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Sample records for basin groundwater monitoring

  1. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin

  2. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, antimony, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Site. This report presents and discusses the groundwater monitoring results in the H-Area for first quarter 1992

  3. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for April, May, and June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2007-08-08

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring near the K Basins during April, May, and June 2007. Conditions remained similar to those reported in the previous quarter’s report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of shielding water from either basin to the ground. During the current quarter, the first results from two new wells installed between KE Basin and the river became available. Groundwater conditions at each new well are reasonably consistent with adjacent wells and expectations, with the exception of anomalously high chromium concentrations at one of the new wells. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified for FY 2008 to take advantage of new wells recently installed near KW Basin as part of a pump-and-treat system for chromium contamination, and also the new wells recently installed between the KE Basin and the river, which augment long-term monitoring capability in that area.

  4. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During fourth quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum and iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in five wells. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in three wells, while specific conductance exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in one well

  5. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, R61-79.265, Subpart F. Samples were collected from 130 wells that monitor the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control in December 1990. Historically, as well as currently, tritium, nitrate, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, and mercury have been the primary constituents observed above final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater at the HASB. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during first and fourth quarter 1992. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  6. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater monitoring at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins is regulated under Washington Administrative Code 173-303-645. Proposed in this plan is the first phase of a final-status, corrective action monitoring program for the site. The monitoring network consists of four existing wells: 199-H4-3, 199-H4-7, 199-H4-12A, and 199-H4-12C. Well 199-H4-12C is completed at the base of the unconfined aquifer; the other wells are screened at the water table. Wells 199-H4-7 and 199-H4-12A are groundwater extraction wells used in a pump-and-treat system. Groundwater samples will be collected from each well annually. Samples will be analyzed for the following: (1) constituents of concern (i.e., chromium, nitrate, technetium-99, and uranium) and fluoride; (2) additional constituents to aid data interpretation (e.g., alkalinity, anions, and metals); and (3) field parameters routinely acquired at the wellhead (e.g., pH, specific conductance, temperature, and turbidity). The objective of monitoring during operation of the pump-and-treat system is to determine whether concentrations of the contaminants of concern are decreasing

  7. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, R61-79.265, Subpart F. Eighty-five wells provided samples from the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control in December 1990. Historically, as well as currently, tritium, nitrate, gross alpha, total alpha-emitting radium, cadmium, and lead are the primary constituents observed above final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater at the FASB. Nonvolatile beta has consistently exceeded its drinking water screening level. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also have exceeded the final PDWS in the groundwater at the FASB. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB1, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contain elevated levels of constituents, primarily tritium. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/ activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units for first and fourth quarters 1992. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  8. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in new well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard

  9. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for second quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  10. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for first quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  11. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. One of the FAC piezometers was scheduled for these analyses but was dry. Analytical results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in two wells. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in five wells. Iron exceeded standards in four wells, manganese exceeded standards in two wells, and total organic halogens exceeded standards in one well. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3

  12. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin are sampled quarterly as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with a consent decree signed May 26, 1988, by the US District Court (District of South Carolina, Aiken Division). During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the monitoring wells received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), the SRS flagging criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are the focus of this report. During fourth quarter 1993, tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells, with activities between 3.8E + 01 and 4.6E + 01 pCi/mL. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance was elevated in well HAC 2, total organic halogens exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2 and 3, and manganese was elevated in wells HAC 3 and 4. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard

  13. Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment Plan for the 100-K Area Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a revised groundwater monitoring plan for the K Basins on the Hanford Site. The 100-K Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins) contain irradiated nuclear fuel from past operations at the N Reactor. The fuel is in the process of being removed, stabilized, and transported to a Central Plateau location for interim storage under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project. The various remediation activities and schedule associated with the K Basins are described in Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-34-00. Groundwater monitoring and impact assessment are conducted as a task within the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The regulatory driver for this task is DOE Order 5400.1, which implements requirements of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 with respect to environmental monitoring. This document updates an existing groundwater monitoring and assessment plan for the K Basins to reflect current conditions and revises the monitoring strategy to reflect changing information needs. The goals and purpose associated with this updated plan are: (1) Characterize groundwater conditions between the K Basins and the Columbia River--to provide a periodic status of current conditions and the attenuation of plumes. (2) Distinguish between groundwater contamination associated with K Basins and contamination from other past-practices sources--to help guide operational and remedial action decisions. (3) Maintain a strategy for the potential expansion of monitoring capabilities--to respond to future basin-related issues. The principal elements of the revised strategy include characterizing groundwater movement, monitoring groundwater quality characteristics, identifying evidence for basin shielding water leakage, evaluation and interpretation of results, potential expansion of monitoring location coverage, and earthquake seismicity monitoring. Specific objectives are included in this plan for each of these elements. Primary

  14. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  15. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994, Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P was dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were sampled for the first time during third quarter

  16. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1992 summary from the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; upgradient versus downgradient results; turbidity results exceeding standards; water elevations, flow directions, and flow rates

  17. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for a mixed waste storage facility located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This facility has been used since 1973 for storage of mixed wastes, which contain both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans presented here represent revision and expansion of an effort in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 183-H Basins as part of the regulatory compliance effort being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interimstatus facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The program initially implemented for the 183-H Basins was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. This effort, named the RCRA Compliance Ground-Water Monitoring Project for the 183-H Basins, was implemented. A supporting project involving ground-water flow modeling for the area surrounding the 183-H Basins was also initiated during 1985. Those efforts and the results obtained are described in subsequent chapters of this document. 26 refs., 55 figs., 14 tabs

  18. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during fourth quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 were similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Iron was elevated in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese were elevated in one downgradient well each. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. During 1992, tritium was the only constituent that exceeded the final PDWS. It did so consistently in all four wells during all four quarters, with little variability in activity

  19. Groundwater Monitoring for the 100-K Area Fuel-Storage Basins: July 1996 Through April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VG Johnson; CJ Chou; MJ Hartman; WD Webber

    1999-01-08

    This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring and summarizes current interpretations of conditions influencing groundwater quality and flow in the 100-K Area. The interpretations build on previous work, and statisticzd evaluations of contaminant concentrations were ptiormed for the period July 1996 through April 1998. No new basin leaks are indicated by data from this period. Tritium from a 1993 leak in the KE Basin has been detected in groundwater and appears to be dissi- pating. Tritium and strontium-90 from inactive injection wells/drain fields are still evident near the KW and KE Basins. These contaminants have increased as a result of infiltration of surface water or a higher- " than-average water table. Inactive condensate cribs near the KW and KE Basins resulted in very high tritium and carbon-14 activities in some wells. Recent tritium decreases are attributed to changes in groundwater-flow direction caused by the higher-than-average river stage in 1996-1998, which caused the contaminant plumes to move away from the monitoring wells. Results of the groundwater-monitoring program were used to identi~ and correct factors that may contribute to contaminant increases. For example, some sources of surface-water infiltration have been diverted. Additional work to reduce infiltration through contaminated sediments is planned for fiscal year 1999. Seismic monitoring was recently initiated in the 1OO-K Area to provide an early warning of earth- quake events that could cause basin leakage. The early warning will alert operators to check water-loss rates and consider the need for immediate action.

  20. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1995, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K- Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  1. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During third quarter 1994, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During third quarter 1994, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  2. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1995, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, adionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During first quarter 1995, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  3. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, R61-79.265, Subpart F. One hundred thirty wells provided samples from the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control in December 1990. Historically, as well as currently, tritium, nitrate, mercury, and gross alpha have been the primary constituents observed above the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater at the HASB. Nonvolatile beta has consistently exceeded its drinking water screening level. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also have exceeded the PDWS in the groundwater at the HASB. Isoconcentration maps included in this report indicate both the concentration and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  4. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  5. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B2 and Aquifer Zone 2B1 wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  6. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During third quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  7. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total organic halogens exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  8. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1995, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were completed in the Barnwell/McBean aquifer and were sampled for the first time during third quarter 1994 (first quarter 1995 is the third of four quarters of data required to support the closure of the basin). Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard (50 NTU) in wells FAC 3 and 11C. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  9. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses (exclusive of boron and lithium) and turbidity measurements. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during second quarter 1994. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 3. Specific conductance and total organic halogens were elevated in well HAC 2. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water stable beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the west during second quarter 1994. During previous quarters, the groundwater flow direction has been consistently to the northwest or the north-northwest. This apparent change in flow direction may be attributed to the lack of water elevations for wells HTF 16 and 17 and the anomalous water elevations for well HAC 2 during second quarter

  10. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  11. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB's Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B2 and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B1. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B1 and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  12. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary fro the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  13. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1995, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during third quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during first quarter 1995. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in all four HAC wells. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 2 and 3. Total organic halogens was elevated in well HAC 3. The HAC 3 sample also exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the northwest during first quarter 1995. This data is consistent with previous quarters, when the flow direction has been to the northwest or the north- northwest

  14. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Fourth quarterly 1993 and 1993 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Tritium exceeded its final PDWS in well KAC 7 during fourth quarter 1993. The tritium value reported by the laboratory was approximately fifty times the concentration of any previous sample from that well. The well was resampled and yielded a low, historically-consistent tritium concentration. Therefore, the high tritium value reported this quarter is believed to be the result of a laboratory error. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, 7, and 9. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 6, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 9. Total organic halogens exceeded standards in wells KAC 4 and 6. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard

  15. H-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and Fourth quarters 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoconcentration/isocactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  16. F-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and fourth quarters 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  17. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report

  18. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  19. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  20. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report

  1. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  2. RESULTS OF GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR THE 183-H SOLAR EVAPORATION BASINS AND 300 AREA PROCESS TRENCHES JANUARY - JUNE 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) monitoring at the 183-H solar evaporation basins and the 300 Area process trenches. It fulfills the requirement of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-645(11)(g), 'Release from Regulated Units', to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from January through June 2008. The current objective of corrective action monitoring the 183-H basins is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste (Permit No. WA 7890008967)) and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends. The objective of groundwater monitoring at the 300 Area process trenches is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corrective action program by examining the trend of the constituents of interest to confirm that they are attenuating naturally. The overall concentration of uranium in network wells remained above the 30 (micro)g/L drinking water standard in the three downgradient wells screened at the water table. Fluctuations of uranium concentration are caused by changes in river stage. The concentration of cis-1,2-dichloroethene remained above the 70 (micro)g/L drinking water standard in one well (399-1-16B). Concentrations are relatively steady at this well and are not affected by river stage. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations were below detection limits in all wells during the reporting period

  3. Uranium Groundwater Monitoring and Seismic Analysis: A Case Study of the Gran Sasso Hydrogeological Basin, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletti, Marta; Plastino, Wolfango; Peresan, Antonella; Nisi, Stefano; Copia, Lorenzo; Panza, Giuliano F.; Povinec, Pavel P.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium groundwater anomalies, observed before the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6th, 2009) and before the seismic swarm, which occurred in the second half of 2010, represent a key geochemical signal of a progressive increase of deep fluids fluxes at middle-lower crustal levels associated with the geodynamics of the earthquake. In this paper, temporal variations of uranium groundwater are studied in association with the seismic pattern around Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS-INFN). The normalized seismic energy release and the number of earthquakes are analyzed in detail by means of monthly sliding time windows. They are compared with uranium anomalies to highlight any possible correlation.

  4. Groundwater monitoring results for the 100-K Area fuel storage basins: January 1 to March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel storage basins associated with the 105-KE and 105-KW reactor buildings are currently being used to store irradiated fuel rods from past operations. Each reactor building contains a basin that holds approximately 1.3 million gal of water. The water provides a radiation shield, as well as a thermal sink for heat generated by the stored fuel. Some of the fuel rods stored in the K-East basin have damaged cladding and are stored in open canisters, allowing contact between the metallic uranium fuel and basin water. The interaction results in radionuclides being released to the basin water. Various exchange columns and filters associated with a closed-circuit circulation system are in place to reduce radionuclide concentrations in basin water. Tritium cannot be removed by these methods and is present in K-East basin water at a concentration of several million pCi/L. In contrast, K-West basin, where only fully encapsulated, undamaged fuel is stored, exhibits tritium concentrations at much lower levels--several hundred thousand pCi/L. The water budget for the basins includes water losses resulting from evaporation and possibly leakage, and the addition of make-up water to maintain a specific level. Water loss calculations are based on water level decreases during time intervals when no make-up water is added. A calculated loss rate beyond what is expected due to evaporation and uncertainty in the calculations, is assumed to be leakage to the soil column. Given sufficiently high leakage rates, and/or a preferential pathway for downward migration through the soil column, basin water may contaminate groundwater flowing beneath the basins

  5. The Immatsiak network of groundwater wells in a small catchment basin in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northern Quebec, Canada: A unique opportunity for monitoring the impacts of climate change on groundwater (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.; Therrien, R.; Ouellet, M.; Bart, J.

    2013-12-01

    During a summer drilling campaign in 2012, a network of nine groundwater monitoring wells was installed in a small catchment basin in a zone of discontinuous permafrost near the Inuit community of Umiujaq in Northern Quebec, Canada. This network, named Immatsiak, is part of a provincial network of groundwater monitoring wells to monitor the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. It provides a unique opportunity to study cold region groundwater dynamics in permafrost environments and to assess the impacts of permafrost degradation on groundwater quality and availability as a potential source of drinking water. Using the borehole logs from the drilling campaign and other information from previous investigations, an interpretative cryo-hydrogeological cross-section of the catchment basin was produced which identified the Quaternary deposit thickness and extent, the depth to bedrock, the location of permafrost, one superficial aquifer located in a sand deposit, and another deep aquifer in fluvio-glacial sediments and till. In the summer of 2013, data were recovered from water level and barometric loggers which were installed in the wells in August 2012. Although the wells were drilled in unfrozen zones, the groundwater temperature is very low, near 0.4 °C, with an annual variability of a few tenths of a degree Celsius at a depth of 35 m. The hydraulic head in the wells varied as much as 6 m over the last year. Pumping tests performed in the wells showed a very high hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer. Groundwater in the wells and surface water in small thermokarst lakes and at the catchment outlet were sampled for geochemical analysis (inorganic parameters, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H), and radioactive isotopes of carbon (δ14C), hydrogen (tritium δ3H) and helium (δ3He)) to assess groundwater quality and origin. Preliminary results show that the signature of melt water from permafrost thawing is observed in the

  6. Results of Groundwater Monitoring for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins Reporting Period: July-December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act monitoring at the 183 H basins. It fulfills a requirement of WAC 173-303-645(11)(g) to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from July through December 2006. The current objective of corrective action monitoring is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current RCRA permit and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends.

  7. Groundwater : site scale, catchment scale, basin scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Stephanie; Bloomfield, John; Gooddy, Daren; MacDonald, David; Ward, Rob

    2011-01-01

    There are significant groundwater resources in the Thames Basin (Figure 1) supporting approximately 40 per cent of public water supply. Additionally many of the rivers in the catchment are supported by groundwater from the underlying aquifers. Effective management of both groundwater resources and groundwater-dependent ecosystems requires a good understanding of how our aquifers behave. We must also consider how these systems will respond to future changes, in particular climat...

  8. Groundwater availability of the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S., (Edited By)

    2011-01-01

    The Denver Basin aquifer system is a critical water resource for growing municipal, industrial, and domestic uses along the semiarid Front Range urban corridor of Colorado. The confined bedrock aquifer system is located along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountain Front Range where the mountains meet the Great Plains physiographic province. Continued population growth and the resulting need for additional water supplies in the Denver Basin and throughout the western United States emphasize the need to continually monitor and reassess the availability of groundwater resources. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated large-scale regional studies to provide updated groundwater-availability assessments of important principal aquifers across the United States, including the Denver Basin. This study of the Denver Basin aquifer system evaluates the hydrologic effects of continued pumping and documents an updated groundwater flow model useful for appraisal of hydrologic conditions.

  9. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included

  10. Monitoring of landfill influences on groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfills of waste present serious threat to groundwater. To prevent groundwater pollution from landfill monitoring is performed. Rule of groundwater pollution monitoring from dangerous substances implements principles in Slovene legislation. In everyday practice certain questions arose since validity of the rule. These questions are about responsible parties in monitoring, groundwater distribution in space, target groundwater units, characterization level of the landfill and its surroundings, background values in groundwater, table of content of groundwater monitoring plan, quality of groundwater monitoring network, phases of monitoring, maintenance of monitoring network and activation of piezometers.

  11. Monitoring of landfill influences on groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Brenčič

    2004-01-01

    Landfills of waste present serious threat to groundwater. To prevent groundwater pollution from landfill monitoring is performed. Rule of groundwater pollution monitoring from dangerous substances implements principles in Slovene legislation. In everyday practice certain questions arose since validity of the rule. These questions are about responsible parties in monitoring, groundwater distribution in space, target groundwater units, characterization level of the landfill and its surroundings...

  12. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  13. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC

  14. INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Forbes

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes 2006 perched water and groundwater monitoring activities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During 2006, groundwater samples were collected from a total of 22 Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) monitoring wells, plus six aquifer wells sampled for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) monitoring program. In addition, perched water samples were collected from 21 perched wells and 19 suction lysimeters. Groundwater and perched water samples were analyzed for a suite of radionuclides and inorganic constituents. Laboratory results in this report are compared to drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Such comparison is for reference only and it should be noted that the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision does not require that perched water comply with drinking water standards.

  15. Comparing Groundwater Contamination Vulnerability in Large, Urbanized Basins of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Hudson, G. B.; Leif, R.; Eaton, G. F.

    2002-12-01

    We have sampled over 700 public drinking water wells as part of a study to assess relative contamination susceptibility of the major groundwater basins in California. The parameters used to rank wells according to vulnerability are groundwater age dates (using the tritium-3helium method), stable isotopes of the water molecule (for water source determination), and occurrence of low level Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Long-screened production wells supply clean, high quality samples, and sample the resource that is being used. However, the groundwater age distribution from production wells may be quite broad, and comparisons to the predicted initial tritium value for the measured mean age, along with analysis of radiogenic 4Helium are used to de-convolute the mixed age. Results from the Los Angeles and Orange County Basins, and Santa Clara Valley, will be presented. A large volume of both imported and locally captured water is artificially recharged in these intensively managed basins. An effective confining unit in the Santa Clara Valley basin prevents widespread vertical transport of contaminants down to drinking water wells. In the southern California basins, groundwater age and the frequency of occurrence of low-level VOCs are spatially correlated, with more recently recharged water likely to have VOC detections. 'Pre-modern' water is nearly always free of VOCs, except when a suspected 'short circuit', (e.g., loss of integrity in well casing) allows near surface contamination to reach 'old' water. Methyl-tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) can be a useful time marker in groundwater basins, with water recharged after the 1980's showing traces of MTBE. Water resource managers can use these vulnerability assessments to focus monitoring efforts, site new wells, plan land use, and evaluate remediation activities. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  16. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  17. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  18. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  19. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  20. Groundwater Availability Within the Salton Sea Basin Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A; Demir, Z; Moran, J; Mason, D; Wagoner, J; Kollet, S; Mansoor, K; McKereghan, P

    2008-01-11

    much water can be safely produced from a basin from one year to the next. In this report, we specifically consider two categories of information that comprise, are pertinent to, or facilitate such a groundwater assessment. The first category includes the vast assortment of descriptive geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and climatic data related to the regional groundwater aquifers in the Salton Sea area and the occurrence, movement, production, and quality of groundwater. We will refer to these as Hard Data. They may include, for example, spatially distributed geologic or lithologic information, operational wells, water level monitoring data, and well production reports, groundwater quality information, other land use information, historical precipitation and climatic records, and so forth. The second category includes more interpretive or analytic information based upon, or derived from these data and knowledge of related geologic, hydrologic, chemical, or climatic processes.

  1. Integrated monitoring plan for the Hanford groundwater monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Mercer, R.B.; Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.

    1998-09-01

    Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project (groundwater project), which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project does not include all of the monitoring to assess performance of groundwater remediation or all monitoring associated with active facilities. This document is the first integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.

  2. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. PMID:25747376

  3. California's Adjudicated Groundwater Basins: History, Current Conditions, Potential Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R.; Brown, A.; Rudestam, K.; Conrad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater adjudications are one approach to managing a groundwater basin in California. While the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) established new management requirements for 127 high and medium priority groundwater basins, it exempted all 26 of the state's adjudicated groundwater basins from the Act. The State Water Resources Control Board prioritized the evaluation of these adjudicated basins to assist in aligning the processes and outcomes of adjudication with SGMA's goals for the sustainable management of groundwater. Working with the Board, our research evaluated the history and current condition of all of California's adjudicated basins along with potential future improvements to the adjudication process. Our presentation will provide a summary of our findings and highlight some successful features of the adjudication process along with the challenges adjudicated basins face to achieve long-term sustainable groundwater management. Our discussion will include a review of: whether most adjudications result in groundwater extractions at or near a basins' designated safe yield; whether overdraft conditions are reduced or eliminated over the long term; and the degree of collaboration and inclusion of community stakeholders in the adjudication process. In addition to this overview, we will highlight 3-4 basins with particularly interesting management challenges and solutions. For each of these basins, we will describe the problem that precipitated the need for the adjudication and how adjudication outcomes were influenced by: how the judgment defined and distributed water rights; the management structure and strategies to manage the basin; how safe yield and overdraft are defined and determined; and, importantly, the effectiveness of the adjudication in halting or reversing groundwater overdraft.

  4. Baseline groundwater chemistry : the Palaeogene of the Thames Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bearcock, J.M.; Smedley, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the regional geochemistry of groundwater from the Palaeogene aquifer of the Thames Basin. The aim of the study is to assess the likely natural baseline chemistry of the groundwater by identifying the dominant controlling processes. Data have been collected from strategic sampling of 19 new groundwater samples, along with collation, from various sources, of existing groundwater, rainfall, mineralogical and geochemical data. The Palaeogene aquifer results fr...

  5. Dynamic evaluation of groundwater resources in Zhangye Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiNa Mi; HongLang Xiao; ZhengLiang Yin; ShengChun Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater resource is vital to the sustainable development of socio-economics in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. An estimation of the groundwater resources variation in Zhangye Basin was made during 1985–2013 based on long-term groundwater observation data and geostatistical method. The results show that from 1985 to 2013, groundwater storage exhibited tremendous dissimilarity on temporal and spatial scale for the whole Zhangye Basin, especially before and after implementation of the water diversion policy. Trend of groundwater storage varied from quick to slow decline or increase. The accumulative groundwater storage decreased nearly 47.52×108 m3, and annual average depletion rate reached 1.64×108 m3/a. Among which, the accumulative groundwater storage of the river and well water mixed irrigation district decreased by 37.48×108 m3, accounting for about 78.87% of the total groundwater depletion of the Zhangye Basin. Accumulative depletion of groundwater storage varied in respective irrigation districts. Though groundwater resources depletion rate slowed down from 2005, the overall storage in the whole basin and re-spective districts during 1985–2013 was still in a severe deficit such that, the groundwater resource was in a rather negative balance, which could threaten the local aquifer. This is the joint effect of climate change and human activities, however human activities, such as water diversion policy and groundwater exploitation, became increasingly intense. Our research results could provide a reasonable estimation for the groundwater balance in Zhangye Basin, providing a scientific basis for water resources unified planning and, this method can provide a relatively reliable way of estimation for large scale groundwater resources.

  6. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  7. Groundwater monitoring of hydraulic fracturing in California: Recommendations for permit-required monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carroll, S.; Cherry, J. A.; Jackson, R. B.; Jordan, P. D.; Madrid, V.; Morris, J.; Parker, B. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Varadharajan, C.; Vengosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    California recently passed legislation mandating dedicated groundwater quality monitoring for new well stimulation operations. The authors provided the State with expert advice on the design of such monitoring networks. Factors that must be considered in designing a new and unique groundwater monitoring program include: Program design: The design of a monitoring program is contingent on its purpose, which can range from detection of individual well leakage to demonstration of regional impact. The regulatory goals for permit-required monitoring conducted by operators on a well-by-well basis will differ from the scientific goals of a regional monitoring program conducted by the State. Vulnerability assessment: Identifying factors that increase the probability of transport of fluids from the hydrocarbon target zone to a protected groundwater zone enables the intensity of permit-required monitoring to be tiered by risk and also enables prioritization of regional monitoring of groundwater basins based on vulnerability. Risk factors include well integrity; proximity to existing wellbores and geologic features; wastewater disposal; vertical separation between the hydrocarbon and groundwater zones; and site-specific hydrogeology. Analyte choice: The choice of chemical analytes in a regulatory monitoring program is guided by the goals of detecting impact, assuring public safety, preventing resource degradation, and minimizing cost. Balancing these goals may be best served by tiered approach in which targeted analysis of specific chemical additives is triggered by significant changes in relevant but more easily analyzed constituents. Such an approach requires characterization of baseline conditions, especially in areas with long histories of oil and gas development. Monitoring technology: Monitoring a deep subsurface process or a long wellbore is more challenging than monitoring a surface industrial source. The requirement for monitoring multiple groundwater aquifers across

  8. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M.E., E-mail: mzabala@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzano, M., E-mail: marisol.manzano@upct.es [Escuela de Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos y de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, P° de Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO{sub 3}-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO{sub 4}–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO{sub 2}, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The

  9. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The work studies the origin of

  10. Groundwater's carbon 14 age distribution in the Konya closed basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Konya Closed basin extending from Taurids at the south toward Salt Lake at the north covers and area of 80,000 sq.km. Apart from the surface water transfer from neighboring basins, groundwater is the only potable water resource in this area where determination of groundwater age is crucial in view of understanding of the timing or recharge and flow dynamics. 14C model ages at 8 drilling wells scattered along the regional flow path extending between Taurids and Salt Lake were determined. Results indicate that groundwater age increases progressively from recent to ca. 40 ky BP along the flow path. This linear increase with distance from recharge area suggests a homogenous groundwater velocity distribution (3m/year) in the basin. 14C model and hydraulic (kinematic) ages are in agreement. 18O content of groundwater points out a steady decrease of recharge temperature (up to 60C) throughout the Wurm glacial period

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  12. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  13. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  14. Hydrochemistry of groundwater from Sarabanga Minor Basin, Tamilnadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    K.Srinivasamoorthy; M.Vasanthavigar; S.Chidambaram, et al.

    2012-01-01

    The study area Sarabanga, forms an important Minor river basin of river Cauvery, situated in Salem district. The study area being a hard rock terrain with minimal rainfall and large extraction of groundwater for domestic, irrigational and industrial purposes have threatened the groundwater environment both in the terms of quality and quantity. Hence an attempt has been made to identify the major geochemical process activated for controlling the ground water chemistry. Groundwater was generall...

  15. Groundwater monitoring plan for the proposed state-approved land disposal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.

    1993-10-13

    This document outlines a detection-level groundwater monitoring program for the state-approved land disposal structure (SALDS). The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluent from the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this plan is to present a groundwater monitoring program that is capable of determining the impact of effluent disposal at the SALDS on the quality of groundwater in the uppermost aquifer. This groundwater monitoring plan presents an overview of the SALDS, the geology and hydrology of the area, the background and indicator evaluation (detection) groundwater monitoring program, and an outline of a groundwater quality assessment (compliance) program. This plan does not provide a plan for institutional controls to track tritium beyond the SALDS.

  16. Groundwater monitoring plan for the proposed state-approved land disposal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines a detection-level groundwater monitoring program for the state-approved land disposal structure (SALDS). The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluent from the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this plan is to present a groundwater monitoring program that is capable of determining the impact of effluent disposal at the SALDS on the quality of groundwater in the uppermost aquifer. This groundwater monitoring plan presents an overview of the SALDS, the geology and hydrology of the area, the background and indicator evaluation (detection) groundwater monitoring program, and an outline of a groundwater quality assessment (compliance) program. This plan does not provide a plan for institutional controls to track tritium beyond the SALDS

  17. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  18. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  19. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  20. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  1. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  2. R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50μg/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells

  3. R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50{mu}g/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells.

  4. Summary of Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet summarizes a more detailed report, Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2001. This summary booklet is designed to briefly (1) describe the highlights for fiscal year 2001; (2) identify emerging issued in groundwater monitoring; (3) discuss groundwater flow and movement; and (4) provide an overview of current contamination in the Hanford Site groundwater and vadose zone

  5. Evaluation of Groundwater Storage changes at Konya Closed Basin, Turkey using GRACE-based and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Saber, Mohamed; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in Central Anatolia, Turkey, is the primary grain producer in Turkey. The lack of sufficient surface water resources and recently changing crop patterns have led to over-exploitation of groundwater resources and resulted in significant drop in groundwater levels. For this reason monitoring of the groundwater storage change in this region is critical to understand the potential of the current water resources and to devise effective water management strategies to avoid further depletion of the groundwater resources. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine and assess the utility of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and investigate the groundwater storage changes in the Konya Closed Basin. Groundwater storage changes are derived using GRACE and GLDAS data and then are compared with the groundwater changes derived from the observed groundwater levels. The initial results of the comparison indicate an acceptable agreement between declining trends in GRACE-based and observed groundwater storage change during the study time period (2002 to 2015). Additionally, the results indicated that the study region exhibited remarkable drought conditions during 2007-2008 period. This study shows that the GRACE/GLDAS datasets can be used to monitor the equivalent groundwater storage changes which is crucial for long-term effective water management strategies.

  6. Radionuclide inventories for the F- and H-area seepage basin groundwater plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, Robert A [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, Walter P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    Within the General Separations Areas (GSA) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), significant inventories of radionuclides exist within two major groundwater contamination plumes that are emanating from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. These radionuclides are moving slowly with groundwater migration, albeit more slowly due to interaction with the soil and aquifer matrix material. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify the activity of radionuclides associated with the pore water component of the groundwater plumes. The scope of this effort included evaluation of all groundwater sample analyses obtained from the wells that have been established by the Environmental Compliance & Area Completion Projects (EC&ACP) Department at SRS to monitor groundwater contamination emanating from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. Using this data, generalized groundwater plume maps for the radionuclides that occur in elevated concentrations (Am-241, Cm-243/244, Cs-137, I-129, Ni-63, Ra-226/228, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-233/234, U-235 and U-238) were generated and utilized to calculate both the volume of contaminated groundwater and the representative concentration of each radionuclide associated with different plume concentration zones.

  7. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  8. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tertiary coal seams in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana provide three very important resources: ground water, coal, and natural gas. Ground water from springs and wells is essential for the local agricultural economy. Because coal seams in the Fort Union Formation have higher hydraulic conductivity values and are more continuous than the sandstone units, they are the primary aquifers in this region. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is beginning in the Powder River Basin, and requires removal and management of large quantities of water from the coal-seam aquifers. The extensive pumping required to produce the methane is expected to create broad areas of severe potentiometric decline. The Montana CBM ground-water monitoring program, now in place, is based on scientific concepts developed during more than 30 years of coal-mine hydrogeology research. The program includes inventories of ground-water resources and regular monitoring at dedicated wells and selected springs. The program is now providing baseline potentiometric and water-quality data, and will continue to be active through the duration of CBM production and post-production ground-water recovery. An extensive inventory of ground-water resources in the Montana portion of the Powder River Basin has located 300 springs and 21 wells on private land, and 460 springs and 21 wells on U. S. Forest Service and U. S. Bureau of Land Management land, all producing ground water from the methane bearing strata. In southeastern Montana, 134 monitoring wells are currently included in the CBM monitoring program. They are completed either in coal seams, adjacent sandstone units, or alluvium. During the coal boom of the 1970's and 1980's many monitoring wells were drilled, but most have been since unused. Thirty-six of these existing wells have now been returned to service to decrease start-up costs for the CBM program. This network of existing wells has been augmented at key sites with 26 new wells drilled

  9. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents

  10. Groundwater Resources of the Virgin River Basin in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Water Resources is conducting a study of further water development in the Virgin River Basin. This report examines the effects of groundwater development as a part of the overall study. The study area includes about 1000 square miles in the Central Virgin River Basin east of the Hurricane Fault. The deeply incised Virgin River has cut a youthful drainage network with deep canyons and steep escarpm...

  11. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  12. Groundwater monitoring: Guidelines and methodology for developing and implementing a ground-water quality monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The handbook attempts to structure a cost-effective, generic groundwater pollution monitoring methodology that can be applied either on a regional basis or to site-specific, alternative approaches to monitoring the quality of groundwater at a considerable saving of time and money. Extensive detail is given to the relation of groundwater quality to the geohydrologic framework, constituents in the polluted groundwater, sources and causes of pollution, and use of water. Information is also given about groundwater monitoring techniques used in top soil, the vadose zone, ad the saturated zone. The costs of these techniques are described in figures and tables. Groundwater databases and their applicability to water resources information systems are also covered. Comprehensive site-specific examples are given of how to use the material in the handbook to monitoring major sources of groundwater pollution. Included are in-depth models of hazardous waste disposal, brine disposal, landfill leachate control, oxidation ponds and percolation ponds, septic fields, and agricultural return flow, as well as descriptions of cases of multiple-source municipal and agricultural pollution.

  13. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  14. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  15. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  18. Multi-scale experimental programs for estimating groundwater recharge in hydrologically changing basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Neil; Larsen, Josh; Reading, Lucy; Bulovic, Nevenka; Jarihani, Abdollah; Finch, Warren

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater recharge estimates are required to evaluate sustainable groundwater abstractions and to support groundwater impacts assessments associated with minerals and energy extraction. Increasingly, recharge estimates are also needed for regional and global scale water cycle modelling. This is especially the case in the great arid and semi-arid basins of the world due to increased water scarcity and dependence of ecosystems and livelihoods on their water supplies, and the considerable potential influence of groundwater on the hydrological cycle. Groundwater resources in the semi-arid Surat Basin of south-east Queensland, Australia, support extensive groundwater-dependent ecosystems and have historically been utilised for regional agriculture and urban water-use. Large volumes of water are currently being produced and will continue to do so as a part of coal seam gas extraction. There is considerable uncertainty about the impacts of gas extraction on water resources and the hydrological cycle, and much of this uncertainty stems from our limited knowledge about recharge processes and how to upscale them. Particular questions are about the role of storm events in controlling annual recharge, the relative contributions of local 'recharge zones' versus diffuse recharge and the translation of (relatively easily quantified) shallow drainage estimates to groundwater recharge. A multi-scale recharge research program is addressing these questions, using multiple approaches in estimating groundwater recharge, including plot and catchment scale monitoring, use of remote sensed data and simulation models. Results during the first year of the program have resulted in development of process hypotheses and experimental designs at three field sites representing key gaps in knowledge. The presentation will overview the process of designing the experimental program; how the results from these sites will be integrated with existing knowledge; and how results will be used to advance

  19. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  20. 100-N pilot project: Proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program for the 100-N Pilot Project. This program is the result of a cooperative effort between the Hanford Site contractors who monitor the groundwater beneath the 100-N Area. The consolidation of the groundwater monitoring programs is being proposed to minimize the cost, time, and effort necessary for groundwater monitoring in the 100-N Area, and to coordinate regulatory compliance activities. The integrity of the subprograms requirements remained intact during the consolidation effort. The purpose of this report is to present the proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program and to summarize the process by which it was determined

  1. Groundwater Monitoring Report Generation Tools - 12005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compliance with National and State environmental regulations (e.g. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) aka SuperFund) requires Savannah River Site (SRS) to extensively collect and report groundwater monitoring data, with potential fines for missed reporting deadlines. Several utilities have been developed at SRS to facilitate production of the regulatory reports which include maps, data tables, charts and statistics. Components of each report are generated in accordance with complex sets of regulatory requirements specific to each site monitored. SRS developed a relational database to incorporate the detailed reporting rules with the groundwater data, and created a set of automation tools to interface with the information and generate the report components. These process improvements enhanced quality and consistency by centralizing the information, and have reduced manpower and production time through automated efficiencies. (author)

  2. Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin, Bali Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Tirtomihardjo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i3.123Due to the complex structure of the aquifer systems and its hydrogeological units related with the space in which groundwater occurs, groundwater flows were calculated in three-dimensional method (3D Calculation. The geometrical descritization and iteration procedures were based on an integrated finite difference method. In this paper, all figures and graphs represent the results of the calibrated model. Hence, the model results were simulated by using the actual input data which were calibrated during the simulation runs. Groundwater flow simulation of the model area of the Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin (Denpasar-Tabanan GB comprises steady state run, transient runs using groundwater abstraction in the period of 1989 (Qabs-1989 and period of 2009 (Qabs-2009, and prognosis run as well. Simulation results show, in general, the differences of calculated groundwater heads and observed groundwater heads at steady and transient states (Qabs-1989 and Qabs-2009 are relatively small. So, the groundwater heads situation simulated by the prognosis run (scenario Qabs-2012 are considerably valid and can properly be used for controlling the plan of groundwater utilization in Denpasar-Tabanan GB.

  3. The 14C natural isotope as a tool for monitoring of groundwater exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C natural isotope has been used to monitored exploitation effects within a 10 year interval between 1995 to 2005 in Bontang groundwater basing east Borneo- Indonesia. Exploitation of the groundwater of Bontang basin has occurred since 1981 and at the present the groundwater abstraction for Bontang basin is about 59,000 m3/day to fulfill the necessity of liquid natural gas and fertilizer industries from more than 20 wells. Isotope investigation of the groundwater Bontang basin have been done through water sources sampling like rivers, cold spring deep wells sea water and rain water in 1995 and 2005. The 18O and D isotope data show that deep groundwater originates from local rain water that infiltrates through the slope of mount Lobang Batik. Along the hilly slope zone, it is layered by the sedimentary Kampung Baru Formation. There is no indication that the Mahakam river water infiltrates and sea water intrusion to the deep groundwater. The 14C of isotope data from deep wells show that the average age of 4 wells with distance 2-3 km located from the outcrop of Kampung Baru in 1995 is about 2300 a. There is a decrease of groundwater age since exploitation to around 500 a. Decreasing of groundwater age is possible due to mixing with recent recharge through the Kampung Baru formation. (author)

  4. Groundwater balance estimation and sustainability in the Sandıklı Basin (Afyonkarahisar/Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatma Aksever; Ayşen Davraz; Remzi Karaguzel

    2015-06-01

    The Sandıklı (Afyonkarahisar) Basin is located in the southwest of Turkey and is a semi-closed basin. Groundwater is widely used for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in the basin. The mismanagement of groundwater resources in the basin causes negative effects including depletion of the aquifer storage and groundwater level decline. To assure sustainability of the basin, determination of groundwater budget is necessary. In this study, the water-table fluctuation (WTF) and the meteorological water budget (MWB) methods were used to estimate groundwater budget in the Sandıklı basin (Turkey). Conceptual hydrogeological model of the basin was used for understanding the relation between budget parameters. The groundwater potential of the basin calculated with MWB method as 42.10 × 106 m3/year. In addition, it is also calculated with simplified WTF method as 38.48 × 106 m3/year.

  5. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 μg/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria

  6. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.

  7. Role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of Bengal Basin : Insight from surface complexation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Ashis; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Neidhardt, Harald; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K.; Chatterjee, Debashis; Berner, Zsolt; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic (As) by surface complexation modeling of the temporal variability of As in groundwater. The potential use of two different surface complexation models (SCMs), developed for ferrihydrite and goethite, has been explored to account for the temporal variation of As(III) and As(V) concentration, monitored in shallow groundwater of Bengal Basin over a period of 20 months. The SCM for ferrihydrite appears as the better pre...

  8. P-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P Area: well P 24A in the eastern section of P Area, the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-Area Disassembly Basin, the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit, and the P-Area Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 μg/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P Area appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits

  9. P-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P Area: well P 24A in the eastern section of P Area, the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-Area Disassembly Basin, the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit, and the P-Area Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P Area appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits.

  10. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  11. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  12. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry of Velenje Basin groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia, was investigated between the years 2014 to 2015 to identify the geochemical processes in the major aquifers (Pliocene and Triassic and the water–rock interactions. Thirty-eight samples of groundwater were taken from the aquifers, 19 in the mine and 19 from the surface. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by HCO3–, Ca2+ and Mg2+ with δ13C DIC values in the range from -19.3 to -2.8 ‰, indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Si, and has high alkalinity, with δ13CDIC values in the range of -14.4 to +4.6 ‰. Based on the δ13CDIC values in all the aquifers (Pliocene and Triassic, both processes inflence the dissolution of carbonate minerals and dissolution of organic matter and in the Pliocene aquifers, methanogenesis as well. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and on geochemical and isotopic data we conclude that the following types of groundwater in Velenje Basin are present: Triassic aquifers with higher pH and lower conductivity and chloride, Pliocene, Pliocene 1 and Pliocene 2 aquifers with lower pH and higher conductivity and chloride contents, and Pliocene 3 and Pliocene 2, 3 aquifers with the highest pH values and lowest conductivities and chloride contents. 87Sr/86Sr tracer was used for the fist time in Slovenia to determine geochemical processes (dissolution of silicate versus carbonate fraction in Velenje Basin groundwater of different aquifers dewatering Pliocene and Triassic strata. 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.70820 to 0.71056 in groundwater of Pliocene aquifers and from 0.70808 to 0.70910 in groundwater of the Triassic aquifer. This indicates that dissolution of the carbonate fraction prevails in both aquifers, while in Pliocene aquifers, an additional silicate weathering prevails with

  13. Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs

  14. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3655). The Environmental Protection Agency Notice of Availability was published on January... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin... capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin. We issued a Notice of Intent on...

  15. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2007-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring for FY 2006 on DOE's Hanford Site. Results of groundwater remediation, vadose zone monitoring, and characterization are summarized. DOE monitors groundwater at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Washington Administrative Code (WAC).

  16. Basin wide Nitrate-Nitrogen pollution of groundwater, Miyakonojo, Japan, with the relation of the regional Groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, K.; Shimada, J.; Zikuzono, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Miyakonojo basin is well-known agriculture area in Southern Kyushu, Japan and highly depends on groundwater resources for their everyday use. Local unconfined groundwater aquifer is widely polluted by Nitrate-Nitrogen originated from agriculture. It will become serious problem if this unconfined Nitrate pollution enlarges into the confined aquifer system which is used for local city water source. However, the detailed groundwater flow system between unconfined and confined aquifer system has not been cleared yet. The detailed three dimensional groundwater flow system study has been done by using existing wells in a basin to understand the three dimensional distribution pattern of Nitrate-Nitrogen in the aquifer. The field sampling for unconfined, intermediate and confined groundwater was done in July, 2005 and February, 2006 for about 200 wells to analyze inorganic water chemistry, hydrogen / oxygen stable isotopes and tritium. For the unconfined groundwater, there exists clear difference for the groundwater flow pattern between the eastern and western basin, which is mostly affected by the surface topography. The unconfined groundwater flowed into the confined aquifer at the eastern part of a basin, while in the western part of a basin the unconfined groundwater on a plateau flowed into the confined aquifer somehow, but most part of the unconfined groundwater has been discharge out to small river valleys between plateaus. While for the confined groundwater, the topographic effect has been disappeared and basin scale groundwater flow from the basin margin toward the basin center is dominated. In the unconfined aquifer, basin wide distribution of Nitrate-Nitrogen content has been recognized and it is relatively higher in the western basin where the cattle farming are dominated. While in the confined aquifer, there are some high Nitrate-Nitrogen spots but do not have regional trend. It is considered that some part of the basin has not distributed the welded tuff

  17. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal within the Mercury Valley Administrative Groundwater Basin, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.B. Gilliam; R.W.H. Carroll; G. Pohll; R.L. Hershey

    2006-01-01

    A detailed, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model was created for the Mercury Valley Administrative Groundwater Basin (MVB). The MVB is a distinct groundwater basin as defined by the State of Nevada and is located partially within the boundary of the Nevada Test Site. This basin is being studied as a potential location for new industrial facilities and therefore would be subject to Nevada water-use limitations. The MVB model was used to estimate the volume of water that could be withdrawn from Mercury Valley without inducing laterally or vertically extensive water-table effects. In each model simulation, water-table drawdown was limited to a maximum of 0.5 m at the boundary of the basin and held within the screened interval of the well. Water withdrawal from Nevada groundwater basins is also limited to the State-defined perennial yield for that area. The perennial yield for the MVB is 27,036 m{sup 3}/day. The one existing water-supply well in Mercury Valley is capable of sustaining significantly higher withdrawal rates than it currently produces. Simulations showed this single well could produce 50 percent of the basin?s perennial yield with limited water-table drawdown. Pumping from six hypothetical water-supply wells was also simulated. Each hypothetical well was placed in an area of high hydraulic conductivity and far from the basin's boundaries. Each of these wells was capable of producing at least 50 percent of the basin's perennial yield. One of the hypothetical wells could simulate 100 percent of the perennial yield while staying within drawdown limitations. Multi-well simulations where two or more water-supply wells were simultaneously pumping were also conducted. These simulations almost always resulted in very limited lateral and vertical drawdown and produced 100 percent of Mercury Valley's perennial yield. A water-budget analysis was also conducted for each of the various stress simulations. Each of the

  18. Hydrochemistry of groundwater from Sarabanga Minor Basin, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Srinivasamoorthy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study area Sarabanga, forms an important Minor river basin of river Cauvery, situated in Salem district. The study area being a hard rock terrain with minimal rainfall and large extraction of groundwater for domestic, irrigational and industrial purposes have threatened the groundwater environment both in the terms of quality and quantity. Hence an attempt has been made to identify the major geochemical process activated for controlling the ground water chemistry. Groundwater was generally alkaline with higher EC values. The dominance of anions and cations were of the order of Cl > HCO3 > SO4 > NO3 > PO4 and Na > Ca > Mg > K. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering and Cl from anthropogenic activities. The plot for Ca+Mg to SO4+HCO3, indicates ion exchange process. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca+Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chloride minerals. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

  19. An estimation of groundwater storage variations from GRACE gravity satellites in the Heihe River Basin, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanPing Cao; ZhuoTong Nan; XingLin Hu

    2014-01-01

    There are only limited surface water resources available in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a typical inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China, where groundwater overexploitation is a serious problem. Groundwater has become one of main resources of fresh water in the HRB. In this paper, temporal and spatial variations of groundwater in the HRB are estimated by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. Our analysis shows that groundwater storage in the HRB reaches its highest in the summer of 2005, and then begins to decline in the following years and reaches steady status in 2008. Spatially, groundwater shows a decline in the upper HRB in the first two years and a slight increase in the following years, while this phenomenon is reversed in the middle HRB where groundwater slightly increases in 2005 and then declines in the following three years. In the lower HRB, GRACE detects a continual increase in the full six-year period. This approach is proven successful when employed in the HRB and thus offers a new insight into monitoring groundwater variations in a river basin with limited or even without any observed data.

  20. Groundwater dynamics in the Amazon basin from remotely sensed observations and hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, Frédéric; Papa, Fabrice; Tomasella, Javier; Ramillien, Guillaume; Güntner, Andreas; Emilio, Thaise; Schietti, Juliana; da Silva Carvalho, João

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in the terrestrial hydrological cycle and the water balance on the continents. It accounts for more than 30% (i.e., 8,000,000 km3 to 10,000,000 km3) of global fresh-water resources, and is also the major resource of water supply for 40% of the world's population and 50% of the world's food production. However, groundwater storage and its variations are still poorly known at global scale due to the limited extent of current monitoring networks. Most of the studies on geohydrology in the Amazon basin were carried out at local scale except a recent study that pointed out evidences on regional scale groundwater flows using a geothermal method. Gravimetry from space offers the unique opportunity to monitor water resources at basin to continental scales. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, launched in 2002, detects tiny changes in the Earth's gravity field which can be related to spatio-temporal variations of TWS at monthly or sub-monthly time-scales. Variations in groundwater storage (GW) can be separated from the TWS anomalies measured by GRACE using external information on the other hydrological reservoirs such as in situ observations, model outputs, or both. Very few studies have been undertaken yet in large river basins characterized by extensive wetlands and floodplains, due to the lack of reliable and timely information about the extent, spatial distribution, as well as the amount of water stored in wetlands and floods and their temporal variations. Using multi-satellite observations for surface water storage (SW) and hydrological outputs for soil moisture (SM), variations in GW were estimated in the Negro basin, the second largest tributary of the Amazon in terms of discharge. Here, the same approach was applied in the whole Amazon basin, allowing to estimate the contribution of each hydrological reservoir to TWS, to monitor its time variations, and to map the annual changes in the aquifers over 2003

  1. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  2. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports

  3. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  4. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  5. Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using Gis: A Case Study of Walayar Watershed, Parambikulam-Aliyar-Palar Basin, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balathandayutham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Good groundwater quality is essential for crop yield, soil productivity and environmental protection. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes is determined by its geochemistry. Groundwater geochemistry explains links between chemical composition of groundwater and subsurface geological and non-geological pollutants. Subsurface rock formations control the composition of soil and hence that of water and vegetation. The ground water samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like Electrical Conductivity (EC, Hydrogen ion concentration (pH, Bicarbonate (HCO3-, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Sulphate (SO42-, Nitrate (NO3-, and Chloride (Cl-. Inverse distance weighted method of the Geographical Information Systems is used to prepare the distribution map of physio-chemical parameters of groundwater while overlay method is used to assess spatial, temporal changes and prepare groundwater quality zones of Walayar watershed in Parambikulam-Aliyar-Palar basin situated in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. The results of study show that the quality of groundwater varies both spatially and temporally in Walayar watershed. The groundwater samples in some of the wells showed deviation from water quality standards indicating groundwater contamination. Hence, proper care must be taken to avoid any contamination of groundwater and its quality be monitored periodically.

  6. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence, D.W. Woolery

    2010-07-08

    This document reports the findings of the groundwater and leachate monitoring and sampling at the Environmental restoration Disposal Facility for calendar year 2009. The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  7. Can we monitor groundwater head variation from space? Coupling ERS spaceborne microwave observations to groundwater dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Jong, S M; Van Geer, F. C.; M. F. P. Bierkens

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether the time series of a remote sensing based soil moisture product, referred as the European Remote Sensing Soil Water Index (ERS SWI), correlates to in-situ observations of groundwater heads; and can thus be used for groundwater head prediction. As a test-bed we used the Rhine-Meuse basin, where we have collected thousands of groundwater head time series. Here we performed a correlation analysis between the time series of groundwater heads a...

  8. Ground-water hydraulics of the deep-basin brine aquifer, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin (Texas Panhandle) underlies thick Permian bedded evaporites that are being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste isolation repository. Potentiometric surface maps of 5 units of the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer were drawn using drill-stem test (DST) pressure data, which were analyzed by a geostatistical technique (kriging) to smooth the large variation in the data. The potentiometric surface maps indicate that the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer could be conceptually modeled as 5 aquifer units; a Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) aquifer, upper and lower Pennsylvanian aquifers, a pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer, and a Pennsylvanian to Wolfcampian granite-wash aquifer. The hydraulic head maps indicate that ground-water flow in each of the units is west to east with a minor northerly component near the Amarillo Uplift, the northern structural boundary of the basin. The Wolfcamp potentiometric surface indicates the strongest component of northerly flow. Inferred flow direction in Pennsylvanian aquifers is easterly, and in the pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer near its pinch-out in the basin center, flow is inferred to be to the north. In the granite-wash aquifer the inferred flow direction is east across the northern edge of the basin and southeast along the Amarillo Uplift

  9. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R. L.; Lawrence, B. L.

    2011-06-09

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD2 and the ERDF Amended ROD (EPA 1999). The overall objective of the groundwater monitoring program is to determine whether ERDF has impacted the groundwater. This objective is complicated by the fact that the ERDF is situated downgradient of the numerous groundwater contamination plumes originating from the 200 West Area.

  10. SIR2015-5175, Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley and surrounding groundwater basins, Nevada and California, version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This vector data set contains polygons representing the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater basin and surrounding groundwater basins in Nevada and California.

  11. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table

  12. Building science-based groundwater tools and capacity in Armenia for the Ararat Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Valder, Joshua F.; Anderson, Mark T.; Meyer, Patrick; Eimers, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began a study in 2016 to help build science-based groundwater tools and capacity for the Ararat Basin in Armenia. The growth of aquaculture and other uses in the Ararat Basin has been accompanied by increased withdrawals of groundwater, which has resulted in a reduction of artesian conditions (decreased springflow, well discharges, and water levels) including loss of flowing wells in many places (Armenia Branch of Mendez England and Associates, 2014; Yu and others, 2015). This study is in partnership with USAID/Armenia in the implementation of its Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships (STIP) effort through the Advanced Science and Partnerships for Integrated Resource Development (ASPIRED) program and associated partners, including the Government of Armenia, Armenia’s Hydrogeological Monitoring Center, and the USAID Global Development Lab and its GeoCenter. Scientific tools will be developed through this study that groundwater-resource managers, such as those in the Ministry of Nature Protection, in Armenia can use to understand and predict the consequences of their resource management decisions.

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  14. Improving a Radioisotope Monitoring Network for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Karstic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows the application of geomathematical tools for the design of a radioisotope monitoring network in order to characterize groundwater dynamics in a karstic basin, a very difficult task to acccomplish due to the complex physical, geographical, geologic and hydrogeological characteristics of karstic basins. The sampling frequency of the network has been optimized according to the analysis of the spectrum of variances. In order to evaluate this optimization, the geomathematical model is compared to the results of the mathematical model AQUIMPE. This model solves the flow equation of groundwater using the finite element method. The results validate the design in order to assess aquifer recharge, residence time of groundwater, vulnerability to pollution and groundwater-surface water interaction in this complex water resource. (author)

  15. Fiscal Year 2003 Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the Groundwater Monitoring Project. It documents well and constitutent lists for the monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders.

  16. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure

  17. Environmental Groundwater Monitoring of Jones Creek Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Felix C. Ugbe

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring exercise was carried out in Jones Creek field of Western Niger Delta. The aim was to ascertain the groundwater status of the area where oil exploration has been carried out for over four decades. Ten boreholes were drilled to capture the ground water flow direction. Both in situ and laboratory analyses were conducted on the water samples to ascertain whether or not there is contamination. The status of the groundwater indicates that it meets WHO maximum permissible stan...

  18. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  19. Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Purna river basin, mainly located in Akola and Amaravati districts of Maharashtra in India, is an east-west elongated river valley (20 deg. 10'-21 deg. 25' N latitude and 76 deg. 00'-77 deg. 55' E longitude). About 3000 km2 area out of 7500 km2 area of the inland basin is underlain by saline and brackish groundwater. The Quaternary sediments cover much of the area while the basin margins and the basement is composed mainly of the Deccan Traps. In the alluvial belt, the soil (derived from parent basaltic rock) has dense fabric, fertile but poor hydraulic conductivity with high degree of shrink-swell potential. Na+1 is the dominating cation in the soil and Ca+2, Mg+2 decrease with depth. The electrical conductivity of the groundwaters of the area varies from 400 to over 30000 μS/cm. Some of the earlier studies in the area regarding the origin of salinity suggested intrusion of ancient seawater through Son-Narmada lineament, digenetic alterations, irrigation practices causing accretion and subsequent dissolution of salts in the soil horizons as well as dissolution of salts through the rock matrix. No conclusive inferences could be drawn from these studies. In this study, the problem is tackled by employing isotope and hydrogeochemical techniques. Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to

  20. Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the intensity of precipitation as a result of global warming are expected to be especially pronounced in the tropics. The impact of changing rainfall intensities on groundwater recharge remains, however, unclear. Analysis of a recently compiled data set of coincidental, daily observations of rainfall and groundwater levels remote from abstraction for four stations in the Upper Nile Basin over the period 1999-2008 shows that the magnitude of observed recharge events is better related to the sum of heavy rainfalls, exceeding a threshold of 10 mm day-1, than to that of all daily rainfall events. Consequently, projected increases in rainfall intensities as a result of global warming may promote rather than restrict groundwater recharge in similar environments of the tropics. Further monitoring and research are required to test the robustness of these findings, but the evidence presented is consistent with recent modelling highlighting the importance of explicitly considering changing rainfall intensities in the assessment of climate change impacts on groundwater recharge.

  1. Final report on isotope tracer investigations in the Forebay of the Orange County groundwater basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M; Woodside, G

    2003-12-13

    California is currently faced with some critical decisions about water resource infrastructure development in highly urbanized regions, whose outcome will dictate the future long-term viability of plentiful water. Among these is developing and safely implementing the reuse of advanced treated waste water. One of the most reliable strategies for this water resource is its indirect reuse via groundwater recharge and storage, with particular emphasis on supplementing annual water demand or during drought relief. The Orange County Water District (District) is currently implementing the first phase of a large-scale water reuse project that will advance-treat up to 60 million gallons per day of waste water and recharge it into existing percolation basins in the Forebay region of the Orange County groundwater basin. In order for the District to protect public health, the fate and potability of this recharged waste water needs to be understood. In particular, the direction and rates of flow into underlying aquifers need to be characterized so that changes in water quality can be quantified between the recharge basins and points of production. Furthermore, to ensure compliance to California Department of Health Services (DHS) draft regulations, the direction and rate of recharged waste water from these basins need to be understood to sufficient detail that small mixtures can be delineated in monitoring and production wells. Under proposed DHS guidelines, consumptive use of recycled water is permissive only if its residence time in an aquifer exceeds a specified six-month time-frame. DHS guidelines also limit the percentage of recycled water at production wells. However, attaining such detail using current hydrogeological and computer-assisted modeling tools is either cost-prohibitive or results in uncertainties too large to achieve regulatory confidence. To overcome this technical barrier, the District funded Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from 1995-2001 to

  2. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Adama Toure; Bernd Diekkrüger; Adama Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela bas...

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  5. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  6. FEASIBILITY OF USING FIBER OPTICS FOR MONITORING GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the results of the initial feasibility study for a research program undertaken to develop the technology needed to use fiber optics for monitoring groundwater contaminants. The technology appears especially well suited to the requirements of detection monitori...

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  9. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2005-03-01

    This document presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring for fiscal year 2004 (October 2003 through September 2004)on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State.

  10. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-09-03

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF, to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  11. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss

    2007-12-05

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD.

  12. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss

    2007-05-30

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD.

  13. Calibration of a large-scale groundwater flow model using GRACE data: a case study in the Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Litang; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2015-11-01

    Traditional numerical models usually use extensive observed hydraulic-head data as calibration targets. However, this calibration process is not applicable in remote areas with limited or no monitoring data. This study presents an approach to calibrate a large-scale groundwater flow model using the monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data, which have been available globally on a spatial grid of 1° in the geographic coordinate system since 2002. A groundwater storage anomaly isolated from the terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly is converted into hydraulic head at the center of the grid, which is then used as observed data to calibrate a numerical model to estimate aquifer hydraulic conductivity. The aquifer system in the remote and hyperarid Qaidam Basin, China, is used as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of this approach. A groundwater model using FEFLOW is constructed for the Qaidam Basin and the GRACE-derived groundwater storage anomaly over the period 2003-2012 is included to calibrate the model, which is done using an automatic estimation method (PEST). The calibrated model is then run to output hydraulic heads at three sites where long-term hydraulic head data are available. The reasonably good fit between the calculated and observed hydraulic heads, together with the very similar groundwater storage anomalies from the numerical model and GRACE data, demonstrate that this approach is generally applicable in regions of groundwater data scarcity.

  14. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  15. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  16. Basin Geomorphology and Drainage Morphometry Parame-ters Used as Indicators for Groundwater Prospect:Insight from Geographical Information System (GIS) Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar Avinash; B Deepika; K S Jayappa

    2014-01-01

    Influence of structural and lithological controls of various drainage patterns and their stream orientations (for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order steams) were identified to evaluate the direction and controlling factors of drainage network. To investigate the prospect of groundwater, hydrogeomor-phological features of river basin viz. Mulki-Pavanje were identified and mapped. To evaluate the characteristics of the basin, different morphometric parameters (linear, areal and relief) were com-puted in sub-basin wise (SB-I to -VII). The linear parameters suggest drainage network is controlled by geomorphology. The form factor (Ff), elongation ratio (Re) and circularity ratio (Rc) suggest that the basin is in an elongated shape. The drainage density (Dd) indicates resistant/permeable strata un-der medium-dense vegetation with moderate relief. The areal parameters of the sub-basins (except SB-I and III) indicates moderate ground-slopes associated with moderately permeable rocks, which pro-mote moderate run-off and infiltration. Drainage texture (T) of the whole basin indicates coarse tex-ture while the SB-I, and III showing an intermediate texture. The relief parameters namely rugged-ness number (Rn) infers low basin relief and poor drainage density. To identify the most deficit/surplus zones of groundwater suitable weightages were assigned to the hydrogeomorphological units and morphometric parameters. The study reveal that the basin manifest that SB-III shall be most deficit zone of groundwater, whereas SB-VII, VI and V are found to show increase in groundwater potential-ity. Groundwater prospect area in this basin is estimated to be 7% area under poor, 44% area under moderate and 49% area under good to excellent. This paper demonstrated the potential application of geographical information system (GIS) techniques to evaluate the groundwater prospect in absence of traditional groundwater monitoring data.

  17. Radon distribution in groundwater of the Po sedimentary basin (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    222Rn in groundwaters from some areas of the Po sedimentary basin characterized by different hydrological conditions has been determined by alpha-ray activity. Aquifers of three different lithological domains have been considered: (a) an Apennine one, mainly sedimentary (Emilia); (b) an Alpine one, predominantly igneous acid-subacid (Lombardy); and (c) another Alpine one, mainly calcareous (Verona plain). In the first two areas, recent continental waters, waters with a long residence in the aquifers (paleowaters) and sodium chloride waters formed by squeezing of underlying marine sediments have been investigated. In the Verona area, thermal waters coming from deep fissured carbonate formations were analyzed. Rn content is significantly different in the various areas (averages: Lombardy plain, 392; Emilia upper plain, 291; Emilia lower plain, 142; sodium chloride waters, 160; paleowaters, 168 pCi/l). For the Verona thermal waters, the Rn values correlate with temperature and geothermal indicators (SiO2, etc). Hydrodynamic parameters within the aquifers seem to control the Rn distribution in groundwaters circulating in unconsolidated sediments. Factors governing the generation of 222Rn in the rock grains as well as parameters and processes contributing to its transport into the circulating fluids are discussed. Besides known parameters the effect of water molecules, bonded to solid-fluid interfaces on the Rn concentation in the fluids is considered. The release of Rn from these molecules into the circulating fluids is discussed in relation to fluid movement and temperature. (Auth.)

  18. Vadose Zone Monitoring System as a Tool for Groundwater Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.

    2007-05-01

    Subsurface monitoring for groundwater protection from pollution hazards has traditionally been based on culling information from the groundwater. This information is usually retrieved from boreholes penetrating the saturated section of the groundwater. Accordingly, the entire path and fate of pollutants transported from land surface through the vadose zone to the groundwater is evaluated from the chemical and physical state of the water which has been sampled from a well. That monitoring procedure is well founded in both scientific studies and through legislative acts which enforce groundwater monitoring for potential sources of pollution. However, this creates a paradox since, by definition, identification of pollution in groundwater means that the groundwater is already polluted. Moreover, since vertical transport in the vadose zone and lateral flow in the groundwater are very slow processes, pollution identification in a well may take years or decades. As a result, the total mass of pollutant that has penetrated the subsurface may be extremely high by the time it has been identified. Finally, pollution identification in a well usually reveals only the edges of a much larger pollutant plume. Accordingly, identification of pollution in the vadose zone right under the pollution source, long before it shows up in the groundwater, should be the key to groundwater protection. The need for real-time information on the quality of percolating water led to the development of a new vadose- zone monitoring system. The new monitoring system is designed to provide continuous measurements of the soil water content and water potential, while allowing pore-water sampling all along the vadose-zone cross section. The installation technique allows monitoring of the vadose-zone cross section under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. The new monitoring system is comprised of special flexible TDR (FTDR) probes, assembled with special vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) that function

  19. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from 100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from 50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation with groundwater can complicate the use of tritium alone for age dating. The presence of radiogenic helium-4 in several samples with measurable tritium provides evidence of mixing between pre-modern and younger groundwater. Groundwater age-depth relationships are complicated, consistent with transient flow patterns in shallow agricultural groundwaters affected by irrigation pumping and recharge. For the multi-level installations in the southern dairies, both depth profiles and re-sampling after significant changes in groundwater elevation emphasize the need to sample

  20. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950–2015) through future (2016–2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  1. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950-2015) through future (2016-2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  2. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  3. Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modelling of the Collins Creek Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (part of the Areva Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in Northern Saskatchewan, where it produces uranium concentrate. Understanding groundwater flow at the regional scale underlies long term predictions for the performance of decommissioned tailings management facilities and waste rock disposal sites. A three dimensional regional groundwater flow model was developed to update and integrate the hydrogeological information relevant to environmental assessments or licensing analyses of the JEB, Sue, McClean Lake and Midwest sites operated by COGEMA Resources Inc. in Northern Saskatchewan. The regional model is based on a comprehensive geological and hydrogeological database, including more than 4200 exploration boreholes, 1000 hydraulic conductivity test results and water levels recorded at approximately 150 monitoring wells. Monthly surface water and groundwater quality data are also available from approximately 1996. The model was calibrated on both pre-mining and dewatered conditions. It was used to identify the hydraulic role of key regional features, including numerous surface water bodies, major fracture/fault zones and the sandstone unit, which constitutes the main aquifer over the study area. The regional model was also used to identify natural boundaries for local sub-models, which were extracted for the purpose of predicting post-decommissioning flow and contaminant transport from the Sue C Pit waste rock disposal area and from the JEB Tailings Management Facility. A follow-up programme was identified based on the data analysis and the results of the regional model. The follow-up programme includes research-related and ongoing actions, with the objective of improving the robustness of model predictions for regulatory purposes and optimizing monitoring as data continues to be collected. (author)

  4. Spatiotemporal Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the South Platte Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruybal, C. J.; McCray, J. E.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South Platte Basin is one of the most economically diverse and fastest growing basins in Colorado. Strong competition for water resources in an over-appropriated system brings challenges to meeting future water demands. Balancing the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater from the South Platte alluvial aquifer and the Denver Basin aquifer system is critical for meeting future demands. Over the past decade, energy development in the basin has added to the competition for water resources, highlighting the need to advance our understanding of the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources. Current work includes evaluating groundwater storage changes and recharge regimes throughout the South Platte Basin under competing uses, e.g. agriculture, oil and gas, urban, recreational, and environmental. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites in conjunction with existing groundwater data is used to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in groundwater storage and identify areas of high water stress. Spatiotemporal data will also be utilized to develop a high resolution groundwater model of the region. Results will ultimately help stakeholders in the South Platte Basin better understand groundwater resource challenges and contribute to Colorado's strategic future water planning.

  5. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater at the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrates, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceed the GWPS in the groundwater during the second half of 1995, notably cadmium, lead, radium-226, radium-228, strontium-90, and total alpha-emitting radium. The elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (aquifer zone IIB2), however, several other aquifer unit monitoring wells contained elevated levels of constituents. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  6. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrates, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceed the GWPS in the groundwater during the second half of 1995, notably cadmium, lead, radium-226, radium-228, strontium-90, and total alpha-emitting radium. The elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (aquifer zone IIB{sub 2}), however, several other aquifer unit monitoring wells contained elevated levels of constituents. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  7. Can we monitor groundwater head variation from space? Coupling ERS spaceborne microwave observations to groundwater dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; de Jong, S. M.; van Geer, F. C.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether the time series of a remote sensing based soil moisture product, referred as the European Remote Sensing Soil Water Index (ERS SWI), correlates to in-situ observations of groundwater heads; and can thus be used for groundwater head prediction. As a test-bed we used the Rhine-Meuse basin, where we have collected thousands of groundwater head time series. Here we performed a correlation analysis between the time series of groundwater heads and ERS SWI spatio-temporal maps of profile soil moisture content. Results show that there is a significant correlation between ERS SWI and groundwater heads. Correlation is strongest in areas with shallow groundwater. The correlation improves for most areas, including those with deep groundwater tables, if we account for the lag time (i.e. the response time of water from the upper unsaturated soil moisture zone to the saturated deeper groundwater bodies) by adding a time delay to the correlation analysis. We further investigated the possibility of using the ERS SWI to predict or estimate groundwater heads in two exercises in which we used the ERS SWI as the input of a transfer function-noise (TFN) model. (1) As a first exercise we focused on forecasting in time. For this, we calibrated the parameters of a TFN model to the head time series within the period 1995-2000 by embedding it in a Kalman filter algorithm. Once calibrated, we validated the TFN one-step-ahead forecasts for the period 2004-2007 in order to assess their prediction skill in time. (2) In a second exercise, we focused on spatio-temporal prediction. Here, we sampled the calibrated TFN parameters, derived in the first exercise, from a few selected head measurement locations. We then used these sampled TFN parameters to fit a spatial regression model with landscape attributes derived from a digital elevation model as input. The fitted regression model was subsequently used to estimate TFN parameters in all

  8. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2006-02-28

    This report is one of the major products and deliverables of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessment Projects detailed work plan for FY 2006, and reflects the requirements of The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan (PNNL-15014). This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2005 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the west-central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas. Technetium-99 and uranium plumes exceeding standards are present in the 200 Areas. A uranium plume underlies the 300 Area. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. Resource Conservation and

  9. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health ampersand Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a 'capture zone' that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater

  10. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  11. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V. [eds.] [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  12. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems

  13. Iodine mobilization in groundwater system at Datong basin, China: Evidence from hydrochemistry and fluorescence characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterizing the speciation of iodine in groundwater is essential for understanding its hydrogeochemical behavior in aquifer systems. To quantify the variations in iodine speciation and assess factors controlling the distribution and transformation of iodine, 82 groundwater samples and 1 rain water were collected from the Datong basin, northern China in this study. Factor analysis (FA) and excitation emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) were used to clarify the potential relationships among iodine species and other hydrochemical parameters. The iodine concentrations of groundwater range from 6.23 to 1380 μg L−1 with 47% of samples exceeding its drinking water level of 150 μg L−1 as recommended by the Chinese government. 57% of samples have ratios of iodate to total iodine greater than 60%, while iodide as the major species in 22% of the samples. Significant amounts of organic iodine with concentrations higher than 100 μg L−1 were observed in 9 groundwater samples. Redox conditions of groundwater system strongly affect iodine concentration and speciation of inorganic iodine in groundwater, and extremely reducing condition restricts the iodine release from sediments into groundwater. The results of FA show that iodine mobilization in groundwater is related to the nature of dissolved organic matter. EEM-PARAFAC model demonstrates the dominance of terrestrial DOM sources and the presence of microbial activities in groundwater system of the Datong basin. It is proposed that degradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides are major hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the mobilization of iodine release and the genesis of organic iodine. - Highlights: • Iodine species in groundwater was studied from Datong basin, northern China. • Weakly alkaline environment favors the accumulation of iodine in groundwater. • Iodate is the major species of iodine in groundwater from Datong basin. • Redox

  14. Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hansen, A.J., Jr.; Skrivan, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

  15. Hydrogeochemistry of high-fluoride groundwater at Yuncheng Basin, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope methods were integrated to delineate the spatial distribution and enrichment of fluoride in groundwater at Yuncheng Basin in northern China. One hundred groundwater samples and 10 Quaternary sediment samples were collected from the Basin. Over 69% of the shallow groundwater (with a F− concentration of up to 14.1 mg/L), 44% of groundwater samples from the intermediate and 31% from the deep aquifers had F− concentrations above the WHO provisional drinking water guideline of 1.5 mg/L. Groundwater with high F− concentrations displayed a distinctive major ion chemistry: Na-rich and Ca-poor with a high pH value and high HCO3− content. Hydrochemical diagrams and profiles and hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions indicate that variations in the major ion chemistry and pH are controlled by mineral dissolution, cation exchange and evaporation in the aquifer systems, which are important for F− mobilization as well. Leakage of shallow groundwater and/or evaporite (gypsum and mirabilite) dissolution may be the major sources for F− in groundwater of the intermediate and deep aquifers. - Highlights: • High-F− groundwater widely occurs in Yuncheng Basin of northern China. • High-F− groundwater is Na and HCO3-rich and Ca-poor, with high pH. • Major hydrogeochemical processes are mineral dissolution, ion exchange and evaporation. • Shallow groundwater leakage/evaporite dissolution may cause F enrichment in lower aquifers

  16. Radiocarbon dating of groundwater in tertiary sediments of the eastern Murray Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tertiary sediments located in the eastern part of the Murray Basin contain one of the most important low salinity groundwater resources in New South Wales. It is imperative that the hydrogeological environment in which the groundwater occurs be thoroughly understood to allow adequate management of the resource. A radiocarbon dating project was carried out on 37 groundwater samples from bores screened in these unconsolidated sediments. The results indicate water ages in the range 'modern' to 15 800 years. Groundwater recharge areas are indicated and rates of groundwater recharge and movement determined. The latter shows close correlation with velocity values quantitatively determined by Darcy's law

  17. Optimizing Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Integrated Statistical and Geostatistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.

  18. On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Rosenberg; Clark, E A; Steinemann, A. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwat...

  19. Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The δ D - δ 18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. δ 18O - Cl -1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The δ 34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concluded that, the deeper saline waters are old waters; their salinity is predominantly Na-Cl type. The mechanism of salinisation appears to be owing to evaporation, dissolution, and leaching of salts from formation. The isotope study also indicates their non-marine origin of salinity

  20. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the open-quotes Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967close quotes, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure

  1. Tritium and stable isotopes analyses of groundwater in Yiluo River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has carried out the analysis of tritium and stable isotopes of surface water and groundwater to evaluate the groundwater flow system in the Yiluo River basin, China. 1) Tritium concentrations of the groundwater in the slope of the southern and northwestern mountain range were higher than 10 T.U. and suggested that the residence time of these groundwater was younger than 50 years. On the other hand, tritium concentrations of the deep groundwater along the Yiluo River and in the lower area of the basin were very low. Therefore, the residence time were estimated to be longer than 60 years. 2) The stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen of the groundwater showed relatively low value in the southern peripheral part of the basin and showed relatively high value in the central part. In the eastern part, down-stream part, and the southeastern part of the basin, groundwater with low δD and δ18O flows toward the lower area of the basin. (author)

  2. On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rosenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM, which represents an unconfined aquifer underlying the soil column. These estimates are compared to those resulting from basin-scale water balances derived exclusively from observational data and changes in terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites. Changes in simulated groundwater storage are then compared to those derived via baseflow recession analysis for 72 reference-quality watersheds. Finally, estimates are statistically analyzed for relationships to interannual streamflow anomalies, and predictive capacities are compared across storage terms. We find that both model simulations result in similar estimates of total basin storage change, that these estimates compare favorably with those obtained from basin-scale water balances and GRACE data, and that baseflow recession analyses are consistent with simulated changes in groundwater storage. Statistical analyses reveal essentially no relationship between groundwater storage and interannual streamflow anomalies, suggesting that operational seasonal streamflow forecasts, which do not account for groundwater conditions implicitly or explicitly, are likely not detrimentally affected by this omission in the Colorado River basin.

  3. On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rosenberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM, which represents an unconfined aquifer underlying the soil column. These estimates are compared to those resulting from basin-scale water balances derived exclusively from observational data and changes in terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites. Changes in simulated groundwater storage are then compared to those derived via baseflow recession analysis for 72 reference-quality watersheds. Finally, estimates are statistically analyzed for relationships to interannual streamflow anomalies, and predictive capacities are compared across storage terms. We find that both model simulations result in similar estimates of total basin storage change, that these estimates compare favorably with those obtained from basin-scale water balances and GRACE data, and that baseflow recession analyses are consistent with simulated changes in groundwater storage. Statistical analyses reveal essentially no relationship between groundwater storage and interannual streamflow anomalies, suggesting that operational seasonal streamflow forecasts, which do not account for groundwater conditions implicitly or explicitly, are likely not detrimentally affected by this omission in the Colorado River basin.

  4. Analysis on groundwater evolution and interlayer oxidation zone position at the southern margin of Yilin basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development and evolution history of groundwater and its reworking to the interlayer oxidation zone, hydrogeochemical zonation of interlayer oxidation zone, mechanism of water-rock interaction and transportation pattern of uranium in the water in Yili Basin. It is suggested that groundwater is one of the important factors to control the development of interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization. (authors)

  5. Spatial analysis of soil and shallow groundwater physicochemical parameters in El-Mujib Basin-central Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Abeer; Al-Qinna, Mohammed; Kuisi, Mustafa Al

    2014-01-01

    In this study statistical and geostatistical methods were applied to a monitoring data set in order to assess contamination risk in soil and shallow groundwater. The study covered an area within El-Mujib Basin in central Jordan, where the barren land is dominating with a small number of irrigated areas in the vicinity of Wadi El-Mujib and in the northern part of the basin. A total of 77 soil and 104 water samples were collected randomly and analyzed physically, chemically, statistically and spatially using ordinary and indicator kriging techniques. Phosphate, nitrate, organic matter and effective field capacity in the soil system were spatially investigated and correlated to current landuse. Maximum soil maximum nitrate (125.6 mg/L), phosphate (9.7 mg/L), and organic matter (3%) contents are encountered in the central area at Wadi El-Mujib, Qattrana and Umm Rasas due to the use of fertilizers and existence of solid landfill. The soil has low water holding capacity as it is dominated by coarse texture and therefore subjecting the groundwater for potential risks through the fast soil system. The major cations and anions in the groundwater were mainly concentrated in the Wadi El-Mujib and in the central part of the Basin increases along the groundwater flow direction. Spatial groundwater indicator maps of salinity; nitrate and sulfate contents proves the high susceptibility of the study area to be contaminated. By determining the impacts, more effective (specific to contamination sources) measures for preventing groundwater quality could be implemented.

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  8. An isotope hydrochemical approach to understand fluoride release into groundwaters of the Datong Basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chunli; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Zhu, Yapeng

    2015-04-01

    The hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of high fluoride (up to 8.26 mg L(-1)) groundwater in the Datong Basin, Northern China were carried out in order to evaluate the geochemical controls on fluoride enrichment. The groundwater fluoride concentration tends to increase along with the regional groundwater flow path away from the basin margins, towards the central parts of the basin. Groundwater with high F concentrations has a distinctive major ion chemistry, being generally HCO3(-)-rich, Na-rich, Ca-poor, and having weak alkaline pH values (7.2 to 8.2) and Na-HCO3 waters. These data indicate that variations in the groundwater major ion chemistry and possibly pH, which are controlled by water-rock interaction processes in the aquifer, are important in mobilizing F. Positive correlations between fluoride with lithogenic sodium (LNa) and HCO3(-) in groundwater show that the high fluoride content and alkaline sodic characteristics of groundwater result from dissolution of fluorine-bearing minerals. The occurrence and behavior of fluorine in groundwater are mainly controlled by fluorite precipitation as a function of Ca(2+) concentration. A positive correlation between fluoride and δ(18)O, low F(-)/Cl(-) ratios, and the low tritium level in the fluoride-rich groundwater indicate the effects of long-term water-rock interactions and intensive evapotranspiration. PMID:25743227

  9. CY2003 RCRA GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELL SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, C.R.

    2003-12-16

    This report describes the calendar year (CY) 2003 field activities associated with the installation of two new groundwater monitoring wells in the A-AX Waste Management Area (WMA) and four groundwater monitoring wells in WMA C in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. All six wells were installed by Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH) for CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) in support of Draft Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) M-24-00 milestones and ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) groundwater monitoring requirements. Drilling data for the six wells are summarized in Table 1.

  10. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on (1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and (2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants

  11. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on 1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and 2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants.

  12. Characteristics of high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun Zhu; XueYong Zhao; Min Chen; YongQing Luo; Xin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Hetao Basin is one of the most seriously arsenic-affected groundwater areas in China. In order to understand the characteristics of high arsenic (As) groundwater in the Basin, a brief overview of arsenic in groundwater follows. High arsenic in the Basin commonly occurs in shallow groundwater and the total arsenic concentrations range from 0.58 to 572 µg/L (average 99.73 µg/L), exceeding the maximum mandated value of 10 µg/L for drinking water in China;As(Ш) is the predominant species. The regional distribution pattern of arsenic in the groundwater increases from south/southeast to north/northwest. Hangjinhouqi and Wuyuan counties are considered as the most seriously affected areas, with high incidences of endemic arsenicosic diseases in the Hetao Basin. High groundwater arsenic correlates with the increase of well depth. Previous studies proposed that groundwater arsenic in the Basin is mainly originated from desorption of some natural solid materials in the sediments, under reducing condition. Generally, reducing condition is believed to be the primary factor for arsenic releasing from the sediment to groundwater in the region. Under inorganic or bacterial processes, Fe2O3 changes to FeS and arsenic adsorbed to Fe(OH)3 dissolves into groundwater, and As(V) is re-duced to As(Ш). Besides, reducing environments, groundwater hydraulic gradients, organic matter, pH, evapotranspiration, and soil texture are presumed to be the predominant factors that control arsenic mobilization.

  13. Regional groundwater flow and geochemical evolution in the Amacuzac River Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Casique, Eric; Guinzberg-Belmont, Jacobo; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    2016-05-01

    An approach is presented to investigate the regional evolution of groundwater in the basin of the Amacuzac River in Central Mexico. The approach is based on groundwater flow cross-sectional modeling in combination with major ion chemistry and geochemical modeling, complemented with principal component and cluster analyses. The hydrogeologic units composing the basin, which combine aquifers and aquitards both in granular, fractured and karstic rocks, were represented in sections parallel to the regional groundwater flow. Steady-state cross-section numerical simulations aided in the conceptualization of the groundwater flow system through the basin and permitted estimation of bulk hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates and residence times. Forty-five water locations (springs, groundwater wells and rivers) were sampled throughout the basin for chemical analysis of major ions. The modeled gravity-driven groundwater flow system satisfactorily reproduced field observations, whereas the main geochemical processes of groundwater in the basin are associated to the order and reactions in which the igneous and sedimentary rocks are encountered along the groundwater flow. Recharge water in the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary aquifers increases the concentration of HCO3 -, Mg2+ and Ca2+ from dissolution of plagioclase and olivine. Deeper groundwater flow encounters carbonate rocks, under closed CO2 conditions, and dissolves calcite and dolomite. When groundwater encounters gypsum lenses in the shallow Balsas Group or the deeper Huitzuco anhydrite, gypsum dissolution produces proportional increased concentration of Ca2+ and SO4 2-; two samples reflected the influence of hydrothermal fluids and probably halite dissolution. These geochemical trends are consistent with the principal component and cluster analyses.

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  15. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes

  16. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future. PMID:24221557

  17. Assessment of the Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality of the Tarim River Basin in an Extreme Arid Region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca2+-HCO3 - water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na+-Cl- water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B3+, F-, and SO4 2- and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  18. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  19. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1997 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. This is the eighth and final sampling event of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This program monitored the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond that had been used to store drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the predecessor agency to the DOE) and Austral Oil Company (Austral)

  20. The origin of groundwater in Zhangye Basin, northwestern China, using isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Su, Zhiguo; Yong, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Zhangye Basin, in arid northwestern China, has recently been repeatedly flooded by rising groundwater. Isotope signatures of sampled waters gained insight into the recharge source of the groundwater. The summer Heihe River water and most of the spring water in Zhangye and Yongchang basins plotted above the global meteoric water line (GMWL) on the δ18O-δD plot. The spring water had R/Ra ratio >1, low TDS and high tritium, which indicates origin from Qilian Mountain glacier meltwater. The groundwater of Qilian Mountains was transported to the Hexi Corridor (in which Zhangye Basin is located) through underground fault zones. Additionally, some of the groundwater in the alluvial plain, and all spring water surrounding Zhangye Basin, plotted below the GMWL on the δ18O-δD plot along an evaporation line, and had R/Ra ratio < 1 and high TDS. It is proposed that the Tibetan rivers or lakes source the Hexi Corridor groundwater through either the NE-trending or NW-trending buried fault zones. The isotopic signatures presented as part of this study rule out the conventional viewpoint that groundwater of the Zhangye Basin was recharged by local precipitation and infiltration of Heihe River water on the alluvial plain.

  1. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2004-04-12

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2003 (October 2002 through September 2003) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium, nitrate, and some other contaminants continued to exceed drinking water standards in groundwater discharging to the river in some locations. However, contaminant concentrations in river water remained low and were far below standards. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. Uranium exceeds standards in the 300 Area in the south part of the Hanford Site. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act'' is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon

  2. Groundwater Depletion During Drought Threatens Future Water Security of the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Reager, John T.; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow of the Colorado River Basin is the most overallocated in the world. Recent assessment indicates that demand for this renewable resource will soon outstrip supply, suggesting that limited groundwater reserves will play an increasingly important role in meeting future water needs. Here we analyze 9 years (December 2004 to November 2013) of observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission and find that during this period of sustained drought, groundwater accounted for 50.1 cu km of the total 64.8 cu km of freshwater loss. The rapid rate of depletion of groundwater storage (5.6 +/- 0.4 cu km/yr) far exceeded the rate of depletion of Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Results indicate that groundwater may comprise a far greater fraction of Basin water use than previously recognized, in particular during drought, and that its disappearance may threaten the long-term ability to meet future allocations to the seven Basin states.

  3. Relationship between River Flow, Rainfall and Groundwater pumpage in Mikkes Basin (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Belhassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between river flow, rainfall and groundwater pumpage in the Mikkes stream during the period 1968-2009. The Mikkes basin is located in the north center of Morocco and consists of three different zones that represent diversified geologies. This basin includes a phreatic and confined aquifer in Saïs basin and a shallow aquifer in the Tabular Middle Atlas. Analysis of monthly medium flows between 1968 and 2009 shows an approximate oceanic system which is c...

  4. Hydrodynamic modeling for groundwater assessment in Sana'a Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwathaf, Yahia; El Mansouri, Bouabid

    2012-11-01

    Yemen is a semi-arid country with very limited water resources. Sana'a Basin is located in the central part of Yemen and is the major source of water for drinking and irrigation. High abstraction rates in Sana'a Basin rising from 21.1 million (M) m3 in 1972 to 227.7 Mm3 in 2006, have led to a major decline in water levels and deterioration in groundwater quality. Effective management of groundwater resources in Sana'a Basin can be aided by modelling. FEFLOW was used to build a groundwater flow model for the basin and the model was calibrated under transient conditions for the period 1972-2006. The water balance for transient conditions of the Sana'a Basin in 2006 indicated that the total annual inflow was 116.9 Mm3, and the total annual outflow was 245.8 Mm3. Three scenarios for potential groundwater extraction for the period 2006-2020 are presented. The first represents the present status based on the 2006 extraction rates without introducing any management measures. The second is based on maximum domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption of water resources. The third simulates the effect of water-resource augmentation, i.e. the increase of groundwater recharge, and maximizes sustainability by reducing water consumption. Identified areas of the basin require prompt management action.

  5. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E. [eds.] [and others

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium`s ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level.

  6. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium's ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level

  7. Investigation on shallow groundwater in a small basin using natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conducted an investigation on shallow groundwater using natural radioisotopes as indicators in the small basin of the Hinuma River, Kasama City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. 3H concentrations in the groundwater showed that it originated from precipitation in the 1960's. Since 222Rn concentrations decreased as groundwater flowed downstream, they were influenced by infiltration of surface water. Especially, during the irrigation period, the decrease of 222Rn concentrations was remarkable in the lowland. From the distribution of 222Rn concentrations in surface water, the sections where groundwater seeped into a river were found, and a quantitative analysis of groundwater seepage in the two sections was conducted on the basis of 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and in surface water. The ratios of groundwater seepage to the flow at the upstream station for the two sections were about 5% and 10%, respectively. The water movement within the basin, i.e., the actual manner in which surface water infiltrated underground and groundwater seeped into a river, was clarified by analyzing the variations of natural radioisotope concentrations in water and the water balance of the basin. (author)

  8. A study of interaction between surface water and groundwater using environmental isotope in Huaisha River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Xianfang; LIU; Xiangchao; XIA; Jun; YU; Jingjie; TANG; Changyuan

    2006-01-01

    The surface water and groundwater are important components of water cycle,and the interaction between surface water and groundwater is the important part in water cycle research.As the effective tracers in water cycle research,environmental isotope and hydrochemistry can reveal the interrelationships between surface water and groundwater effectively.The study area is the Huaisha River basin,which is located in Huairou district,Beijing.The field surveying and sampling for spring,river and well water were finished in 2002 and 2003.The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and water quality were measured at the laboratory.The spatial characteristics in isotope and evolution of water quality along river lines at the different area were analyzed.The altitude effect of oxygen isotope in springs was revealed,and then using this equation,theory foundation for deducing recharge source of spring was estimated.By applying the mass balance method,the annual mean groundwater recharge rate at the catchment was estimated.Based on the groundwater recharge analysis,combining the hydrogeological condition analysis,and comparing the rainfall-runoff coefficients from the 1960s to 1990s in the Huaisha River basin and those in the Chaobai River basin,part of the runoff in the Huaisha River basin is recharged outside of this basin,in other words,this basin is an un-enclosed basin.On the basis of synthetically analyses,combining the compositions of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and hydrochemistry,geomorphology,geology,and watershed systems characteristics,the relative contributions between surface water and groundwater flow at the different areas at the catchments were evaluated,and the interaction between surface water and groundwater was revealed lastly.

  9. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.

    1996-04-24

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled biannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500- 1120 (formerly DWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane was elevated in one downgradient and one sidegradient well during 1995. Barium, 1, 1- dichloroethylene, specific conductance, and zinc exceeded standards in one well each. The elevated level of 1, 1-dichloroethylene occurred in a downgradient well. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 190 ft/year during first quarter 1995 and 150 ft/yr during third quarter 1995.

  10. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground-water

  11. Compliance Groundwater Monitoring of Nonpoint Sources - Emerging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring networks are typically designed for regulatory compliance of discharges from industrial sites. There, the quality of first encountered (shallow-most) groundwater is of key importance. Network design criteria have been developed for purposes of determining whether an actual or potential, permitted or incidental waste discharge has had or will have a degrading effect on groundwater quality. The fundamental underlying paradigm is that such discharge (if it occurs) will form a distinct contamination plume. Networks that guide (post-contamination) mitigation efforts are designed to capture the shape and dynamics of existing, finite-scale plumes. In general, these networks extend over areas less than one to ten hectare. In recent years, regulatory programs such as the EU Nitrate Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act have forced regulatory agencies to also control groundwater contamination from non-incidental, recharging, non-point sources, particularly agricultural sources (fertilizer, pesticides, animal waste application, biosolids application). Sources and contamination from these sources can stretch over several tens, hundreds, or even thousands of square kilometers with no distinct plumes. A key question in implementing monitoring programs at the local, regional, and national level is, whether groundwater monitoring can be effectively used as a landowner compliance tool, as is currently done at point-source sites. We compare the efficiency of such traditional site-specific compliance networks in nonpoint source regulation with various designs of regional nonpoint source monitoring networks that could be used for compliance monitoring. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the site vs. regional monitoring approaches with respect to effectively protecting groundwater resources impacted by nonpoint sources: Site-networks provide a tool to enforce compliance by an individual landowner. But the nonpoint source character of the contamination

  12. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  13. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically as well as currently, nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the second half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2}), however, constitutents exceeding standards also occurred in several different aquifer zones monitoring wells. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  14. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater at the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically as well as currently, nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the second half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (Aquifer Zone IIB2), however, constitutents exceeding standards also occurred in several different aquifer zones monitoring wells. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  15. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2003-02-28

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2002 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This report is written to meet the requirements in CERCLA, RCRA, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and Washington State Administrative Code.

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  17. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss; T. A. Lee

    2008-06-25

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility and to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF Record of Decision and the ERDF Amended Record of Decision.

  19. Refinement of the list of constituents for groundwater monitoring at M-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been examining ways of reducing monitoring costs. Most of these efforts have been aimed at reducing the number of wells sampled or reducing sample frequency. With regards to monitoring around the M-Area Settling Basin, we are now examining a possible reduction in the number of constituents analyzed. Constituents that can be dropped entirely are nonhazardous inorganics generally referred to as water quality indicators. Monitoring for these parameters is sensible when a facility is in detection monitoring, but it is much less useful at a facility like the M-Area Basin. The water quality indicators are helpful in detecting whether or not a facility has impacted the environment. But their concentrations are not important in themselves. At M-Area, it is well documented that the facility has impacted groundwater quite seriously with a known group of hazardous constituents. So the concentrations of the nonhazardous constituents are of little interest. At M-Area there are 41 Point of Compliance (POC) wells monitoring an area of about .25 square miles and about 236 plume definition wells monitoring the surround 4 square miles. The POC wells form a picket line around the facility and are intended to detect any constituents leaching from it. They are also intended to determine whether such constituents exceed action levels. Plume definition wells are added to define the plume created a particular set or subset of contaminants. The M-Area plume definition wells were installed in several phases over a ten year time span as SRS struggled to define the extent of a large plume of TCE and PCE. These wells were not located for the purpose of monitoring the numerous inorganics and radionuclides on the unit's monitoring list. Many of the inorganics and radionuclides are relatively immobile in groundwater and cannot be expected to appear in the widely scattered TCE/PCE plume definition wells

  20. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  1. Groundwater evolution and recharge determination of the Quaternary aquifer in the Shule River basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianhua; Ma, Jinzhu; Zhao, Wei; Sun, Shuang

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater recharge and evolution in the Shule River basin, Northwest China, was investigated by a combination of hydrogeochemical tracers, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon methods. Results showed the general chemistry of the groundwater is of SO4 2- type. Water-rock reactions of halite, Glauber's salt, gypsum and celestite, and reverse ionic exchange dictated the groundwater chemistry evolution, increasing concentrations of Cl-, Na+, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ in the groundwater. The δ18O and δ2H values of groundwater ranged from -10.8 to -7.7 and -74.4 to -53.1 ‰, respectively. Modern groundwater was identified in the proluvial fan and the shallow aquifer of the fine soil plain, likely as a result of direct infiltration of rivers and irrigation returns. Deep groundwater was depleted in heavy isotopes with 14C ages ranging from 3,000 to 26,000 years, suggesting palaeowater that was recharged during the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene epochs under a cold climate. These results have important implications for groundwater management in the Shule River basin, since large amounts of groundwater are effectively being mined and a water-use strategy is urgently needed.

  2. Determining flow, recharge, and vadose zonedrainage in anunconfined aquifer from groundwater strontium isotope measurements, PascoBasin, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mjsingleton@lbl.gov

    2004-06-29

    Strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) measured in groundwater samples from 273 wells in the Pasco Basin unconfined aquifer below the Hanford Site show large and systematic variations that provide constraints on groundwater recharge, weathering rates of the aquifer host rocks, communication between unconfined and deeper confined aquifers, and vadose zone-groundwater interaction. The impact of millions of cubic meters of wastewater discharged to the vadose zone (103-105 times higher than ambient drainage) shows up strikingly on maps of groundwater 87Sr/86Sr. Extensive access through the many groundwater monitoring wells at the site allows for an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the strontium geochemistry of a major aquifer, hosted primarily in unconsolidated sediments, and relate it to both long term properties and recent disturbances. Groundwater 87Sr/86Sr increases systematically from 0.707 to 0.712 from west to east across the Hanford Site, in the general direction of groundwater flow, as a result of addition of Sr from the weathering of aquifer sediments and from diffuse drainage through the vadose zone. The lower 87Sr/86Sr groundwater reflects recharge waters that have acquired Sr from Columbia River Basalts. Based on a steady-state model of Sr reactive transport and drainage, there is an average natural drainage flux of 0-1.4 mm/yr near the western margin of the Hanford Site, and ambient drainage may be up to 30 mm/yr in the center of the site assuming an average bulk rock weathering rate of 10-7.5 g/g/yr.

  3. Selected hydrologic data for the Mesilla ground-water basin, 1987 through 1992 water years, Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mesilla ground-water basin monitoring program was established in 1987 to document hydrologic conditions and establish a long-term, continuous data base to permit future quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system and stream/aquifer relations. Data collection is divided into three program elements. These are the (1) Mesilla ground- water basin observation-well program; (2) Mesilla Valley hydrologic sections; and (3) Rio Grande seepage investigations. This report is a compilation of hydrologic data collected for the Mesilla ground- water basin monitoring program during the 1987 through 1992 water years. Hydrologic data presented in the report include well records and water levels for 181 wells; mean daily river stage and ground- water levels at 37 sites; seepage investigations of the Rio Grande from Radium Springs, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas; and chemical analyses of 29 water samples collected from the Rio Grande.

  4. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  5. Dissolved Gas Composition of Groundwater in Taipei Basin and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nga-Chi; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Chen, Wen-Fu; Wang, Yun-Shuen

    2015-04-01

    This study is the first comprehensive analysis for dissolved gases of groundwater in Taipei Basin, northern Taiwan. In addition to conventional water chemistry, the dissolved-gas compositions of groundwater from 34 observation wells have been systematically analyzed. The relationship between dissolved gases and geological environment, and probable sources of the gases are discussed in this study. According to the water chemistry data of Piper plot, most of the groundwater samples in this study can be classified as Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 types. Several samples exhibit NaCl type characteristic which reveals the mix with seawater. Isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen for groundwater, surface water and meteoric water in Taipei Basin are aligned with Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), which indicates that they are influenced by meteoric water. Composition of groundwater in the southern part of the basin has similar characteristics with surface water. However, stratifications occurred in the observation wells from northern part of the basin. It reveals different recharge sources for groundwater samples in northern basin with the southern basin. Based on the major dissolved gases compositions, three major components are identified which are CH4, N2 and CO2. The d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicates microbial activities are dominant in the studied area. Dissolved radon concentrations are in the range of 200 - 20,667 Bq/m3 in the studied area and the deeper well usually exhibits a higher radon value than the shallow one from the same site. Several sites with high radon values are correlated with the locations of fault zones, which may provide the conduit for deeper gas migrate to shallower aquifers. The groundwater samples from northern part of the basin exhibit unexpectedly high helium isotopic ratios (RA >2, where RA is the 3He/4He ratio of air). Samples from five observation wells have RA values more than 3 RA and the highest one is 4.2 RA, which

  6. TNX Area 1994 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1994, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Nitrate and trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Five wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Containment Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year

  7. TNX-Area groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1993, samples from well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Seven parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, nitrate, and trichloroethylene exceeded PDWS most frequently. Four wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Contaminant Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, lead, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year

  8. TNX Area 1994 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    During 1994, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Nitrate and trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Five wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Containment Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

  9. Agricultural groundwater management in the Upper Bhima Basin, India: current status and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Surinaidu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The basaltic aquifers of the Upper Bhima River Basin in Southern India are heavily utilized for small-scale agriculture but face increasing demand-related pressures along with uncertainty associated with climate change impacts. To evaluate likely groundwater resource impacts over the coming decades, a regional groundwater flow model for the basin was developed. Model predictions of different climate change and abstraction scenarios indicate continuation of current rates of abstraction would lead to significant groundwater overdraft, with groundwater elevations predicted to fall by −6 m over the next three decades. Groundwater elevations can however be stabilized, but would require 20–30% of the mean surface water discharge from the basin to be recharged to groundwater, along with reductions in pumping (5–10% brought about by improved water efficiency practices and/or shifts towards lower-water use crops. Modest reductions in pumping alone cannot stabilize groundwater levels; targeted conjunctive use and improved water use efficiency are also needed.

  10. Agricultural groundwater management in the Upper Bhima Basin, India: current status and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Surinaidu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The basaltic aquifers of the Upper Bhima River basin in southern India are heavily utilized for small-scale agriculture but face increasing demand-related pressures along with uncertainty associated with climate change impacts. To evaluate likely groundwater resource impacts over the coming decades, a regional groundwater flow model for the basin was developed. Model predictions associated with different climate change and abstraction scenarios indicate that the continuation of current rates of abstraction would lead to significant groundwater overdraft, with groundwater elevations predicted to fall by −6 m over the next three decades. Groundwater elevations can however be stabilized, but would require 20–30% of the mean surface water discharge from the basin to be recharged to groundwater, along with reductions in pumping (5–10% brought about by improved water efficiency practices and/or shifts towards lower-water use crops. Modest reductions in pumping alone cannot stabilize groundwater levels; targeted conjunctive use and improved water use efficiency are also needed.

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  12. Groundwater recharge environments and hydrogeochemical evolution in the Jiuquan Basin, Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater recharge environments and hydrogeochemical characteristics in the Quaternary aquifer of Jiuquan Basin was investigated using a combination of chemical indicators, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon dating. The d-excess values of winter precipitation and surface water revealed that the meltwater from snow and ice played the dominant role in the basin’s surface water supply. The unconfined groundwater showed gradual enrichment of heavy isotopes along the flow path, but δ18O and δ2H values were similar to those of surface water, suggesting recent recharge as a result of rapid seepage along rivers combined with the effects of high evaporation. The 14C (pmc) values of unconfined groundwater was between 71.5% and 90.9%, and since 80% modern carbon probably represents the upper limit of initial 14C activity, this suggests that the groundwater is relatively young. The confined groundwater was depleted in heavy isotopes; coupled with low 14C values (∼20–53%), indicating that the groundwater was mainly recharged as palaeowater during the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs under a cold climate. The surface water and most groundwater samples were fresh rather than saline, with TDS −1, respectively. The chemistry of unconfined groundwater changed from HCO3-dominated to no dominant ions and then to SO42-dominated moving along the flow path from the Jiuquan-Jiayuguan Basin to the Jinta Basin, and the confined water was SO42-dominated. The results have important implications for groundwater management in the Basin, where a high proportion of the water being used is in effect being mined (i.e., extracted faster than its replacement rate); thus, significant changes are urgently needed in the regional water-use strategy.

  13. Contamination of nitrate in groundwater and its potential human health: a case study of lower Mae Klong river basin, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsanit, Jaturong; Teartisup, Piyakarn; Kerdsueb, Prapeut; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a worldwide problem especially in agricultural countries. Environmental factors, such as land-use pattern, type of aquifer, and soil-drainage capacity, affect the level of contamination. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater may contribute to adverse health effects among residents who use groundwater for consumption. This study aimed to determine the relationship between nitrate levels in groundwater with land-use pattern, type of aquifer, and soil-drainage capacity, in Photharam District, Ratchaburi Province, lower Mae Klong basin, Thailand. Health risk maps were created based on hazard quotient to quantify the potential health risk of the residents using US Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) health risk assessment model. The results showed the influence of land-use patterns, type of aquifer, and soil-drainage capacity on nitrate contamination. It was found that most of the residents in the studied area were not at risk; however, a groundwater nitrate monitoring system should be implemented. PMID:25874425

  14. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report contains groundwater monitoring results from the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site. Appendix A contains the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control proposed groundwater monitoring standards and final primary drinking water standards. Appendix B contains the Savannah River Site Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section flagging criteria for groundwater constituents.

  15. Reactive Transport of Nitrate in Northern California Groundwater basins: An Integrated Characterization and Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Moran, J. E.; Hudson, G. B.; Carle, S. F.; McNab, W.; Tompson, A. F.; Moore, K.; Beller, H.; Kane, S.; Eaton, G.

    2003-12-01

    More than 1/3 of active public drinking water supply wells in California produce water with nitrate-N levels indicative of anthropogenic inputs (> 4 mg/L). Understanding how the distribution of nitrate in California groundwater basins will evolve is vital to water supply and infrastructure planning. To address this need, we are studying the basin-scale reactive transport of nitrate in the Livermore and Llagas basins of Northern California. Both basins have increasingly urban populations heavily reliant on groundwater. A distinct nitrate "plume" exists in the Livermore Basin (Alameda County) whereas pervasive nitrate contamination exists in shallow groundwaters of the Llagas Basin (Santa Clara County). The sources and timing of nitrate contamination in these basins are not definitively known; septic systems, irrigated agriculture and livestock operations exist or have existed in both areas. The role of denitrification in controlling nitrate distribution is also unknown; dissolved oxygen levels are sufficiently low in portions of each basin as to indicate the potential for denitrification. We have collected water from 60 wells, and are determining both groundwater age (by the 3H/3He method) and the extent of denitrification (by the excess N2 method). Excess nitrogen is being determined by both membrane-inlet and noble gas mass spectrometry, using Ar and Ne content to account for atmospheric N2. We are also analyzing for stable istotopes of nitrate and water, nitrate co-contaminants, and general water quality parameters. Preliminary analysis of archival water district data from both basins suggests positive correlations of nitrate with Ca+2, Mg+2 and bicarbonate and negative correlation with pH. In the Llagas Basin, a negative correlation also exists between nitrate and temperature. Flow path-oriented reactive transport modeling is being explored as a tool to aid in the identification of both the sources of nitrate and evidence for denitrification in both basins

  16. Hydrogeochemistry of high-fluoride groundwater at Yuncheng Basin, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengcheng [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Xubo, E-mail: xubo.gao.cug@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78705 (United States); Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope methods were integrated to delineate the spatial distribution and enrichment of fluoride in groundwater at Yuncheng Basin in northern China. One hundred groundwater samples and 10 Quaternary sediment samples were collected from the Basin. Over 69% of the shallow groundwater (with a F{sup −} concentration of up to 14.1 mg/L), 44% of groundwater samples from the intermediate and 31% from the deep aquifers had F{sup −} concentrations above the WHO provisional drinking water guideline of 1.5 mg/L. Groundwater with high F{sup −} concentrations displayed a distinctive major ion chemistry: Na-rich and Ca-poor with a high pH value and high HCO{sub 3}{sup −} content. Hydrochemical diagrams and profiles and hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions indicate that variations in the major ion chemistry and pH are controlled by mineral dissolution, cation exchange and evaporation in the aquifer systems, which are important for F{sup −} mobilization as well. Leakage of shallow groundwater and/or evaporite (gypsum and mirabilite) dissolution may be the major sources for F{sup −} in groundwater of the intermediate and deep aquifers. - Highlights: • High-F{sup −} groundwater widely occurs in Yuncheng Basin of northern China. • High-F{sup −} groundwater is Na and HCO{sub 3}-rich and Ca-poor, with high pH. • Major hydrogeochemical processes are mineral dissolution, ion exchange and evaporation. • Shallow groundwater leakage/evaporite dissolution may cause F enrichment in lower aquifers.

  17. Characterization of groundwater in the Ejina Basin,northwest China:hydrochemical and environmental isotopes approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the groundwater in the Ejina Basin,surface and groundwater samples were collected in May and October of 2002.On-site analyses included temperature,electrical conductance(EC),total alkalinity(as HCO 3) by titration,and pH.Chemical analyses were undertaken at the Geochemistry Laboratory of the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou,China.The pH of the groundwater ranged from 7.18 to 8.90 with an average value of 7.72,indicating an alkaline nature.The total dissolved solids(TDS) of the groundwater ranged from 567.5 to 5,954.4 mg/L with an average of 1,543.1 mg/L and a standard deviation of 1,471.8 mg/L.According to the groundwater salinity classification of Robinove et al.(1958),47.4 percent of the samples were brackish and the remainder were fresh water.The ion concentration of the groundwater along the riverbed and near the southern margin of the basin were lower than those farther away from the riverbed.The groundwater in the study area was of Na +-HCO 3 type near the bank of the Heihe River and in the southern margin of the basin,while Na +-SO 4 2-Cl type samples were observed in the terminal lake region.In the desert area the groundwater reached a TDS of 3,000-6,000 mg/L and was predominantly by a Na +-Cl chemistry.Br/Cl for the water of Ejina Basin indicates an evaporite origin for the groundwater with a strongly depleted Br/Cl ratio(average 0.000484).The surface water was slightly enriched in Br/Cl(average 0.000711) compared with groundwater.The calculated saturation index(SI) for calcite and dolomite of the groundwater samples range from 0.89 to 1.31 and 1.67 to 2.67 with averaged 0.24 and 0.61,respectively.About 97 percent of the groundwater samples were kinetically oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite,and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum.Using isotope and hydrochemical analyses,this study investigated the groundwater evolution and its residence

  18. Iodine mobilization in groundwater system at Datong basin, China: Evidence from hydrochemistry and fluorescence characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Guo, Wei; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Yaqing; Kong, Shuqiong

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the speciation of iodine in groundwater is essential for understanding its hydrogeochemical behavior in aquifer systems. To quantify the variations in iodine speciation and assess factors controlling the distribution and transformation of iodine, 82 groundwater samples and 1 rain water were collected from the Datong basin, northern China in this study. Factor analysis (FA) and excitation emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) were used to clarify the potential relationships among iodine species and other hydrochemical parameters. The iodine concentrations of groundwater range from 6.23 to 1380 μg L{sup −1} with 47% of samples exceeding its drinking water level of 150 μg L{sup −1} as recommended by the Chinese government. 57% of samples have ratios of iodate to total iodine greater than 60%, while iodide as the major species in 22% of the samples. Significant amounts of organic iodine with concentrations higher than 100 μg L{sup −1} were observed in 9 groundwater samples. Redox conditions of groundwater system strongly affect iodine concentration and speciation of inorganic iodine in groundwater, and extremely reducing condition restricts the iodine release from sediments into groundwater. The results of FA show that iodine mobilization in groundwater is related to the nature of dissolved organic matter. EEM-PARAFAC model demonstrates the dominance of terrestrial DOM sources and the presence of microbial activities in groundwater system of the Datong basin. It is proposed that degradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides are major hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the mobilization of iodine release and the genesis of organic iodine. - Highlights: • Iodine species in groundwater was studied from Datong basin, northern China. • Weakly alkaline environment favors the accumulation of iodine in groundwater. • Iodate is the major species of iodine in groundwater from Datong

  19. Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Owor, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Tindimugaya, C.; Mwesigwa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the intensity of precipitation as a result of global warming are expected to be especially pronounced in the tropics. The impact of changing rainfall intensities on groundwater recharge remains, however, unclear. Analysis of a recently compiled data set of coincidental, daily observations of rainfall and groundwater levels remote from abstraction for four stations in the Upper Nile Basin over the period 1999-2008 shows that the magnitude of observed recharge events is better relate...

  20. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in parts of the Ayensu Basin of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nafisatu Zakaria; Tetteh T. Akiti; Shiloh Osae, et al.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty five groundwater samples were collected from parts of the Ayensu Basin in the Central Region of Ghana and were analysed for their physicochemical characteristics. The physicochemical parameters; pH, Conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca 2+), magnesium (Mg 2+), sodium (Na +), potassium (K +), bicarbonate (HCO3 2-), chloride (Cl -), sulphate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were analysed to know the present groundwater quality as well as the possible source of ions in the g...

  1. Isotope techniques in groundwater contamination studies in urbanized and industrialized areas, Hat Yai Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic activities are mainly responsible for changing the hydrological cycle as well as the climate warming. Assessing the impacts of human activities on hydrological environments is becoming a wide-focused topic. In this research, the author attempt to link the urbanization, agricultural development, and the subsequent water resources exploitation with the change of water environments in Hat Yai Basin, southern of Thailand. The source of water for domestic use mainly comes from Utapao River which flows through the area. Now this area is facing the shortage of water in dry season and pollution due to domestic and industrial activities. Isotope techniques in conjunction with hydrological and chemical data can play the important role for identifying recharge mechanism and surface and groundwater interaction. By using the numerical model the information for proper groundwater management can be obtained. As a result, the quality of groundwater in Hat Yai Basin showed that the iron (Fe) content at many locations was higher than the permissible level for groundwater quality standards for drinking purposes in the Notification of the Ministry of Industry. Groundwater from such locations should not be used for drinking. The water types of Hat Yai aquifer were Na-Cl and Ca-HCO3, while that of Khu Tao aquifer and Kho Hong aquifer were CA-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3, respectively. The origin of groundwater in Hat Yai aquifer is local rainfall. The origin of groundwater in Khu Tao and Kho Hong aquifers come from ancient rainfall indicating old water and low flow rate. The groundwater is recharged from the zones located in the eastern and western parts of Hat Yai Basin and flows to middle basin and northward to Songkhla Lake. (author)

  2. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Hartman; LF Morasch; WD Webber

    2000-05-10

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 1999 on the US. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Measurements for site-wide maps were conducted in June in past years and are now measured in March to reflect conditions that are closer to average. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1998 and March 1999. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of carbon-14, strontium-90, technetium-99, and uranium also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Cesium-137 and plutonium exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in US Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for plutonium, strontium-90, tritium, and uranium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate and carbon tetrachloride are the most extensive chemical contaminants. Chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2dichloroethylene, cyanide, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; however, in most cases, they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during fiscal year 1999: 16 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater; 6 under interim status groundwater quality assessment programs to assess contamination; and 2 under final status corrective-action programs. Another site, the 120-D-1 ponds

  3. Geospatial Data Used in Water-Level and Land-Subsidence Studies in the Mojave River and Morongo Groundwater Basins for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground-water from these basins supplies a...

  4. Application of isotope techniques to groundwater investigation in the Erdos Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Erdos Basin is located in the eastern part of Northwestern China and extends over parts of 5 provinces: Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and Shanxi. The basin is surrounded by the Yellow River to the west, north and east and the Weihe River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River, flows through the southern basin from west to east. The Erdos Basin covers an area of about 400 000 km2 and is a plateau depression basin caused by structural uplift. The early Cretaceous sediments which form the artesian basin consist of six primary hydrostratigraphic units with a total thickness of 1000m. Generally, Ordovcian carbonate rock formations form karstic aquifers that flank the east, south and west of the basin distributed in a U-shape forming the peripheral mountains and hills with an area covering about 100 000 km2. The groundwater resources of the basin are strategically important and this ongoing IAEA TC-project (CPR/08/12) was undertaken in 2001-2002, with the major tasks being to evaluate the availability of groundwater resources, especially the recharge process and recharge rate, to understand the inter-relationship between groundwater system and surface water and between different groundwater aquifers, to determine the age of groundwater, and explore the possibility of utilizing deep groundwater. The objective is to improve groundwater investigation and management in arid and semi-arid regions in China through integrating isotope techniques. This paper reports upon work in progress through collection, collation and analysis of climatic, geological, hydrogeological hydrochemical data, water sampling and laboratory analysis, isotope technique training. A double-packer sampling system is being used to collect discreet-level water samples from target hydro-stratigraphic units via uncased boreholes up to 1000m in depth. Four rainfall stations for rain collection have been set up in the Erdos Basin and 50 water samples for D, 18O, T were collected

  5. An integrated system for groundwater monitoring at Sellafield PNWR, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents details of the evolution and design of the groundwater monitoring system and methods by which monitoring data are obtained for Sellafield geological investigations. A Westbay MP55 multilevel groundwater monitoring system is being used to continuously record baseline groundwater pressures and natural fluxes. Groundwater pressure changes of 1 to 2 kilopascals at depths of 1000 m are discernible by refined data processing. The adoption of the monitoring system has provided a very flexible and cost effective approach to groundwater monitoring and testing

  6. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  7. Theory of the generalized chloride mass balance method for recharge estimation in groundwater basins characterised by point and diffuse recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Somaratne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB method to point recharge dominant groundwater basins can substantially under-estimate long-term average annual recharge by not accounting for the effects of localized surface water inputs. This is because the conventional CMB method ignores the duality of infiltration and recharge found in karstic systems, where point recharge can be a contributing factor. When point recharge is present in groundwater basins, recharge estimation is unsuccessful using the conventional CMB method with, either unsaturated zone chloride or groundwater chloride. In this paper we describe a generalized CMB that can be applied to groundwater basins with point recharge. Results from this generalized CMB are shown to be comparable with long-term recharge estimates obtained using the watertable fluctuation method, groundwater flow modelling and Darcy flow calculations. The generalized CMB method provides an alternative, reliable long-term recharge estimation method for groundwater basins characterised by both point and diffuse recharge.

  8. On storm-runoff transformations in an urban and a forested subtropical basin: laboratorial and field monitoring design to a watershed modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, José Anderson,; Bossarino, Danilo; Pinto, J.C.; Sampaio Gomes, Rogerio

    2009-01-01

    In most subtropical regions, population growth seals the lands and, as a consequence, increases peakflows. This work aims to study overland flow generation in paired subtropical basins (one urbanized, other forested), in the metropolitan region of Campinas. Both, Cachoeira stream basin (urbanized) and the Jardim creek basin (forested) are to be monitored with lysimeters, to assess overland flow, water retention and groundwater recharge, stage-meters, to catch peakflows, and weather stations, ...

  9. Informing Groundwater Policy In The Indus Basin In Pakistan Using A Physically-Based Groundwater Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Wi, S.; Ringler, C.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid expansion in groundwater abstraction in the past few decades in Pakistan is credited with the huge increases in crop production bringing about significant economic gains and ensuring food security for millions. Most of the groundwater usage in Pakistan takes place in Punjab province. This exponential increase in groundwater usage is however, also responsible for the significant groundwater table decline in many parts of the province. There is an urgent need for policy measures to better manage groundwater use. A better understanding of the underground water balance is necessary to make groundwater management policies. This study develops the first physically-based groundwater model for the entire Punjab province. Using the calibrated province-wide model, we perform various simulations to evaluate groundwater dynamics in the future under different scenarios. These scenarios comprise of groundwater conservation efforts, increasing efficiency of the canal irrigation system and changing volume of precipitation. We also make a preliminary attempt to characterize the impact of transboundary groundwater abstractions in Indian Punjab on groundwater levels in Pakistan. We investigate the impact of the future scenarios on major urban centers across Punjab. Our results show that seepage from the canal supply system into the aquifer forms the biggest component of the groundwater flux, while the effect of changing precipitation is negligible. Farmers in central and north-western Punjab are projected to have the highest pumping costs in the future. Areas in southern Punjab are shown to be most vulnerable to waterlogging in the future. The results of this study can help guide policy-makers in developing a thorough groundwater management plan for Punjab.

  10. Optimisation of groundwater level monitoring networks using geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram and a genetic algorithm method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyris, Antonios E.; Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater level monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management, especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation for agricultural and domestic use. Given the high maintenance costs of these networks, development of tools, which can be used by regulators for efficient network design is essential. In this work, a monitoring network optimisation tool is presented. The network optimisation tool couples geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram with a genetic algorithm method and is applied to Mires basin in Crete, Greece, an area of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest, which suffers from groundwater overexploitation leading to a dramatic decrease of groundwater levels. The purpose of the optimisation tool is to determine which wells to exclude from the monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level mapping of the area. Unlike previous relevant investigations, the network optimisation tool presented here uses Ordinary Kriging with the recently-established non-differentiable Spartan variogram for groundwater level mapping, which, based on a previous geostatistical study in the area leads to optimal groundwater level mapping. Seventy boreholes operate in the area for groundwater abstraction and water level monitoring. The Spartan variogram gives overall the most accurate groundwater level estimates followed closely by the power-law model. The geostatistical model is coupled to an integer genetic algorithm method programmed in MATLAB 2015a. The algorithm is used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the minimum error between the original water level mapping using all the available wells in the network and the groundwater level mapping using the reduced well network (error is defined as the 2-norm of the difference between the original mapping matrix with 70 wells and the mapping matrix of the reduced well network). The solution to the

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Krishna; Rammohan, V; Sahayam, J Dajkumar; Jeevanandam, M

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO(3), Na-Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO(3), and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards shows that all groundwater samples except few are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The major groundwater pollutions are nitrate and phosphate ions due to sewage effluents and fertilizer applications. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influence such as agricultural, natural weathering process. PMID:19089596

  12. Potential negative effects of groundwater dynamics on dry season convection in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-02-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry of high-fluoride groundwater at Yuncheng Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengcheng; Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope methods were integrated to delineate the spatial distribution and enrichment of fluoride in groundwater at Yuncheng Basin in northern China. One hundred groundwater samples and 10 Quaternary sediment samples were collected from the Basin. Over 69% of the shallow groundwater (with a F(-) concentration of up to 14.1mg/L), 44% of groundwater samples from the intermediate and 31% from the deep aquifers had F(-) concentrations above the WHO provisional drinking water guideline of 1.5mg/L. Groundwater with high F(-) concentrations displayed a distinctive major ion chemistry: Na-rich and Ca-poor with a high pH value and high HCO3(-) content. Hydrochemical diagrams and profiles and hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions indicate that variations in the major ion chemistry and pH are controlled by mineral dissolution, cation exchange and evaporation in the aquifer systems, which are important for F(-) mobilization as well. Leakage of shallow groundwater and/or evaporite (gypsum and mirabilite) dissolution may be the major sources for F(-) in groundwater of the intermediate and deep aquifers. PMID:25478652

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela basin using the RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Scenario 4.5 W/m2 climate scenario. Climatological, geological, hydrogeological, hydraulic and demographic data were collected and used as model input data. Groundwater recharge was estimated to be approximately 165.3 mm/year using the EARTH (Extended model for Aquifer Recharge and soil moisture Transport through the unsaturated Hardrock model. Recharge was then used as groundwater model input. The sandstone aquifer in the study area was simulated in steady and transient conditions. The results showed that hydraulic conductivity values varied from 1.1 to 13.9 m/day. The model was used for scenario quantification after model calibration and verification using three different piezometer data sets. The results of the simulated MODFLOW model showed a decrease in groundwater levels over time.

  15. Geospatial database of estimates of groundwater discharge to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Adriana; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the Department of the Interior’s WaterSMART (Sustain and Manage America’s Resources for Tomorrow) initiative, compiled published estimates of groundwater discharge to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin as a geospatial database. For the purpose of this report, groundwater discharge to streams is the baseflow portion of streamflow that includes contributions of groundwater from various flow paths. Reported estimates of groundwater discharge were assigned as attributes to stream reaches derived from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset. A total of 235 estimates of groundwater discharge to streams were compiled and included in the dataset. Feature class attributes of the geospatial database include groundwater discharge (acre-feet per year), method of estimation, citation abbreviation, defined reach, and 8-digit hydrologic unit code(s). Baseflow index (BFI) estimates of groundwater discharge were calculated using an existing streamflow characteristics dataset and were included as an attribute in the geospatial database. A comparison of the BFI estimates to the compiled estimates of groundwater discharge found that the BFI estimates were greater than the reported groundwater discharge estimates.

  16. Regional ground-water evapotranspiration and ground-water budgets, Great Basin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William D.

    2000-01-01

    PART A: Ground-water evapotranspiration data from five sites in Nevada and seven sites in Owens Valley, California, were used to develop equations for estimating ground-water evapotranspiration as a function of phreatophyte plant cover or as a function of the depth to ground water. Equations are given for estimating mean daily seasonal and annual ground-water evapotranspiration. The equations that estimate ground-water evapotranspiration as a function of plant cover can be used to estimate regional-scale ground-water evapotranspiration using vegetation indices derived from satellite data for areas where the depth to ground water is poorly known. Equations that estimate ground-water evapotranspiration as a function of the depth to ground water can be used where the depth to ground water is known, but for which information on plant cover is lacking. PART B: Previous ground-water studies estimated groundwater evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and bare soil in Nevada on the basis of results of field studies published in 1912 and 1932. More recent studies of evapotranspiration by rangeland phreatophytes, using micrometeorological methods as discussed in Chapter A of this report, provide new data on which to base estimates of ground-water evapotranspiration. An approach correlating ground-water evapotranspiration with plant cover is used in conjunction with a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index derived from Landsat data to develop a method for estimating the magnitude and distribution of ground-water evapotranspiration at a regional scale. Large areas of phreatophytes near Duckwater and Lockes in Railroad Valley are believed to subsist on ground water discharged from nearby regional springs. Ground-water evapotranspiration by the Duckwater phreatophytes of about 11,500 acre-feet estimated by the method described in this report compares well with measured discharge of about 13,500 acre-feet from the springs near Duckwater. Measured discharge from springs near Lockes

  17. Isotope techniques on groundwater contamination studies in urbanized and industrialized areas, Hat Yai Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic activities are of a major force in changing the hydrological cycle as well as the climate warming. Assessing the impacts of human activities on hydrological environments is becoming a wide-focused topic. In this research, the authors attempt to link the urbanization, agricultural development, and the subsequent water resources exploitation with the change of water environments in Hat Yai basin, southern of Thailand. The source of water for domestic use mainly comes from Utapao River which flows through the area. Now this area is facing the shortage of water in dry season and pollution due to domestic and industrial activities. Isotope techniques in conjunction with hydrological and chemical data can play the important role for identifying recharge zone, flow dynamic, recharge mechanism and surface and groundwater interaction. By using the numerical model the information for proper groundwater management, can be obtained. As a result, the quality of ground water in Hat Yai basin was show that the quality of iron (Fe) was higher than Notification of the Ministry of Industry permissible level for groundwater quality standards for drinking purposes at many locations. Groundwater in many locations should not use to drinking water. The water types of Hat Yai Aquifer were Na-Cl and Ca-HCO3. The water type of Kliu Tao aquifer was Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Kho Hong aquifer was Ca-Mg-HCO3. The Origin of groundwater in Hat Yai aquifer is local rainfall. The Origin of groundwater in Khu Tao and Kho Hong aquifer come from ancient rainfall.The ground water from Khu Tao and Kho Hong aquifer were old water and low flow rate. The recharge zone was located west and east of Hat Yai Basin. After that the groundwater will flow to middle basin and northward to Songkhla Lake. (author)

  18. Use of tritium-helium groundwater age and anthropogenic VOCs to assess deep groundwater susceptibility in California urban and agricultural basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Leif, R. N.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Moran, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    With the discovery of MTBE contamination in public supply wells in the 1990's and the subsequent demonstration that most public supply wells were in close proximity to leaking underground fuel tanks, the State of California recognized the need to rapidly assess the vulnerability of public supply wells throughout the State. The California Aquifer Susceptibility project funded by the State of California GAMA Program used a cost-effective approach to assess ambient groundwater susceptibility at large scales through the use of groundwater age (using the tritium/helium-3 method), the presence of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ultra-trace levels, and stable isotopes of water. To date, over 2000 wells have been sampled in the major agricultural and urban basins in California. One pattern that has emerged is a significantly greater vulnerability to contamination in the alluvial aquifers of the Central Valley than in either southern or northern Coastal Basins. The project also has allowed investigation of the utility of the tritium/helium-3 method for vulnerability assessment. This method in conjunction with noble gas analysis allows determination of mean apparent groundwater age from 2 to 50 years, and the fraction of water recharged before atmospheric weapons testing in mid-century. Long-screened supply wells can produce waters with old mean apparent ages (indicating that they are not vulnerable) and still contain small fractions of young highly vulnerable water (through improper well construction, short-circuiting, screening across shallow zones, and dispersive transport). The recent introduction and wide dispersion of anthropogenic VOCs into the environment coupled with our ability to detect these compounds at ultra-trace levels (low ppt) allow their use as proxies for small mixing fractions of young contaminated water. The occurrence of anthropogenic VOCs in tritium-dead groundwater is infrequent but not rare, evidence for apparent groundwater age

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J. [and others

    1999-03-24

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year (FY) 1998 on the Word Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction in the 200-West Area removed 777 kg of carbon tetrachloride in FY 1998, for a total of 75,490 kg removed since remediation began in 1992. Spectral gamma logging and evaluation of historical gross gamma logs near tank farms and liquid-disposal sites in the 200 Areas provided information on movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1997 and June 1998. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. One well completed in the basalt-confined aquifer beneath the 200-East Area exceeded the drinking water standard for technetium-99. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-l, Z-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded its maximum contaminant level in several wells in the 300 Area for the first time since the 1980s. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous

  20. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, (delta)15N values greater than 10(perthousand) indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO3 L-1. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low (delta)15N value (3.1(perthousand)) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer. Geochemical

  1. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-11-18

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates

  2. Balancing Ground-Water Withdrawals and Streamflow in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt Basin, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Dickerman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water withdrawn for water supply reduces streamflow in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt Basin in Rhode Island. These reductions may adversely affect aquatic habitats. A hydrologic model was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, Town of North Kingstown, Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, and Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation to aid water-resource planning in the basin. Results of the model provide information that helps water suppliers and natural-resource managers evaluate strategies for balancing ground-water development and streamflow reductions in the basin.

  3. Origin and Distribution of Groundwater Chemical Fields of the Oilfield in the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are many factors affecting the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the forming process of groundwater chemical fields, such as freshening due to meteoric water leaching downwards, freshening due to mudstone compaction and water release, concentration due to infiltration and freshening due to dehydration of clay minerals. As a result, the groundwater chemical fields are characterized by lengthwise stages and planar selectivity. The former arouses vertical chemical zonality of groundwater. Five units could be identified downwards in the Songliao basin: (1) freshening zone due to downward-leaching meteoric water, (2) concentration zone due to evaporation near the ground surface, (3)freshening zone due to mudstone compaction and water release, and concentration zone due to compaction and infiltration,(4) freshening zone due to dehydration of clay minerals, and (5) filtration-concentration zone; whereas the latter determines the planar division of groundwater chemical fields: (1) the freshening area due to meteoric water, asymmetrically on the margin of the basin, (2) the freshening area due to mudstone compaction and water release in the central part of the basin, (3)the leaky area, which is a transitional zone, and (4) leakage-evaporation area, which is a concentration zone. In the direction of centrifugal flows caused by mudstone compaction in the depression area, the mineralization degree, concentrations of Na+ and CI-, and salinity coefficient (SC) increase, while concentrations of (CO32-+HCO3-) and SO42-, metamorphism coefficient (MC) and desulfuration coefficient (DSC) decrease. However, all these parameters increase in the direction of gravity-induced centripetal flows.

  4. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  5. 1994 Water-Table Contours of the Morongo Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Morongo Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Morongo ground-water...

  6. Environmental Groundwater Monitoring of Jones Creek Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C. Ugbe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater monitoring exercise was carried out in Jones Creek field of Western Niger Delta. The aim was to ascertain the groundwater status of the area where oil exploration has been carried out for over four decades. Ten boreholes were drilled to capture the ground water flow direction. Both in situ and laboratory analyses were conducted on the water samples to ascertain whether or not there is contamination. The status of the groundwater indicates that it meets WHO maximum permissible standards acceptable for domestic purposes. The water is mildly acidic due to the gas flaring associated with exploitation activities. The water is devoid of contamination of oil and grease but has appreciably high iron content thereby requiring treatment to enhance groundwater quality for domestic purposes. The observed high TDS may be due to the incursion of saline water into the phreatic zone. The study establishes the fact that oil exploration and exploitation companies have over the years been adopting environmentally friendly strategies to conserve the prolific aquifer of the area.

  7. Evolution of groundwater from Permian and Triassic aquifers in the Thuringian basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonschinski, Martin; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The hydrochemical properties of shallow and deep groundwater with special emphasis on stable isotopes (2H, 18O, 34SSO4, 18OSO4) as well as rare earth elements (REE) are investigated to study the evolution of groundwater in the edge areas of the Thuringian basin (central Germany). The Thuringian basin is a syncline structure with an extension of 160 km in northwest-southeast and 100 km in northeast-southwest direction. It consists of sandstones, limestones, clays, gypsum and salts, that were deposited from the Late Permian until the Early Jurassic (approximately 250 to 180 million years ago). At the edge areas of the basin, sediments of Zechstein (Permian) and Bunter Sandstone (Early Triassic) are cropping out over a wide area being the catchment areas for ground water recharge of the main aquifers in Bunter Sandstone and Zechstein formations. In addition to the infiltration of atmospheric water, highly mineralized ascending groundwater occurs at fault systems leading to interactions between the aquifers. The isotope data of dissolved sulfates (34SSO4) indicate a terrestrial origin of sulfates in Early Bunter Sandstone as well as marine conditions for sulfate formation in Late Bunter Sandstone and Late Zechstein. Thus, sulfate isotopes can be used to identify the origin of water and to estimate the proportions of sulfates of different sources in mixing water. The isotopic composition of water in Bunter Sandstone aquifers in the eastern part of the basin indicate an increasing influence of sulfates from Late Bunter Sandstone in aquifers of Middle Bunter Sandstone along the groundwater flow towards the center of the basin. On the other hand there is no indication for mixing with Zechstein associated water in these aquifers. In contrast, in the northern part of the Thuringian basin and southward of the basin (south of the Thuringian forest) an interaction of Zechstein and Bunter Sandstone aquifers bound on fault systems becomes evident. The fractionations of rare earth

  8. Geochemical evolution of groundwaters from the Great Artesian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and isotopic mass balances of major elemental species throughout the Great Artesian Basin were studied along with an equilibrium mineral-water model. With progressive distance down the flow path, Na and K are removed, relative to CI, by reconstitution reactions involving kaolinite and Na-montorillonite and illite, respectively. Ca and Mg behave conservatively in general throughout the interior of the basin. Mass balance calculations suggest that increasing 13C differentials along flow paths result from carbon dioxide production from methanogenesis rather than dissolution of calcium carbonate. While bicarbonate is the major anion, rather than chloride as in other basins, there appears to be similar mineralwater reactions occurring in each of the basins, but subtle differences within the recharge zone result in the evolution of a bicarbonate dominated system

  9. Study of evaluation of groundwater in Gadilam basin using hydrogeochemical and isotope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Mohan Viswanathan; Chidambaram, S; Shahul Hameed, A; Srinivasamoorthy, K

    2010-09-01

    Gadilam river basin has gained its importance due to the presence of Neyveli Lignite open cast mines and other industrial complexes. It is also due to extensive depressurization of Cuddalore aquifer, and bore wells for New Veeranam Scheme are constructed downstream of the basin. Geochemical indicators of groundwater were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrogeochemistry. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(+)), magnesium (Mg(+)), bicarbonate (HCO(-)(3)), sulfate (SO(-)(4)), phosphate (PO(-)(4)), and silica (H(4)SiO(4)) were determined. Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that leaching of ions followed by weathering and anthropogenic impact controls the chemistry of the groundwater. Isotopic study reveals that recharge from meteoric source in sedimentary terrain and rock-water interaction with significant evaporation prevails in hard rock region. PMID:19609693

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of high iodine groundwater: a case study at the Datong Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping; Guo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    High iodine concentrations in groundwater have seldom been reported and there have been few systematic studies on high iodine groundwater worldwide. To better understand the sources and processes responsible for iodine enrichment in the groundwater of the Datong Basin, the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and geochemical features of aquifer sediments were studied. High iodine groundwater mainly occurs in the center of the Datong Basin with iodine concentrations ranging between 3.31 and 1890 μg L(-1). Most samples with iodine concentrations higher than 500 μg L(-1) are from wells with depths between 75 and 120 m. High pH and a reducing environment are favorable for iodine enrichment in the groundwater, with iodide as the dominant species that accounts for 63.2-99.3% of the total iodine. Sediment samples from a borehole specifically drilled for this study contain 0.18-1.46 mg kg(-1) iodine that is moderately correlated with total organic carbon (TOC). The results of sequential extraction experiments show that iodine is mostly bound to iron oxyhydroxides and organic matter in the sediments. The mobilization processes of iodine are proposed to include reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides and transformations among iodide, iodate and organic iodine driven by microbial activities under alkaline and reducing conditions. PMID:23478640

  11. Sensitivity analysis of groundwater level in Jinci Spring Basin (China) based on artificial neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Shu, Longcang; Liu, Lihong; Yin, Dan; Wen, Jinmei

    2012-06-01

    Jinci Spring in Shanxi, north China, is a major local water source. It dried up in April 1994 due to groundwater overexploitation. The groundwater system is complex, involving many nonlinear and uncertain factors. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are statistical techniques to study parameter nonlinear relationships of groundwater systems. However, ANN models offer little explanatory insight into the mechanisms of prediction models. Sensitivity analysis can overcome this shortcoming. In this study, a back-propagation neural network model was built based on the relationship between groundwater level and its sensitivity factors in Jinci Spring Basin; these sensitivity factors included precipitation, river seepage, mining drainage, groundwater withdrawals and lateral discharge to the associated Quaternary aquifer. All the sensitivity factors were analyzed with Garson's algorithm based on the connection weights of the neural network model. The concept of "sensitivity range" was proposed to describe the value range of the input variables to which the output variables are most sensitive. The sensitivity ranges were analyzed by a local sensitivity approach. The results showed that coal mining drainage is the most sensitive anthropogenic factor, having a large effect on groundwater level of the Jinci Spring Basin.

  12. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  13. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  14. Indications of regional scale groundwater flows in the Amazon Basins: Inferences from results of geothermal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth T.; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with determination groundwater flows in the Amazon region, based on analysis of geothermal data acquired in shallow and deep wells. The method employed is based on the model of simultaneous heat transfer by conduction and advection in permeable media. Analysis of temperature data acquired in water wells indicates down flows of groundwaters with velocities in excess of 10-7 m/s at depths less than 300 m in the Amazonas basin. Bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data sets have been used in determining characteristics of fluid movements at larger depths in the basins of Acre, Solimões, Amazonas, Marajó and Barreirinhas. The results of model simulations point to down flow of groundwaters with velocities of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 m/s, at depths of up to 4000 m. No evidence has been found for up flow typical of discharge zones. The general conclusion compatible with such results is that large-scale groundwater recharge systems operate at both shallow and deep levels in all sedimentary basins of the Amazon region. However, the basement rock formations of the Amazon region are relatively impermeable and hence extensive down flow systems through the sedimentary strata are possible only in the presence of generalized lateral movement of groundwater in the basal parts of the sedimentary basins. The direction of this lateral flow, inferred from the basement topography and geological characteristics of the region, is from west to east, following roughly the course of surface drainage system of the Amazon River, with eventual discharge into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated flow rate at the continental margin is 3287 m3/s, with velocities of the order of 218 m/year. It is possible that dynamic changes in the fluvial systems in the western parts of South American continent have been responsible for triggering alterations in the groundwater recharge systems and deep seated lateral flows in the Amazon region.

  15. Groundwater monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GPM) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES ampersand H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water quality sampling and water level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and develop facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated waste in a geologic repository. Water quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. The water quality of a well is sampled while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. Stabilization of serial sampling parameters determined if a representative sample is being obtained, Representative samples are sent to contract laboratories and analyzed for general chemistry, major cations and anions, and radionuclides. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-21

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). The pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface

  17. Investigating groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin (Zambia) with hydrogeophysical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; A. Nyambe, Imasiku; Larsen, Flemming

    measurements were used to investigate on a local scale, indications of surface water/ groundwater exchange from electrical resistivity anomalies coincident with alluvial fans and flood plains as deduced from the aerial electrical resistivity result. New and innovative geophysical data inversion schemes were...... in order to come up with sustainable water resources management practices that are applicable to arid and semi-arid sedimentary basins in general and the Machile-Zambezi Basin in particular within the broader context of the Kalahari Basin of southern Africa. This will make it possible to project...... to map the spatial distribution of apparent electrical resistivity on a regional scale in order to obtain a regional overview of groundwater salinization based on electrical resistivity correlation. Furthermore, ground based transient electromagnetic soundings and direct current and induced polarization...

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B1, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  19. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  20. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  1. Hydrostratigraphy of the Westside Groundwater Basin, San Francisco and San Mateo Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, E. H.; Laforce, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Westside Groundwater Basin is a coastal aquifer system located on the San Francisco Peninsula between Golden Gate Park and Burlingame. Since the beginning of the 20th century groundwater from the Basin has been used for drinking water and irrigation purposes. Unfortunately, the Basin wide potentiometric surface has gradually declined and saltwater intrusion from the Pacific Ocean is threatening this fragile aquifer system. Several studies have looked at groundwater movement within the Basin (Boone, Cook and Associates (1987), Yates et al. (1990), Applied Consultants (1991), Geo/Resources Consultants (1993), Phillips et al. (1993), CH2Mhill (1997)); unfortunately, all of the studies assumed horizontal layering of the hydrostratigraphic units. However, recent studies indicate that tectonic deformation and intense folding has altered the stratigraphy of the Westside Basin close to the Pacific Ocean (Bonilla (1998), Barr (1999)). Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to delineate hydrostratigraphic units within the Westside Basin by using tritium, helium, and oxygen isotopes in conjunction with general mineral water quality data, water level data, and geologic cross-sections to depict the subsurface hydrogeology of the system. Our results indicate that the upper part of the Merced Formation (sequences P through Z of Clifton and Hunter (1991, 1999)) forms the major hydrostratigraphic units where groundwater is extracted, and that the Serra Fault separates the upper part of the Merced from the lower part (below sequence P) along most of its extent. In addition, thick clay layers, observed in well logs and identified in cross sections, were tentatively correlated with sequences W and S2. These clay layers, although discontinuous at places, work as aquitards between the hydrostratigraphic units as the difference in water chemistry and age indicates.

  2. Cross-border groundwater management: The contribution of deep groundwater to quaternary basins deduced from isotope data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of an EU Interregional IIIa project we investigated to what extent the interregional Upper Jurassic karst aquifer, which underlies parts of southern Germany and the area around Schaffhausen in Switzerland, contributes to the water budget of shallow Quaternary basins on both sides of the border. Because the differentiation between mixing end members based on chemical parameters is ambiguous, isotope tracers were emphasized. Proportion and spatial occurrence of deep karst water were determined based on 3H, 85Kr, 39Ar and 14C.The data were interpreted based on a 3D-hydrogeological setup which was completely re-evaluated using reprocessed seismic profiles. The reviewed scientific results provide the basis for sustainable groundwater protection and resource management overcoming national borders as the groundwater does. (author)

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Lindberg; M.J. Hartman

    1999-08-17

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters.

  4. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km2 with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R2 correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  8. Geochemistry and environmental isotope of groundwater from the upper Cretaceous aquifer of Orontes basin (Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and environmental isotopes have been used for studying the Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Middle Orontes basin. The results indicate that the salinity of groundwater (0.2 to 2 g/l) reveals the dissolution of evaporate rocks is the main factor of high salinity especially in the Homes depression. The degree of salinity and its spaces distribution are basically related to the pattern of groundwater movement in the Upper cretaceous aquifer. The stable isotopes composition of groundwater in the Homes depression are more depleted by -2.5% and -17.0% for δ18O and δ2H respectively, than the groundwater from Hama elevation, suggested different origin and recharge time between this two groundwater groups. Estimates of their mean subsurface residence times have been constrained on the basis of 14CDIC. The corrected ages of groundwater are recent and less to 10 thousand years in Hama uplift. However, the corrected age of groundwater in the Homs depression range between 10 to 25 thousand years indicate late Pleistocene recharge period. (author)

  9. Assessment of groundwater recharge and discharge in sub-catchments of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater discharge and recharge investigation was carried out in a selected sub-catchment of Indus Basin (Chashma Area) under an IAEA CRP. Sixteen sampling points were selected in the study area including fourteen groundwater and two canal water samples. Seven groundwater sampling points were selected in discharging area and the same numbers of sampling points were selected in recharging area. The first sampling campaign from discharging area was conducted in February 2011 and the second sampling campaign was carried out in March 2011. The electrical conductivity, toital dissolved salts, pH and temperature were measured in the field. The coordinates of the sampling points were recorded using GPS. All the collected samples were analyzed for stable isotopes (/sup 18/O, /sup 2/H). Plot of /sup 18/O vs. /sup 2/H values of surface water and groundwater along with the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) is shown. /sup 18/O values of groundwater vary over a narrow range from -11.3 to -8.2% and /sup 2/H values vary from -76.3 to -53.8%. All groundwater samples except two shallow ones have highly depleted isotopic composition (close to the river/canal water). It means that these locations are recharged by the surface water. Two shallow groundwater samples show mixing of rain water with canal/river water. (orig./A.B.)

  10. Perched groundwater at the northwestern coast of Egypt: a case study of the Fuka Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2012-03-01

    Perched groundwater resources on the northwestern coast of Egypt have thus far been little studied. However, if replenished by rainwater, they can provide a considerable amount of renewable water, i.e., for sustainable irrigation. These resources are limited, show different salinity contents and are endangered by overuse, pollution and by the sea level rising in the context of global warming. This paper presents new climatic data, geomorphologic, geologic, geochemical and hydrological researches in combination with remote sensing and GIS applications from Fuka Basin. Fuka constitutes a special synclinal basin where the interbedded limestone and clays have been folded into gentle synclinal structures. Fractured Middle Miocene limestone represents the bearing formation for the perched groundwater. According to the hydrogeochemical analysis and the PHREEQC model, the aquifer is recharged during the winter season by rainwater from the surrounding tableland and the chemical evolution of the perched water is attributed to water-rock interaction and mixing of fresh water with sea water. The salinity of the perched water ranges from 2,126 to 2,644 mg/L whereas for the deep groundwater it reaches 9,800 mg/L. The study explores origin and potential of the perched groundwater of Fuka Basin and gives recommendations for a future sustainable use and further investigations.

  11. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000-10,000mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ(37)Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. PMID:26657361

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  13. Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C.A.; Katz, B.G.; Hirten, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Karstic aquifers are highly susceptible to rapid infiltration of river water, particularly during periods of high flow. Following a period of sustained rainfall in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, the stage of the Suwannee River rose from 3.0 to 5.88 m above mean sea level in April 1996 and discharge peaked at 360 m3/s. During these high-flow conditions, water from the Suwannee River migrated directly into the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer, the main source of water supply for the area. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were quantified using naturally occurring geochemical tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Mixing of river water with groundwater was indicated by a decrease in the concentrations of calcium, silica, and 222Rn; and by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), tannic acid, and chloride, compared to low-flow conditions in water from a nearby monitoring well, Wingate Sink, and Little River Springs. The proportion (fraction) of river water in groundwater ranged from 0.13 to 0.65 at Wingate Sink and from 0.5 to 0.99 at well W-17258, based on binary mixing models using various tracers. The effectiveness of a natural tracer in quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater was related to differences in tracer concentration of the two end members and how conservatively the tracer reacted in the mixed water. Solutes with similar concentrations in the two end-member waters (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) were not as effective tracers for quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater as those with larger differences in end-member concentrations (Ca, tannic acid, DOC, 222Rn, HCO3). ?? Springer-Verlag.

  14. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  15. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  16. Reconstruction of groundwater formation in the Baltic Artesian basin through water stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babre, A.; Delina, A.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Subsurface hydrology of the Baltic Artesian basin has changed rapidly during the Quaternary period. Glacial and several interglacial phases as well as the change in the sea level led to complicated subsurface hydrology and a large difference in groundwater chemical as much as isotopic content. Baltic artesian basin fully covers territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia; also parts of Poland, Russia, and Belarus are included. This work aims to give better overview of the complexity of the groundwater recharge and discharge dynamics beyond country borders, taking into account only shared geological framework, common climate conditions and development during the Quaternary period. To maintain better understanding of the processes that took part in the formation of groundwater that can be observed nowadays several methods were applied placing major emphasis on the new oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratio results. Additionally large scale modeling as well as hydrochemistry and trace element concentrations was used. Paleowaters usually are isotopically lighter, that facilitate to detect their presence. Earlier investigations in the northern part of the basin indicated glacial melt water intrusion in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer corrected radiocarbon age suggests that this meltwater intrusion took place during the late Weichelian. Several radiocarbon and stable isotope studies in groundwater have been done at the southern part of the basin as well reporting extensive groundwater recharge during the Late Pleistocene in the Devonian aquifers; authors suggest that recharge took place under different recharge mechanisms compared with the northern part. So far no similar studies were accomplished in the central part of the basin, thus to make clearer picture and possibility to find the mixing line between groundwater bodies of different origin, the new groundwater samples were collected from more than 200 wells mainly in the territory of Latvia. New stable isotope samples

  17. Groundwater recharge history and hydrogeochemical evolution in the Minqin Basin, North West China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Minqin Basin is a type area for examining stress on groundwater resources in the Gobi Desert, and has been investigated here using a combination of isotopic, noble gas and chemical indicators. The basin is composed of clastic sediments of widely differing grain size and during the past half century over 10 000 boreholes have been drilled with a groundwater decline of around 1 m a-1. Modern diffuse recharge is unlikely to exceed 3 mm a-1, as determined using unsaturated zone profiles and Cl- mass balance. A small component of modern (3H-3He data, probably from irrigation returns. A clear distinction is found between modern waters with median δ 18O values of 6.5 ± 0.5 per mille and most groundwaters in the basin with more depleted isotopic signatures. Radiocarbon values as pmc range from 0.6% to 85% modern, but it is difficult to assign absolute ages to these, although a value of 20% modern C probably represents the late Pleistocene to Holocene transition. The δ 13C compositions remain near-constant throughout the basin (median value of -8.1 per mille δ 13C) and indicate that carbonate reactions are unimportant and also that little reaction takes place. There is a smooth decrease in 14C activity accompanied by a parallel increase in 4He accumulations from S-N across the basin, which define the occurrence of a regional flow system. Noble gas temperatures indicate recharge temperatures of about 5.6 deg. C for late Pleistocene samples, which is some 2-3 deg. C cooler than the modern mean annual air temperature and the recharge temperature obtained from several Holocene samples. Groundwaters in the Minqin Basin have salinities generally below 1 g/L and are aerobic, containing low Fe but elevated concentrations of U, Cr and Se (mean values of 27.5, 5.8 and 5.3 μg L-1, respectively). Nitrate is present at baseline concentrations of around 2 mg L-1 but there is little evidence of impact of high NO3 from irrigation returns. Strontium isotope and major ion ratios

  18. Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

  19. Groundwater abstraction management in Sana'a Basin, Yemen: a local community approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Taha M.

    2016-07-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater resources in Sana'a Basin, Yemen, is causing severe water shortages associated water quality degradation. Groundwater abstraction is five times higher than natural recharge and the water-level decline is about 4-8 m/year. About 90 % of the groundwater resource is used for agricultural activities. The situation is further aggravated by the absence of a proper water-management approach for the Basin. Water scarcity in the Wadi As-Ssirr catchment, the study area, is the most severe and this area has the highest well density (average 6.8 wells/km2) compared with other wadi catchments. A local scheme of groundwater abstraction redistribution is proposed, involving the retirement of a substantial number of wells. The scheme encourages participation of the local community via collective actions to reduce the groundwater overexploitation, and ultimately leads to a locally acceptable, manageable groundwater abstraction pattern. The proposed method suggests using 587 wells rather than 1,359, thus reducing the well density to 2.9 wells/km2. Three scenarios are suggested, involving different reductions to the well yields and/or the number of pumping hours for both dry and wet seasons. The third scenario is selected as a first trial for the communities to action; the resulting predicted reduction, by 2,371,999 m3, is about 6 % of the estimated annual demand. Initially, the groundwater abstraction volume should not be changed significantly until there are protective measures in place, such as improved irrigation efficiency, with the aim of increasing the income of farmers and reducing water use.

  20. A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on the basis of their chemical compositions. Waters from shallow boreholes which sampled very localised systems are oxidising waters of the Ca-bicarbonate type and may have high 3H contents. A transition to reducing groundwaters occurs in the second and third groups, with Na+ replacing Ca2+ as the dominant cation and sulphate being reduced to sulphide. The uranium solution chemistry also changes systematically with this change in redox conditions. The 234U/238U activity ratios are enhanced for group 2 groundwaters and decrease again in group 3 groundwaters. The low Cl contents of all the Innviertel groundwaters indicate that the marine sediments have been completely flushed by meteoric water and this is confirmed by the stable isotope composition of the water. Groundwater residence times have been estimated from hydrological data, radiogenic 4He accumulation rates and palaeotemperatures of recharge which were estimated from noble gas contents. The 3He/4He ratio shows that most radiogenic He diffuses from the basement granite and the He flux was estimated on the basis of diffusion theory. Groundwater residence times were assessed from this diffusive flux of helium and together with the recharge temperatures, indicate that the envolved groundwaters of the Innviertel were recharged during the interstadial which preceded the last glaciation. (orig.)

  1. USING GRACE TO DETECT GROUNDWATER STORAGE VARIATIONS: THE CASES OF CANNING BASIN AND GUARANI AQUIFER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Munier, Simon; Becker, Mélanie; Maisongrande, Philippe; Cazenave, Anny

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring groundwater resource is today challenging because of very scarce in situ measurement networks. Here we combine 7 years (2003-2009) of data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission with outputs of four Land Surface Models to detect Groundwater Storage (GWS, water stored below the 1-10 m upper layers) variations. The method is applied on two great aquifers with different climatic regime and anthropogenic forcing: the Guarani Aquifer System (South Ame...

  2. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period April 1, 1993 through June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungers, D.K.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between May 24 and August 20, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from samples collected during the April through June quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  3. Assessment of groundwater-seawater interactions in the Aral Sea Basin and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territory of the Aral Sea Region is known as an ecological disaster zone. Health specialists have identified high and increasing mineralization of potable water, and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the population's health. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered as a source of safe and sustainable water supply. In such a situation, a number of scientists consider that the population's water supply must be achieved through a more comprehensive use of fresh and even subsaline groundwater resources. The Aral Sea coastal aquifers, intruding seawater through the free connection to the sea is mixed with and measurably diluted by groundwater derived from land drainage. Hydrological changes associated with poor water management, climate change and desertification in the Aral Sea region put question marks on long-term submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) development and the possibilities for its modelling and quantification. In order to meet this objective, we used, extend, compare and combine SGD results from different site-specific numerical simulations of groundwater outflow, and associated seawater intrusion and re-circulation in coastal aquifers. We simulated the groundwater dynamics in three different aquifers of the Aral Sea region. The analyses of conditions of groundwater-seawater interactions of the Aral Sea basin has shown that the conditions, changed for the last decade, water exchange and, in particular, sea level, require more precise calculation of values of an underground flow. First of all we propose a clear formalization of geological

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  5. Use of isotope hydrology for groundwater resources study in Upper Chi river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Upper Chi river basin is located in the vicinity of Chaiyaphum province, northeastern Thailand. Groundwater management in the drought affected area of fractured Mesozoic siliciclastic rocks groundwater system was challenged by the approaches of isotope and chemical techniques. The local meteoric water line (LMWL) of the study area provide lower slope (δD = 6.8508δ18O -0.8013) and more depleted average annual rainfall (δ18O = -7.6 %ο) when compare to LMWL of Bangkok due to higher evaporation. The surface water mainly exhibits an evaporation effect and can be clearly divided into two groups, the upper reaches and the downstream areas, with approximate separated in δ18O by -4.0 %ο. The groundwater system in the area can be divided into seven subareas based on the stable isotope characteristics and groundwater dating by radiocarbon and tritium methods. Nong Bua Deang subarea, Kang Kro subarea, and Thep Satit subarea, the most upstream system which were separated by thick aquitards of Phra Wihan sandstones, are classified as the upper reach area. The groundwater samples are characterized in two traits: the upstream group shows older groundwater ages (<80.0 % modern carbon, PMC) because of less interaction with surface water and the downstream group, near main channels and reservoirs, exhibit younger groundwater ages because of contribution of surface water in the recharge area. Bamnet Narong subarea and Muang Chaiyaphum subarea are classified as the middle reach area. The groundwater shows rapidly recharge from rainfall, the results of radiocarbon provide younger ages. The downstream characteristic which is closely interaction of extremely evaporated surface, were found in Kon Sawan-Mancha Kiri subarea and Ban Phai subarea. Almost all the groundwater samples are related to younger ages except the wells near the upper tributaries. The groundwater management can be proposed by attending to conservation policy in the upper reach area, and some parts of Ban Phai

  6. 2010 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  7. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  8. Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality in lower Palar river basin, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; L Elango

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical study of groundwater was carried out in a part of the lower Palar river basin, southern India to determine the geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analysed for pH, Eh, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, CO3, Cl and SO4. The analysed parameters of the groundwater in the study area were found to be well within the safe range in general with respect to the Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water except for few locations. The results of these analyses were used to identify the geochemical processes that are taking place in this region. Cation exchange and silicate weathering are the important processes controlling the major ion distribution of the study area. Mass balance reaction model NETPATH was used to assess the ion exchange processes. High concentration of Ca in groundwater of the study area is due to the release of Ca by aquifer material and adsorption of Na due to ion exchange processes. Groundwater of the study area is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes except for few locations.

  9. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  10. Theory of the generalized chloride mass balance method for recharge estimation in groundwater basins characterised by point and diffuse recharge

    OpenAIRE

    N. Somaratne; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Application of the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) method to point recharge dominant groundwater basins can substantially under-estimate long-term average annual recharge by not accounting for the effects of localized surface water inputs. This is because the conventional CMB method ignores the duality of infiltration and recharge found in karstic systems, where point recharge can be a contributing factor. When point recharge is present in groundwater basins,...

  11. Hydrogeological monitoring in Riberao da onca basin located in out croup area of Guarani Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of this project is the estimation of the direct recharge rate of the Guarani Aquifer System, based on a water balance study in the Ribeirao da Onca basin, located in the outcrop area of the Botucatu Formation, in Brotas-SP (Brazil). It is intended to monitor the groundwater level behavior and the superficial outflow from the basin, as function of the registered precipitation and evapotranspiration, during two hydrological cycles. The results to be obtained are of general interest in the context of the Project for Environmental Protection and Integrated Sustainable Management of the Guarani Aquifer System, since understanding the process and rate of direct recharge are essential information for any initiative for management of the aquifer. In this work, the main activities proposed are presented

  12. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  13. Web GIS design and realization for groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianguo; GONG Huili; ZHAO Wenji; ZHANG Xiaosong; YAN Ning

    2004-01-01

    This article brings forward a design and realization scheme of Web GIS in the Yellow River basin for the management of groundwater resources. The main goals are to manage and share data of massive-scale, to support the research of groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin. In this paper we point out the necessity and feasibility of building the distributed Web GIS for geographical research objects on a large scale.We put forward some solutions for the construction of this kind of system including a holistic deployment strategy in the Internet, a scheme of distributed data storage and management, a design of application structure based on three tires architecture by each province and how they collaborate with each other. It also illuminates how the application server works, and sets forth the relations among databases which work together in this system.

  14. Assessment of hydrochemical trends in the highly anthropised Guadalhorce River basin (southern Spain) in terms of compliance with the European groundwater directive for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña; Gavilán, Pablo Jiménez; Pérez, Iñaki Vadillo; Cantos, Francisco Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    seasonality effects, there are gaps in the historical records obtained by the monitoring networks and other shortcomings. The results obtained were analysed with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and revealed a general upward trend of pollutants in the areas affected by major pressures. In this analysis, we evaluated not only the increase or decrease in pollutants but also the different processes detected and the sources of pollution within the basin area. Our evaluation shows that robust measures should be taken in order to prevent further major degradation of groundwater quality and to enable "good quality" status to be achieved in future extensions of the WFD. PMID:27146533

  15. Agriculture and groundwater nitrate contamination in the Seine basin. The STICS-MODCOU modelling chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software package is presented here to predict the fate of nitrogen fertilizers and the transport of nitrate from the rooting zone of agricultural areas to surface water and groundwater in the Seine basin, taking into account the long residence times of water and nitrate in the unsaturated and aquifer systems. Information on pedological characteristics, land use and farming practices is used to determine the spatial units to be considered. These data are converted into input data for the crop model STICS which simulates the water and nitrogen balances in the soil-plant system with a daily time-step. A spatial application of STICS has been derived at the catchment scale which computes the water and nitrate fluxes at the bottom of the rooting zone. These fluxes are integrated into a surface and groundwater coupled model MODCOU which calculates the daily water balance in the hydrological system, the flow in the rivers and the piezometric variations in the aquifers, using standard climatic data (rainfall, PET). The transport of nitrate and the evolution of nitrate contamination in groundwater and to rivers is computed by the model NEWSAM. This modelling chain is a valuable tool to predict the evolution of crop productivity and nitrate contamination according to various scenarios modifying farming practices and/or climatic changes. Data for the period 1970-2000 are used to simulate the past evolution of nitrogen contamination. The method has been validated using available data bases of nitrate concentrations in the three main aquifers of the Paris basin (Oligocene, Eocene and chalk). The approach has then been used to predict the future evolution of nitrogen contamination up to 2015. A statistical approach allowed estimating the probability of transgression of different concentration thresholds in various areas in the basin. The model is also used to evaluate the cost of the damage resulting of the treatment of drinking water at the scale of a groundwater management

  16. A study of groundwater monitoring data analysis using Artificial Neural Network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of groundwater flow modeling are to be justified using groundwater monitoring data in the hydrogeological characterization. On the other hand, hydraulic continuities of the geological structures, all of which are considered to have great effect on groundwater flow and/or groundwater quality, are to be estimated using the groundwater flow monitoring data with hydraulic response to some impacts such as borehole drilling, pumping test and so on. Therefore, the groundwater monitoring is important for characterizing the geological and hydrogeological environments. In order to characterize of hydrogeological environment using the monitoring data, it is important to evaluate the influence of artificial and natural impact on the monitoring data. In this study, the following three research works are carried out based on the groundwater monitoring data collected at the Tono area. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was adopted as the tool for monitoring data analysis. Runoff analysis for assessment of importance of soil moisture on runoff estimation in a catchment. Analysis of water level fluctuation for determination influence factors in the water level fluctuation and for filtering out the influence factors from the water level data . Analysis of hydraulic pressure fluctuation in deep geological formations for hydrogeological characterization and assessment of human influence on the pore pressure in deep formation. Through this study, applicability of ANN for analysis and interpretation of the groundwater monitoring data could be confirmed and methodology for utilization the monitoring data for understanding and characterization of hydrogeological environment could be developed. (author)

  17. A geochemical and stable isotope investigation of groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kanduč, T.; Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Grassa, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; McIntosh, J.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E, Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; Stibilj, V.; Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Ulrich-Supovec, M.; HGEM D.O.O., Zaloška 143, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Supovec, I.; HGEM D.O.O., Zaloška 143, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Jamnikar, S.; Velenje Coal Mine, Partizanska 78, 3320 Velenje, Slovenia

    2014-01-01

    The geochemical and isotopic composition of surface waters and groundwater in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia, was investigated seasonally to determine the relationship between major aquifers and surface waters, water–rock reactions, relative ages of groundwater, and biogeochemical processes. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by HCO3 –, Ca2+, Mg2+ and δ13CDIC indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals, similar to ...

  18. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prasanna; S Chidambaram; A Shahul Hameed; K Srinivasamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), Magnesium (Mg+), Bicarbonate (HCO$_{3}^{-}$), Sulphate (SO$_{4}^-$), Phosphate (PO$_{4}^{-}$) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

  19. Basin-scale conceptual groundwater flow model for an unconfined and confined thick carbonate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Tóth, Ádám

    2015-11-01

    Application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow (GDRGF) concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range (TR), Hungary, is justified based on the principle of hydraulic continuity. The GDRGF concept informs about basin hydraulics and groundwater as a geologic agent. It became obvious that the effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy on the flow pattern could be derived from hydraulic reactions of the aquifer system. The topography and heat as driving forces were examined by numerical simulations of flow and heat transport. Evaluation of groups of springs, in terms of related discharge phenomena and regional chloride distribution, reveals the dominance of topography-driven flow when considering flow and related chemical and temperature patterns. Moreover, heat accumulation beneath the confined part of the system also influences these patterns. The presence of cold, lukewarm and thermal springs and related wetlands, creeks, mineral precipitates, and epigenic and hypogenic caves validates the existence of GDRGF in the system. Vice versa, groups of springs reflect rock-water interaction and advective heat transport and inform about basin hydraulics. Based on these findings, a generalized conceptual GDRGF model is proposed for an unconfined and confined carbonate region. An interface was revealed close to the margin of the unconfined and confined carbonates, determined by the GDRGF and freshwater and basinal fluids involved. The application of this model provides a background to interpret manifestations of flowing groundwater in thick carbonates generally, including porosity enlargement and hydrocarbon and heat accumulation.

  20. Radiocarbon age distribution of groundwater in the Konya Closed Basin, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayari, C. Serdar; Ozyurt, N. Nur; Kilani, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Annual abstraction of 2.6 × 109 m3 of groundwater in the 53,000 km2 Konya Closed Basin of central Turkey has caused a head decline of 1 m/year over the last few decades. Therefore, understanding the hydrogeology of this large endorheic basin, in a semi-arid climate, is important to sustainable resource management. For this purpose, the groundwater’s radiocarbon age distribution has been investigated along a 150-km transect parallel to regional flow. Results show that the groundwater ranges in age from Recent at the main recharge area of the Taurus Mountains in the south, to about 40,000 years around the terminal Salt Lake located in the north. In this predominantly confined flow system, radiocarbon ages increase linearly by distance from the main recharge area and are in agreement with the hydraulic ages. The mean velocity of regional groundwater flow (3 m/year) is determined by the rate of regional groundwater discharge into the Salt Lake. Calcite dissolution, dedolomitization and geogenic carbon dioxide influx appear to be the dominant geochemical processes that determine the carbon isotope composition along the regional flow path. The groundwater’s oxygen-18 content indicates more humid and cooler paleorecharge. A maximum drop of 5°C is inferred for the past recharge temperature.

  1. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period July 1, 1991 through September 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and 40 CFR 265, Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (EPA 1989). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 (Ecology 1991). This submittal provides data obtained from groundwater monitoring activities for July 1, 1991 through September 30, 1991. This report contains groundwater monitoring data from Hanford Site groundwater projects. A RCRA network is currently being established at the 100-D Pond. Groundwater chemistry analyses have not yet been performed

  2. GIS and SBF for estimating groundwater recharge of a mountainous basin in the Wu River watershed, Taiwan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hsin-Fu Yeh; Hung-I Lin; Shing-Tsz Lee; Min-Hsiang Chang; Kuo-Chin Hsu; Cheng-Haw Lee

    2014-04-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation are extremely uneven; so, careful management of water resources in Taiwan is crucial. The long-term overexploitation of groundwater resources poses a challenge to water resource management in Taiwan. However, assessing groundwater resources in mountainous basins is challenging due to limited information. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS) and stable base-flow (SBF) techniques were used to assess the characteristics of groundwater recharge considering the Wu River watershed in central Taiwan as a study area. First, a GIS approach was used to integrate five contributing factors: lithology, land cover/land use, lineaments, drainage, and slope. The weights of factors contributing to the groundwater recharge were obtained from aerial photos, geological maps, a land use database, and field verification. Second, the SBF was used to estimate the groundwater recharge in a mountainous basin scale. The concept of the SBF technique was to separate the base-flow from the total streamflow discharge in order to obtain a measure of groundwater recharge. The SBF technique has the advantage of integrating groundwater recharge across an entire basin without complex hydro-geologic modelling and detailed knowledge of the soil characteristics. In this study, our approach for estimating recharge provides not only an estimate of how much water becomes groundwater, but also explains the characteristics of a potential groundwater recharge zone.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  4. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. This document contains the analytical groundwater sampling data for these eight wells for the first two quarters of 1996.

  5. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  6. Ground-water data, Green River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Everett Alfred; Collier, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of energy-related projects in the Green River basin of Wyoming are compiled from the files of the Geological Survey and the Wyoming State Engineer as of 1977. The data include well and spring location, well depth, casing diameter, type of lifts, type of power, use of water, rock type of producing zone, owner, and discharge for more than 1,600 sites. Analyses for common chemical constituents, trace elements, and radioactive chemicals are tabulated as well as water temperature and specific conductance measurement data. Lithologic logs of more than 300 wells, test holes, and measured sections constitute much of this report. County maps at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the locations. (USGS)

  7. The research of three-dimensional numerical simulation of groundwater-flow: taking the Ejina Basin, Northwest China as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Water is a primary controlling factor for economic development and ecological environmental protection in the inland river basins of arid western China. And it is groundwater, as the most important component of total water resources, that plays a dominant role in the development of western China. In recent years, the use-ratio of surface water has been raised, the groundwater recharge rate from surface water has been reduced, and groundwater has been exploited on a large scale. This has led to the decline of ground-water levels and the degradation of eco-environments in the Heihe watershed. Therefore, the study on the change in groundwater levels in recent years, as well as simulating and predicting groundwater levels in the future, have become very significant for im-proving the ecological environment of the Heihe River Basin, to coordinate the water contradiction among upper, middle and lower reaches of Heihe River Basin and to allocate the water resources. The purpose of this study is to analyze the groundwa-ter-level variations of the Ejina region based on a large scale, to develop and evaluate a conceptual groundwater model in Ejina Basin, to establish the groundwater flow model using the experimental observation data and combining Modular Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW) and GIS software, to simulate the regional hydrologic regime in re-cent 10 years and compare various water-delivery scenarios from midstream, and to determine which one would be the best plan for maintaining and recovering the groundwater levels and increasing the area of Ejina oasis. Finally this paper discusses the pos-sible vegetation changes of Ejina Basin in the future.

  8. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  9. Identifying groundwater recharge connections in the Moscow (USA) sub-basin using isotopic tracers and a soil moisture routing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Jasper; Brooks, Erin; Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Grader, George; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, aquifers are suffering from large abstractions resulting in groundwater level declines. These declines can be caused by excessive abstraction for drinking water, irrigation purposes or industrial use. Basaltic aquifers also face these conflicts. A large flood basalt area (1.1 × 105 km2) can be found in the Northwest of the USA. This Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) consists of a thick series of basalt flows of Miocene age. The two major hydrogeological units (Wanapum and Grand Ronde formations) are widely used for water abstraction. The mean decline over recent decades has been 0.6 m year-1. At present day, abstraction wells are drying up, and base flow of rivers is reduced. At the eastern part of CRBG, the Moscow sub-basin on the Idaho/Washington State border can be found. Although a thick poorly permeable clay layer exists on top of the basalt aquifer, groundwater level dynamics suggest that groundwater recharge occurs at certain locations. A set of wells and springs has been monitored bi-weekly for 9 months for δ18O and δ2H. Large isotopic fluctuations and d-excess values close to the meteoric water line in some wells are indicating that recharge occurs at the granite/basalt interface through lateral flow paths in and below the clay. A soil moisture routing (SMR) model showed that most recharge occurs on the granitic mountains. The basaltic aquifer receives recharge from these sedimentary zones around the granite/basalt interface. The identification of these types of areas is of major importance for future managed-aquifer recharge solutions to solve problems of groundwater depletion.

  10. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task.

  11. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task

  12. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data. PMID:26946495

  13. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in parts of the Ayensu Basin of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisatu Zakaria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five groundwater samples were collected from parts of the Ayensu Basin in the Central Region of Ghana and were analysed for their physicochemical characteristics. The physicochemical parameters; pH, Conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, calcium (Ca 2+, magnesium (Mg 2+, sodium (Na +, potassium (K +, bicarbonate (HCO3 2-, chloride (Cl -, sulphate (SO4 2- and nitrate (NO3 - were analysed to know the present groundwater quality as well as the possible source of ions in the groundwater. The groundwater in the area is fresh and the dominant water types in the study area are Na-Cl and Na-HCO3-Cl: the occurrence of these facies is identified to be probably due to the dissolution of soluble salts in the soil horizon and aerosol spray. The occurrence of Na +, Cl -, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and SO4 2- in the groundwaters was also found to be probably caused by sea aerosol spray and decay of organic matter.

  14. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas in 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-12-19

    Everest, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 300) located in the southeast corner of Brown County, in the northeastern corner of Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater at Everest was initially identified in 1997 as a result of testing performed under the Commodity Credit Corporation/U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) private well sampling program conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The KDHE collected samples from seven private wells in and near Everest. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were found in only one of the wells, the Donnie Nigh domestic well (owned at that time by Tim Gale), approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were detected at 121 {mu}g/L and 4 {mu}g/L, respectively. Nitrate was found at 12.62 mg/L. The USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest public water supply system. The findings of the 2011 monitoring at Everest support the following conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually during annual monitoring in 2009-2011 (and through the use of automatic recorders in 2002-2010) have consistently indicated an initial direction of groundwater flow from the former CCC/USDA facility to the north-northwest and toward the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) At most of the monitored locations, carbon tetrachloride concentrations decreased in April 2011 relative to 2010 results. Noteworthy decreases of > 50% occurred at locations MW4, MW60, and MW88, in the most concentrated part of the plume. (3) Comparison of accumulated data demonstrates that the area of the carbon tetrachloride plume with concentrations > 200 {mu}g/L has decreased markedly over time and suggests a generally decreasing trend in contaminant levels. (4) The

  15. Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Sean P.; Kitchell, Kate; Baer, Lori Anne; Bedford, David R.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Matchett, J.R.; Mathie, Amy; Miller, David M.; Pilliod, David S.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot project (GBILM) was one of four regional pilots to implement the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Thrust on Integrated Landscape Monitoring (ILM) whose goal was to observe, understand, and predict landscape change and its implications on natural resources at multiple spatial and temporal scales and address priority natural resource management and policy issues. The Great Basin is undergoing rapid environmental change stemming from interactions among global climate trends, increasing human populations, expanding and accelerating land and water uses, invasive species, and altered fire regimes. GBLIM tested concepts and developed tools to store and analyze monitoring data, understand change at multiple scales, and forecast landscape change. The GBILM endeavored to develop and test a landscape-level monitoring approach in the Great Basin that integrates USGS disciplines, addresses priority management questions, catalogs and uses existing monitoring data, evaluates change at multiple scales, and contributes to development of regional monitoring strategies. GBILM functioned as an integrative team from 2005 to 2010, producing more than 35 science and data management products that addressed pressing ecosystem drivers and resource management agency needs in the region. This report summarizes the approaches and methods of this interdisciplinary effort, identifies and describes the products generated, and provides lessons learned during the project.

  16. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  17. Mean Transit Time as a Predictor of Groundwater Discharge Response in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, J. E.; Heilweil, V. M.; Stolp, B. J.; Susong, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries support 40 million municipal water users and 5.5 million acres of agriculture in the south western United States (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2012). Recent estimates by Rumsey et al. (2015) suggest that a significant portion (about 50 percent) of surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is sustained by groundwater discharge to streams. Predicted climate variation (Cook et al., 2015) and increased water demand (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2012) within the UCRB suggest future decreases in groundwater discharge, however transient groundwater responses are not well understood. In this study we calculate groundwater mean transit time (MTT) and transit time distribution (TTD) as predictors of the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress. Samples from nineteen large springs within the UCRB were analyzed for environmental tracers to determine MTT and TTD. The predictive value of the MTT is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the 19 springs range from 10 to 15,000 years with a flow-weighted average of 1,650 years. The composite TTD of the 19 springs suggest that flowpaths representing 45 percent of their combined discharge have transit times greater than 100 years. However, spring discharge records indicate that flow responds to drought on much shorter (0.5 - 6 year) time scales, indicative of a hydraulic pressure response. Springs with shorter MTTs (Manga, 1999) has shown groundwater responds on shorter time scales than the MTT, but of interest the results presented here indicate that relatively stable and old springs with long MTTs (> 100) also show a hydraulic pressure response. While not fully representative of the UCRB, results from the 19 springs indicate that groundwater discharge responds to climate variation and water-demand imbalances over a relatively short time period of years.

  18. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in the Çavuşçayı basin, Sungurlu-Çorum, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Turgut

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality and usage possibility of groundwater in the Çavuşçayı basin and suggest the best water structure for the groundwater use. Results from hydrochemical analyses reveal that groundwater is mostly affected by salty (Na+ Cl-) waters of the Incik Formation and brackish (Ca2+, Mg2+ SO{4/2-}) waters of the Bayındır Formation. The Alibaba saltpan discharged (2 l/s) from the Incik Formation is used for salt production. In the basin, salinity risk increases with depth and along the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, shallow water and trenches opened in the alluvium aquifer at the east of the basin were determined to yield suitable water with no Na+ and Cl- contamination. Following the heavy rainy period, waters of less salinity and conductivity are possibly used for agriculture.

  19. Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Habets, F.; S. Gascoin; S. Korkmaz; Thiéry, D.; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M; Ducharne, A; E. Leblois; E. Ledoux; martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; Ottlé, C; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison...

  20. California GAMA Program: Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Results for the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces of Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2005-01-20

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) project (under the GAMA Program) is to assess water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  1. Groundwater resources in the Indo-Gangetic Basin : resilience to climate and abstraction : project workshop meeting, Delhi, 4-7 November 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report is an output from the project Groundwater resilience to climate change and abstraction in the Indo-Gangetic basin Groundwater resilience to climate change and abstraction in the Indo-Gangetic basin is a two-year (2012-14) DFID-funded research project strengthening the evidence-base linking groundwater resources, climate variability and abstraction in the Indo-Gangetic basin. This project has been commissioned by the DFID South Asia research hub and is led by the Bri...

  2. First status report on regional groundwater flow modeling for the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional groundwater flow within the principal hydrogeological units of the Palo Duro Basin is evaluated by developing a conceptual model of the flow regime in the shallow aquifers and the deep-basin brine aquifers and testing these models using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Semiquantitative sensitivity analysis (a limited parametric study) is conducted to define the system response to changes in hydrologic properties or boundary conditions. Adjoint sensitivity analysis is applied to the conceptualized flow regime in the Wolfcamp carbonate aquifer. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data utilized in this study are summarized. The specific conceptual models, defining the areal and vertical averaging of lithologic units, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions, are described in detail. The results are delineated by the simulated potentiometric surfaces and tables summarizing areal and vertical boundary fluxes, Darcy velocities at specific points, and groundwater travel paths. Results from the adjoint sensitivity analysis included importance functions and sensitivity coefficients, using heads or the average Darcy velocities as the performance measures. The reported work is the first stage of an ongoing evaluation of two areas within the Palo Duro Basin as potantial repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, this report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainty of the present conceptualization of groundwater flow within the Palo Duro Basin

  3. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  4. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen RCRA groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford site. They include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim- and final- status federal and state regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of the following programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment or detection. This quarterly report contains data received between July 1 and Sept. 30, 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the July-Sept. quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events not previously reported.

  5. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period July 1--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen RCRA groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford site. They include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim- and final- status federal and state regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of the following programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment or detection. This quarterly report contains data received between July 1 and Sept. 30, 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the July-Sept. quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events not previously reported

  6. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  7. Second status report on regional ground-water flow modeling for the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional ground-water flow within the principal geohydrologic units of the Palo Duro Basin is evaluated by developing a conceptual model of the flow regime and testing the model using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Sensitivity analyses (a limited parametric study) are conducted to define the system responses to changes in the conceptual model. Of particular interest are the impacts of salt permeability and potential climatic changes on the system response. The conceptual model is described in terms of its areal and vertical discretization, aquifer properties, fluid properties and hydrologic boundary conditions. The simulated ground-water flow fields are described with potentiometric surfaces, tables summarizing the areal and vertical volumetric flows through the principal units, and Darcy velocities within specified finite-difference blocks. The reported work is the second stage of an ongoing evaluation of the Palo Duro Basin as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, the report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow to particular parameters and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainties in the present conceptualization. 28 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs

  8. Effects of groundwater pumping in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    USGS developed a groundwater-flow model of the Upper Floridan aquifer in lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin in southwest Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida to determine the effect of agricultural groundwater pumping on aquifer/stream flow within the basin. Aquifer/stream flow is the sum of groundwater outflow to and inflow from streams, and is an important consideration for water managers in the development of water-allocation and operating plans. Specifically, the model was used to evaluate how agricultural pumping relates to 7Q10 low streamflow, a statistical low flow indicative of drought conditions that would occur during seven consecutive days, on average, once every 10 years. Argus ONETM, a software package that combines a geographic information system (GIS) and numerical modeling in an Open Numerical Environment, facilitated the design of a detailed finite-element mesh to represent the complex geometry of the stream system in the lower basin as a groundwater-model boundary. To determine the effects on aquifer/stream flow of pumping at different locations within the model area, a pumping rate equivalent to a typical center-pivot irrigation system (50,000 ft3/d) was applied individually at each of the 18,951 model nodes in repeated steady-state simulations that were compared to a base case representing drought conditions during October 1999. Effects of nodal pumping on aquifer/stream flow and other boundary flows, as compared with the base-case simulation, were computed and stored in a response matrix. Queries to the response matrix were designed to determine the sensitivity of targeted stream reaches to agricultural pumping. Argus ONE enabled creation of contour plots of query results to illustrate the spatial variation across the model area of simulated aquifer/streamflow reductions, expressed as a percentage of the long-term 7Q10 low streamflow at key USGS gaging stations in the basin. These results would enable water managers

  9. Interpretation of GRACE data of the Nile Basin using a groundwater recharge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Bonsor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and quantifying natural water storage is becoming increasingly important as nations develop strategies for economic growth and adaptations measures for climate change. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data provide a new opportunity to gain a direct and independent measure of water mass variations on a regional scale. Hydrological models are required to interpret these mass variations and partition them between different parts of the hydrological cycle, but groundwater storage has generally been poorly constrained by such models. This study focused on the Nile basin, and used a groundwater recharge model ZOODRM (Zoomable Object Oriented Distributed Recharge Model to help interpret the seasonal variation in terrestrial water storage indicated by GRACE. The recharge model was constructed using almost entirely remotely sensed input data and calibrated to observed hydrological data from the Nile. GRACE data for the Nile Basin indicates an annual terrestrial water storage of approximately 200 km3: water input is from rainfall, and much of this water is evaporated within the basin since average annual outflow of the Nile is less than 30 km3. Total annual recharge simulated by ZOODRM is 400 km3/yr; 0–50 mm/yr within the semi arid lower catchments, and a mean of 250 mm/yr in the sub-tropical upper catchments. These results are comparable to the few site specific studies of recharge in the basin. Accounting for year-round discharge of groundwater, the seasonal groundwater storage is 100–150 km3/yr and seasonal change in soil moisture, 30 km3/yr. Together, they account for between 50 and 90% of the annual water storage in the catchment. The annual water mass variation (200 km3/yr is an order of magnitude smaller than the rainfall input into the catchment (2000 km3/yr, which could be consistent with a high degree of moisture recycling within the

  10. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de

  11. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de

  12. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km{sup 2} with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO{sub 3}) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO{sub 3} transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R{sup 2} correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO{sub 3} removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO{sub 3} concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the

  13. Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper

  14. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  15. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  16. Regional ground-water flow modeling for the Paradox Basin, Utah: Second status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional ground-water flow within the principal geohydrologic units of the Paradox Basin is evaluated by developing a conceptual model of the flow regime between the shallow aquifers, the Paradox salt and the deep-basin brine aquifers. This model is tested using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Sensitivity analyses (a limited parametric study) are conducted to define the system responses to changes in the conceptual model. The conceptual model is described in terms of its areal and vertical discretization, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions. The simulated results are described with potentiometric surfaces, tables summarizing the areal and vertical volumetric flows through the principal units, and Darcy velocities at specified points. The reported work is the second stage of an ongoing evaluation of the Gisbon Dome area within the Paradox Basin as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, the report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow to the hydrologic parameters and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainties of the present conceptualization. 20 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Noble gas tracing of groundwater/coalbed methane interaction in the San Juan Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Ballentine, C.J.; Kipfer, R.; Schoell, M.; Thibodeaux, S. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Isotope Geology & Mineral Resources

    2005-12-01

    The San Juan Basin natural gas field, located in northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado in the USA, is a case-type coalbed methane system. Groundwater is thought to play a key role in both biogenic methane generation and the CO{sub 2} sequestration potential of coalbed systems. We show here how noble gases can be used to construct a physical model that describes the interaction between the groundwater system and the produced gas. The results conclusively show that the volume of groundwater seen by coal does not play a role in determining the volume of methane produced by secondary biodegradation of these coalbeds. There is no requirement of continuous groundwater flow for renewing the microbes or nutrient components. Strong mass related isotopic fractionation of {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}NE and {sup 38}Ar/{sup 36} isotopic ratios was also seen. This can be explained by a noble gas concentration gradient in the groundwater during gas production, which causes diffusive partial re-equilibration of the noble gas isotopes. It is important for the study of other systems in which extensive groundwater degassing may have occurred to recognize that severe isotopic fractionation of air-derived noble gases can occur when such concentration gradients are established during gas production. Excess air-derived Xe and Kr in our samples are shown to be related to the diluting coalbed methane and can only be accounted for if Xe and Kr are preferentially and volumetrically trapped within the coal matrix and released during biodegradation to form CH{sub 4}.

  18. Multi Proxy Approach to Discriminate Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination: Thirumanimuttar Sub Basin, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Murugesan, V.; Gopinath, S.; Hydrogeochemistry Group

    2013-05-01

    The study area Thirumanimuttar sub-basin is one of the major tributaries of river Cauvery in southern part of India, facing serious problem both in quality and quantity due to the increasing in demand associated with rapid population growth, agricultural and industrial activities. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected from bore wells for Pre monsoon (PRM) and Post monsoon (POM) seasons to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution and related geochemical process. The water is neutral to alkaline in nature with an average pH of 7.37. Higher electrical conductivity (EC) were noted in western and mid-downstream parts of the study area. Higher NO3- observed during POM due to the action of anthropogenic process. The piper plot reveals the dominance of Na- Cl and Na- HCO3, mixed Ca - Na - HCO3, mixed Ca - Mg - HCO3 and Ca - SO4 facies. The (Ca +Mg) vs TZ+ plot reveals higher Ca and Mg due to silicate weathering from aquifers. Saturation index of silicate, carbonate and fluoride minerals indicates oversaturation and equilibrium state. Groundwater samples were also analysed for stable isotopes [Oxygen (18O), Hydrogen (2H or Deuterium)] and trace elements like Al, Ni and Pb. The study reveals groundwater undergone evaporation prior infiltration. The d-excess of the groundwater varied between -4.89 to 10.08 ‰ indicating water undergone strong evaporation during recharge. The isotope ratios signify ionic increases along groundwater flow path. The water type's classified 5 distinct groups with low EC and highly depleted isotopes to very high EC with enriched stable isotopic composition indicating longer residing groundwater. Trace element study indicates Al, Ni and Pb exceeding acceptable limit by WHO, 1994. The spatial plot shows higher Cr due to textile dyeing units. Residual Sodium Carbonate value indicates samples not suitable for irrigation purposes. Higher sodium percentage is noted during PRM. Higher sodium adsorption ratio observed during POM

  19. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  20. Regional monitoring of temporal changes in groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, Hans Peter; van der Grift, Bas

    2004-08-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are expected to affect groundwater quality by changing the loads of nutrients and salts in recharging groundwater, but regional monitoring networks installed to register the changes often fail to detect them and interpretation of trend analysis results is difficult. This study aims to improve the detection and understanding of groundwater quality changes with time, combining time series information, concentration-depth profiles, age dating and concentration-depth prognoses based on the historical inputs of solutes. For trend detection, a combination of trend analysis on time series at specific depths and time-averaged concentration-depth profiles was used. To reveal trends that have become obscured by chemical reactions, additional conditionally conservative indicators were introduced that are insensitive to those reactions under specific conditions. Detected trends were matched with prognoses of conservative and reactive transport to aid the understanding of trends. Data of the regional networks in 2 area-types with intensive livestock farming in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant were used to illustrate the approach. The downward movement of the agricultural pollution front was demonstrated for the 2 area-types. However, many targeted contaminants have become retarded or delayed and quality changes were hard to detect for many reactive solutes, including nitrate. Pollution fronts of these targeted chemical components are still limited to the first 15 m of the subsoil. At deeper level, about 20-25 m, the effects of agricultural pollution and acidification were indicated by chemical indicators that have not been considered by others: oxidation capacity, the sum of cations and chloride. Increasing trends of the conditionally conservative indicators 'oxidation capacity' and 'sum of cations' were found at a depth of 18-25 m below surface. Increasing trends for potassium were found at shallower depth (7-13 m), which is explained by

  1. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity. PMID:27125684

  2. RCRA groundwater monitoring data. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford Site. These projects include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. The groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim-status federal (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulation [CFR] Part 265) and state (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303-400) regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of three programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects on the Hanford Site. Performing project management, preparing groundwater monitoring plans, well network design and installation, specifying groundwater data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, data management, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between April and June 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the April through June quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported

  3. RCRA groundwater monitoring data. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Nineteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford Site. These projects include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. The groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim-status federal (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulation [CFR] Part 265) and state (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303-400) regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of three programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects on the Hanford Site. Performing project management, preparing groundwater monitoring plans, well network design and installation, specifying groundwater data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, data management, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between April and June 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the April through June quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  4. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  5. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Chemical evolution in the high arsenic groundwater of the Huhhot basin (Inner Mongolia, PR China) and its difference from the western Bengal basin (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit, E-mail: amukh2@gmail.com [Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Bhattacharya, Prosun; Shi, Fei [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Dept. of Land and Water Resources, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Fryar, Alan E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Mukherjee, Arun B. [Environmental Sciences, Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki University, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Xie, Zheng M. [Department of Resources/Soil Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jacks, Gunnar [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Dept. of Land and Water Resources, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Bundschuh, Jochen [Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, Apartado Postal 10032, 1000 San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2009-10-15

    Elevated As concentrations in groundwater of the Huhhot basin (HB), Inner Mongolia, China, and the western Bengal basin (WBB), India, have been known for decades. However, few studies have been performed to comprehend the processes controlling overall groundwater chemistry in the HB. In this study, the controls on solute chemistry in the HB have been interpreted and compared with the well-studied WBB, which has a very different climate, physiography, lithology, and aquifer characteristics than the HB. In general, there are marked differences in solute chemistry between HB and WBB groundwaters. Stable isotopic signatures indicate meteoric recharge in the HB in a colder climate, distant from the source of moisture, in comparison to the warm, humid WBB. The major-ion composition of the moderately reducing HB groundwater is dominated by a mixed-ion (Ca-Na-HCO{sub 3}-Cl) hydrochemical facies with an evolutionary trend along the regional hydraulic gradient. Molar ratios and thermodynamic calculations show that HB groundwater has not been affected by cation exchange, but is dominated by weathering of feldspars (allitization) and equilibrium with gibbsite and anorthite. Mineral weathering and mobilization of As could occur as recharging water flows through fractured, argillaceous, metamorphic or volcanic rocks in the adjoining mountain-front areas, and deposits solutes near the center of the basin. In contrast, WBB groundwater is Ca-HCO{sub 3}-dominated, indicative of calcite weathering, with some cation exchange and silicate weathering (monosiallitization).

  7. Chemical evolution in the high arsenic groundwater of the Huhhot basin (Inner Mongolia, PR China) and its difference from the western Bengal basin (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated As concentrations in groundwater of the Huhhot basin (HB), Inner Mongolia, China, and the western Bengal basin (WBB), India, have been known for decades. However, few studies have been performed to comprehend the processes controlling overall groundwater chemistry in the HB. In this study, the controls on solute chemistry in the HB have been interpreted and compared with the well-studied WBB, which has a very different climate, physiography, lithology, and aquifer characteristics than the HB. In general, there are marked differences in solute chemistry between HB and WBB groundwaters. Stable isotopic signatures indicate meteoric recharge in the HB in a colder climate, distant from the source of moisture, in comparison to the warm, humid WBB. The major-ion composition of the moderately reducing HB groundwater is dominated by a mixed-ion (Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl) hydrochemical facies with an evolutionary trend along the regional hydraulic gradient. Molar ratios and thermodynamic calculations show that HB groundwater has not been affected by cation exchange, but is dominated by weathering of feldspars (allitization) and equilibrium with gibbsite and anorthite. Mineral weathering and mobilization of As could occur as recharging water flows through fractured, argillaceous, metamorphic or volcanic rocks in the adjoining mountain-front areas, and deposits solutes near the center of the basin. In contrast, WBB groundwater is Ca-HCO3-dominated, indicative of calcite weathering, with some cation exchange and silicate weathering (monosiallitization).

  8. Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River Basin, Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S.

    2015-12-01

    The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  9. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T. S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with the Great Lakes. The objective of this study is to examine the detectability of the groundwater storage change within the GLB using the monthly models from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, auxiliary soil moisture, snow and lake (SMSL) data, and predictions from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. A two-step filtering method is developed to optimize the extraction of GRACE signal. A two dimensional basin window weight function is also introduced to reduce ringing artifacts caused by the band-limited GRACE models in estimating the water storage change within the GLB. The groundwater storage (GWS) as deviation from a reference mean storage is estimated for the period of 2002 to 2009. The average GWS of the GLB clearly show an annual cycle with an amplitude range from 27 to 91 mm in water thickness equivalent (WTE), and a phase range of about two months. The estimated phases of GWS variations have a half year shift with respect to the phase of SMSL water storage variations which show peaks in March and April. The least squares estimation gives a GWS loss trend of from 2.3 to 9.3 km3/yr within the GLB for the period of study. This wide range of the GRACE GWS results is caused largely by the differences of soil moisture and snow storage from different land surface models (LSMs), and to a lesser extent by the GRACE commission and omission errors, and the GIA model error.

  10. Identification of hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of Dawa River basin, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemariyam, Fikadu; Ayenew, Tenalem

    2016-08-01

    Dawa River basin in southern Ethiopia is covered by volcanic, basement, and sedimentary rocks. Locating good quality groundwater is a challenge in most parts of the basin. Statistical analysis and graphical plots of 94 hydrochemical data of groundwater were used as a main tool to acquire an insight into the major processes that control groundwater chemistry. In the volcanic terrain groundwater is dilute (mean total dissolved solids (TDS): 152 mg/l), while salinity is the highest in the sedimentary terrain (mean TDS: 1750 mg/l). NO3 (-) varies from below the detection limit to 433 mg/l NO3 (-). In 26 % of the water samples, nitrate concentration is above the human-affected value, 5 mg/l NO3 (-). In 6 % of the samples, NO3 (-) concentration is above the limit recommended in drinking water, 50 mg/l NO3 (-), by WHO. Concentration range of the other major ions is also high and hydrochemical water types are diverse, suggesting the effect of various hydrogeochemical processes on the water chemistry. Chemical data analysis revealed that in the volcanic and most parts of the basement terrains silicate hydrolysis is the dominant process. Gypsum dissolution is the main process in the sedimentary terrain. Dissolution of gypsum is also important at few locations along dry riverbeds in the semiarid area where the effect of evaporation on the water chemistry is considerable. Loading of factors with K(+) and SO4 (2-), K(+) and NO3 (-), and NO3 (-) and correlation of SO4 (2-) with Cl(-), along with the observed high nitrate concentration, indicate the effect of surface contamination sources on the water quality. PMID:27456694

  11. Chemical evolution of groundwater in a drainage basin of Holocene age, east-central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, E. I.

    1981-12-01

    Chemical evolution of groundwater in a small drainage basin of glacial origin (10,250 yr. B.P., based on radiocarbon age dating of gyttja from a closed saline lake in the basin) was studied in order to understand the generation of salts in surface-mined areas on the interior plains of Alberta. The basin was considered to be a natural analogue of a surface-disturbed area because of the large volumes of rock that had been redistributed by glaciers with the resulting change in topography and drainage. The distributions of hydraulic head, total dissolved solids (TDS), and environmental isotopes essentially reflect the superimposition of groundwater flow systems associated with the post-glacial topography upon a regional bedrock flow system of older but undertermined age. In the glacial drift aquifers and aquitards (sands and till), the groundwater composition was typically Ca-Mg-bicarbonate type at depths less than 30 m, but at depths of 30-100 m, the composition was Na-bicarbonate-sulfate type. In the deeper bedrock aquifers (> 100 m), Nabicarbonate-sulfate and Na-bicarbonate-chloride types were present. TDS was as low as 400 mg/l in the shallow drift aquifer, generally constant at ˜1000 mg/l in the deep drift and shallow bedrock aquifer, and over 1700 mg/l in the deep bedrock aquifer system. Chemical evolution of groundwater in the area appears to be dominated by two depth zones having different types of water-rock interaction. In the shallow drift zone, the dissolution of soil CO 2 in infiltrating groundwater, oxidation of organic carbon, sulfur and pyrite result in the formation of carbonic and sulfuric acids that attack carbonate and silicate minerals. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, these minerals were calcite, dolomite, plagioclase feldspar, and smectite clays. However, in the deep regional bedrock aquifer, conditions are reducing (presence of methane), groundwater is alkaline (pH 8.6-10.3), and the Na-bicarbonate-chloride composition of groundwater

  12. Identifying the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in Subei Lake Basin, Ordos energy base, Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Song, X.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y.; D. Han; Ma, Y; H. Bu

    2014-01-01

    A hydrochemical and isotopic study was conducted in Subei Lake Basin, northwestern China, to identify the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater. Water samples were collected, major ions and stable isotopes (δ18O, δ D) were analyzed. In terms of hydrogeological conditions in study area, groundwater can be classified into three types: the Quaternary groundwater, the shallow Cretaceous groundwater, the deep Cretaceous groundwater. Piper diagram and correl...

  13. Using Geoscience and Geostatistics to Optimize Groundwater Monitoring Networks at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of scientists, engineers, and statisticians was assembled to review the operation efficiency of groundwater monitoring networks at US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Subsequent to a feasibility study, this team selected and conducted an analysis of the A/M area groundwater monitoring well network. The purpose was to optimize the number of groundwater wells requisite for monitoring the plumes of the principal constituent of concern, viz., trichloroethylene (TCE). The project gathered technical expertise from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), the Environmental Restoration Division (ERD), and the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of SRS

  14. First and second quarters 1999 -- TNX Area groundwater and effectiveness monitoring strategy data only report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-17

    This report presents data of groundwater monitoring conducted during the first and second quarters of 1999 in support of the Interim Remedial Action. The data is from groundwater monitoring wells described in this report as the primary, secondary, and recovery wells of the initial operation of the Effectiveness Monitoring Strategy (EMS) as stipulated in Revision 1.3 (WSRC, 1996), the proposed wells for the full operation of the EMS as described in Revision 1.5 (WSRC, 1999), and general wells pertinent to the report. Also included are data from SRTC projects in the TNX Area that are deemed useful for groundwater characterization.

  15. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure

  16. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  17. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Sutanudjaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

  18. An analysis of potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring networks in the Central Plateau. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of potential impacts caused by groundwater remediation activities to the four groundwater monitoring programs operating in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. It specifically fulfills Milestone M-15-81A of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Milestone M-15-81A specifies the evaluation of the potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring well systems in the Central Plateau caused by various groundwater remediation activities. Most of the impacts will be caused by local changes to groundwater flow directions that will potentially reduce the ability of the RCRA well network to monitor a limited number of RCRA facilities. It is recommended that a compliance evaluation be made of the regulatory impacts of the technical evaluations contained in this report

  19. Oxygen isotope composition as late glacial palaeoclimate indicators of groundwater recharge in the Baltic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several hypotheses were established to explain low δ18O values of groundwater which have been found in the Estonian Homocline. Traces of depleted groundwater were found also in other parts of the Baltic Basin near the shoreline. From data collected in this and previous studies, the δ18O values of groundwater in most aquifers are known to range from -7.7 to -13.9 per mille. However, the groundwater in Estonia in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system has significantly lower δ18O values, which vary mainly from -18 to -22.5 per mille. The overlying Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer is also depleted in 18O, but, as a rule, the degree of depletion is several per mille less than in case of the Cambrian- Vendian aquifer. The thickness of the depleted water in Estonia reaches 450 m. At similar depths beneath Gotland Island (Sweden Homocline), groundwater has significantly higher δ18O values (from -5.7 to -6.1 per mille). A hydrogeologic model, depicting conditions during the pre Late Glacial, and accounting for hydraulic connections between the lake and river systems through taliks in permafrost, was developed to explain the observed groundwater isotope data. According to the adopted model, penetration of isotopically depleted surface waters could have reached depths of up to 500 m, with subsequent mixing between subglacial meltwater and old groundwater of Huneborg-Denekamp time. Traces of this penetration were discovered only near the shoreline, where δ18O values vary from -12 to -13.9 per mille and 14C is below 4%. In the territory of the Estonian Homocline, the hydraulically close connection via the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer between talik systems of the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland existed through permafrost before the Late Glacial. This was due to subglacial recharge during the recessional Pandivere (12 ka BP) and Palivere (11.2 ka BP) phases, which is also associated with recharge of isotopically depleted groundwater. (author)

  20. Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Using a Space-Filling/ Bias-Reduction Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Singh, A.; Kelley, V.; Deeds, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring network design is one of the primary goals of groundwater management. In this study, a heuristic method for selecting wells to monitor groundwater flow is developed. The approach selects wells to a) maximize spread within the monitoring area (space-filling objective), b) reduce bias in estimate of groundwater level (drawdown objective) by selecting pairs of well proximal and distant from pumping areas. By selecting pairs of monitoring wells, this method is able to capture the largest and smallest drawdown in the study area while ensuring the newly added monitoring wells are at the greatest distance from existing monitoring wells. One of the advantages of this method is that it does not require water level information, obtained either from field measurements or groundwater model runs, which might be unavailable at the time of the monitoring network design; instead, this method utilizes pumping rates and locations thus can take future planning into consideration. If water level data is available then that may be included by considering it in the drawdown objective. A FORTRAN code is developed to implement this method. By changing the weighting factors, users have the flexibility on deciding the importance of pumping and spatial information to their network designs. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring network design in Upper Trinity County Groundwater Conservation District in Texas. Monitoring wells were selected from thousands of existing wells and added to the current monitoring network. The results support the decision maker on the number and distribution of a new groundwater network using existing wells. The study can be extended to improve the application of desired future condition (DFC) for Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas.

  1. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins, two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most reliable results are those derived from a reduced form of the chloride-ion model because they reflect integrated, basinwide processes in terms of only three measured variables: precipitation amount, precipitation chemistry, and streamflow chemistry

  2. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation in the basin and range province of Arizona using remote sensing information and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, F.D.; Callegary, J.B.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource in the arid to semi-arid southwestern United States. Accurate accounting of inflows to and outflows from the groundwater system is necessary to effectively manage this shared resource, including the important outflow component of groundwater discharge by vegetation. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation is presented that uses remote sensing data from satellites, geographic information systems (GIS) land cover and stream location information, and a regression equation developed within the Southern Arizona study area relating the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to measured evapotranspiration. Results computed for 16-day composited satellite passes over the study area during the 2000 through 2007 time period demonstrate a sinusoidal pattern of annual groundwater discharge by vegetation with median values ranging from around 0.3 mm per day in the cooler winter months to around 1.5 mm per day during summer. Maximum estimated annual volume of groundwater discharge by vegetation was between 1.4 and 1.9 billion m3 per year with an annual average of 1.6 billion m3. A simplified accounting of the contribution of precipitation to vegetation greenness was developed whereby monthly precipitation data were subtracted from computed vegetation discharge values, resulting in estimates of minimum groundwater discharge by vegetation. Basin-scale estimates of minimum and maximum groundwater discharge by vegetation produced by this simple method are useful bounding values for groundwater budgets and groundwater flow models, and the method may be applicable to other areas with similar vegetation types.

  3. The combined water system as approach for tackling water scarcity in Permilovo groundwater basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The water scarcity accepts now global scales. The depletion of water resources is especially significant for the small stream basins where the water demand is higher than the low-water flow. The application of combined water use is one of the ways to solve this problem. The combined water system (CWS) is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone wells and compensation pumping wells, located inside a single stream basin. The pumping rate of a major well in a CWS is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow (stream flow required for maintenance water budget and for normal living of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems). The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The pumping rate of a compensation well (CW) is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. Short-term groundwater pumping allows the use of aquifer storage instead of stream flow until drawdowns of groundwater levels do reach the edge of the stream. Some hydrogeological problems exist in the determination of the best location for the compensation well: 1) The delayed stream depletion produced by the CW; 2) The draining of storage recovery due to natural processes or artificial recharge; 3) The delayed effects of CW pumping that cause stream flow depletion, which occurs after pumping during high water level periods. Three typical hydraulic cases of combined water systems were classified depending on their the relationship between surface water and groundwater: (a) perfect hydraulic connection between the stream and aquifer; (b) imperfect hydraulic connection between the stream and aquifer; and (c) essentially imperfect hydraulic connection between the stream and the underlying confined aquifer. The numerical model of Permilovo

  4. Minimal groundwater leakage restricts salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Fortescue Marsh (FM) is one of the largest wetlands of arid northwest Australia (~1200 km2) and is thought to act as a terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue River catchment. Unlike the playa lake systems that predominate in most arid regions, where salinity is driven by inflow and evaporation of groundwater, the hydrological regime of the FM is driven by inundation from irregular cyclonic events [1]. Surface water of the FM is fresh to brackish and the salinity of the deepest groundwater (80 m b.g.l.) does not exceed 160 g/L; salt efflorescences are rarely present on the surface [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistent but low rates of groundwater outflow have restricted the accumulation of salt in the FM over time. Using hydrological, hydrochemical data and dimensionless time evaporation modelling along with the water and salt budget, we calculated the time and the annual groundwater discharge volume that would be required to achieve and maintain the range of salinity levels observed in the Marsh. Groundwater outflow from alluvial and colluvial aquifers to the Lower Fortescue catchment is limited by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of 0.001 and is restricted to a relatively small 'alluvial window' of 0.35 km2 because of the elevation of the basement bedrock at the Marsh outflow. We show that if the Marsh was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue Catchment, the basin water would have achieved salt saturation after ~45 ka. This is not the case and only a very small outflow of saline groundwater of GL/yr (<0.03% of the FM water volume) is needed to maintain the current salinity conditions. The minimum time required to develop the current hydrochemical composition of the water in the Marsh and the steady-state conditions for salt concentration is between 58 and 164 ka. This is a minimum age of the Marsh but it can be much older as nearly steady-state conditions could be maintained infinitely. Our approach

  5. Evolution of the groundwater system under the impacts of human activities in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin (Northwest China) from 1985 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lina; Xiao, Honglang; Zhang, Jianming; Yin, Zhenliang; Shen, Yongping

    2016-06-01

    Investigation of the evolution of the groundwater system and its mechanisms is critical to the sustainable management of water in river basins. Temporal and spatial distributions and characteristics of groundwater have undergone a tremendous change with the intensity of human activities in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest arid inland river basin in northwestern China. Based on groundwater observation data, hydrogeological data, meteorological data and irrigation statistical data, combined with geostatistical analyses and groundwater storage estimation, the basin-scaled evolution of the groundwater levels and storage (from 1985 to 2013) were investigated. The results showed that the unbalanced allocation of water sources and expanded cropland by policy-based human activities resulted in the over-abstraction of groundwater, which induced a general decrease in the water table and groundwater storage. The groundwater level has generally fallen from 4.92 to 11.49 m from 1985 to 2013, especially in the upper and middle parts of the alluvial fan (zone I), and reached a maximum depth of 17.41 m. The total groundwater storage decreased by 177.52 × 108 m3; zone I accounted for about 94.7 % of the total decrease. The groundwater balance was disrupted and the groundwater system was in a severe negative balance; it was noted that the groundwater/surface-water interaction was also deeply affected. It is essential to develop a rational plan for integration and management of surface water and groundwater resources in the HRB.

  6. Evolution of the groundwater system under the impacts of human activities in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin (Northwest China) from 1985 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lina; Xiao, Honglang; Zhang, Jianming; Yin, Zhenliang; Shen, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the evolution of the groundwater system and its mechanisms is critical to the sustainable management of water in river basins. Temporal and spatial distributions and characteristics of groundwater have undergone a tremendous change with the intensity of human activities in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest arid inland river basin in northwestern China. Based on groundwater observation data, hydrogeological data, meteorological data and irrigation statistical data, combined with geostatistical analyses and groundwater storage estimation, the basin-scaled evolution of the groundwater levels and storage (from 1985 to 2013) were investigated. The results showed that the unbalanced allocation of water sources and expanded cropland by policy-based human activities resulted in the over-abstraction of groundwater, which induced a general decrease in the water table and groundwater storage. The groundwater level has generally fallen from 4.92 to 11.49 m from 1985 to 2013, especially in the upper and middle parts of the alluvial fan (zone I), and reached a maximum depth of 17.41 m. The total groundwater storage decreased by 177.52 × 108 m3; zone I accounted for about 94.7 % of the total decrease. The groundwater balance was disrupted and the groundwater system was in a severe negative balance; it was noted that the groundwater/surface-water interaction was also deeply affected. It is essential to develop a rational plan for integration and management of surface water and groundwater resources in the HRB.

  7. Hydrochemical characterization and quality appraisal of groundwater from Pungar sub basin, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasamoorthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pungar sub basin is located in the central part of South India. The geology is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. Increased population and intensive agricultural activity make it imperative to assess the quality of the groundwater system to ensure long-term sustainability of the resources. A total of 87 groundwater samples were collected from bore wells for two different seasons, viz., Pre monsoon and Post monsoon and analyzed for major cations and anions. Semi-arid climate, high evaporation rate and nutrient enrichment are the key features for EC enrichment. HigherNO3- and Cl− were observed in groundwater samples. The sources of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are from silicate weathering process. The facies demarcation suggests base exchanged hardened water. Gibbs plot suggests chemical weathering of rock forming minerals along with evaporation. The plot of (Ca2+ + Mg2+ versus (SO42-+HCO3- suggests both ion exchange and reverse exchange processes. The plot of (Na++K+ versus TZ+ shows higher cations via silicate weathering, alkaline/saline soils and residence time. The disequilibrium index for carbonate minerals point out influence of evaporation and silicate minerals favor incongruent dissolution. Mineral stability diagrams signify groundwater equilibrium with Kaolinite, Muscovite and Chlorite minerals. Comparison of groundwater quality with drinking standards and irrigation suitability standards proves that majority of water samples are suitable for drinking purpose. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange and influence of agricultural and sewage impact.

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12, determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells installed at Y-12 and the related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes.

  9. Dating groundwater in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin: Understanding tracer variations in the subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Tracer methods were used for dating groundwater in complex groundwater systems. ► Groundwater affected by large fluxes of gases near deep reaching faults. ► Periglacial climate and strong permafrost conditions prevailed during the LGM. ► 39Ar measurements were used to determine initial 14C for radiocarbon dating. ► 4He was used to validate and extent the dating range of 14C. - Abstract: The northern section of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin has been the site of intensive U exploitation with harmful impacts on groundwater quality. The understanding of groundwater flow and age distribution is crucial for the prediction of the future dispersion and impact of the contamination. State of the art tracer methods (3H, 3He, 4He, 85Kr, 39Ar and 14C) were, therefore, used to obtain insights to ageing and mixing processes of groundwater along a north–south flow line in the centre of the two most important aquifers of Cenomanian and middle Turonian age. Dating of groundwater is particularly complex in this area as: (i) groundwater in the Cenomanian aquifer is locally affected by fluxes of geogenic and biogenic gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, He) and by fossil brines in basement rocks rich in Cl and SO4; (ii) a thick unsaturated zone overlays the Turonian aquifer; (iii) a periglacial climate and permafrost conditions prevailed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and iv) the wells are mostly screened over large depth intervals. Large disagreements in 85Kr and 3H/3He ages indicate that processes other than ageing have affected the tracer data in the Turonian aquifer. Mixing with older waters (>50 a) was confirmed by 39Ar activities. An inverse modelling approach, which included time lags for tracer transport throughout the unsaturated zone and degassing of 3He, was used to estimate the age of groundwater. Best fits between model and field results were obtained for mean residence times varying from modern up to a few hundred years. The presence of modern water in

  10. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-07-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  11. NAMMU results for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin - HYDROCOIN Level 2-Test case 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HYDROCOIN project is an international collaborative venture for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 2 of this project concerns the validation of models in order to test their ability adequately to represent reality. This report describes calculations for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. This region constitutes one of the few areas where low permeability rocks, similar to those likely to be used for repository sites, have been investigated by hydrogeologists. (author)

  12. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Gnome-Coach (Gnome) Site in New Mexico (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring consisted of collecting hydraulic head data and groundwater samples from the wells on site. Historically, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had conducted these annual activities under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). LM took over the sampling and data collection activities in 2008 but continues to use the EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to analyze the water samples. This report summarizes groundwater monitoring and site investigation activities that were conducted at the site during calendar year 2010.

  13. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Gnome-Coach (Gnome) Site in New Mexico (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring consisted of collecting hydraulic head data and groundwater samples from the wells on site. Historically, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had conducted these annual activities under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). LM took over the sampling and data collection activities in 2008 but continues to use the EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to analyze the water samples. This report summarizes groundwater monitoring and site investigation activities that were conducted at the site during calendar year 2010.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  15. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  16. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. St. John, R.L. Weiss

    2006-05-04

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and to report leachate results in accordance with the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD.

  17. The Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program Fourth Quarter 2000 (October thru December 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-08-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during fourth quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program.

  18. Formation and evolution of Jurassic groundwater and its relation to interlayer oxidation zone development in Tuha Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation, development of interlayer oxidation zone has close relation to the formation and evolution of groundwater. It is studied that the evolution history of Jurassic groundwater by use of palaeohydrogeological analysis method in Tuha Basin in Xingjiang of China. The Jurassic aquifers lithodeme can be divided into three hydrogeological stage. The reformation process of terra static pressure system and water static pressure system on deposition water is quantitatively confirmed. The author also calculate the alternate intensity of squeeze water and penetration water. Penetration water pressurized system area in south basin is the beneficial part of developing interlayer oxidation zone. The interlayer oxidation zone is a zone of uranium mineralization

  19. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  1. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  2. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  3. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  4. [Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Nitrate Pollution in Shallow Groundwater of Liujiang Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Gu, Hong-biao; Chi, Bao-ming; Li, Hai-jun; Jiang, Hai-ning

    2016-05-15

    Taking the nitrate in shallow groundwater of Liujiang basin as the research object, a total of 215 groups of shallow groundwater samples were collected during the wet period in July 2014 and the drought period in April 2015 on the basis of groundwater pollution investigation. The characteristics of spatial and temporal variability and the account of nitrate pollution were analyzed based on the model of semivariogram, the geostatistics of ArcGIS and factor analysis, respectively. The results showed that the study region in the southeast was the main nitrate-polluted area, with concentrations of up to 30-120 mg · L⁻¹, in both wet and drought periods, while the nitrate-contaminated area in drought period was about 1. 4 times higher than that in wet period. The spatial distribution of nitrate was primarily influenced by human activities and the geological conditions, and secondarily by Eh, DO, pH and landform conditions. The nitrate concentration was less than 20 mg · L⁻¹ in north. Pollution in local middle area was rather serious, due to human activities and the loss of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural cultivation; the area to the south, which was confined by impervious boundary, was seriously contaminated, as indicated by the nitrate accumulation effects. PMID:27506022

  5. Carbon sources and signals through time in an Alpine groundwater Basin, Sagehen California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumhagen, Erik D. [Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Clark, Jordan F. [Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: jfclark@geol.ucsb.edu

    2008-08-15

    In 2003, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) apparent ages, major ion chemistry and C isotopes were determined in nine springs from Sagehen Basin, a high elevation watershed in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Springs with similar apparent ages, which ranged between 15 and 45 a, had very similar chemistry despite being found in different areas of the watershed. In agreement with earlier studies, concentrations of rock-derived cations (Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +}), conductivity, temperature and pH increase with apparent age, documenting the chemical evolution of this groundwater system. In contrast with the cation data, {delta}{sup 13}C and {sigma}CO{sub 2} show no correlation with apparent age. {delta}{sup 13}C displays a strong linear relationship with 1/{sigma}CO{sub 2} (R{sup 2} = 0.91). This is consistent with results from a previously developed soil respiration/diffusion model. Spring radiocarbon content ranged between 85 and 110 pmc and varied with apparent age, whereby the youngest groundwater has the highest radiocarbon values. The spring radiocarbon is set by the soil pCO{sub 2} and its trend can be best described assuming the soil CO{sub 2} is composed of a mixture of 50-66% fast- (15-25 a) and 33-50% slow- (4 ka) cycling components. These results are consistent with previous soil C studies. The C isotope data indicate that in Sagehen Basin the groundwater {sigma}CO{sub 2} is inherited from the soil zone with little, if any, contribution from the dissolution of disseminated calcite.

  6. Cadmium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H Seepage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. This disposal practice was discontinued in 1988. At that time, the basins were drained and a low permeability cover system was placed over the basins. In the summer of 1993, soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of these samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of cadmium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of cadmium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. Cadmium was detected in 35 of 53 aqueous samples from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB). Porewater concentration were found to vary from 0.48 to 23.5 μg 1-1, with a mean concentration of 3.1 ± 4.3 μg 1-1. Based on the 43 of 86 soil samples for which cadmium was detected, the concentration in the soil ranged 88.5 to 1090 μg kg-1. The mean soil concentration was 214 ± 168 μg kg-1. This concentration is not significantly different from the concentrations observed in two upgradient soil samples collected from the same lithologic unit. The concentrations from these samples were 293 ± 214 and 431 ± 293 μg kg-1

  7. Identification and Evolution of Groundwater Chemistry in the Ejin Sub-Basin of the Heihe River, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yong-Hong; FENG Qi; ZHU Gao-Feng; SI Jian-Hua; ZHANG Yan-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Hydro-chemical characteristics of groundwater and their changes as affected by human activities were studied in the Ejin Sub-Basin of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, to understand the groundwater evolution, to identify the predominant geochemical processes taking place along the horizontal groundwater flow path, and to characterize anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater environment based on previous data. The concentrations of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) in the groundwater showed a great variation, with 62.5% of the samples being brackish (TDS ≥ 1000 mg L-1). The groundwater system showed a gradual hydro-chemical zonation composed of Na+-HCO-3, Na+-Mg2+-SO2-4Cl-, and Na+-Cl-. The relationships among the dissolved species allowed identification of the origin of solutes and the processes that generated the observed water compositions. The dissolution of halite, dolomite, and gypsum explained, in part, the presence of Na+, K+, Cl-, SO2-4, and Ca2+, but other processes, such as mixing, Na+ exchange for Ca2+ and Mg2+, and calcite precipitation also contributed to the composition of water. Human activity, in particular large-scale water resources development associated with dramatic population growth in the last 50 years, has led to tremendous changes in the groundwater regime, which reflected in surface water runoff change, decline of groundwater table and degeneration of surface water and groundwater quality. Solving these largely anthropogenic problems requires concerted, massive and long-term efforts.

  8. Estimation of the residence time of permafrost groundwater in the middle of the Lena River basin, eastern Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of changes in the hydrological cycles of permafrost regions is a critical issue in hydrology. Better understanding of groundwater dynamics in permafrost regions is needed to assess the vulnerability of the cryolithic water environment to changing climate. However, little is known about the age of groundwater in the Siberian Arctic region. In order to determine the residence time of permafrost groundwater in eastern Siberia, transient tracers including tritium (3H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were used to analyze a mixture of supra-permafrost and intra-permafrost groundwater in the middle of the Lena River basin. Tritium analyses showed that the concentration ranges from 1.0 to 16.8 TU, and the apparent age of groundwater ranged from around 1 to 55 years. One of the spring waters appeared to contain more than 90% water recharged by precipitation before the 1960s nuclear testing era, and the water could be partly sourced from thawing permafrost. Comparisons of apparent groundwater ages estimated from different tracers imply that 3H and CFC-12 are the most applicable to groundwater vulnerability assessments in this region. Because the apparent age is a mixture of those from supra-permafrost and intra-permafrost groundwater, further analysis would be required to assess the contribution ratio of the two types of groundwater. (letter)

  9. Z-Area saltstone disposal facility groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater sampling during the first and second quarters of 1997 in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility. This report presents only the data for sampling during the first half of 1997 as required by industrial Solid Waste Permit No. 025500-1603. For a detailed discussion of groundwater monitoring in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, consult the 1996 Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Annual Report. Appendix A presents the proposed South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Proposed Groundwater Monitoring Standards. Flagging criteria are described in Appendix B. In May 1997 SCDHEC granted approval for seven hydrocone sampling.

  10. Effects of Basin Flux on Regional Interactions between Fresh Water and Saline Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Falta, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Saline groundwater underlies fresh water aquifers at depths of 100 m or less in the midwestern U.S. to one to several kilometers in coastal areas. The upward migration of the interface between fresh and saline water can degrade freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems if the saline water discharges to surface water. Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. This research aims to evaluate the risks associated with increasing the flux from saline to fresh water aquifers as a result of CO2 storage. The research approach is to develop and evaluate simulations of fresh water aquifers overlying saline groundwater that is subjected to changes in flux. Computational codes COMSOL, SEAWAT, and TOUGH2 were verified by solving classic benchmark problems of density-dependent flow. The models were then used to analyze idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, fresh water aquifer underlain by a saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The effects of saline encroachment are evaluated using a sensitivity analysis of key parameters, and the results are formulated in both dimensioned and dimensionless form. Results indicate that the depth of the saline water-freshwater interface is closely related to the surface water circulation pattern as well as the magnitude and duration of basin encroachment. Increased upward flux of saline water will raise the interface between salt and fresh water, and it will increase the salinity of water discharging to streams. However, the expected magnitudes of these effects appear to be small when the expected changes in flux caused by CO2 storage are considered. Ongoing work is refining these analyses and verify them using field observations to further constrain risks

  11. First status report on regional ground-water flow modeling for the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional ground-water flow within the principal hydrogeologic units of the Paradox Basin is evaluated by developing a conceptual model of the flow regime in the shallow aquifers and the deep-basin brine aquifers and testing these models using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Semiquantitative sensitivity analysis (a limited parametric study) is conducted to define the system response to changes in hydrologic properties or boundary conditions. A direct method for sensitivity analysis using an adjoint form of the flow equation is applied to the conceptualized flow regime in the Leadville limestone aquifer. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data utilized in this study is summarized. The specific conceptual models, defining the areal and vertical averaging of litho-logic units, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions, are described in detail. Two models were evaluated in this study: a regional model encompassing the hydrogeologic units above and below the Paradox Formation/Hermosa Group and a refined scale model which incorporated only the post Paradox strata. The results are delineated by the simulated potentiometric surfaces and tables summarizing areal and vertical boundary fluxes, Darcy velocities at specific points, and ground-water travel paths. Results from the adjoint sensitivity analysis include importance functions and sensitivity coefficients, using heads or the average Darcy velocities to represent system response. The reported work is the first stage of an ongoing evaluation of the Gibson Dome area within the Paradox Basin as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes

  12. Numerical modeling of regional ground-water flow in the deep-basin brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedded Permian-age evaporite sequences in the Palo Duro Basin are being considered for a permanent nuclear waste repository by the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of this modeling study is to provide an understanding of regional ground-water flow in the formations beneath the Permian evaporite section. From this understanding, more detailed, smaller scale studies can be designed. This study is also intended to provide a better understanding of the boundary conditions and permeabilities of the aquifer and aquitard system as well as provide estimates of ground-water travel times across the basin. Numerical simulations were made of the Wolfcamp aquifer modeled as a single layer and of the entire Deep-Basin Brine aquifer system, including the Wolfcamp aquifer, modeled as a single layer

  13. Problems of ground-water monitoring in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the nine years of hydrogeological studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone scientific and methodological problems of the radio hydrogeological monitoring are discussed. Inconsistency of the official ground-water monitoring system is shown. The ways to improve the radio hydrogeological monitoring are indicated. The special attention is paid to principles of the development of monitoring well network in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in the light of the hydrogeological factors. The data are presented on ground-water contamination by strontium-90 in the zone adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP (at the right bank of the Pripyat River)

  14. Monitoring effects of river restoration on groundwater with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The restoration of the perialpine river Toess in a floodplain of northern Switzerland (Linsental) included the removal of bank reinforcements and tracer studies in the river and in oberservation wells of the adjacent alluvial groundwater. The river water is continuously recharging the aquifer system and the groundwater is used extensively as drinking water. Radon activity concentrations of freshly infiltrated groundwater are interpreted as radon groundwater age between the river and a well. A first flood after the restoration operations resulted in a widening of the river bed and in a reduction of the flow distance to the wells. Sixteen days after a second flood, the results of radon measurements were compared with those from before the restoration. The radon age of the groundwater between the river and the wells decreased, probably as a result of the reduction of the flow distances. Concentrations of autochthonous and coliform bacteria increased after the restoration operation and even more one day after the first flood. Thus the findings on the bacteria corroborate the interpretation of the radon concentrations. The restoration has not yet reduced the quality of the groundwater, which is pumped for drinking water. The study is contributing to the solution of land-use conflicts between river restoration and the supply of drinking water from the alluvial groundwater. (orig.)

  15. Potential occurrence of MTBE and BTEX in groundwater resources of Amman-Zarqa basin, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Saffarini, Ghazi; Yaseen, Najal [Department of Applied Geology and Environment, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Alawi, Mahmoud [Department of Chemistry, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan)

    2012-08-15

    This study investigates potential occurrence, distribution, and sources of the newly added gasoline oxygenate, methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the petroleum derivatives benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes called collectively, BTEX, in Jordan's heavily populated Amman-Zarqa Basin (AZB). It presents the first data on the levels of MTBE and BTEX in the aquifers of this basin. One hundred and seventy-nine (179) groundwater wells were sampled near petrol service stations, oil refinery storage tanks, car wrecks, bus stations, and chemical industries at different locations in the basin. Headspace GC and purge and trap GC-MS were utilized to determine the target substances in the samples. Concentrations of BTEX varied between no-detection (minimum) for all of them to 6.6 {mu}g/L (maximum) for ethylbenzene. MTBE was found in few samples but none has exceeded the regulated levels; its concentrations ranged between no-detection to 4.1 {mu}g/L. However, though the contamination levels are very low they should be considered alarming. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Geochemistry and arsenic behaviour in groundwater resources of the Pannonian Basin (Hungary and Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Elevated As levels in the Pannonian Basin are mainly present in very old (Palaeo) groundwater of methanogenic Pliocene/Quaternary aquifers, which is in contrast to Asian regions where arsenic-enriched groundwater is generally much younger. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Arsenic originates from Late Pliocene/Quaternary aquifers and some very old waters. → Arsenic levels are controlled by both mobilisation and retention mechanisms. → Mobilisation is caused by biogeochemical reductive dissolution. → Sufficient sulfate supply triggers arsenic retention in sulfide precipitates. → Nearly 500,000 people are exposed to elevated arsenic in their drinking water. - Abstract: Groundwater resources in the Pannonian Basin (Hungary, Romania, Croatia and Serbia) are known to contain elevated naturally occurring As. Published estimates suggest nearly 500,000 people are exposed to levels greater than the EU maximum admissible concentration of 10 μg/L in their drinking water, making it the largest area so affected in Europe. In this study, a variety of groundwaters were collected from Romania and Hungary to elucidate the general geochemistry and identify processes controlling As behaviour. Concentrations ranged from 42-reduction containing low As levels (7Li (an indicator of geothermal inputs) and As(tot) in geothermal/saline influenced waters indicate that elevated As is not from an external input, but is released due to an in-aquifer process. Geochemical reasoning, therefore, implies As mobilisation is controlled by redox processes, most likely microbially mediated reductive dissolution of As bearing Fe-oxides, known to occur in sediments from the area. More important is an overlying retention mechanism determined by the presence or absence of SO42-. Ongoing SO42-reduction will release S2-, removing As from solution either by the formation of As-sulfides, or from sorption onto Fe-sulfide phases. In methanogenic waters, As released by reductive

  17. Geo mathematic tools for the design of a radioisotopes monitoring network in order to modelling the groundwater dynamics processes and hydrodynamic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper, shows the application of geo mathematic tools [Mangin,1981; Molerio,1997] for the design of a radioisotopes monitoring network in order to modelling the groundwater dynamics processes and hydrodynamic management of a Karstic Basin (Almendares-Vento watershed), which is very difficult to evaluate due to the physical-geographical, geologic and hydrogeological characteristics. The Almendares Vento watershed (AVW) is close to the Jaruco-Aguacate watershed, with a similar hydrogeologic and geologic structure, therefore similar result must be expected. In the AVW case is necessary to identify, with more precision, the water propagation limits of the stratified layers according to the waters transit times, recharges and dynamics aquifers, residence time, groundwater contamination and the groundwater-surface water interaction due to the dam placed on the basin. The paper allowed the identification of a monitoring points network, taking into account, between other statistical approaches, the good correlation, the high memory effect, etc. According to the analysis of the variances spectral, have been obtained and optimized the sampling frequency of the network points in the Basin. Besides, it have been identified the necessities to include the detailed evaluation of a specific point of the network in the hydrodynamic study (Vento watershed). In order to evaluate the optimization of the designed monitoring network, the geo mathematic study developed was compared with the results of the mathematical model AQUIMPE, the final result showed the validation of the obtained design. The results of the work allow the best monitoring of the parameters in order to determine the aquifer recharge, residence times, the vulnerability to the waters contamination and the groundwater-surface water interaction

  18. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungers, D.K.

    1994-04-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between November 20 and February 25, 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the October through December quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  19. Monitoring of the effects of airborne pollutants on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne pollutant atmospheric pollution for groundwater are deposited across the entire contact surface between atmosphere and pedosphere. Water protection are as with regionally limited restrictions on use and prohibitions are completely ineffective. Subsurface groundwaters with thin, well permeable topsoil layers with a low capacity for adsorption and acid neutralization endangered acutely concerning their quality. Essential quality changes are acidification as well as a harmful increase of aluminum and other metal concentrations and of many organic substances, partially in hygienically relevant concentrations. As reference values, the natural geogenic concentrations of groundwater must be used. A reduction of the emissions into the atmosphere is the only way of maintaining the groundwater as a reservoir for drinking water with natural high quality also on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  20. Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Habets; Gascoin, S.; S. Korkmaz; Thiéry, D; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M; A. Ducharne; Leblois, E.; E. Ledoux; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; C. Ottlé; P. Viennot

    2009-01-01

    The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million Euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison with observed ...

  1. Effects of climate variability on the land cover change and groundwater flow in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Babamaaji, R. A.; Odor, R.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Chad is an endorheic lake located along the international borders of four countries Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. Over the past four decades, Lake Chad has shrunk from about 25,000 sq km in the 1960s to only ~3,000 sq km today. The Lake is shallow with an average water depth less than 8 m and has seasonally flooded wetlands extending along its shoreline. The climate is semi-arid with a long dry season and a short rainy season. The mean annual evaporation rate is about 1600 mm, which is more than double the mean annual rainfall rate of about 625 mm. Boronina and Ramillien (2008) shows that the northern part of the Lake Chad Basin has even less than 15mm of annual rainfall. These climate conditions of evaporation exceeding rainfall have caused a shortage of water recharge for both groundwater and surface water resources in the Basin. A distinctive feature of groundwater is the existence of piezometric depression in the southwest region of the Lake. The depression has been observed since the groundwater monitoring was performed in the 1960's, and the depression is still observed in the present day. The present study investigates how the climate variation in the last four decades affected the land cover change and the piezometric depression around the Lake. Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) images between 1975 and 1979, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image for 1991, and Nigeriasat-1 for 2006 were classified for the production of land cover maps around the Lake. A maximum likelihood method was adopted for supervised classification of seven land types including: crop land, vegetation, grassland, water body, shrub land, farm, and bare soil, which were compared with unsupervised classification for 15 reference points per class. The overall accuracy from supervised classification is 93.33% for Nigeriasat-1 while the accuracy for Landsat is 95.24%. The producer's accuracy for vegetation in the 2006 Nigeriasat-1 image is 40% in comparison to the user's accuracy

  2. Estimation of groundwater age in the central part of the Baltic Artesian Basin based on new isotope data from Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babre, Alise; Kalvans, Andis; Popovs, Konrads; Retike, Inga; Delina, Aija

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogeological conditions of the Baltic Artesian basin (BAB) have changed rapidly during the Quaternary period. Therefore this work aims to give better overview of the complexity of the groundwater recharge and discharge dynamics beyond country borders, taking into account only shared geological framework, common climate conditions and geological development. To maintain better understanding of the processes that took part in the formation of groundwater that can be observed nowadays several methods were applied placing major emphasis on the new oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratio results. Earlier investigations in the northern part of the basin indicated glacial melt water intrusion in the Cambrian-Vendian. Several radiocarbon and stable isotope studies in groundwater have been done at the southern part of the basin as well reporting extensive groundwater recharge during the Late Pleistocene suggesting that recharge took place under different recharge mechanisms compared with the northern part. In 2010 to 2012 an extensive field campaign was undertaken, collecting more than 300 groundwater samples for deuterium and stable oxygen, 30 for stable carbon and 10 for radiocarbon analysis mostly from central part (Latvia) of the BAB covering all the major aquifer systems where previously collected data was sparse or absent. A specific motivation for the research was to identify relict glacial meltwater in the groundwater system. The broader aim was to estimate the baseline isotopic composition of groundwater in the region. Here a new data set is presented. Na-Ca-Cl brine found at the deepest - stagnation zone and is characterized by δ18O values above -5 o and δD values approaching -40 o in respect to VSMOW. The slow exchange zone is characterized by δ18O values around -11.7 o and δD values around -84.8 o . Mean δ18O and δD value of the groundwater in the active water exchange zone is -11.0 o and 79.2 o respectively. Characteristically the groundwater in the

  3. Groundwater monitoring programme. A guide for groundwater sampling and analysis. 2. ed.; Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm. Leitfaden fuer Probenahme und Analytik von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Quality assurance guidelines have been developed and introduced in Baden-Wuerttemberg for groundwater monitoring. The contribution contains the fundamentals and technical guides for sampling and measurement of the Baden-Wuerttemberg groundwater monitoring programme, as well as parameter groups and a preliminary assessment of the methods. [German] Bei der Gewinnung von Umweltdaten sind hohe Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der erhobenen Daten zu stellen. Dies trifft in besonderem Masse gerade auch fuer Grundwasseruntersuchungen zu, da hier haeufig Konzentrationen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze auftreten. Fuer das Grundwassermessnetz Baden-Wuerttemberg sind qualitaetssichernde Regelungen entwickelt und eingefuehrt worden. In der vorliegenden Zusammenstellung sind die Grundsatzpapiere, bzw. Technischen Anleitungen aus dem Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer die Grundwasserprobennahme sowie zu Messverfahren, Parametergruppen und zur ersten Beurteilung der Messergebnisse enthalten. (orig.)

  4. Identifying the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in the Subei Lake basin, Ordos energy base, Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Song, X.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y.; D. Han; Ma, Y; H. Bu

    2015-01-01

    A series of changes in groundwater systems caused by groundwater exploitation in energy base have been of great concern to hydrogeologists. The research aims to identify the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Subei Lake basin under the influence of human activities. Water samples were collected, and major ions and stable isotopes (δ18O, δD) were analyzed. In terms of hydrogeological conditions and the analytical results of hydrochemical data, groundwater ...

  5. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulami Sahu; P K Sikdar; Surajit Chakraborty

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  6. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater resources in Maidere Basin (southern part of Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of geochemical and isotopes techniques in water resources investigations has contributed considerably to a better understanding of the aquifer hydrodynamic functioning in complex structural areas. Maidere Basin, located in south Morocco, is extending over 13,000 km2 and limited by some orographical chains of Anti Atlas. Lithological formations outcropping in the basin are divided into compartments by major faults of NE-SW direction. This fault network helped to generate aquifers compartments with lateral hydraulic discontinuity. Five aquifers constitute the multilayer system: Precambrian, lower Cambrian, Middle Cambrian, Ordovician and Quaternary units. Ordovician outcrops are a large spread and constitute the more important aquifer in the basin. Furthermore, a smell gas like carbon dioxide is observed in some bores sampled from different aquifers. Geochemical and isotopic study has been undertaken in Maidere Basin in order to better understanding the hydrodynamic functioning of the aquifers units and to determinate the CO2 gas origin. Correlations between saturation index towards calcite and the partial pressure of CO2, have allowed distinguishing undersaturated water with a lower pCO2 sampled from all of wells and oversaturated water with high values of pCO2 sampled in boreholes. Modern carbon percentage analyses showed the presence of old water in the boreholes with high values of pCO2. Carbon dioxide seems to come from deep levels and circulate through the deep faults network. The relationship between δ13C and pmC (percent modern carbon) oppose the modern groundwater and impoverished in δ13C (that keep the pedological marking of the carbon at the time of their infiltration) to paleowaters (<16 pmC) and having exchanged the carbon with an impoverished matrix and/or having dissolved a carbon dioxide of deep origin. (author)

  7. Geochemical and Isotopic characterization of groundwater resources in Maidere basin (southern part of Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of geochemical and isotopes techniques in water resources investigations has contributed considerably to a better understanding of the aquifer hydrodynamic functioning in complex structural areas. Maidere Basin, located in south Morocco, is extending over 13,000 km2 and limited by some orographical chains of the Anti-Atlas. Lithological formations outcropping in the basin are divided into compartments by major faults of NE-SW direction. This fault network helped to generate aquifers compartments with lateral hydraulic discontinuity. Five aquifers constitute the multilayer system: Precambrian, Lower Cambrian, Middle Cambrian, Ordovician and Quaternary units. Ordovician outcrops are a large spread and constitute the more important aquifer in the basin. Furthermore, a smell gas like carbon dioxide is observed in some bores sampled from different aquifers. Geochemical and isotopic study has been undertaken in Maidere Basin in order to better understanding the hydrodynamic functioning of the aquifers units and to determinate the CO2 gas origin. Correlations between saturation index of calcite and the partial pressure of CO2, have allowed distinguishing undersaturated water with a lower pCO3 sampled from all of wells and oversaturated water with high values of pCO2 sampled in boreholes. Radiocarbon analyses showed the presence of old water in the boreholes with high values of pCO2. Carbon dioxide seems to come from deep levels and circulate through the deep faults network. The relationship between δ13C and pMC (percent modern carbon) oppose the modern groundwater and impoverished in δ13C (that keep the pedological marking of the carbon at the time of their infiltration) to paleowaters (<16 pMC) and having exchanged the carbon with an impoverished matrix and/or having dissolved a carbon dioxide of deep origin. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe ground-water has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the deep resource. Here, it is shown, through quantitative, large-scale hydrogeologic analysis and simulation of the entire basin, that the deeper part of the aquifer system may provide a sustainable source of arsenic-safe water if its utilization is limited to domestic supply. Simulations provide two explanations for this result: deep domestic pumping only slightly perturbs the deep groundwater flow system, and substantial shallow pumping for irrigation forms a hydraulic barrier that protects deeper resources from shallow arsenic sources. Additional analysis indicates that this simple management approach could provide arsenic-safe drinking water to >90% of the arsenic-impacted region over a 1,000-year timescale. This insight may assist water-resources managers in alleviating one of the world's largest groundwater contamination problems. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  9. Groundwater Monitoring Optimization of Post Closure Waste Sites at SRS - 13184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is required at dozens of waste sites and includes sampling at over 1,000 monitoring wells. The expected longevity of groundwater contamination and associated groundwater monitoring and reporting constitutes a significant long-term cost that represents an increasing proportion of the environmental management budget as surface waste units are closed. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the monitoring program for eighteen regulated waste units was conducted to identify areas where monitoring could be optimized. The units evaluated varied considerably in the scope of monitoring; ranging from two wells to hundreds of wells. In order to systematically evaluate such disparate monitoring networks, SRS developed a decision-logic analysis using flow sheets to address potential areas of optimization. Five areas were identified for evaluation, including: (1) Comparison of current monitoring to regulatory requirements, (2) Spatial distribution, (3) Temporal sampling, (4) Analyte requirements, and (5) Reporting frequency and content. Optimization recommendations were made for fifteen of the eighteen groundwater units. The spatial evaluation resulted in recommendations to suspend sampling in 79 wells and add sampling at 16 wells. The temporal evaluation resulted in recommendations to reduce the number of well visits per year by 504. Analyte reductions were recommended at three groundwater units, with increases at three other units. Reporting frequency reductions were recommended for five units. Approximately $700,000 (direct dollars) of potential annualized cost savings were identified for these groundwater units, provided all recommendations are approved. The largest area of savings was associated with reducing the reporting frequency. The optimization approach has been presented to the EPA and South Carolina Department of Environmental Control (SCHDEC), with unit-specific recommendations approved for all five units

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  11. Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Groundwater Protection Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during calendar year (CY) 2000. These monitoring data were collected for the specific purposes of DOE Order 5400.1 site surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, as described in the ''Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation'' (DOE 1996). Site surveillance monitoring provides data regarding the quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12. Exit pathway/perimeter monitoring provides data regarding the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The CY 2000 groundwater and surface water monitoring data presented in this report were obtained under the auspices of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) (January-October, 2000) and by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (November-December, 2000), and the Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP), which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Combining the monitoring results obtained under both the Y-12 GWPP and the WRRP enables this report to serve as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained at Y-12 during CY 2000

  12. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E; Hasan, Md Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra

    2008-07-29

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO(3) water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (p(e): +5 to -2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH(4), Fe, Mn, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-)) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors. PMID:18164513

  14. 2015 Groundwater Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring results from groundwater wells associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds Reuse Permit (I-161-02). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  15. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-02-09

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan, under RCRA regulations in 40 CFR 265 Subpart F and WAC173-300-400, for the 216-B-63 Trench. This interim status facility is being sampled under detection monitoring criteria and this plan provides current program conditions and requirements.

  16. Community-Based Groundwater Monitoring Network Using a Citizen-Science Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Kathleen E; Hayashi, Masaki; Liang, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Water level monitoring provides essential information about the condition of aquifers and their responses to water extraction, land-use change, and climatic variability. It is important to have a spatially distributed, long-term monitoring well network for sustainable groundwater resource management. Community-based monitoring involving citizen scientists provides an approach to complement existing government-run monitoring programs. This article demonstrates the feasibility of establishing a large-scale water level monitoring network of private water supply wells using an example from Rocky View County (3900 km(2) ) in Alberta, Canada. In this network, community volunteers measure the water level in their wells, and enter these data through a web-based data portal, which allows the public to view and download these data. The close collaboration among the university researchers, county staff members, and community volunteers enabled the successful implementation and operation of the network for a 5-year pilot period, which generated valuable data sets. The monitoring program was accompanied by education and outreach programs, in which the educational materials on groundwater were developed in collaboration with science teachers from local schools. The methodology used in this study can be easily adopted by other municipalities and watershed stewardship groups interested in groundwater monitoring. As governments are starting to rely increasingly on local municipalities and conservation authorities for watershed management and planning, community-based groundwater monitoring provides an effective and affordable tool for sustainable water resources management. PMID:25825253

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  18. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This quarterly report contains data received between January and March 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the January through March quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported. Nineteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford Site. These projects include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. The groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim-status federal (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulation [CFR] Part 265) and state (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303-400) regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of three programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment.

  19. Past, present and future formation of groundwater resources in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, A.; Vallner, L.; Vaikmae, R.; Raidla, V.

    2012-04-01

    Cambrian-Vendian Aquifer System (CVAS) is the deepest confined aquifer system used for water consumption in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB). A regional groundwater flow and transport model (Visual Modflow) was used to investigate the paleohydrogeological scientific and contemporary management problems of CVAS. The model covers the territory of Estonia and its close surrounding, all together 88,000 km2 and includes all main aquifers and aquitards from ground surface to as low as the impermeable part of the crystalline basement. Three-dimensional distribution of groundwater heads, flow directions, velocities, and rates as well as transport and budget characteristics were simulated by the model. Water composition was changed significantly during the last glaciations.Strongly depleted O and H stable isotope composition, absence of 3H and low radiocarbon concentration are the main indicators of glacial origin of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer in northern Estonia. The noble gas analyses allowed concluding, that palaeorecharge took place at temperatures around the freezing point. While in North Estonia, most of water was changed by glacial melt water, high salinity water is till preserved in Southern part of Estonia.First results of modeling suggest that during the intrusion period lasting 7.3-9.3 ka the front of glacial thaw water movement had southeast direction and reachedto 180-220 kmfrom CVAS outcrop in Baltic Sea. Confining layer of CVAS is cut through by deep buried valleys in several places in North Estonia making possible for modern precipitation to infiltrate into aquifer system in present day. In case of natural conditions, the water pressure of CVAS is few meters above sea level and most of valleys act as discharge areas for aquifers system. Two regional depression ones have formed in North Estonia as a result of groundwater use from CVAS. Water consumption changes the natural groundwater gradient, flow direction and thereforerecharge

  20. Regulatory requirements for ground-water monitoring networks at hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of an explicit national legislative mandate to protect ground-water quality and because there is no coordination between federal and state agencies, those responsible for hazardous-waste management and cleanup must utilize a number of statutes and regulations as guidance for detecting, correcting, and preventing ground-water contamination. For example, the current regulatory framework provides no clean guidance for compliance. The author will present an integrated approach to protect ground-water resources through the use of various standards and classifications, based on a comprehensive regulatory and policy analysis. Information presented can be used to develop ground-water quality protection programs, assess regulatory compliance, and characterize sites for potential remediation and corrective action. Regulation-based ground-water monitoring networks can be developed to address these concerns in a technically feasible yet cost-effective manner

  1. Heat Budget Monitoring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Neale, C. M. U.; Jaworowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent estimation of heat flux in active hydrothermal areas are required to monitor the variation in activity. Natural changes in geothermal and hydrothermal features can include rapid significant changes in surface temperature distribution and may be an indication of "re-plumbing" of the systems or potential hydrothermal explosions. Frequent monitoring of these systems can help Park managers make informed decisions on infrastructure development and/or take precautionary actions to protect the public. Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) is one of Yellowstone National Park's hottest and most dynamic basins. Airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing was used to estimate radiometric temperatures within NGB and allow for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface temperatures and the heat flow budget. The airborne monitoring occurred in consecutive years 2008-2012 allowing for the temporal comparison of heat budget in NGB. Airborne thermal infrared images in the 8-12 µm bands with 1-m resolution were acquired using a FLIR SC640 scanner. Digital multispectral images in the green (0.57 μm), red (0.65 μm), and near infrared (0.80 μm) bands were also acquired to classify the terrain cover and support the atmospheric and emissivity correction of the thermal images. The airborne images were taken in the month of September on selected days with similar weather and under clear sky conditions. In the winter of 2012, images were also taken in March to compare the effect of the cold weather and snow cover on the heat budget. Consistent methods were used to acquire and process the images each year to limit the potential variability in the results to only the variability in the hydrothermal system. Data from radiation flux towers installed within the basin were used to compare with airborne radiometric surface temperatures and compensate for residual solar heating in the imagery. The presentation will discuss the different mechanisms involved in

  2. Project progress report 2010-11 : groundwater monitoring in urban areas : a pilot study in Glasgow, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H. C.; Bricker, S. H.; O Dochartaigh, B.E.; Lawrie, K.I.G.

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this progress report is part of ongoing efforts to develop a better conceptual understanding of the groundwater system in Glasgow. It is also aimed at developing protocols for improved groundwater monitoring in urban areas, which is a key step in improving hydrogeological understanding. In 2009 BGS started a pilot project to examine the potential for the development of a long-term urban groundwater monitoring network in Glasgow, using existing monitoring b...

  3. Evaluation of artificial recharge in the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Predmore, Steven K.

    2002-01-01

    The Mojave River Basin relies almost entirely on ground water to meet the needs of its growing population and agriculture, which has resulted in overdraft conditions. Some of the ground-water management alternatives being proposed to mitigate the effects of overdraft include artificial recharge using water from the California State Water Project (SWP) and using SWP water in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A calibrated ground-water flow model was used to evaluate six proposed water-management alternatives using SWP water during a 20-year simulation period, 2000-2019, using constant rates from 1999 for recharge and pumpage (with the exception of recharge derived from Mojave River streamflows which were variable). The measured streamflow for the period of 1970-1989 was used to simulate the Mojave River streamflow. Water-management alternative 1 assumed that none of the Mojave Water Agency allocation of SWP water was available for mitigation measures and resulted in increases in hydraulic head in the floodplain aquifer in years of above-average streamflow (2008-2010, 2013) and decreases in years of below average streamflow. In general, simulated hydraulic heads in the regional aquifer declined with the exception of the El Mirage and Harper Lake areas. Also, average storage depletion for the entire ground-water basin over the 20-year simulation was 40,940 acre-feet per year. Water-management alternative 2 assumed that 30,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged at Rock Springs Road Outlet (RSO). By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads were as much as 75 feet higher in the Alto at the recharge site, 24 feet higher in the Transition zone, 15 feet higher in the Centro, and 17 feet higher in the Baja model subareas than the hydraulic heads resulting from water-management alternative 1. Water-management alternative 2 affected simulated hydraulic heads by as much as 5 feet in an area totalling 290 square miles; most of the change occurred in the Alto and

  4. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Deep Groundwater from the Witwatersrand Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, M. J.; Hendrickson, S.; Simon, P.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Wilkie, K.; Onstott, T. C.; Washton, N.; Clewett, C.

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the isolation, fractionation, and chemical analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in deep groundwater in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. The groundwater was accessed through mining boreholes in gold and diamond mine shafts. Filtered water samples were collected and preserved for later analysis. In some cases, the organic carbon was also collected on DAX-8 and XAD-4 adsorption resins in situ and then transported to the surface for removal, clean-up, and lyophilization. Solid state C-13 NMR analysis of that organic carbon was conducted. Organic compounds were also isolated from the water using solid phase extraction cartridges for later analysis by GC-MS. Absorbance, fluorescence, and HPLC analyses was were used to analyze the DOC in the filtered water samples. C-14 and C-13 isotopic analysis of the organic carbon was also conducted. Identifiable components of the DOC include both organic acids and amino acids. However, initial results indicate that the majority of the subsurface DOC is a complex heterogeneous mixture with an average molecular weight of approximately 1000 Da, although this DOC is less complex than that found in soils or surface water. Finally, we will discuss possible sources of the organic carbon and its biogeochemical cycling in the subsurface.

  5. Metallurgical Laboratory (HWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Units were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab Hazardous Waste Management Facility. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells are not yet available

  6. Groundwater monitoring and plume discharge zone characterization for the NRX radiostrontium plume at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfert, J.M.; Audet, M.; Killey, D., E-mail: olfertjm@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Groundwater is the principal pathway for the migration of most radiological and non-radiological compounds from past and present operating areas at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The CRL Groundwater Monitoring Program (GWMP) was established to measure the groundwater quality around the perimeters of areas affected, or potentially affected, by groundwater plumes. One of these is the NRX Rod Bays plume, a legacy plume that originated from the fuel storage bays of the National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor. This plume contains primarily {sup 90}Sr migrating along the groundwater flow system to the Ottawa River. A characterization study of the shoreline region was completed recently to map the plume discharge zone by collecting samples from mini-piezometers and groundwater seeps (springs) during a period of low river level. Analysis of discharging groundwaters determined that the {sup 90}Sr concentrations were very similar to those sampled from nearby (upgradient) GWMP monitoring wells. With this favorable correlation, the high density of seep and mini-piezometer sampling along the shoreline allowed refinements to be made in defining the northerly and southerly boundaries of the radiostrontium plume. The seep and mini-piezometer sampling also provided evidence that the monitoring wells sampled routinely within the CRL GWMP are positioned appropriately for providing representative sampling of the plume. Shoreline seep and mini-piezometer sampling can lead to refinements in the conceptual site model for plumes with limited effort and cost. The supplemental characterization work can also potentially identify other targets for routine groundwater monitoring. (author)

  7. An accessible hydrogeological tool to monitor critical groundwater resources in hard-rock aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Melissa M.; Edmunds, W. Mike; Sharma, Somendra

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater resources are increasingly being relied on in rural areas for income generation and food security. However, there is currently a lack of simple, yet accessible hydrogeological tools to monitor critical groundwater resources, both for quantity and quality. This is particularly true in developing countries underlain by fractured hard rock aquifers, with low productivities. Electrical conductivity (EC) meters are presented here as an easy-to-use tool that can provide real-time data c...

  8. Evaluation of groundwater sampling techniques for the investigation and monitoring of contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Teutsch, Georg; Barczewski, Baldur; Kobus, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    The collection of representative groundwater samples is an essential prerequisite in hydrogeological site evaluation and groundwater monitoring. Erroneous or insufficent sampling may lead to wrong conclusions, possibly causing considerable health and/or financial risks, especially in respect to the assessment of contaminated sites. The collection of representative water samples therefore requires the use of appropriate sampling techniques, taking into account the prevailing aquifer conditions...

  9. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  10. Uranium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H seepage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. Soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of uranium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of uranium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH, redox potential, cation and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. The uranium soil source term at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) is much smaller than has been used in previous modeling efforts. This should result in a much shorter remediation time and a greater effectiveness of a pump-and-treat design than previously predicted. Distribution coefficients at the (FHSB) were found to vary between 1.2 to 34,000 1 kg-1 for uranium. Differences in sorption of these elements can be explained primarily by changes in aqueous pH and the associated change in soil surface charge. Sorption models were fit directly to sorption isotherms from field samples. All models underestimated the fraction of uranium bound at low aqueous uranium concentrations. Linear models overestimated bound uranium at locations where the aqueous concentration was greater than 500 ppb. Mechanistic models provided a much better estimate of the bound uranium concentrations, especially at high aqueous concentrations. Since a large fraction of the uranium at the site is associated with the low-pH portion of the plume, consideration should be given to pumping water from the lowest pH portions of the plume in the F-Area

  11. Generalized hydrogeology and ground-water budget for the C Aquifer, Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Ward, John J.; Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    The C aquifer underlies the Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins and is named for the primary water-bearing rock unit of the aquifer, the Coconino Sandstone. The areal extent of this aquifer is more than 27,000 square miles. More than 1,000 well and spring sites were identified in the U.S. Geological Survey database for the C aquifer in Arizona and New Mexico. The C aquifer is the most productive aquifer in the Little Colorado River Basin. The Little Colorado River is the primary surface-water feature in the area, and it has a direct hydraulic connection with the C aquifer in some areas. Spring discharge as base flow from the C aquifer occurs predominantly in the lower 13 miles of the Little Colorado River subsequent to downward leakage into the deeper Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer. Ground-water mounds or divides exist along the southern and northeastern boundaries of the Little Colorado River Basin. The ground-water divides are significant boundaries of the C aquifer; however, the location and persistence of the divides potentially can be affected by ground-water withdrawals. Ground-water development in the C aquifer has increased steadily since the 1940s because population growth has produced an increased need for agricultural, industrial, and public water supply. Ground-water pumpage from the C aquifer during 1995 was about 140,000 acre-feet. Ground-water budget components for the C aquifer were evaluated using measured or estimated discharge values. The system was assumed to be in a steady-state condition with respect to natural recharge and discharge, and the stability of discharge from major springs during the past several decades supported the steady-state assumption. Downward leakage to the Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer is a major discharge component for the ground-water budget. Discharge from the C aquifer is estimated to be 319,000 acre-feet per year.

  12. Hydrological Modeling of Groundwater Disturbance to Gravity Signal for High-accuracy Monitoring of Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, T.; Okubo, S.

    2007-12-01

    Gravity observation is one of the effective methods to detect magma movements in volcanic eruptions [e.g., Furuya et al., J. Geoph. Res., 2003]. Groundwater-derived disturbances have to be corrected from gravity variations for highly accurate monitoring of volcanic activities. They have been corrected with empirical methods, such as tank models and regression curves [e.g., Imanishi et al., J. Geodyn., 2006]. These methods, however, are not based on hydrological background, and are very likely to eliminate volcanic signals excessively. The correction method of groundwater disturbance has to be developed with hydrological and quantitative approach. We thus estimate the gravity disturbance arising from groundwater as follows. (1) Groundwater distributions are simulated on a hydrological model, utilizing groundwater flow equations. (2) Groundwater-derived gravity value is estimated for each instant of time, by integrating groundwater distributions spatially. (3) The groundwater-derived gravity, as the correction value, is subtracted from observed gravity data. In this study, we simulated groundwater flow and groundwater-derived gravity value on the east part of the Asama volcano, central Japan. A simple hydrological model was supposed, consisting of homogeneous soil, lying on a flat impermeable basement. Hydraulic conductivity, which defines groundwater velocity, was set as 2.0×10-6[m/s], which is consistent with typical volcanic soils. We also observed time variations of watertable height, soil moisture and gravity simultaneously during the summer of 2006 at Asama volcano, and compared the observations with the theoretical values. Both simulated groundwater distributions and gravity changes agree fairly well with observed values. On variations of water level and moisture content, rapid increase at the time of rainfalls and exponential decrease after rainfalls were illustrated. Theoretical gravity changes explained 90% of the observed gravity increase (+20μgals) for

  13. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  14. Potential groundwater and heterogeneous heat source contributions to ice sheet dynamics in critical submarine basins of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Brad T.; Young, Duncan A.; Blankenship, Donald D.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of two numerical models describing contributions of groundwater and heterogeneous heat sources to ice dynamics directly relevant to basal processes in East Antarctica. A two-phase, one-dimensional hydrothermal model demonstrates the importance of groundwater flow in vertical heat flux advection near the ice-bed interface. Typical, conservative vertical components of groundwater volume fluxes (from either topographical gradients or vertically channeled flow) on the order of ±1-10 mm/yr can alter vertical heat flux by ±50-500 mW/m2 given parameters typical for the interior of East Antarctica. This heat flux has the potential to produce considerable volumes of meltwater depending on basin geometry and geothermal heat production. A one-dimensional hydromechanical model demonstrates that groundwater is mainly recharged into saturated, partially poroelastic (i.e., vertical stress only; not coupled to a deformation equation) sedimentary aquifers during ice advance. During ice retreat, groundwater discharges into the ice-bed interface, which may contribute to water budgets on the order of 0.1-1 mm/yr. We also present an estimated map of potentially heterogeneous heat flow provinces using radiogenic heat production data from East Antarctica and southern Australia, calculated sedimentary basin depths, and radar-derived bed roughness. These are overlaid together to delineate the areas of greatest potential effect from these modeled processes on the ice sheet dynamics of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  15. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

    2007-09-01

    The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards. PMID:17180415

  16. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. This quarterly report contains data received between March 8 and May 24, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the January through March quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  18. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring

  20. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring.

  1. Waste-water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, J. M.; Sikdar, P. K.; Hoque, M. A.; Ghosal, U.

    2012-01-01

    Across West Bengal and Bangladesh, concentrations of Cl in much groundwater exceed the natural, upper limit of 10 mg/L. The Cl/Br mass ratios in groundwaters range up to 2500 and scatter along mixing lines between waste-water and dilute groundwater, with many falling near the mean end-member value for waste-water of 1561 at 126 mg/L Cl. Values of Cl/Br exceed the seawater ratio of 288 in uncommon NO3-bearing groundwaters, and in those containing measurable amounts of salt-corrected SO4 (SO4 c...

  2. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, 90Sr, 137Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either 90Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites

  3. Airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic mapping of groundwater salinity in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Vest Christiansen, Anders; Tembo, Alice;

    2015-01-01

    The geological and morphological evolution of the Kalahari Basin of Southern Africa has given rise to a complex hydrogeological regime that is affected by water quality issues. Among these concerns is the occurrence of saline groundwater. Airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveying is an...... Africa. The saline lacustrine sediments infilling the Machile Graben are responsible for the low formation resistivity (below 13 Ωm) and high salinity (above 7000 µS/cm) observed in the groundwater and are probably related to the complex evolutionary history of Palaeo-Lake Makgadikgadi....

  4. The risk of supply of Surface/groundwater in the Laja River Basin in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Knappett, Peter; Giardino, John Rick; Horacio Hernandez, Jesus; Aviles, Manuel; Rodriguez, Rodrigo Mauricio; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Water supply in Laja River Basin, located in an arid, semi-arid area of Central Mexico, is dependent primarily on groundwater. Although multiple users depend on this groundwater, the majority of the groundwater is used for commercial irrigation. The water table is swiftly being lowered, as the result of a rapidly growing population, expanding industries and increased commercial agriculture production in the State of Guanajuato. The average historic drawdown rate, measured in various wells across the aquifer, is ~1 m/yr; some wells approach 4 m/yr. Hydraulic heads are lower in wells in the central, low-lying areas of the basin, near the main branch of Laja River, than in wells located along the outer edges of the basin. The resulting water depth ranges from 70-130 m in most of the area. As wells are drilled deeper, at increased costs, to access the falling groundwater table, toxic levels of fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) are being reported for these wells. These increases in toxicity are possibly caused by induced upwelling of deeper groundwater. Based on analysis of the water, we suggest that the groundwater is fresh and suggest that the reservoir rock is not very reactive or the groundwater is young. Unfortunately, F and As were found to exceed Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in several wells. Concentrations of F and As were correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) suggesting a mixing with older, deeper groundwater. Mapping of the watershed and channel geomorphology indicates that the Laja River tends to be gravel bedded in some locations and sand-bedded in other locations with highly erodible banks. At multiple sample locations, as many as four terraces were present, suggesting an actively down-cutting channel. Geophysical measurements suggest the river is well connected to the alluvial aquifer. Thus, prior to intensive pumping in the 1950's the Laja River may have been recharged by aquifers. Whereas the discharge in the Laja River is decreasing yearly, a

  5. Temperature as a tracer to identify surface water-groundwater exchanges in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Liu, C.; Xiao, H.; Zheng, C.; Li, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. Under natural conditions, the Heihe River recharges to groundwater in the piedmont areas after coming out of the Qilian Mountains. In the front edge of the alluvial and fluvial fans in the middle HRB, groundwater discharges to the surface in the form of springs and then flows into the Heihe River and ends up at the terminal lakes in the lower HRB. The surface water-groundwater interactions are frequent and dynamic along the Heihe River, and the understanding of these interactions is essential for conjunctive use and management of water resources and is fundamental to ensuring ecosystem health of the HRB. Among the various methods used to study surface water-groundwater interactions, those based on temperature have some distinct advantages because of the obvious temperature differences between surface water and groundwater and also because of the simplicity and low cost of temperature measurement. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) can measure temperature at very high spatial and temporal resolutions and has led to important insights into the processes of groundwater and surface water interactions. In this study, DTS was applied to measure high-resolution temperature variations in the river water with a 0.25 m spatial interval and a 15 minute temporal frequency in a total distance of 5 km along two sections of the Heihe River. A statistical approach was used to discern the spatial distribution and the size of groundwater discharge zones and hyporheic zones, respectively. The exchange flux was then estimated using 1-D hydrodynamic model, which calculates the inflow flux in the study area by comparing the simulated temperatures with the measured ones. In addition, temperature data, combined with more traditional hydrological data such as hydraulic heads and fluxes, can provide independent constraints for calibrating the coupled surface water-groundwater

  6. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  7. Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. S. Roddy

    2007-05-01

    This plan describes the groundwater sampling and water level monitoring that will be conducted to evaluate contaminations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer entering and leaving the Idaho National Laboratory. The sampling and monitoring locations were selected to meet the data quality objectives detailed in this plan. Data for the Snake River Plain Aquifer obtained under this plan will be evaluated in the Operable Unit 10-08 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study report and will be used to support the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide groundwater model.

  8. Evaluation of the potential impact of climate changes on groundwater recharge in Karkheh river basin (Khuzestan, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamchi, A.; Beigi, E.; Tajrishy, M.; Abrishamchi, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater is an important natural resource for human beings and ecosystems, especially in arid semi arid regions with scarce water resources and high climate variability. This vital resource is under stress in terms of both quantity and quality due to increased demands as well as the drought. Wise groundwater management requires vulnerability and susceptibility assessment of groundwater resources to natural and anthropogenic phenomena such as drought, over-abstraction and quality deterioration both in the current climatic situation and in the context of climate change. There is enough evidence that climate change is expected to affect all elements of hydrologic cycle and have negative effects on water resources due to increased variability in extreme hydrologic events of droughts and floods. .In this study impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in Karkheh river basin in province of Khuzestan, Iran, has been investigated using a physically-based methodology that can be used for predicting both temporal and spatial varying groundwater recharge. To ensure the sustainability of the land and water resources developments, assessment of the possible impacts of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the basin is necessary. Quantifying groundwater recharge is essential for management of groundwater resources. Recharge was estimated by using the hydrological evaluation of landfill performance (HELP3) water budget model. Model’s parameters were calibrated and validated using observational data in 1990-1998. The impact of climate change was modeled using downscaled precipitation and temperature from runs of CGCM2 model. These data were derived from two scenarios, A2 and B2 for three periods: 2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099. Results of the study indicate that due to global warming evapotranspiration rates will increase and winter-precipitation will fall, spring-snowmelt will shift toward winter and consequently it will cause recharge to increase

  9. Occurrence, behavior and distribution of high levels of uranium in shallow groundwater at Datong basin, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical investigations of uranium (U) occurrence in the environments were conducted at Datong basin of northern China. The results suggest that U contents were generally 22+) species is dominant and strongly adsorbed onto iron (hydro)xides, while it would be preferentially complexed with carbonate in the alkaline groundwater, forming highly soluble uranyl-carbonate complexes at Datong. Under reducing conditions, uranous (U(IV)) species is ready to precipitate or bind to organic matter, therefore having a low mobility. At the study area, high U groundwater (> 30 μg/L) occurs at the alluvial plains due to intermediate redox and enhanced alkaline conditions. The abnormally high levels of U in groundwater (> 100 μg/L) are locally found at the west alluvial plains. By contrast, U co-precipitation with secondary carbonate minerals like Ca2UO2(CO3)3 in the dominant Ca–Mg–Na–HCO3 type groundwater may prevail at the east alluvial plains. Besides, bedrocks such as Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary rocks, especially the coal-bearing strata which have higher U contents at the west mountain areas may also account for the abnormally high levels of U in groundwater. - Highlights: • High U groundwater occurs at the alluvial plains of Datong basin. • Redox state, complexation and adsorption are responsible for U enrichment. • Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary rocks have higher U contents at Datong. • Uranyl is preferentially complexed with carbonate in groundwater. • U in the aquifer sediments may be primarily associated with carnotite

  10. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouyère, Serge; Carabin, Guy; Dassargues, Alain

    An integrated hydrological model (MOHISE) was developed in order to study the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle in representative water basins in Belgium. This model considers most hydrological processes in a physically consistent way, more particularly groundwater flows which are modelled using a spatially distributed, finite-element approach. Thanks to this accurate numerical tool, after detailed calibration and validation, quantitative interpretations can be drawn from the groundwater model results. Considering IPCC climate change scenarios, the integrated approach was applied to evaluate the impact of climate change on the water cycle in the Geer basin in Belgium. The groundwater model is described in detail, and results are discussed in terms of climate change impact on the evolution of groundwater levels and groundwater reserves. From the modelling application on the Geer basin, it appears that, on a pluri-annual basis, most tested scenarios predict a decrease in groundwater levels and reserves in relation to variations in climatic conditions. However, for this aquifer, the tested scenarios show no enhancement of the seasonal changes in groundwater levels. Un modèle hydrologique intégré (MOHISE) a été développé afin d'étudier l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique de bassins versants représentatifs de Belgique. Ce modèle prend en compte tous les processus hydrologiques d'une manière physiquement consistante, plus particulièrement les écoulements souterrains qui sont modélisés par une approche spatialement distribuée aux éléments finis. Grâce à cet outil numérique précis, après une calibration et une validation détaillées, des interprétations quantitatives peuvent être réalisées à partir des résultats du modèle de nappe. Considérant des scénarios de changements climatiques de l'IPCC, l'approche intégrée a été appliquée pour évaluer l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle de l

  11. Inclusion of emerging organic contaminants in groundwater monitoring plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for human life and its protection is a goal for the European policies. All the anthropogenic activities could impact on water quality. •Conventional pollutants and more than 700 emerging pollutants, resulting from point and diffuse source contamination, threat the aquatic ecosystem.•Policy-makers and scientists will have to cooperate to create an initial groundwater emerging pollutant priority list, to answer at consumer demands for safety and to the lack of conceptual models for emerging pollutants in groundwater.•Among the emerging contaminants and pollutants this paper focuses on organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) mainly released into the environment by domestic households, industry, hospitals and agriculture. This paper starts from the current regulatory framework and from the literature overview to explain how the missing conceptual model for OWCs could be developed.•A full understanding of the mechanisms leading to the contamination and the evidence of the contamination must be the foundation of the conceptual model. In this paper carbamazepine, galaxolide and sulfamethozale, between the OWCs, are proposed as "environmental tracers" to identify sources and pathways ofcontamination/pollution. PMID:27366676

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan For Groundwater Monitoring Wells At The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted 'active' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted 'inactive' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. At the time of the 1996 permit renewal, it was determined that a more robust monitoring program was needed. The draft permit required new monitoring wells within 25 feet of each active disposal cell. As an alternative, SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and was incorporated by reference into the Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, No.025500-1603. The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include specific requirements for groundwater monitoring. SRS's plan for complying with those regulations is discussed below. The plan calls for a return to traditional monitoring with permanent wells. It also proposes a more technically sound monitoring list based on the actual composition of saltstone

  14. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford site facilities for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1993 and September 1994. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides

  15. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1994 and September 1995. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides.

  16. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1994 and September 1995. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides

  17. SIR 2015-5175, Water-level altitude contours of Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley and surrounding groundwater basins, Nevada and California, version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This vector data set contains lines representing water-level altitude contours of Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley and surrounding groundwater basins in Nevada and...

  18. Digitized generalized areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater withdrawals in adjacent valleys, Great Basin National Park area, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons delineate generalized areas in and around Great Basin National Park where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater...

  19. Geospatial Data Used in Water-Level and Land-Subsidence Studies in the Mojave River and Morongo Groundwater Basins for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins....

  20. Geospatial Data Used in Water-Level and Land-Subsidence Studies in the Mojave River and Morongo Groundwater Basins for 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  1. Identifying the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in the Subei Lake basin, Ordos energy base, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Song, X.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Han, D.; Ma, Y.; Bu, H.

    2015-01-01

    A series of changes in groundwater systems caused by groundwater exploitation in energy base have been of great concern to hydrogeologists. The research aims to identify the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Subei Lake basin under the influence of human activities. Water samples were collected, and major ions and stable isotopes (δ18O, δD) were analyzed. In terms of hydrogeological conditions and the analytical results of hydrochemical data, groundwater can b