the Bani basin (one of the main tributaries of the Niger River, is required for domestic use, irrigation and livestock. Furthermore, water supply of the city of Sikasso directly depends on the groundwater resources, which are under pressure caused by increased water demand as well as climate variability and climate change. As a consequence, freshwater availability is being threatened which can have a direct negative impact on irrigation agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate future behavior of groundwater resources in the context of climate change and population growth using socio-economic and population growth scenarios for water demand and the Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 data for calculating groundwater recharge using the Thornthwaite model. The WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system model was applied to balance water availability and demand and to compute changes in groundwater storage up to 2050. The overall results show that groundwater recharge as well as storage is decreasing over time, especially in the 2030s which can lead to severe agricultural droughts in this period. Recharge declined by approximatively 49% and stored groundwater by 24% over the study period.

  15. Late Cenozoic basin evolution and fold-thrust deformation in the southern Central Andes: Initial constraints from synorogenic deposits of the Precordillera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, M.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Stockli, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Precordillera region of the Argentine Andes, Cenozoic shortening associated with flattening of the Pampean segment of the subducting Nazca plate has resulted in a series of thin skinned fold-thrust systems that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin deposits. The kinematic and temporal evolution of the Andean Precordillera can be approached through detailed analyses of the sedimentary fill now preserved in intermontane regions and the bedrock low-temperature thermochronology of the fold-thrust belt. In this project, we focus on Neogene foreland basin fill exposed in the central and eastern Precordillera along the San Juan River (Quebrada Albarracín and Pachaco regions), on the western flank of the Sierra Talacasto, and in the Loma de las Tapias area near the Ullum dam. The sedimentary successions exposed in these regions record the hinterland development of the Frontal Cordillera (detrital zircon provenance and composition of sandstone and conglomeratic units), regional volcanism (pyroclastic flows and tuffaceous sandstone units), and initial construction of the Precordillera (fault cutoff relationships, growth strata, and paleocurrent changes). We investigate the development and subsequent partitioning and deformation of these synorogenic sections using sediment provenance (detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, conglomerate clast counts, sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements), facies analysis of measured stratigraphic successions, and initial apatite (U-Th)/He cooling histories to constrain the age of uplift-induced exhumation of successive thrust sheets in the Andean Precordillera.

  16. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas are mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic metamorphic complexes whose protoliths were sedimentary sequences deposited along the western margin of Gondwana. South of the Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, a voluminous metamorphic complex crops out. It is mainly composed of schists, gneisses, marbles, calk-silicate schists, thin layers of amphibolites intercalated with the marbles and granitic veins. The new data correlate the Sierra de Aconquija with others metamorphic units that crop out to the south, at the middle portion of the Sierra de Ancasti. Bulk rock composition reflects originally shales, iron rich shales, wackes, minor litharenites and impure limestones as its protoliths. Moreover, comparisons with the northern Sierra de Aconquija and from La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) show similar composition. Amphibolites have a basaltic precursor, like those from the La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) ones. The analyzed metamorphic sequence reflects low to moderate weathering conditions in the sediments source environment and their chemical composition would be mainly controlled by the tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin rather than by the secondary sorting and reworking of older deposits. The sediments composition reveal relatively low maturity, nevertheless the Fe - shale and the litharenite show a tendency of minor maturity among them. The source is related to an acid one for the litharenite protolith and a more basic to intermediate for the other rocks, suggesting a main derivation from intermediate to felsic orogen. The source of the Fe-shales may be related to and admixture of the sediments with basic components. Overall the composition point to an upper continental crust as the dominant sediment source for most of the metasedimentary rocks. The protolith of the amphibolites have basic precursors, related to an evolving back-arc basin. The chemical data in combination with the specific sediment association

  17. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    The eastern Sevier front is commonly overprinted by west-dipping normal faults that have been active through much of Cenozoic time. Although examples of disparate age and geometry abound, the Sevier Desert detachment stands out as being: (1) a very large, low-angle structure, (2) probably still active, and (3) at drillable depth, and hence is a prime target for scientific drilling. Among the closest surface-exposed analogs of the detachment are the Miocene Mormon Peak and Tule Springs detachments in southern Nevada, about 250 km SSW of the Sevier Desert. In both areas, the detachments developed within a few km of the basal Sevier thrust. The few traces of the southern Nevada detachments that were identified by reconnaissance mapping in the 1950s were first interpreted as underlying "rootless" gravity-slide masses. Detailed stratigraphic and structural mapping in the 1980s revealed the full extent of these detachments and their close relationship to the basal Sevier thrust. Construction and retrodeformation of cross sections through the two detachments demonstrated that neither fault could represent the base of a surficial slide mass. The key field relationship is the structural contiguity of the hanging walls of the detachments with large mountain range blocks in their down-dip directions. "Rootless" gravity-driven masses of equivalent or larger scale are widely documented, and in contrast to the southern Nevada detachments show clear evidence along their down-dip portions of either riding over the earth's surface (e.g. Heart Mountain, WY; Shadow Valley, CA) or having been internally shortened (e.g. Bearpaw Mountains, MT; Louisiana shelf). A rootless slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment has been revived based on meso- and microstructural analysis of the fault surface (refs. 1, 2, and 3), but the hypothesis still fails the retrodeformation test at macroscopic scale. The retrodefomed sections indicate that the footwalls of the southern Nevada detachments

  18. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  19. Karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Tapajós River basin, Southern Amazon: occurrence of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) and their evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L C; Ribeiro, M O; Dutra, E S; Zawadzki, C H; Portela-Castro, A L B; Martins-Santos, I C

    2015-06-18

    Hypostomus is a group of fish with numerical and struc-tural karyotypic variability. Among them, only six species, three of which belong to the Amazon basin, show a sex chromosome. In this study, we present the karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecos-tomus from the Teles Pires river basin in the municipality of Alta Flo-resta, MT. The species has 2n = 68 and the karyotype formula 14m+ 24sm+ 14st+ 16a [fundamental number (FN) = 120] in males and 15m+ 24sm+14st+15a (FN = 121) in females and sex chromosomes ZZ/ZW. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were identified in two pairs of chromosomes at different positions: short arm of the pair 21and long arm of the pair 27, matching the signals displayed by 18S FISH and indicating multiple NORs. Analysis of band C detected few blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and the telomeric regions of some pairs, includ-ing the nucleolar pair 21. However, large blocks on the long arm of the nucleolar pair 27 still stood out. GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA3) was visualized only coincidently with nucleolar sites. Mapping of 5S rDNA sites with FISH revealed markings in eight chromosomes, demonstrat-ing synteny between the 18S and 5S sites. The data obtained for H. cf. plecostomus are important for taxonomic studies of this Amazon com-plex "H. plecostomus group". The occurrence of sex chromosomes in Amazon species of Hypostomus suggests an evolutionary event that is independent of other species in the group.

  20. Health seeking behavior in Karnataka: Does micro-health insurance matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Results: Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Conclusion : Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  1. Health seeking behavior in karnataka: does micro-health insurance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, S; Kiran, Kb

    2013-10-01

    Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  2. Sanitation challenges of the poor in urban and rural settings: Case studies of Bengaluru City and rural North Karnataka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshaiah, Manasi; Nagesh, Latha; Ramesh, Hemalatha

    2017-01-01

    Bengaluru city faces severe challenges in providing sanitation infrastructure for the urban poor. Similarly, we have villages in North Karnataka that encounter problems of toilet access and related challenges. This paper addresses concerns both in city and rural contexts. We surveyed 400 respondents

  3. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  4. On the Relative Influences of Different Ocean Basin Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies on Southern African Rainfall in 20th and 21st Century GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickley, M.; Solomon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Africa rainfall (SAR) is generally projected to decrease during the 21st century as a result of climate change, though there is some disagreement regarding the location and magnitude of this reduction in General Circulation Models (GCMs). Here we examine the robustness of the rainfall response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Previous work argues that warmer SSTs in the Indian Ocean suppress SAR. Other studies argue that El Niños lead to suppressed SAR. We examine the SAR response to SST anomalies in the Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and ENSO 3.4 region both in observations and in two large ensembles of GCMs run over the 20th and 21st century. We find that ENSO SSTs are most correlated with SAR, while correlations between SAR and the Indian Ocean are dominated by their respective responses to ENSO. This relationship appears to persist under a warming background state.

  5. The burden attributable to headache disorders in India: estimates from a community-based study in Karnataka State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Stovner, Lars J; Steiner, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Headache disorders are common worldwide, causing pain and disability. India appears to have a very high prevalence of migraine, and of other headache disorders in line with global averages. Our objective was to estimate the burdens attributable to these disorders in order to inform health policy. In a door-to-door survey, biologically unrelated adults (18-65 years) were randomly sampled from urban and rural areas of Bangalore and interviewed by trained researchers. The validated structured questionnaire enquired into several aspects of burden. Of 2,329 participants (non-participation rate 7.4 %), 1,488 (63.9 %; 621 male, 867 female) reported headache in the preceding year. Symptom burden was high. Migraine (1-year prevalence 25.2 %) occurred on average on 28 days/year but, in 38.0 % of cases (ie, 9.6 % of adults), on ≥3 days/month (≥10 % of days). All causes of headache on ≥15 days/month (prevalence 3.0 %) occurred on a mean of 245 days/year. Both these and migraine were rated severe in intensity. Participants with headache lost 4.3 % of productive time; those with migraine lost 5.8 % (equating to 1.5 % from the adult population). Lost paid worktime accounted for 40 % of this, probably detracting directly from GDP. We estimated population-level disability attributable to migraine using the disability weight from GBD2010 for the ictal state (0.433). Mean disability per person with migraine was 1.8 %, reducing the functional capacity of the entire adult population by 0.46 %. Fewer than one quarter of participants with headache had engaged with health-care services for headache in the last year. Actual expenditure on headache care was greatest among those with headache on ≥15 days/month (especially probable medication-overuse headache), but otherwise not high. Expressed willingness to pay for effective treatment for headache was higher, signalling dissatisfaction with current treatments. In Karnataka State, southern India, prevalent headache

  6. The organic and mineral matter contents in deposits infilling floodplain basins: Holocene alluviation record from the Kłodnica and Osobłoga river valleys, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, K. J.; Marynowski, L.

    2012-07-01

    The work examines the timing and environmental conditions of floodplain sedimentation in the valleys of the upland Kłodnica and piedmont Osobłoga rivers in the Upper Odra River basin. A distribution of 52 14C-ages shows relatively high floodplain sedimentation at the Late Glacial-Holocene transition, more stable floodplain environments since the Early (in the Kłodnica Valley) and Middle Holocene (in the Osobłoga Valley) and a gradual increase in floodplain deposition in the Late Holocene (since changes, human impact and hydrological events) as well as factors affecting the local record of sedimentation (i.e. valley morphology, hydrologic conditions and episodes of local erosion). A clear relationship is shown between an increase in alluviation and climate- or human-induced extension of unforested areas. The deposition of mineral-rich sediments increases rapidly during periods characterized by non-arboreal pollen values exceeding approximately 8% in pollen diagrams. On the other hand, the results obtained do not confirm significant interactions between Holocene changes in forest composition and alluviation. Despite the settlement of agrarian groups, the sedimentary record of human activity in the Osobłoga catchment is very poor during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. A large-scale alluviation of the Osobłoga and Kłodnica valleys was initiated during the settlement of people of the Lusatian culture from the middle Bronze Age and escalated in the early Middle Ages and Modern Times. The deposition of products of soil erosion was limited to between ca. 1.9-1.2 kyr BP, probably due to demographic regression during the Migration Period. Comparison of OM/MM fluctuations with phases of increased fluvial activity does not show a relationship between Holocene wetter phases and catchment sediment yield. Sedimentary episodes in the Upper Odra basin also show a low degree of correlation with the probability density curve of the 14C-ages. The results obtained in the K

  7. Effects of Climate Change on Production of Siliceous Phytoplankton Over the Twentieth Century as Recorded in Sediments of the Santa Bárbara Basin off Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Lopez, A.; Baumgartner, T. R.; Lange, C.

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between production of siliceous phytoplankton and interannual through multidecadal climate variability is examined by analysis of a high-resolution paleo-record of diatoms and silicoflagellates for the period 1909-1991. The record is reconstructed from the annually layered sediments (varves) preserved in the hypoxic Santa Barbara Basin providing an annual history of production and settling to the sediments of an important fraction of the new production in the coastal environment. Location of the depositional site makes it sensitive to change in ocean climate governing large scale dynamics of the California Current ecosystem. Variables used for comparison to indices of large-scale climate change are: 1) total flux rate to the sediments of both diatom tests and silicoflagellates; 2) change in species richness; 3) the absolute and relative flux of specific functional groups (indicating conditions of upwelling and turbulence vs. stability in the water column); and 4) absolute and relative flux of a species assemblage identified as having warm water affinities. Although the combination of these variables indicates a response to interannual variability associated with ENSO, a more striking feature is the persistence over decadal and interdecadal periods exemplified by the steep decline and reduced values in the overall rate of flux after 1976 (indicating a response to the basin-scale climate shift in 1976-77). The most prominent feature, however, is a major shift in the nature of total flux, and particularly a drastic change in the relative abundances of two different species assemblages, from one that dominated through the first 30 years of the series to another that dominated through the final 40 years of the record. Although the exact nature and timing of this major transition cannot be ascertained because of a break in the record from 1944 through 1948, the change is clearly marked by the replacement of a group of small diatom species (indicative of

  8. Regional importance of post-6 M.Y. old vocanism in the southern Great Basin: Implications for risk assessment of volcanism at the proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes our activities during the period July 1, 1987 to June 30, 1988. Our goal was to develop an understanding of late-Miocene and Pliocene volcanism in the Great Basin by studying late-Tertiary volcanic rocks to the north and south of the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). We especially concentrated on detailed stratigraphic studies and geochemistry to determine the nature of chemical changes during the lifetime of a volcanic field, and on structural studies to determine the nature of the structures that control vent location. Also, K-Ar age dating provided important new information on the duration of activity at a single volcanic center. Geologic studies were concentrated in the Fortification basalt field in southern Nevada and in the Reveille Range in central Nevada. Our studies provide three important conclusions that have implications for volcanism about the proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain. There are no easily recognized geochemical characteristics that signify the termination of volcanism. The location of vent areas of basaltic volcanoes are not necessarily controlled by pre-existing structures. Volcanism at an individual basaltic center may last as long as 500,000 years. 32 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater using major ion chemistry: a case study of Penna-Chitravathi river basins in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A G S; Kumar, K Niranjan

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in the Penna-Chitravathi river basins to identify and delineate the important geochemical processes which were responsible for the evolution of chemical composition of groundwater. The area is underlain by peninsular gneissic complex of Archaean age, Proterozoic meta-sediments, and strip of river alluvium. Groundwater samples were collected covering all the major hydrogeological environs in pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed for major constituents such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO2(-4), NO3-, and F-. The groundwater in general is of Na+-Cl-, Na+-HCO3-, Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3-, and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- types. Na+ among cations and Cl- and/or HCO3- among anions dominate the water; Na+ and Ca2+ are in the transitional state with Na+ replacing Ca2+ and HCO3- Cl- due to physiochemical changes in the aquifer and water-rock interactions. The Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- HCO3- type water in one third samples suggest that ion exchange and dissolution processes are responsible for its origin. Change in storage of aquifer in a season does not influence the major geochemical makeup of groundwater. Gibbs plots indicate that the evolution of water chemistry is influenced by water-rock interaction followed by evapotranspiration process. The aquifer material mineralogy together with semiarid climate, poor drainage system, and low precipitation factors played major role in controlling groundwater quality of the area.

  10. Hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) tools applied to the study of karst aquifers in southern mediterranean basin (Teboursouk area, NW Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Yosra; Mokadem, Naziha; Besser, Houda; Khelifi, Faten; Harabi, Samia; Hamad, Amor; Boyce, Adrian; Laouar, Rabah; Hamed, Younes

    2018-01-01

    Karst aquifers receive increasing attention in Mediterranean countries as they provide large supplies water used for drinkable and irrigation purposes as well as for electricity production. In Teboursouk basin, Northwestern Tunisia, characterized by a typical karst landscape, the water hosted in the carbonates aquifers provides large parts of water supply for drinkable water and agriculture purposes. Groundwater circulation in karst aquifers is characterized by short residence time and low water-rock interaction caused by high karstification processes in the study area. Ion exchange process, rock dissolution and rainfall infiltration are the principal factors of water mineralization and spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry. The present work attempted to study karstic groundwater in Teboursouk region using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) tools. Karst aquifers have good water quality with low salinity levels expressed by TDS values largely below 1.5 g/l with Ca-SO4-Cl water type prevailing in the study area. The aquifers have been recharged by rainfall originating from a mixture of Atlantic and Mediterranean vapor masses.

  11. Reconstruction of past climate variability and ENSO-like fluctuations in the southern Gulf of California (Alfonso Basin) since the last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines-Urías, Francisca; González-Yajimovich, Oscar; Beaufort, Luc

    2015-05-01

    Nannofossil assemblages from core MD02-2510 provide a 22 ka record of past oceanographic variability in Alfonso Basin (Gulf of California, east subtropical Pacific). In this area, environmental conditions depend on a monsoonal system heavily influenced by changes in the location of the ITCZ and nearby atmospheric pressure centers. To reconstruct nutricline depth and ENSO-like variability, two ecological indexes were calculated based on the relative abundance of the three dominant coccolith species. The late glacial period is characterized by intensified wind-driven upwelling, high primary productivity and La Niña-like conditions. An environmental shift occurs during the glacial-interglacial transition, El Niño-like conditions intensify, nutricline deepens and surface productivity declines. The late Holocene is characterized by a persistent increase in nutricline depth and dominance of El Niño-like conditions. The fluctuations in the composition of the coccolith assemblages can be related to orbital-scale fluctuations in the average position of the ITCZ. However, while the ENSO-like signal that overprints the record varies in response to orbital forcing, on suborbital time scales the relation between ENSO-like conditions and the average position of the ITCZ and the North Pacific High changes, suggesting that the development of persistent El Niño-like conditions is strongly dependent on the specific climatic background.

  12. Anomalous uranium concentration in Archaean basement Shear at Dhani Basri and its significance on Southern Margin of Alwar sub-basin, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, B.; Shaji, T.S.; Sharma, G.S.; Yadav, O.P.; Nanda, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Prominent shear zones cutting through the basement and cover rocks of Delhi Supergroup have been recognized in Dhani Basri - Ramewala sector of Dausa district, Rajasthan. One such shear zone traversing the granite gneiss (Archaean basement) has been observed at Dhani Basri. The sheared rock is exposed in the form of a small hump and gives appearance of quartzite due to intense silicification. Grab samples collected from the shear zone rock analysed upto 93 ppm U 3 O 8 and <10 ppm ThO 2 , which is anomalous in comparison to unsheared rock which analysed 51 ppm eU 3 O 8 , upto 5 ppm U 3 O 8 and 80 ppm ThO 2 . Gamma-ray logging of boreholes drilled by GSI across this shear zone indicated uranium mineralization of the order of 0.030% eU 3 O 8 x 5.40 m and the primary radioactive mineral has been identified as uraninite. The extension of Dhani Basri shear zone inside the cover rocks of Meso-Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup of rocks of Alwar sub-basin is of paramount importance in locating unconformity related as well as hydrothermal vein type uranium mineralization. (author)

  13. Wireless in-situ Sensor Network for Agriculture and Water Monitoring on a River Basin Scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a Data User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Havento

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are increasingly being implemented for environmental monitoring and agriculture to provide spatially accurate and continuous environmental information and (near real-time applications. These networks provide a large amount of data which poses challenges for ensuring data quality and extracting relevant information. In the present paper we describe a river basin scale wireless sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring. The network, called SoilWeather, is unique and the first of this type in Finland. The performance of the network is assessed from the user and maintainer perspectives, concentrating on data quality, network maintenance and applications. The results showed that the SoilWeather network has been functioning in a relatively reliable way, but also that the maintenance and data quality assurance by automatic algorithms and calibration samples requires a lot of effort, especially in continuous water monitoring over large areas. We see great benefits on sensor networks enabling continuous, real-time monitoring, while data quality control and maintenance efforts highlight the need for tight collaboration between sensor and sensor network owners to decrease costs and increase the quality of the sensor data in large scale applications.

  14. Wireless in-situ Sensor Network for Agriculture and Water Monitoring on a River Basin Scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a Data User's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamäki, Niina; Thessler, Sirpa; Koskiaho, Jari; Hannukkala, Asko O; Huitu, Hanna; Huttula, Timo; Havento, Jukka; Järvenpää, Markku

    2009-01-01

    Sensor networks are increasingly being implemented for environmental monitoring and agriculture to provide spatially accurate and continuous environmental information and (near) real-time applications. These networks provide a large amount of data which poses challenges for ensuring data quality and extracting relevant information. In the present paper we describe a river basin scale wireless sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring. The network, called SoilWeather, is unique and the first of this type in Finland. The performance of the network is assessed from the user and maintainer perspectives, concentrating on data quality, network maintenance and applications. The results showed that the SoilWeather network has been functioning in a relatively reliable way, but also that the maintenance and data quality assurance by automatic algorithms and calibration samples requires a lot of effort, especially in continuous water monitoring over large areas. We see great benefits on sensor networks enabling continuous, real-time monitoring, while data quality control and maintenance efforts highlight the need for tight collaboration between sensor and sensor network owners to decrease costs and increase the quality of the sensor data in large scale applications.

  15. Lithostratigraphic analysis of the Turonian-Coniacian Bireno and Douleb carbonate Members in Jebels Berda and Chemsi, Gafsa basin, central-southern Atlas of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmouna, Dhouha Jomaa; Chaabani, Fredj; Dhahri, Ferid; Mzoughi, Moncef; Salmouna, Abdellatif; Zijlstra, Hedia Bessaies

    2014-12-01

    The Turonian-Coniacian series of Bireno and Douleb Members (carbonate Members of the Aleg Formation) have been examined on their sedimentology, stratigraphy and faunistic contents to provide new insights into the paleoenvironment evolution and sea-level changes in the Gafsa basin. At this scale, both the Turonian-Coniacian series are mainly made of marls and limestones and locally include evaporites. In this paper, ostracods together with benthonic and planktonic foraminifers, collected from the Upper Cretaceous series of Berda and Chemsi mountains, are used to provide some chronostratigraphic precisions (age and limits) of these lithostratigraphic units. Accordingly, four lithostratigraphic units, belonging to the Aleg Formation, were recognized following an ascending order; the Annaba Member (Lower Turonian), the Bireno Member (Lower Turonian-Middle Turonian), the Lower Aleg Marls (Middle Turonian-Upper Turonian, Jebel Chemsi and Upper Turonian-Lower Coniacian, Jebel Berda) and the Douleb Member (Coniacian). These units are overlaid by the Upper Aleg marls Santonian in age. The recognized microfacies are interpreted as a shallow marine deposit of a lagoonal environment, shallowing upward from supratidal to subtidal settings with scattered rudistic patch reefs. The corresponding carbonate sediments were affected by several diagenetic stages starting at the sea floor (early diagenesis), continuing near the surface (meteoric diagenesis) and ending in the subsurface (burial diagenesis).

  16. Analysis of the flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 in a small basin in the province of Bari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Bisantino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the province of Bari the hydrographic network consists of ephemeral streams called lame. In these watercourses the absence of runoff for long periods contributed to unfounded beliefs concerning the hydraulic safety of the landscape and therefore uncontrolled changes in streambeds and floodplains. In these streams high water discharges can occur during heavy rainfalls, as demonstrated by the floods that hit the city of Bari in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 can be considered catastrophic as it resulted in six deaths, numerous injuries and substantial damage sustained by road and railway infrastructures at the intersection with the hydrographic network. This study aims to analyse the severity of the event in terms of the response of the landscape with reference to the case of the lama Scappagrano basin, where a Eurostar train derailed due to the collapse of the railway embankment. Coupled hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic modelling was performed to reconstruct the flood hydrograph and water depths on the upstream side of the embankment. The results were used to set the boundary conditions to analyse the internal stability of the embankment using a finite element method.

  17. New evidence of an early Pridoli barrier reef in the southern part of the Baltic Silurian basin based on three-dimensional seismic survey, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Kaminskas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reefs and a barrier reef have been newly identified and mapped by three-dimensional (3D seismic survey in Lithuania. Seismic data analysis has allowed the size and geometry of these reefs to be determined. The largest reefs occur at Pavasaris and South Bliudziai. They have a similar shape and are about 1.5 km long and 1 km wide. A circle-shaped smaller patch reef at North Bliudziai is 1 km in diameter. The overall heights of the studied structures do not exceed 30–40 m. The reefs consist of coarse-grained bioclastic stromatoporoid limestone. A barrier reef rising structurally from SW to NE was established in the west of the mapped area. The stratigraphic position (early Minija Regional Stage and lateral distribution of the barrier reef suggest it started to form earlier than the group of patch reefs. The development of patch reefs was related to the transgression of the Silurian Baltic basin.

  18. Basin analysis in the Southern Tethyan margin: Facies sequences, stratal pattern and subsidence history highlight extension-to-inversion processes in the Cretaceous Panormide carbonate platform (NW Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio

    2018-01-01

    In the Mediterranean, the South-Tethys paleomargin experienced polyphased tectonic episodes and paleoenvironmental perturbations during Mesozoic time. The Cretaceous shallow-water carbonate successions of the Panormide platform, outcropping in the northern edge of the Palermo Mountains (NW Sicily), were studied by integrating facies and stratal pattern with backstripping analysis to recognize the tectonics vs. carbonate sedimentation interaction. The features of the Requienid limestone, including geometric configuration, facies sequence, lithological changes and significance of the top-unconformity, highlight that at the end of the Lower Cretaceous the carbonate platform was tectonically dismembered in various rotating fault-blocks. The variable trends of the subsidence curves testify to different responses, both uplift and downthrow, of various platform-blocks impacted by extensional tectonics. Physical stratigraphic and facies analysis of the Rudistid limestone highlight that during the Upper Cretaceous the previously carbonate platform faulted-blocks were subjected to vertical movements in the direction opposite to the displacement produced by the extensional tectonics, indicating a positive tectonic inversion. Comparisons with other sectors of the Southern Tethyan and Adria paleomargins indicate that during the Cretaceous these areas underwent the same extensional and compressional stages occurring in the Panormide carbonate platform, suggesting a regional scale significance, in time and kinematics, for these tectonic events.

  19. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gharbia, Hela; Yahia, Ons Kéfi-Daly; Amzil, Zouher; Chomérat, Nicolas; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Sibat, Manoella; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Nouri, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-10-15

    Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates ( Ostreopsis cf. ovata , Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis ) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d -1 for O. cf. ovata , 0.35 ± 0.01 d -1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d -1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis , a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m / z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed.

  20. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ben-Gharbia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d−1 for O. cf. ovata, 0.35 ± 0.01 d−1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d−1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis, a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m/z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed.

  1. Soil-water flux in the southern Great Basin, United States: temporal and spatial variations over the last 120,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.B.; Conrad, S.H.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Miller, J.J.; Sully, M.J.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste in arid regions requires a thorough understanding of the occurrence of soil-water flux and recharge. Soil-water chemistry and isotopic data are presented from three deep vadose zone boreholes (> 230 m) at the Nevada Test Site, located in the Great Basin geographic province of the southwestern United States, to quantify soil-water flux and its relation to climate. The low water contents found in the soils significantly reduce the mixing of tracers in the subsurface and provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of climate variation on recharge in arid climates. Tracing techniques and core data are examined in this work to reconstruct the paleohydrologic conditions existing in the vadose zone well beyond the timescales typically investigated. Stable chloride and chlorine 36 profiles indicate that the soil waters deep in the vadose zone range in age from approximately 20,000 to 120,000 years. Secondary chloride bulges that are present in two of the three profiles support the concept of recharge occurring at or near the last two glacial maxima, when the climate of the area was considerably wetter and cooler. The stable isotopic composition of the soil water in the profiles is significantly more depleted in heavy isotopes than is modern precipitation, suggesting that recharge under the current climate is not occurring at this arid site. Past and present recharge appears to have been strongly controlled by surface topography, with increased incidence of recharge where runoff from the surrounding mountains may have been concentrated. The data obtained from this detailed drilling and sampling program shed new light on the behavior of water in thick vadose zones and, in particular, show the sensitivity of arid regions to the extreme variations in climate experienced by the region over the last two glacial maxima

  2. Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows: Using Irrigation Infrastructure to Deliver Environmental Benefits During a Large Hypoxic Blackwater Event in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robyn J.; Kopf, R. Keller; McCasker, Nicole; Howitt, Julia A.; Conallin, John; Wooden, Ian; Baumgartner, Lee

    2018-03-01

    Widespread flooding in south-eastern Australia in 2010 resulted in a hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen, DO) blackwater (high dissolved carbon) event affecting 1800 kilometres of the Murray-Darling Basin. There was concern that prolonged low DO would result in death of aquatic biota. Australian federal and state governments and local stakeholders collaborated to create refuge areas by releasing water with higher DO from irrigation canals via regulating structures (known as `irrigation canal escapes') into rivers in the Edward-Wakool system. To determine if these environmental flows resulted in good environmental outcomes in rivers affected by hypoxic blackwater, we evaluated (1) water chemistry data collected before, during and after the intervention, from river reaches upstream and downstream of the three irrigation canal escapes used to deliver the environmental flows, (2) fish assemblage surveys undertaken before and after the blackwater event, and (3) reports of fish kills from fisheries officers and local citizens. The environmental flows had positive outcomes; mean DO increased by 1-2 mg L-1 for at least 40 km downstream of two escapes, and there were fewer days when DO was below the sub-lethal threshold of 4 mg L-1 and the lethal threshold of 2 mg L-1 at which fish are known to become stressed or die, respectively. There were no fish deaths in reaches receiving environmental flows, whereas fish deaths were reported elsewhere throughout the system. This study demonstrates that adaptive management of environmental flows can occur through collaboration and the timely provision of monitoring results and local knowledge.

  3. Concentrations of PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 and metallic elements around the Schmidt Stream area, in the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Alves

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the air quality, by determining the concentrations of PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and the metallic elements Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the leaf part of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in an area close to Schmidt Stream, at the lower section of Sinos River Basin (SRB, in a research campaign of six months, from October 2013 to March 2014. The particles collected in the PM sampling were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS, in order to study their morphology and chemical composition. The mean concentration of PM2.5-10 was 9.1 µg m–3, with a range of 2.2 µg m–3 to 15.4 µg m–3 and the mean concentration of PM2.5was 4.7 µg m–3, with a range of 1.9 µg m–3 to 8.2 µg m–3. Concentrations of metallic elements, especially Pb, Cr and Zn, were classified as Class 4 (very high pollution levels, according to the classification proposed by Klumpp et al. (2004. Chemical and morphological analysis of PM revealed the presence of particles of biological origin, soot (Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb, salts (KCl and soil resuspension (Al and Si. The integrated study methodology, employing environmental variables, such as PM and ryegrass, can be of help in the preparation of wide-ranging environmental diagnoses, in addition providing information needed to develop precautionary measures designed to minimize the effects of atmospheric pollution that takes into consideration the environment’s supportive capacity and environmental quality.

  4. Concentrations of PM₂.₅₋₁₀ and PM₂.₅ and metallic elements around the Schmidt Stream area, in the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D D; Osório, D M M; Rodrigues, M A S; Illi, J C; Bianchin, L; Benvenuti, T

    2015-12-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the air quality, by determining the concentrations of PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and the metallic elements Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the leaf part of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in an area close to Schmidt Stream, at the lower section of Sinos River Basin (SRB), in a research campaign of six months, from October 2013 to March 2014. The particles collected in the PM sampling were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS), in order to study their morphology and chemical composition. The mean concentration of PM2.5-10 was 9.1 µg m(-3), with a range of 2.2 µg m(-3) to 15.4 µg m(-3) and the mean concentration of PM2.5 was 4.7 µg m(-3), with a range of 1.9 µg m(-3) to 8.2 µg m(-3). Concentrations of metallic elements, especially Pb, Cr and Zn, were classified as Class 4 (very high pollution levels), according to the classification proposed by Klumpp et al. (2004). Chemical and morphological analysis of PM revealed the presence of particles of biological origin, soot (Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb), salts (KCl) and soil resuspension (Al and Si). The integrated study methodology, employing environmental variables, such as PM and ryegrass, can be of help in the preparation of wide-ranging environmental diagnoses, in addition providing information needed to develop precautionary measures designed to minimize the effects of atmospheric pollution that takes into consideration the environment's supportive capacity and environmental quality.

  5. Temporal Controls on Uplift and Slip Rates for the Puente Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, Southern Los Angeles Basin, Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, E. M.; Grant, L. B.; Owen, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Puente Hills (PH) are seismically active and tectonically uplifted by the Puente Hills Blind Thrust fault (PHBTF). The rate of uplift, and consequently, the late Quaternary slip rate of the eastern part of the PHBTF, herein named the Santa Ana segment, can be constrained by mapping and dating Quaternary stream terraces and strath surfaces in the Santa Ana River Canyon. The PH are cut by the 2-3 mm/yr right-lateral Whittier fault, itself capable of M6.7-7.2 earthquakes. The 7 mapped terraces and strath surfaces of the PH are cut by the Whittier fault with minimal vertical separation. OSL dating, soil age estimates, and correlation with sea level highstands constrains the PH uplift rate to 0.6-1.4 mm/yr based on OSL dates, and 0.2-0.8 mm/yr from other methods. The rates overlap in the range 0.6-0.8 mm/yr, and we propose that this is the most reliable estimate of uplift rate because it is based on several methods. An uplift rate of 0.6-0.8 mm/yr for the PH is also consistent with a 500 700 ka emergent age based on our geomorphic analysis of PH drainage basin development. Using a 30° dip angle produces a slip rate on the Santa Ana segment of the PHBTF of 1.2-1.6 mm/yr. Preliminary tectonic geomorphic analysis of the Santa Ana Mountains (SAM) suggests that they too are being uplifted and are probably seismically active. Shorelines preserved on the lower foothills of Peralta and Loma Ridges were correlated to eustatic sea levels for age estimations. Mapping and dating of terraces in the Santiago Creek drainage, and the older marine terraces indicates that the SAM are uplifting at 0.2-0.7 mm/yr, probably due to a blind thrust associated with partial termination of the Elsinore fault.

  6. An extended distribution of recently described Natesh’s Cape-pondweed (Aponogetonaceae: Aponogeton nateshii to the state of Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Suresh Kambale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aponogeton nateshii, a recently described endemic species from coastal plains of Konkan region of Maharashtra is recorded from the Western Ghats of Karnataka. Notes on its habitat and variations are provided. 

  7. Establishing the base of underground sources of drinking water (10,000ppm) using geophysical logs and chemical reports in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, David; Gillespie, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Recent concerns about well stimulation and oilfield disposal practices has resulted in the desire to learn more about the distribution of usable groundwater that might be impacted by these practices. Waters that require protection are classified by the US EPA as USDW's (Underground Sources of Drinking Water). These waters have a concentration of 10,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and are not within an exempt aquifer. Direct sampling and chemical analyses of the water from oil and gas producing formations provide the most accurate values for the formation water salinities, but the data is scarce. The method in this analysis uses open-hole geophysical logs and Archie's equation to calculate the salinity. The two methods used in the analysis are the spontaneous potential method that uses the spontaneous potential log and the mud and formation resistivity values to calculate a salinity, and the resistivity-porosity method that uses the resistivity and porosity logs. Sonic, density, and neutron logs are available in the southern San Joaquin as well as porosity values from cores. Results shows that the resistivity porosity method has a smaller error than the spontaneous potential method, therefore, the resistivity-porosity method is chosen for the analysis of the 10,000 parts per million boundary. Due to the lack of porosity logs in wells with chemical analyses, porosity values recorded in DOGGR reports are used in the Humble equation to link the formation water resistivity to salinity. In this way, we can back calculate the deep resistivity vales that should correspond to the 10,000 salinity boundary to determine the depth at which the base of the USDW is found.

  8. An Empirical Investigation on Mobile Banking Service Adoption in Rural Karnataka

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    S. V. Krishna Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government of India (GOI initialized financial inclusion campaign to quell exclusion. The campaign did not gain expected progress. Government employed technologies to speed up the process. Among banking technologies, mobile banking appeared as a possible solution for financial exclusion with wide mobile phone coverage. Inputs on rural people’s intention toward technologies for effective financial inclusion were essential. Technology adoption factors, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, attitude, perceived risk, and behavioral intention (BI, were short listed after literature review. Factors were subjected to reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, multiple regression, and interaction analysis. Rural provinces in Karnataka state were surveyed. We used mixed sampling technique to reach 959 samples. Multiple regression–interaction analysis revealed age and gender moderated attitude’s path toward BI.

  9. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

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    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  10. The formation of early settled villages and the emergence of leadership: A test of three theoretical models in the Rio Ilave, Lake Titicaca Basin, southern Peru

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    Craig, Nathan Mcdonald

    Despite obvious necessities for understanding later developments in the region, Preceramic cultures in the Titicaca Basin are poorly understood due to lacking empirical data. This dissertation focuses on examination of two processes occurring in the Rio Ilave drainage during the Late 5000--3100 B.C.E. (6000--4400 B.P.) and Terminal 3100--1500 B.C.E. Archaic (4400--3200 B.P.): the formation of settled villages and the emergence of leadership. These processes are tested against theoretical predictions derived from: population resource imbalance, human behavioral ecology, and agency theories. Resource imbalance theory predicts appearance of density dependent adaptive problems prior to major cultural transformations. Human behavioral ecology predicts increased dietary diversity and incorporation of greater processing costs occuring coincidentally with reduced residential mobility. Symbolic mate value advertising is a predicted leadership strategy. Agency theory predicts internal sources of social tension, potentially independent of external forces, as primary causes of cultural change. Feast hosting and the formation political economy are expected to be central to both social processes investigated from this perspective. Local paleoclimatic proxies suggest aridity from ca 4000--2000 B.C.E. Reanalysis of pedestrian survey data indicate population growth during the Late Archaic. Excavation and ground penetrating radar survey at Pirco and Jiskairumoko demonstrate reduced residential mobility and increased evidence for social differentiation appearing during the Late Archaic's (before 3000 B.C.E.) end. New cultural patterns include: pithouses, more groundstone, internal storage, costly non-local artifacts, domesticated plants and animals, costly grave goods, and use of ochre in symbolic contexts. No clear cut evidence for inter-community promotional feasting was identified but some finds suggest intra-community alliance feasts. By the end of the Terminal Archaic ca. 1500 B

  11. Prevalence of anemia among tribal women of reproductive age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

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    Ramachandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years. Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3. Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 - 11.6, with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5% were severely anemic, 33 (19.4% were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9% were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia.

  12. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

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    Cleland John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  13. The journey to antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India: who was lost on the road?

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    Shastri, Suresh; Sathyanarayna, Srinath; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Kumar, Ajay MV; Rewari, Bharat; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony

    2013-01-01

    Introduction One important operational challenge facing antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in low- and middle-income countries is the loss to follow-up between diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and initiation of ART. This is a major obstacle to achieving universal access to ART. This study from Karnataka, India, tried to measure such losses by determining the number of HIV-positive individuals diagnosed, the number of them reaching ART centres, the number initiated on ART and the reasons for non-initiation of ART. Methods A review of records routinely maintained under the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) was carried out in six districts of Karnataka. HIV-positive persons diagnosed during the months from January to June 2011 in 233 public HIV-testing sites were followed up until December 2011 based on the pre-ART registers. A chi-square test was used to assess statistical significance. Results Of 2291 HIV-positive persons diagnosed (52% male; mean age of 35 years), 1829 (80%) reached ART centres. Of the latter, 1166 (64%) were eligible for ART, and 959 (82%) were initiated on treatment. Overall losses (attrition) on the road between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation were 669 (29%). Deaths, migration and not willing to go to the ART centres were cited as the main known reasons for not reaching ART centres. For ART-eligible individuals who did not initiate ART, the most common known reasons for non-initiation included dying before initiation of ART and not being willing to start ART. Conclusions In a large state of India, eight in ten HIV-positive persons reached ART centres, and of those found ART eligible, 82% start treatment. Although this is an encouraging achievement, the programme needs to take further steps to improve the current performance by further reducing pre-ART attrition. We recommend online registering of diagnosed HIV-positive patients to track the patients more efficiently. PMID:23985346

  14. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

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    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  15. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

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    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  16. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

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    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  17. Partial delamination of continental mantle lithosphere, uplift-related crust mantle decoupling, volcanism and basin formation: a new model for the Pliocene Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians, Romania

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    Chalot-Prat, F.; Girbacea, R.

    2000-11-01

    A geodynamic model is proposed for the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians in order to explain the relationships between shallow and deep geological phenomena that occurred synchronously during late-collision tectonics. In this area, an active volcanic zone cross-cuts since 2 My the suture between the overriding Tisza-Dacia and subducting European continental plates. Mafic calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas (south Harghita and Persani volcanoes) erupted contemporaneously. These magmas were supplied by partial melting of the mantle lithosphere of the subducting, and not of the overriding, plate. In an effort to decipher this geodynamically a-typical setting of magma generation, the spatial and temporal distribution of shallow and deep phenomena was successively examined in order to establish the degree of their interdependence. Our model indicates that intra-mantle delamination of the subducting European plate is the principal cause of a succession of events. It caused upwelling of the hot asthenosphere below a thinned continental lithosphere of the Carpathians, inducing the uplift of the lithosphere and its internal decoupling at the Moho level by isostatic and mostly thermal effects. During this uplift, the crust deformed flexurally whilst the mantle deformed in a ductile way. This triggered decompressional partial melting of the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Flexural deformation of the crust induced its fracturing, allowing for the rapid ascent of magmas to the surface, as well as reactivation of an older detachment horizon at the base of the Carpathian nappe stack above which the Brasov, Ciuc and Gheorghieni hinterland basins formed by extension and gravity spreading. The rapid subsidence of the Focsani foreland basin is controlled by the load exerted on the lithosphere by the delaminated mantle slab that is still attached to it. In this model, crust-mantle decoupling, magma genesis and volcanism, local near-surface hinterland

  18. Long period variability of a High Resolution Hydraulic Balance Proxy for Southern California and Northwestern Mexico: A 50 ka-long Sediment Record from Laguna Salada Basin, Baja California, Mexico

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    Aco-Palestina, A.; Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hergeura, J. C.; Rendon-Marquez, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Salton Trough region of southern California and the Mexicali valley in northwestern Mexico are areas of rapid subsidence due to extension along the San Andreas-Imperial fault system and are being filled by clastic sediments transported by the Colorado River. The relatively high sedimentation rates of these basins have a high potential to preserve high-resolution climatic information. With this goal in mind, we drilled a 42 m-long core in the center of the Laguna Salada, a lacustrine basin located west of the Mexicali valley and to the south of the Salton Trough. Two 14C dates from plant remnants indicate sedimentation rates are in the order of 1mm/yr; based on this we estimate the age of the bottom of the core close to 50 Ka. This high sedimentation rate could in principle allow us to reconstruct the climatic variability of this hyperarid region on timescales ranging from centennial and millennial periodicities up to Milankovitch forcing. Here we present data on the first-order changes introduced by the later longer periods. Sedimentary facies in the core were identified based on color, granulometry, mineralogical composition and primary structures such as laminations, dissecation cracks, and bioturbation. Additionally, we obtained reflectivity of sediments every 5 mm to 1 cm, depending on the scale of primary structures. The recovered stratigraphy consists of three sedimentary successions. The lower part of the core is characterized by an alternation of mud and silt laminae of varying thickness between 5mm-1cm, probably deposited during stage 3. This ancient paleolake was dominated by sub-aqueous conditions with a permanent water table year-round. Good preservation of laminae suggests seasonal bottom anoxia. During the last glacial maximum, moisture conditions changed drastically. Laminations are replaced by finely stratified sand and further upsection by repetitive packages 50cm-thick composed of fine sand, brown mud, greenish silt and mud, and mud, caped

  19. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

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    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were

  20. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

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    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  1. Electric property evidences of carbonification of organic matters in marine shales and its geologic significance: A case study of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi shale in the southern Sichuan Basin

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    Yuman Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for some reliable evidences that can verify the carbonification of organic matters in marine shales is a major scientific issue in selecting shale gas fairways in old strata. To this end, based on core, logging and testing data, the electric property of two organic-rich shale layers in the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm. and the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm. in the southern Sichuan Basin was compared to examine the carbonification signs of organic matters in the Qiongzhusi shale and its influence on gas occurrence in the shales. The following conclusions were reached: (1 the electric property experiment shows that the Qiongzhusi shale in the study area has had carbonification of organic matters. The low resistivity of dry samples from this highly mature organic-rich shale and ultra-low resistivity on downhole logs can be used to directly judge the degree of organic matter carbonification and the quality of source rocks; (2 in the Changning area, the Qiongzhusi shale shows low resistivity of dry samples and low to ultra-low resistivity on logs, indicating that organic matters are seriously carbonized, while in the Weiyuan area, the Qiongzhusi shale shows a basically normal resistivity on log curves, indicating its degree of graphitization between the Longmaxi Fm. and Qiongzhusi Fm. in the Changning area; (3 shale with medium-to-high resistivity is remarkably better than that with ultra-low resistivity in terms of gas generation potential, matrix porosity and gas adsorption capacity; (4 industrial gas flow has been tested in the organic shales with medium-to-high resistivity in the Jianwei–Weiyuan–Tongnan area in the north, where the Qiongzhusi shale is a favorable shale gas exploration target.

  2. Report on the extended distribution of two endemic plants (Angiospermae in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

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    G.R. Hegde

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive floristic diversity study in Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka State, authors collected the specimens of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. subsp. aggregatus K. T. Mathew and Canscora sanjappae Diwakar & R. Kr. Singh, the two endemics of Western Ghats. Present paper discusses the extended distribution of these two endemics in the Western Ghats with complete description, images and a note on their distribution.

  3. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study.

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    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females ( p  gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  4. Assessment and validation of the oral impact on daily performance (OIDP) instrument among adults in Karnataka, South India.

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    Purohit, B M; Singh, A; Acharya, S; Bhat, M; Priya, H

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the study was to test the applicability of abbreviated version of the oral impact on daily performance (OIDP) inventory among the adults visiting dental outreach centre in Karnataka, South India. Cross sectional study. Dental outreach centre in Udupi District, Karnataka. 312 adults aged 35-44 years attending the centre. Face-to-face interview followed by oral health examination. The questionnaire in Kannada version of OIDP, perceived general and oral health and satisfaction with dental appearance were used. Reliability and Validity of OIDP instrument, Prevalence of oral impacts in study population. Majority of the participants (71.2%) reported oral health problems affecting at least one daily performance in the 6 months preceding the survey. The performance most affected was 'eating' (52.2%) followed by 'cleaning teeth' (32.4%). Cronbach's alpha for the OIDP frequency items was 0.70. Construct validity was proved by significant association of OIDP scores and self-rated oral, general health status and perceived satisfaction with appearance of teeth; with those more satisfied having fewer oral impacts (p Kannada version of OIDP had excellent psychometric properties for applicability among the adults in Karnataka. Thus, the study highlighted the limits of focusing exclusively on normative needs and suggested the incorporation of oral quality of life measures into the oral healthcare services.

  5. The cross cultural adaptation and validity of the child-OIDP scale among school children in Karnataka, South India.

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    Agrawal, N; Pushpanjali, K; Garg, A K

    2013-06-01

    To carry out a cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the Child-O1DP instrument and to assess its reliability and validity among 11-12 year olds in Karnataka, South India. The original Child-OIDP was obtained from the author, cross-culturally adapted to the Kannada language then the translation's content, face criterion and construct validity and internal and external reliability were evaluated. Children recorded their oral health problems and rated their oral health in a cross sectional study of 505, 11-12 year olds selected from a list of Karnataka schools by using simple random sampling (89.7% participation rate). The child OIDP revealed good validity and reliability. In relation to construct validity; an exploratory factor analysis provided two factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which represented the physical and psychosocial health components. Cronbach's alpha was 0.60 and test-retest reliability, 0.85 (intra-class correlation coefficient). The Kannada Child-OIDP is a valid and reliable interviewer-administered instrument to measure the impact of the oral conditions on quality of life in children in Karnataka, South India.

  6. Sédimentation et tectonique dans le bassin marin Eocène supérieur-Oligocène des Alpes du Sud Sedimentation and Tectonics in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene Marine Basin in the Southern Alps

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    Riche P.

    2006-11-01

    'exprime nettement moins que précédemment. Le toit des grès est marqué par une surface de discontinuité fortement érosive correspondant à des canyons sous-marins de direction NE-SO. Cette surface peut être mise en relation avec l'écoulement des olistostromes qui termine le remplissage du bassin. La mise en place de ces olistostromes et des olistolithes qui les accompagnent n'est pas paléontologiquement datée : elle débute avec la fin de la sédimentation gréseuse. L'ensemble est encore affecté par une distension E-O ce qui tend à montrer que cette mise en place est antérieure à la phase de serrage miocène. La confrontation entre les observations de terrain, les expériences de sédimentation en canal et l'interprétation sismique de bassins offshore argumente les interprétations proposées. This paper is based on local field surveys performed recently by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM in the western part of the southern Alps nummulitic basin, to help interpret seismic data. It underlines the role of extensional tectonics during sedimentation. It questions the geodynamic interpretation of the basin as a foredeep basin in the Alpine orogenic belt. On a Mesozoic basement folded by the Pyreneo-Provençale orogeny, as early as the Lutetian the nummulitic transgression flooded the eastern area, which was subsequently obscured by the Pennine main fault during Mio-Pliocene times. It spread westward during the Upper Eocene. In the meantime, an E-W extension, shown clearly along the Var River faults and along the edge of the Pelvoux range, fragmented the fringes of the basin with blocks tilted during sedimentation. The result is fast changes of facies within the basal carbonates, which pass from platform types to slope types and to thin gravitational sediments farther into the basin. The overlying marls correspond to slope facies wrapping the inherited topography. The Gres d'Annot s. l

  7. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  8. Diabetic self care practices in rural Mysuru, Southern Karnataka, India - A need for Diabetes Self Management Educational (DSME) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, K M; Basavegowda, Madhu; Tharuni, Nandarula Sai

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes and its complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Self care has emerged as a crucial element in the management of diabetes and a key factor associated with the quality of diabetic care. The purpose of the study was to assess the self care activities of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in a rural area of Mysuru district. A community based cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 400 diabetic patients in rural Mysore. Self care Activities (Diet, exercise, self blood glucose monitoring, medication, foot care, smoking) were assessed using a pre designed and tested questionnaire. Relevant descriptive analysis like percentages is carried out using SPSS version 22.0. Most of the diabetic patients had good compliance for medication (92.5%), followed by 72% for diabetic diet. Only 27.75% of the diabetic patients participated in walking, 24.25% practised foot care, blood glucose monitoring by 24.75% and only 25.5% of them were current smokers. The rural diabetic patients are more adherent and compliant to medication and diabetic diet and less compliant to physical activity, foot care and self glucose monitoring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

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    Bradley Janet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters

  10. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Alary, Michel; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Ramesh, B M

    2011-12-29

    Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p condom users (AOR 2.77, p condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters might be important in

  11. Ethnomedicinal practices in different communities of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka for treatment of wounds.

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    Bhat, Pradeep; Hegde, Gurumurthi; Hegde, Ganesh R

    2012-09-28

    Uttara Kannada district is located in the heart of the Western Ghats, one of the biodiversity hotspots, in Karnataka state of India. The thick evergreen forests are home to several ethnic communities. The study was under taken for documentation and analysis of ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of wounds. Field trips were made in Uttara Kannada district to identify the key informants. The collection of information was through semi-structured open ended interviews with a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to obtain the information about their experience in the field of treatment, number of patients treated per week, knowledge about the medicinal plants, vernacular names, parts of the plants used and other ingredients added during the drug formulations. Plants mentioned for treatment were photographed in the field, cuttings of the samples were taken and voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of P.G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The information such as botanical name, status, family, vernacular name habit and habitat, statistical analysis like percentage of parts used, Use value (UV) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF) are provided. Present study resulted in recording 106 medicinal plant species of 55 families and 86 formulations to treat different types of wounds by 44 key informants. Among the 106 plants recorded four species are endemic to India and 22 species have the nativity outside India. Rest of the species have nativity both in India and elsewhere. The highest number of species belonged to Apocynaceae and Rubiaceae (6 species each). Trees are used more often (35.84%), followed by herbs (28.30%), shrubs (23.58%), climbers (11.32) and parasites (0.80%). Leaves are the major part of the plants used in the formulations (28.57%). The highest Use value is for Calycopteris floribunda (1.80), followed by Rauvolfia serpentina and Achyranthes aspera (1.67). The different types of wounds treated by traditional healers

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

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    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  13. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  14. Canada Basin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  15. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

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    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  16. Providing the climatic component in human-climate interaction studies: 550,000 years of climate history in the Chew Bahir basin, a key HSPDP site in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, V. E.; Asrat, A.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; Chapot, M. S.; Cohen, A. S.; Dean, J. R.; Deocampo, D.; Deino, A. L.; Guenter, C.; Junginger, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Leng, M. J.; Roberts, H. M.; Schaebitz, F.; Trauth, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    As a contribution towards an enhanced understanding of human-climate interactions, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has cored six predominantly lacustrine archives of climate change spanning much of the last 3.5 Ma in eastern Africa. All six sites in Ethiopia and Kenya are adjacent to key paleoanthropological sites encompassing diverse milestones in human evolution, dispersal, and technological innovation. The 280 m-long Chew Bahir sediment core, recovered from a tectonically-bound basin in the southern Ethiopian rift in late 2014, covers the past 550 ka of environmental history, an interval marked by intense climatic changes and includes the transition to the Middle Stone Age and the origin and dispersal of modern Homo sapiens. We present the outcome of lithologic and stratigraphic investigations, first interpretations of high resolution MSCL and XRF scanning data, and initial results of detailed multi-indicator analysis of the Chew Bahir cores. These analyses are based on more than 14,000 discrete samples, including grain size analyses and X-ray diffraction. An initial chronology, based on Ar/Ar and OSL dating, allows temporal calibration of our reconstruction of dry-wet cycles. Both geochemical and sedimentological data show that the Chew Bahir deposits are sensitive recorders of climate change on millennial to centennial timescales. Initial statistical analyses identify phases marked by abrupt climatic changes, whereas several long-term wet-dry oscillations reveal variations mostly in the precession ( 15-25 kyr), but also in the obliquity ( 40 kyr) and eccentricity frequency bands ( 90-120 kyr). The Chew Bahir record will help decode climate variation on several different time scales, as a consequence of orbitally-driven high-latitude glacial-interglacial shifts and variations in greenhouse gases, Indian and Atlantic Ocean sea-surface temperatures, as well as local solar irradiance. This 550 ka record of environmental change in eastern

  17. Cyclostratigraphy across a Mississippian carbonate ramp in the Esfahan-Sirjan Basin, Iran: implications for the amplitudes and frequencies of sea-level fluctuations along the southern margin of the Paleotethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet-Goll, Aram; Esfahani, Fariba Shirezadeh; Daraei, Mehdi; Monaco, Paolo; Sharafi, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Amir Akbari

    2018-03-01

    The Tournaisian-Visean carbonate successions of the Esfahan-Sirjan Basin (ESB) from Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran, have been used to generate a sequence stratigraphic model that enhances facies characterization and improves paleoenvironmental interpretation of shallow marine successions deposited along the southern margin of the Paleotethys. Detailed facies analysis allowed to differentiate seven facies, which, in order of decreasing abundance, are: (1) shaly and marly, F1; (2) peloidal mudstones/wackestones, F2; (3) peloidal/bioclastic packstones, F3; (4) intraclastic/bioclastic packstones/grainstones, F4; (5) oolitic/bioclastic packstone/grainstone, F5; (6) sandy intraclastic/bioclastic grainstones, F6; (7) sandy oolitic/bioclastic grainstones, F7. The different facies can be grouped into three facies associations that correspond to different environments of a carbonate platform with ramp geometry (homoclinal), from outer ramp (F1 and F2), mid-ramp (F3, F4 and F6) to inner ramp areas (F5 and F7). Meter-scale cycles are the basic building blocks of shallow marine carbonate successions of the Tournaisian-Viséan ramp of the ESB. Small-scale cycles are stacked into medium-scale cycles that in turn are building blocks of large-scale cycles. According to the recognized facies and the stacking pattern of high-frequency cycles across the ramp, five large-scale cycles in the southeastern outcrops (Tournaisian-Viséan) and three large-scale cycles in the northwest outcrops (Viséan) related to eustatic sea-level changes can be recognized. The overall retrogradational nature of the carbonate ramp, illustrated by both vertical facies relationships and the stacking patterns of high-frequency cycles within the third-order cycles, implies that the deposition of the Tournaisian-Viséan successions mainly took place under a long-term transgressive sea-level trend. The stratigraphic architectural style of the sequences, characterized by the lack of lowstand deposits and exposure

  18. Prevalence and Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility among Rural Residents of Vijayapur Area of Karnataka

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    Vidya V. Patil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a public health problem affecting around 8-10% of the couple worldwide. It has an impact on their physical, mental and social well being. Aim and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and to assess the psychosocial consequences of infertility among rural residents of Vijayapur area of Karnataka. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area between March 2015 - February 2016. Complete enumeration of all the houses was done to list all eligible couples and those who were exposed to risk of pregnancy and had infertility were identified. A validated “Fertility problem inventory scale” was used to assess the psychosocial consequences of infertility and impact was seen at four levels i.e., personal, sexual, social, marital. Results: A total of 106 participants were included. The prevalence of infertility was 7.6%. Conflict within the marriage was highest (mean scores 60.3, followed by decline in sexual relationship (mean scores 55.9, personal impact (mean scores 44.3 and social impact (mean scores 38.8.Conclusion: The results revealed that the couples have poor well-being on all the dimensions. There is need of awareness generation and counselling.

  19. Prevalence of fumonisin producing Fusarium verticillioides associated with cereals grown in Karnataka (India

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    N. Deepa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 135 cereal samples were collected from different districts of Karnataka state, India in which 69 samples were infected with Fusarium species. Among these 51 samples were having Fusarium verticillioides infection and among them 42 samples were positive for fumonisin production. Per cent incidence and frequency were high in maize samples with 33.12% and 47.54%, respectively followed by paddy and sorghum, while pearl millet was free from F. verticillioides infection. Relative density of F. verticillioides association was 59.50% among the screened samples. A total of 326 Fusarium species were isolated by screening 135 cereal samples and among these 194 isolates of F. verticillioides scored positive for VERTF-1 and VERTR species-specific pair of primers. Further amplification with VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 pair of primers recorded 176 isolates of fumonisin producing F. verticillioides. The study revealed high incidence, frequency and relative density of fumonisin producing F. verticillioides and production of fumonisins in cereals. It was amplified using one forward and two reverse primers to discriminate fumonisin producing from fumonisin non-producing F. verticillioides which stresses the need for the development of managemental stratergies before they enter into the food chain.

  20. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  1. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Karnataka State, India

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    K. V. V Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents oral mucosal lesions findings from a state oral health survey of Karnataka, India. A total of 46,579 subjects aged 1-4 to 65+ years were selected by using multistage-cluster-stratified random sampling method and subjects were examined by 32 dentists trained in standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for oral mucosal lesions. In the present study, 7.53% of subjects had one or more oral mucosal lesions, in which, male subjects (9.41 % had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions compared to female subjects (4.38%; urban subjects (11.61% had a significantly higher prevalence than rural subjects (5.01 % and the Christian subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions than the Hindus, Muslims and others (F=211.594, <0.001, S. The observed prevalence of oral mucosal lesions increased with age (r=0.8174, P<0.05, S, which is statistically significant. The most prevalent lesions observed were Leukoplakia (1.73%, Lichen planus (2.02% Ulceration (0.73%, Candidiasis (0.94% and Abscess (1.05%. The maximum number of lesions was seen in sulci (7.33% and the minimum number of lesions was seen in lips (0.02%. Differences in prevalence were analyzed by sex, religion, location and geographical area.

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

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    H Manjunatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  3. Perceived sources of stress among postgraduate students of a dental college in Karnataka, India

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    M J Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentistry has for some time been viewed as a profession with high-stress, and usually this begins from the days of dental school onward. Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, some being the pressure from academics with an obligation to succeed, uncertainty regarding their future and difficulties of integrating into the system. Aim: The aim is to identify the perceived sources of stress among postgraduate students from a dental college in Coorg, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out, and the study samples included all the postgraduates of all nine specialties, including all the seventy-seven postgraduate students as samples. Results: Stress was relatively general among all the groups of the study participants, certain factors or stressors such as the amount of assigned work, competition with peers, examination and grades, lack of confidence to be a successful student and fear of facing parents after failure hamper the academic life of these students and had more significance among groups when compared to others. Conclusion: The academic life of students seemed to be hampered due to various potential stressors such as the amount of assigned work, competition with peers, examination and grades, lack of confidence to be a successful student, and fear of facing parents after failure. Such issues that arise in the educational setting need to be addressed which will help improve the academic environment of the students.

  4. Epidemiological trends of trauma in tertiary care centre in dakshina kannada district of karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsouza, Caren; Rao, Vinay V; Kumar, Arun; Diaz, Erel

    2014-03-01

    To study the pattern and burden of trauma cases which presented to a tertiary care centre in an upcoming Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India. This was an epidemiological study. Data was collected by purposive sampling technique. Study period lasted from Jan 2013 to Aug 2013. Collected data was analyzed. The annual incidence of trauma at our centre was 15.96% (1140 cases). Most of the injuries were reported in 21-30 years age group. The male to female ratio was approximately 2.3:1. Limb injury (66.92%) constituted the commonest form of injury. Among the various injuries, fall was the commonest cause of injury (60.78%), followed by RTA (16.75%) and assault (11.6%). A majority of the cases were admitted during night time (61.24%). There has been an alarming increase in the number of trauma cases in the past decade. The target age group being the most productive one; it affects the economy directly . There is a need of urgent protective measures which are required for the benefit of the community.

  5. Herbal care for reproductive health: ethno medicobotany from Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, H V; Hegde, G R; Kholkute, S D

    2007-02-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is predominantly practiced by the rural people of India, especially remote areas such as the Uttara Kannada District in Western Ghats of Karnataka. Local traditional healers play an important role in the management of reproductive health problems of the native population due to socio-economical and geographical factors. In the present study, 92 traditional medicine practitioners/healers from various regions of Uttara Kannada district were interviewed to collect information on the use of herbal treatments for a range of female and male reproductive disorders. Information was also collected on the method of preparation, dose and duration along with the botanical names, family and local names of the medicinal plants. The plants were then collected and identified. A total of 18 formulations from 25 plant species belonging to 17 families were identified, which are commonly used to treat 12 different reproductive ailments. This study identifies herbal remedies not previously documented, that are used by indigenous people in the treatment of reproductive disorders. Additionally, the paper highlights the need to retain and explore the rich biodiversity associated with Indian rain forests that may result in the discovery of new medical treatments. Finally, this paper notes the continuing reliance on herbal medicines and healing traditions by local people in remote areas. Understanding and working with local healers and tribes provides a unique opportunity to learn about the use of potentially new herbal and plant medications.

  6. Knowledge attitude practice study on pulse polio immunization in Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Subba, S H; Shashidhar, Kotian M

    2011-06-01

    Government of India launched PPI in 1995 to eradicate polio by the end of 2000. Despite this 733 cases were reported last year alone. There is a need to understand the reason behind high number of cases being reported even after so many years of programme implementation. This study was therefore conducted to assess knowledge of people about polio and PPI, their attitude and practice towards PPI. This cross sectional study was done in Mangalore city of Karnataka. Only houses having under five children were taken for the study. Data was collected by interviewing any adult member of the household using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 100 participants 99 were literates but only 11 knew the correct mode of transmission of polio. Twenty seven had misconception that polio is a curable disease. Only 40 participants knew that polio drops can be given to children even with mild illnesses. Few (2%) participants felt that PPI causes vaccine overdose and 8 participants thought PPI to be a substitute for routine immunization. This study identified few important misconceptions associated with polio and PPI. This needs to be addressed by large scale awareness campaigns in order to eradicate polio in the near future.

  7. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  8. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18-30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  9. Sexual Assault in Ballari, Karnataka, India: A Four Year Retrospective Review

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    Charan Kishor Shetty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%.  The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51% of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06% cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.

  10. AWARENESS AND PERCEPTION REGARDING EYE DONATION IN STUDENTS OF A NURSING COLLEGE IN RURAL KARNATAKA

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    Chaitra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To assess the awareness and perception of nursing students towards eye donation in rural Karnataka. METHOD: A Cross - sectional study was conducted. A pretested, semi - structured questionnaire was used for collecting the information from 200 nursing students. RESULTS: The majority 184(92% of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 64(32% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants 144(72% were either willing or had already pledged to donate their eyes. Only 60(30% knew about organ donation act. Majority 182(91% knew that HIV patient cannot donate their eyes. Most of the students 162(81% knew that eyes were removed by an eye specialist. Among students who are willing to donate eyes, 122(84.7% students felt that donating eye is a noble act. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: t he unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body 34(60.7%, lack of awareness 26(46.4% and objection by family members 22(39.3%. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that although awareness regarding eye donation is high, there is lack of knowledge and motivation related to eye donation

  11. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

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    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  12. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent...... of Kamataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard...

  13. Unfree markets: socially embedded informal health providers in northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Iyer, Aditi

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of informal health markets in marginalised regions are relevant to policy discourse in India, but are poorly understood. We examine how informal health markets operate from the viewpoint of informal providers (those without any government-recognised medical degrees, otherwise known as RMPs) by drawing upon data from a household survey in 2002, a provider census in 2004 and ongoing field observations from a research site in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. We find that despite their illegality, RMPs depend on government and private providers for their training and referral networks. Buffeted by unregulated market pressures, RMPs are driven to provide allopathic commodities regardless of need, but can also be circumspect in their practice. Though motivated by profit, their socially embedded practice at community level at times undermines their ability to ensure payment of fees for their services. In addition, RMPs feel that communities can threaten them via violence or malicious rumours, leading them to seek political favour and social protection from village elites and elected representatives. RMPs operate within negotiated quid pro quo bargains that lead to tenuous reciprocity or fragile trust between them and the communities in which they practise. In the context of this 'unfree' market, some RMPs reported being more embedded in health systems, more responsive to communities and more vulnerable to unregulated market pressures than others. Understanding the heterogeneity, nuanced motivations and the embedded social relations that mark informal providers in the health systems, markets and communities they work in, is critical for health system reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

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    Tonita M Noronha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%. Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7% was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%. Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka.

  15. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  16. AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS OF EYE DONATION AMONG ATTENDANTS OF PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

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    Sharath R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients ( n = 200 visiting various outpatient departments of the Hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered a questionnaire (Kannada and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, pledging and willingness to donate eyes. RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 182 (91% participants. Analysis showed that awareness was equal among males and females. Of the 182 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 108 (59.34% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the males (55.55%. 142 (71% participants wou ld recommend eye donation. Main reasons for not pledging eyes were: lack of information regarding pledging eyes (39.18%, objection by family members (33.78% and religious belief (17.56%. Educational status was associated with willingness to donate eyes (P=0.0001. Media was the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation only 9.34% have pledged their eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations, we need to develop more innovative strategies to target young rural population to make them pledge their eyes. Awareness has to be created through the curriculum. Training of anganawadi, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel in spreading awareness, pledging and ben efits of eye donation at community level.

  17. Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroor, Amitha Rao; Airody, Sathyajith Karanth; Mahale, Ramnath; Sr, Ravikiran; Shetty, Suresh; Rao, Aarathi R

    2014-12-01

    To measure the anthropometric data of school children and to compare with the CDC and Agarwal centile Growth charts. The prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight and obesity were estimated. Children were also screened for hypertension, refractory errors, dental problems, skin disease and other abnormalities. Study was conducted in November in a central school in Surathkal, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. All children from nursery up to 10(th) standard were screened. Weight and Height were measured using standard equipment and plotted on CDC and Agarwal Charts. BMI was calculated and plotted on both charts. Blood Pressure (BP) was taken using mercury sphygmomanometer by a trained nurse. Vision was tested using Snellens chart by refractionist. Dental evaluation was done by dentist. Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. A statistical package SPSS version 17.0 were used. p<0.05 was considered as significant. Total 755 children were screened. Among these 392 (51.9%) were females and 363 (48.1%) were males. Eighty five (11.3%) children had short stature and 283 (37.5%) had under nutrition when plotted on CDC chart. Values were lower when plotted on Agarwal charts. Thinness was more prevalent than obesity and overweight. Majority were normotensive though hypertension was noted in 6(0.8%) children and prehypertension in 14(1.9%).112 children (16.3%) had undetected refractory error. Common skin disease noted was T.Versicolor in 27 children. Common dental problem noted was Caries teeth (22.9%). Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low.

  18. Psychosocial status and economic dependence for healthcare and nonhealthcare among elderly population in rural coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dsouza Rent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS among elderly patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September–December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Results: Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%, whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. Conclusion: The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  19. Decentralization and decision space in the health sector: a case study from Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Parab, Suraj; Kotte, Sandesh; Latha, N; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2016-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in India with respect to decentralization, most significantly the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India (1993) which provided the necessary legal framework for decentralization to take place. However, the outcome has been mixed: an evaluation of the impact of decentralization in the health sector found virtually no change in health system performance and access to health services in terms of availability of health personnel or improvement in various health indicators, such as Infant Mortality Rates or Maternal Mortality Ratio. Subsequently, there has been a conscious effort under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)-launched in 2005-to promote decentralization of funds, functions and functionaries to lower levels of government; and Karnataka had a head-start since devolution of all 29 functions prescribed by the 73rd Amendment had already taken place in the state by the late 1990s. This study presents the findings of an on-going research effort to build empirical evidence on decentralization in the health sector and its impact on system performance. The focus here is on analyzing the responses of health personnel at the district level and below on their perceived 'Decision Space'-the range of choice or autonomy they see themselves as having along a series of functional dimensions. Overall, the data indicate that there is a substantial gap between the spirit of the NRHM guidelines on decentralization and the actual implementation on the ground. There is a need for substantial capacity building at all levels of the health system to genuinely empower functionaries, particularly at the district level, in order to translate the benefits of decentralization into reality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  20. Psychosocial Status and Economic Dependence for Healthcare and Nonhealthcare among Elderly Population in Rural Coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rent, Priyanka Dsouza; Kumar, Sudeep; Dmello, Mackwin Kenwood; Purushotham, Jagannath

    2017-01-01

    The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS) among elderly patients. The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September-December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%), whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  1. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  2. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  3. Sociodemographic and health profile of inmates of old age homes in and around Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.

  4. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available to explain why states might choose cooperation over conflict where a critical shared resource could limit future development potential. KEYWORDS hydropolitical complex; water wars; southern African development community; river basin management... the management of the various transboundary river basins that form the hydrological foundation of the SADC economy. This observation is remarkable given the known history of intense conflict that was as- sociated with the ColdWar-era in southern Africa...

  5. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  6. Petroleum geology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1986-03-01

    The Palo Duro Basin, Permian Basin, Texas is an asymmetric, relatively shallow, intracratonic basin in the southern Texas Panhandle filled mostly by Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian sedimentary rocks. Although deeper and prolific prolific petroleum-producing basins adjoin it on the north (Anadarko Basin), south (Midland Basin), and east (Hardeman Basin), the Palo Duro Basin has produced remarkably small amounts of oil and gas to date. This is all the more noteworthy because the sedimentary sequence and rock types of the basin are similar to those of the adjacent basins. Analyses of the stratigraphic succession and structural configuration of the Palo Duro Basin suggest that adequate reservoir rocks, top-seals, and geologic structures are present. Most of the structures formed early enough to have trapped hydrocarbons if they were migrating in the rock column. Although additional work is under way to properly address the question of the petroleum source rocks, generation, and migration, the general absence of production in the basin may relate to an overall deficiency in hydrocarbon generation within the basin. Geologic information in this report will form part of the basis for further analysis and conclusions on hydrocarbon potential in the Palo Duro Basin

  7. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Volta basin lies on the southern part of the West African craton, more precisely on the Leo (or Man) craton. The Dahomeyides chain is thrust onto its eastern fringe. The Volta basin is filled with Neoproterozoic to Cambro- Ordovician sediments. From bottom to top they are: the Boumbouaka Supergroup made of ...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

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    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  9. Decadal Variation in the Rainfall Characteristics over River Basins across the Western Ghats of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R.; Gouda, K. C.; Murthy, A.; Prabhuraj, D. K.; Laxmikantha, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rainfall over a river basin have high impact on the human life in the coastal region, in particular during monsoon season. In the present work the rainfall characteristics over Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India is studied in decadal to annual scale. The specialty of the district is, here a network of five river basins exist and all rivers flow into the Arabian Sea in the west coast of India. Being a part of the Western Ghats region all these rivers have different hydrological and geological properties. All the rivers are mainly rain fed in nature. The Significant uncertainties in annual precipitation and extreme precipitation events over the basin are due to the uncertainties in the atmospheric parameters like temperature, offshore wind, humidity etc. In this study, TRMM, GPCP and India Meteorological Department (IMD) measured rainfall data were used to analyze the decadal rainfall analysis over the basin. It is found that the overall trend of rainfall is decreasing from 1951 to 2000 where as the monsoon (June-September) rainfall seems to be normal. The extreme rainfall events seem to have increased in the recent decade compare to the earlier decades. The rainfall decreases towards East compared to the west part of the basin. The surface water potential, evapo transpiration, soil temperature, soil moisture of the basin is studied and empirical relation with the rainfall presented in this work.

  10. Perception, knowledge, and attitude toward mental disorders and psychiatry among medical undergraduates in Karnataka: A cross-sectional study

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    Aruna, G.; Mittal, Shobhana; Yadiyal, Muralidhara B.; Acharya, Chandana; Acharya, Srilekha; Uppulari, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Globally, psychiatry as a subject, psychiatrists as professionals, and patients with psychiatric disorders are subjected to cultural stereotypes and negative attitude by the general population. What is of alarming concern is that these prejudices exist within the medical community as well. Aims: This study aims at evaluating the perception, knowledge, and attitude toward psychiatric disorders, therapeutic modalities used in psychiatry, psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals among undergraduate medical students in Karnataka. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional type of study conducted in three medical colleges located in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A sample of 500 students from all three professional phases of MBBS was selected using purposive sampling. A semistructured prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the perception, knowledge, and attitude of undergraduate medical students toward psychiatric disorders and psychiatry. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0. Results: The undergraduate medical student population had significant shortcomings in knowledge and attitude pertaining to psychiatric disorders, more glaring in the initial years of education. A comparatively positive opinion was obtained regarding psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals, which may reflect the changing trends and concepts, both in society and medical community. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for better educational measures at undergraduate level in order to shape a positive attitude of the health care providers towards psychiatry, which is essential for ensuring better care for patients as well as reduction of stigma surrounding psychiatric disorders. PMID:26985108

  11. Scaling up antiretroviral treatment services in Karnataka, India: impact on CD4 counts of HIV-infected people.

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    Suresh Shastri

    Full Text Available SETTING: Twelve antiretroviral treatment centres under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP, Karnataka State, India. OBJECTIVE: For the period 2004-2011, to describe the trends in the numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV registered for care and their median baseline CD4 counts, disaggregated by age and sex. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving analysis of routinely captured data (year of registration, age, sex, baseline CD4 count under NACP. RESULTS: 34,882 (97% of total eligible PLHIV were included in analysis. The number registered for care has increased by over 12 times during 2004-11; with increasing numbers among females. The median baseline CD4 cell count rose from 125 in 2004 to 235 in 2011--the increase was greater among females as compared to males. However, about two-thirds still presented at CD4 cell counts less than 350. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend of median CD4 counts among PLHIV presenting to ART centres in Karnataka, an indicator of enhanced and early access to HIV care. Equal proportion of females and higher baseline CD4 counts among them allays any fear of differential access by gender. Despite this relative success, a substantial proportion still presented at low CD4 cell counts indicating possibly delayed HIV diagnosis and delayed linkage to HIV care. Universal HIV testing at health care facilities and strengthening early access to care are required to bridge the gap.

  12. Distribution, den characteristics and diet of the Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis (Mammalia: Canidae in Karnataka, India: preliminary observations

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    H.N. Kumara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis inhabits relatively dry areas with scrub thorn forests, deciduous forests, short grasslands and marginal croplands. Since it is a widely distributed species, especially in the dry tracts, very little attention has been paid to it by researchers and wildlife managers. We conducted an extensive survey in the south Indian state of Karnataka to determine the conservation status of the Indian Fox. We also carried out a more detailed observation in a small region called “Jayamangali Blackbuck Block” (JBB and surrounding private lands to study the den site characteristics of the species. Except for a few districts in the Western Ghats and the west coastal region, the fox was present throughout Karnataka. Relatively higher encounter rates were observed in regions with extensive grasslands. We located 52 dens during the study in JBB which provide a minimum of 12dens/km2 with 1.33/km2 active dens. Circumference of den sites were smaller in JBB than in the adjoining private lands indicating that foxes frequently shifted dens in this area. The number of openings and active openings increased as the circumference of the den site increased. Fecal analysis revealed remains of certain species of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, with arthropods as the major food items of the fox.

  13. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

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    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.