WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin greece case

  1. Virtual Crop Water Export Analysis: The Case of Greece at River Basin District Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mellios

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of virtual crop water export through international trade is conducted for Greece, downscaled to the River Basin District (RBD level, in order to identify critical “hotspots” of localized water shortage in the country. A computable general equilibrium model (MAGNET was used to obtain the export shares of crops and associated irrigation water was calculated for all major crops in Greece. A distinction between virtual crop water locally consumed and traded internationally was made for all Greek RBDs. Cotton was identified as a large water consumer and virtual water exporter, while GR08 and GR10 were identified as the RBDs mostly impacted. The value of virtual water exported was calculated for all crop types and fruits and vegetables were identified as the crop most beneficial, since they consume the least water for the obtained value.

  2. Land subsidence susceptibility and hazard mapping: the case of Amyntaio Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzampoglou, P.; Loupasakis, C.

    2017-09-01

    Landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping has been applying for more than 20 years succeeding the assessment of the landslide risk and the mitigation the phenomena. On the contrary, equivalent maps aiming to study and mitigate land subsidence phenomena caused by the overexploitation of the aquifers are absent from the international literature. The current study focuses at the Amyntaio basin, located in West Macedonia at Florina prefecture. As proved by numerous studies the wider area has been severely affected by the overexploitation of the aquifers, caused by the mining and the agricultural activities. The intensive ground water level drop has triggered extensive land subsidence phenomena, especially at the perimeter of the open pit coal mine operating at the site, causing damages to settlements and infrastructure. The land subsidence susceptibility and risk maps were produced by applying the semi-quantitative WLC (Weighted Linear Combination) method, especially calibrated for this particular catastrophic event. The results were evaluated by using detailed field mapping data referring to the spatial distribution of the surface ruptures caused by the subsidence. The high correlation between the produced maps and the field mapping data, have proved the great value of the maps and of the applied technique on the management and the mitigation of the phenomena. Obviously, these maps can be safely used by decision-making authorities for the future urban safety development.

  3. Comparison of long-term geochemical interactions at two natural CO2-analogues : Montmiral (Southeast Basin, France) and Messokampos (Florina Basin, Greece) case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaus, I.; Le Guern, C.; Pauwels, H.; Pearce, J.; Shepherd, T.; Hatziyannis, G.; Metaxas, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage is considered to be a viable strategy to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. When assessing the feasibility of current or future CO 2 storage projects, mineral trapping within a reservoir is considered as a key mechanism for the permanent sequestration of CO 2 . There are many occurrences worldwide, where natural CO 2 has been trapped in geological reservoirs. These natural CO 2 analogues provide a unique opportunity to study the reactivity, due to CO 2 interactions, which occurred in the reservoirs over a geologic timeframe. Therefore, the study of analogous natural CO 2 -rich reservoirs, which act as long-term laboratories, are an important part of the assessment of the long-term geochemical effects of geological CO 2 storage. This paper referred to 2 natural CO 2 sites studied under the Natural Analogues for the Storage of CO2 in the Geological Environment (NASCENT) Project. The Montmiral reservoir in France's Southeast Basin is a high-temperature and high-pressure reservoir at great depth (100 degrees C and 36 MPa). The Messokampos reservoir in Greece's Florina Basin is a shallow, low temperature and low-pressure reservoir (25 degrees C and 0.5 MPa). Both are sandstone reservoirs, and feldspar alteration is the key interaction in both cases between dissolved CO 2 , the formation water and the reservoir rock. Both natural analogues were studied in detail petrographically and through geochemical modelling in order to characterize and explain the water-rock-gas interactions in the different geological contexts. The purpose was to assess the consequences of these interactions on CO 2 storage capacity and porosity of the host rock. It was concluded that the reservoir's temperature and pressure conditions determine the impact of CO 2 interactions, with elevated temperatures significantly increasing the reaction rates of mineral-trapping reactions. This is particularly significant when choosing

  4. Producing landslide susceptibility maps by utilizing machine learning methods. The case of Finikas catchment basin, North Peloponnese, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Papadakis, Michalis; Karimalis, Antonios

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the present study was to apply two machine learning methods for the production of a landslide susceptibility map in the Finikas catchment basin, located in North Peloponnese, Greece and to compare their results. Specifically, Logistic Regression and Random Forest were utilized, based on a database of 40 sites classified into two categories, non-landslide and landslide areas that were separated into a training dataset (70% of the total data) and a validation dataset (remaining 30%). The identification of the areas was established by analyzing airborne imagery, extensive field investigation and the examination of previous research studies. Six landslide related variables were analyzed, namely: lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to rivers and distance to faults. Within the Finikas catchment basin most of the reported landslides were located along the road network and within the residential complexes, classified as rotational and translational slides, and rockfalls, mainly caused due to the physical conditions and the general geotechnical behavior of the geological formation that cover the area. Each landslide susceptibility map was reclassified by applying the Geometric Interval classification technique into five classes, namely: very low susceptibility, low susceptibility, moderate susceptibility, high susceptibility, and very high susceptibility. The comparison and validation of the outcomes of each model were achieved using statistical evaluation measures, the receiving operating characteristic and the area under the success and predictive rate curves. The computation process was carried out using RStudio an integrated development environment for R language and ArcGIS 10.1 for compiling the data and producing the landslide susceptibility maps. From the outcomes of the Logistic Regression analysis it was induced that the highest b coefficient is allocated to lithology and slope, which was 2.8423 and 1.5841, respectively. From the

  5. The effects of water rock interaction and the human activities on the occurrence of hexavalent chromium in waters. The case study of the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria; Stamatis, George; Gartzos, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, particularly of the toxic hexavalent chromium, are recorded in surface and ground waters in many areas, and constitute one of the most severe environmental problems nowadays. The natural genesis of chromium is associated with the geological environment (peridotites and serpentintites). Chromium is structured in many minerals, mainly in spinel (e.g. chromite), in silicate minerals such as phyllosilicate serpentine minerals, chlorite, talc and chain-silicate minerals of pyroxene and amphibole group. Chromium is found in two forms in soils, waters and rocks, the hexavalent and the trivalent one. The relation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) strongly depends on pH and oxidative properties of the area; however, in most cases, Cr(III) is the dominating variant. The natural oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium can be achieved by manganese oxides, H2O2, O2 gas and oxy-hydroxides of trivalent iron. Anthropogenic factors may also cause the process of chromium's oxidation. In the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium were recently measured in spring- and drill- waters. In this work, we study the effect of the geological environment and of the anthropogenic activities on the water quality with emphasis on chromium. A detailed geochemical, petrological and mineralogical study of rocks and soils was carried out by means of optical microscopy, XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS. Ground and surface water samples were physically characterized and hydrochemically studied by means of ICP and AAF. Combined result evaluation indicates a natural source for the trivalent chromium in waters, attributed to the alteration of Cr-bearing minerals of the ultramafic rocks. However the oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium results from anthropogenic activities, mainly from intensive agricultural activities and the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides causing nitrate pollution in groundwater. It has been shown

  6. Integrated Groundwater Resources Management Using the DPSIR Approach in a GIS Environment Context: A Case Study from the Gallikos River Basin, North Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Mattas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gallikos River basin is located in the northern part of Greece, and the coastal section is part of a deltaic system. The basin has been influenced by anthropogenic activities during the last decades, leading to continuous water resource degradation. The holistic approach of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework was applied in order to investigate the main causes and origins of pressures and to optimize the measures for sustainable management of water resources. The major driving forces that affect the Gallikos River basin are urbanization, intensive agriculture, industry and the regional development strategy. The main pressures on water resources are the overexploitation of aquifers, water quality degradation, and decrease of river discharge. Recommended responses were based on the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC, and sum up to rationalization of water resources, land use management and appropriate utilization of waste, especially so effluent. The application of the DPSIR analysis in this paper links the socioeconomic drivers to the water resource pressures, the responses based on the WFD and the national legislation and is as a useful tool for land-use planning and decision making in the area of water protection.

  7. Flow characterization temporary streams : using the model SIMGRO for the Evrotas basin, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, M.G.M.; Querner, E.P.; Jacobs, C.; Froebrich, J.

    2011-01-01

    Tools were developed to quantify space–time development of different flow phases on a river basin scale. Such information is needed for the WFD. The spatial development of temporary streams was investigated in the Evrotas basin, Greece. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO in a GIS

  8. Socioeconomic dimensions of changes in the agricultural landscape of the Mediterranean basin: a case study of the abandonment of cultivation terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island's unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  9. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  10. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiatos, Ioannis

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate (NO3) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ(15)N-NO3 and δ(18)O-NO3) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO3 sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC).

  11. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate (NO_3) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ"1"5N–NO_3 and δ"1"8O–NO_3) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO_3 sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). - Highlights: • More enriched N-isotope values were observed in the industrial/urban areas. • A Bayesian isotope mixing model was applied in a multiple land-use area. • A 3-component model explained the factors controlling nitrate content in groundwater. • Industrial/urban nitrogen source was

  12. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matiatos, Ioannis, E-mail: i.matiatos@iaea.org

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate (NO{sub 3}) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO{sub 3} sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). - Highlights: • More enriched N-isotope values were observed in the industrial/urban areas. • A Bayesian isotope mixing model was applied in a multiple land-use area. • A 3-component model explained the factors controlling nitrate content in groundwater. • Industrial

  13. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Greece. The introduction is followed by four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about the country, 2. the historical development of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the authorís goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Greeceís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Greek approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Greek reality The National Actuary.

  14. Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  15. Drought analysis and short-term forecast in the Aison River Basin (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Kavalieratou, S.; Karpouzos, D. K.; Babajimopoulos, C.

    2012-01-01

    A combined regional drought analysis and forecast is elaborated and applied to the Aison River Basin (Greece). The historical frequency, duration and severity were estimated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed on variable time scales, while short-term drought forecast was investigated by means of 3-D loglinear models. A quasi-association model with homogenous diagonal effect was proposed to fit the observed frequencies of class transitions of the SPI values computed on t...

  16. Drought analysis and short-term forecast in the Aison River Basin (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavalieratou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A combined regional drought analysis and forecast is elaborated and applied to the Aison River Basin (Greece. The historical frequency, duration and severity were estimated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI computed on variable time scales, while short-term drought forecast was investigated by means of 3-D loglinear models. A quasi-association model with homogenous diagonal effect was proposed to fit the observed frequencies of class transitions of the SPI values computed on the 12-month time scale. Then, an adapted submodel was selected for each data set through the backward elimination method. The analysis and forecast of the drought class transition probabilities were based on the odds of the expected frequencies, estimated by these submodels, and the respective confidence intervals of these odds. The parsimonious forecast models fitted adequately the observed data. Results gave a comprehensive insight on drought behavior, highlighting a dominant drought period (1988–1991 with extreme drought events and revealing, in most cases, smooth drought class transitions. The proposed approach can be an efficient tool in regional water resources management and short-term drought warning, especially in irrigated districts.

  17. Immigrants: A Study Case for N. Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that the phenomenon of immigration constitutes, during the last years, the view of a new social and economic reality for the societies of most western European countries. Greece has received for the first time, during the 1990s, thousands of economic immigrants who appear not only in the big city centers but also in small country towns. Immigrants probably constitute the most discussed issue in the Modern Greek society, in an economic conjuncture in which the economic crisis has functioned in a catalytic way for the diffusion of insecurity in the native population (Biblionet, 2012. The Greek state was not ready to accept such a large number of immigrants in so little time. It showed hesitance and could not keep a steady position as far as the promotion of a necessary institutional framework for their integration in the Greek society was concerned. This initial surprise has never been overcome. In Greece, as well as in the rest of the European South, the majority of the immigrants entering the country illegally have supplied the informal working market. Even when they become legal, the available working positions for them presuppose low specialization with low payments, hard work and limited opportunities of improvement of their social and occupational status. Although the immigration phenomenon is usually approached in a national level, the local level is considered the most suitable one to deal with the interaction of its economic, social, political and cultural dimensions. Recent studies have shown their positive contribution in the revival of Greek agriculture and Greek agricultural districts in general. Within the scale of the Greek community and the degree in which it constitutes a place of constant flow of human resources, it is inevitable the general presence of immigrants to raise issues of mutual infiltrations among different national populations within which there arise interaction issues and intercultural interdependence

  18. Distribution of trace elements in sediment and soil from river Vardar Basin, Macedonia/Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of 59 elements in the sediment and soil samples collected from the river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 28 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. R-mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations. Seven associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Every factor (Factors 1-3 and 6 and 7 as geogenic and Factors 4 and 5 as anthropogenic associations of elements) are examined and explained separately. The distribution of various elements showed that there is a presence of anthropogenic elements (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ge, Pb, Sn and Zn) introduced in the river sediments and soils from the mining, metallurgical, industrial and agricultural activities in Vardar River Basin, which covers most of the Republic of Macedonia and Central-northern part of Greece.

  19. Possible Rickettsia massiliae Infection in Greece: an Imported Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Bongiorni, Christine; Partalis, Nikolaos; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2016-07-22

    Tick-borne rickettsioses are endemic in Greece; however, until recently, only Rickettsia typhi and R. conorii were tested routinely in human samples arriving at the National Reference Center. During the last few years, the identification of different rickettsia species in ticks led to the introduction of other spotted fever group rickettsiae in routine analysis. Under the new scheme, R. massiliae is now tested routinely in human samples; herein, we describe a human case of this infection.

  20. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ilias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects which are currently in practice are those of Thessaloniki, Chalkida, Malia, Livadia, Amfisa, Kalikratia, and Chersonissos. In Thessaloniki, at the most important wastewater reuse site, the secondary effluent of the city’s Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP (165,000 m3/day is used for agricultural irrigation after mixing with freshwater at a 1:5 ratio. The main crops irrigated are rice, corn, alfalfa and cotton. A few other projects are under planning, such as that at Iraklion, Agios Nikolaos and several island regions. Finally, it should be mentioned that there are several cases of indirect reuse, especially in central Greece. However, the reuse potential in Greece is limited, since effluent from Athens’s WWTP, serving approximately half of the country’s population, is not economically feasible due to the location of the plant.

  1. A Case of Human Infection by Rickettsia slovaca in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Vasiliki; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Kanta, Chrysoula; Katsanou, Andromachi; Rossiou, Konstantina; Rammos, Aidonis; Papadopoulos, Spyridon-Filippos; Katsarou, Theodora; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna; Boukas, Chrysostomos

    2016-07-22

    Although tick-borne rickettsiosis is endemic in Greece, until recently, human samples arriving at the National Reference Centre under suspicion of rickettsial infection were routinely tested only for Rickettsia typhi and R. conorii. However, identification of additional rickettsia species in ticks prompted revision of the protocol in 2010. Until that year, all human samples received by the laboratory were tested for antibodies against R. conorii and R. typhi only. Now, tests for R. slovaca, R. felis, and R. mongolotimonae are all included in routine analysis. The current description of a human R. slovaca case is possible as a result of these changes in routine testing.

  2. The urban roots of anti-neoliberal social movements: the case of Athens, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arampatzi, A.; Nicholls, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    The recent rounds of anti-neoliberal mobilizations in Europe have shown to be rooted in cities. Whereas Madrid has become a central hub in Spain’s social movement, Athens has assumed a central and centralizing role in Greece. Through a case study on Athens, Greece, this paper aims to show how cities

  3. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  4. Radon measurements along active faults in the Langadas Basin, northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papastefanou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A network of three radon stations has been established in the Langadas Basin, northern Greece for radon monitoring by various techniques in earthquake prediction studies. Specially made devices with plastic tubes including Alpha Tracketch Detectors (ATD were installed for registering alpha particles from radon and radon decay products exhaled from the ground, every 2 weeks, by using LR-115, type II, non-strippable Kodak films, starting from December 1996. Simultaneous measurements started using Lucas cells alpha spectrometer for instantaneous radon measurements in soil gas, before and after setting ATDs at the radon stations. Continuous monitoring of radon gas exhaling from the ground started from the middle of August 1999 by using silicon diode detectors, which simultaneously register meteorological parameters, such as rainfall, temperature and barometric pressure. The obtained data were studied together with the data of seismic events, such as the magnitude, ML, of earthquakes that occurred at the Langadas Basin during the period of measurements, as registered by the Laboratory of Geophysics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in order to find out any association between them.

  5. Origin of hexavalent chromium in groundwater: The example of Sarigkiol Basin, Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, N; Kantiranis, N; Kalaitzidou, K; Kaprara, E; Mitrakas, M; Frei, R; Vargemezis, G; Tsourlos, P; Zouboulis, A; Filippidis, A

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium constitutes a serious deterioration factor for the groundwater quality of several regions around the world. High concentrations of this contaminant have been also reported in the groundwater of the Sarigkiol hydrological basin (near Kozani city, NW Greece). Specific interest was paid to this particular study area due to the co-existence here of two important factors both expected to contribute to Cr(VI) presence and groundwater pollution; namely the area's exposed ophiolitic rocks and its substantial fly ash deposits originating from the local lignite burning power plant. Accordingly, detailed geochemical, mineralogical, hydro-chemical, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed on the rocks, soils, sediments and water resources of this basin. Cr(VI) concentrations varied in the different aquifers, with the highest concentration (up to 120μgL -1 ) recorded in the groundwater of the unconfined porous aquifer situated near the temporary fly ash disposal site. Recharge of the porous aquifer is related mainly to precipitation infiltration and occasional surface run-off. Nevertheless, a hydraulic connection between the porous and neighboring karst aquifers could not be delineated. Therefore, the presence of Cr(VI) in the groundwater of this area is thought to originate from both the ophiolitic rock weathering products in the soils, and the local leaching of Cr(VI) from the diffused fly ash located in the area surrounding the lignite power plant. This conclusion was corroborated by factor analysis, and the strongly positively fractionated Cr isotopes (δ 53 Cr up to 0.83‰) recorded in groundwater, an ash leachate, and the bulk fly ash. An anthropogenic source of Cr(VI) that possibly influences groundwater quality is especially apparent in the eastern part of the Sarigkiol basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial and temporal changes of water quality, and SWAT modeling of Vosvozis river basin, North Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskidis, Ioannis; Gikas, Georgios D; Pisinaras, Vassilios; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2010-09-01

    The results of an investigation of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Vosvozis river in Northern Greece is presented. For the purposes of this study, three gaging stations were installed along Vosvozis river, where water quantity and quality measurements were conducted for the period August 2005 to November 2006. Water discharge, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ using appropriate equipment. The collected water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for the determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium nitrogen, total Kjeldalh nitrogen (TKN), orthophosphate (OP), total phosphorus (TP), COD, and BOD. Agricultural diffuse sources provided the major source of nitrate nitrogen loads during the wet period. During the dry period (from June to October), the major nutrient (N, P) and COD, BOD sources were point sources. The trophic status of Vosvozis river during the monitoring period was determined as eutrophic, based on Dodds classification scheme. Moreover, the SWAT model was used to simulate hydrographs and nutrient loads. SWAT was validated with the measured data. Predicted hydrographs and pollutographs were plotted against observed values and showed good agreement. The validated model was used to test eight alternative scenarios concerning different cropping management approaches. The results of these scenarios indicate that nonpoint source pollution is the prevailing type of pollution in the study area. The SWAT model was found to satisfactorily simulate processes in ephemeral river basins and is an effective tool in water resources management.

  7. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  8. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  9. Pesticides in the surface waters of Lake Vistonis Basin, Greece: Occurrence and environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Tsaboula, Aggeliki; Kotopoulou, Athina; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-12-01

    A study was undertaken for the evaluation of the pesticide pollution caused by the agricultural activities in the basin of Lake Vistonis, Greece during the years 2010-2012. Water samples were collected from Lake Vistonis, four major rivers and various small streams and agriculture drainage canals. The concentration of 302 compounds was determined after solid-phase extraction of the water samples and subsequent LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts. Overall, herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides (57%), followed by insecticides (28%) and fungicides (14%). In Lake Vistonis 11 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 75% of the samples (maximum concentration 0.088 μg/L) whereas lambda-cyhalothrin was detected in all the samples of spring 2011 and alphamethrin in all the samples of spring 2012 (maximum concentration 0.041 and 0.168 μg/L, respectively). In the rivers and drainage canals 68 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 53% of the samples (maximum concentration 317.6 μg/L) followed by chlorpyrifos and prometryn (16 and 13% of the samples respectively). An environmental risk assessment was performed by employing the Risk Quotient (RQ) method. The risk assessment revealed that at least one pesticide concentration led to a RQ>1 in 20% of the samples. In Lake Vistonis, alphamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin concentrations resulted in RQ>1, whereas in the other water bodies this was mainly the result of chlorpyrifos-methyl and alphamethrin exposure. In contrast, herbicide and fungicide concentrations contributed substantially less to environmental risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Willingness to pay for more efficient irrigation techniques in the Lake Karla basin, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Nikitas; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos

    2014-05-01

    Thessaly, the second largest plain of Greece, is an intensively cultivated agricultural region. The intense and widespread agriculture of hydrophilic crops, such as cotton, has led to a remarkable water demand increase, which is usually covered by the overexploitation of groundwater resources. The Lake Karla basin is a prominent example of this unsustainable practice. Competition for the limited available freshwater resources in the Lake Karla basin is expected to increase in the near future as demand for irrigation water increases and drought years are expected to increase due to climate change. Together with the Unions of Agricultural Cooperatives, the Local Organizations of Land Reclamation is planning to introduce more efficient, water saving automated drip irrigation in the area among farmers who currently use non-automated drip irrigation, in order to ensure that these farmers can better cope with drought years and that water will be used more efficiently in crop production. Saving water use in irrigated agriculture is expected to be beneficial to both farmers and the restoration of Lake Karla and its wildlife like plants and birds. The aim of this study is to understand and record the farmers' opinions regarding the use of irrigation water and the restoration of Lake Karla, and to extract valuable conclusions and perform detailed analysis of the criteria for a new irrigation method. A general choice experiment with face-to-face interviews was conducted, using a random sample of 150 open field farmers from the study area. The farmers, who use the non-automated drip irrigation method and their farms are located within the watershed of Lake Karla, were interviewed regarding their willingness to switch to more efficient irrigation techniques, such as automated and controlled drip irrigation.The most important benefits of automated drip irrigation are an increase in crop yield, as plants are given water in a more precise way (based on their needs during the

  11. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  12. 2D interpretation of vertical electrical soundings: application to the Sarantaporon basin (Thessaly, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzemoglou, A; Tsourlos, P

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey was applied at the basin of Sarantaporon, Elassona in order to study the tectonic and hydrogeological setting of the area. A large number of VES was obtained on a near-regular grid and data were initially processed with 1D inversion algorithm. Since some of the dense measured soundings were collinear, it was possible to combine 1D sounding data and produce 2D data sets which were interpreted using a fully 2D inversion algorithm. 2D geoelectrical models were in very good agreement with the existing drilling information of the area. 2D interpretation results were combined to produce pseudo-3D geoelectrical images of the subsurface. Resulting geoelectrical interpretations are in very good agreement with the existing geological information and reveal a relatively detailed picture of the basin's lithology. Further, the results allowed us to obtain new, and verify existing, structural information regarding the studied area. Overall, it is concluded that 2D interpretation of 1D VES measurements can produce improved subsurface geophysical images and presents a potential useful tool for larger scale geological investigations especially in the case of reprocessing existing VES data sets

  13. Energy demand and environmental taxes: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, V.T.; Polemis, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects that energy taxes may have on reducing environmental pollution in Greece. We study the demand for residential energy for the period 1965-1998, and on the basis of these estimates we make forecasts for CO 2 emissions in the coming years. Furthermore we develop alternative scenarios for tax changes, and study their effects on CO 2 emissions. According to our findings the harmonization of the Greek energy taxes to the average European Union levels implies an increase of total CO 2 emissions by 6% annually. If taxes are raised, however, to the highest European Union levels, the CO 2 emissions are restricted significantly. These empirical findings may indicate that environmental taxation cannot be the unique instrument for combating pollution. (author)

  14. Energy demand and environmental taxes: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects that energy taxes may have on reducing environmental pollution in Greece. We study the demand for residential energy for the period 1965-1998, and on the basis of these estimates we make forecasts for CO 2 emissions in the coming years. Furthermore we develop alternative scenarios for tax changes, and study their effects on CO 2 emissions. According to our findings the harmonization of the Greek energy taxes to the average European Union levels implies an increase of total CO 2 emissions by 6% annually. If taxes are raised, however, to the highest European Union levels, the CO 2 emissions are restricted significantly. These empirical findings may indicate that environmental taxation cannot be the unique instrument for combating pollution

  15. Public attitudes towards photovoltaic developments: Case study from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Tampakis, Stilianos

    2014-01-01

    The present decade is considered to be vitally important both as regards addressing energy requirements and for environmental protection purposes. The decisions taken, both on an individual and a collective level, will have a decisive impact on the environment, and primarily on climate change, due to the increased energy demands and the need to reduce carbon use in energy generation. The present study was designed and carried out while an extensive debate was ongoing in Greece regarding changes to the legislative framework that would specifically disallow new applications for the installation of photovoltaic systems; its aim is to depict the attitude of Greek citizens, through the completion of 1068 questionnaires. The research results show that over half the respondents are informed about the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. Furthermore, almost half are willing to invest in such systems, either at home or on a plot of land. The factors contributing to the installation of photovoltaic systems are mainly “environmental”, “financial” and “social”. Finally, the citizens who are most willing to invest in residential photovoltaic systems are mainly university or technical school graduates; they would rather take such a decision after being motivated by institutional bodies and would do so for reasons of recognition. - Highlights: • The circumstances for RES are favorable both in the EU and in Greece. • The growth of renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic systems, is provenly following an upward trend. • The photovoltaic electricity production is an environmentally-friendly, sustainable and socially acceptable answer to the future energy requirements of society. • The Greek citizens state that they are adequately informed and sufficiently willing to invest in photovoltaic systems either residentially or in a plot of land

  16. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae): first report in Greece and a case of canine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Tzimoulia, Stavroula; Tzimoulias, Ioannis; Traversa, Donato

    2015-07-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda has been reported in different European countries, i.e. Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Romania. The present article describes the first autochthonous case of ocular thelaziosis in a dog from Greece, thus revealing a new spot of infection in Europe. The dog in this case report, most likely infected at the northern borders of Greece, was referred to a private veterinary practice with conjunctivitis, oedema, keratitis, epiphora and mucoid discharge in both eyes. Seventy-seven nematodes were removed from both eyes, and the dog was treated with two subcutaneous injections of ivermectin 14 days apart, in combination with a topical antimicrobial medication. The parasites were morphologically and molecularly identified as T. callipaeda. Although in Greece there is no information about the presence and distribution of the fruit fly Phortica variegata, i.e. the intermediate host of T. callipaeda, the location where the dog was infected is environmentally suitable for its development. The present report of this zoonotic parasitosis indicates that in Greece, along with endemic areas in Spain and Italy, T. callipaeda is currently reaching its southernmost distribution limit in Europe.

  17. Pre-Messinian (Sub-Salt Source-Rock Potential on Back-Stop Basins of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Central Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravelis A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek part of the Mediterranean Ridge suggests, in terms of its hydrocarbon potential, further frontier exploration. The geological similarities between its prolific portions, within the Cyprus and Egyptian Exclusive Economic Zones, indicate possible recoverable natural gas reserves in its Greek portion. Nevertheless it lacks of systematic frontier exploration although direct petroleum indicators occur. Active mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge, still emitting concurrently gas and gas hydrates, have not been yet assessed even though are strongly related to hydrocarbon occurrence worldwide (Caspian Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Western African Basin, Trinidad-Tobago, the Nile Cone. For this reason, the source rock potential of the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits on a backstop basin of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Crete, Greece, was studied. The obtained pyrolysis data indicate that the containing organic matter is present in sufficient abundance and with good enough quality to be regarded as potential source rocks. The observed type III kerogen suggests gas generation potential. Although indications of higher thermal evolution occur the studied rocks suggest low maturation levels. The biogenic gas seeps in the studied research well further demonstrate the regional gas generation potential.

  18. Stress distribution and seismicity patterns of the 2011 seismic swarm in the Messinia basin, (South-Western Peloponnesus, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chouliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we examine the local stress field and the seismicity patterns associated with the 2011–2012 seismicity swarm in the Messinia basin, south-western Peloponnesus, Greece, using the seismological data of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. During this swarm more than 2000 events were recorded in a 12 month period by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN and also by the additional local installation of four portable broadband seismographic stations by NOA.

    The results indicate a Gaussian distribution of swarm activity and the development of a seismicity cluster in a pre-existing seismic gap within the Messinia basin. Centroid Moment Tensor solutions demonstrate a normal fault trending northwest–southeast and dipping to the southwest primarily due to an extensional stress field. During this seismicity swarm an epicentre migration of the three largest shocks is observed, from one end of the rupture zone in the north-western part of the cluster, towards the other edge of the rupture in the south-eastern part of the cluster. This migration is found to follow the Coulomb failure criterion that predicts the advancement and retardation of the stress field and the patterns of increases and decreases of the seismicity rate (b-value of the frequency–magnitude relation.

  19. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  20. Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry Focus: Greece Case Study: Porto Carras Grand Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Salpisti, Elisavet

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the notion of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. The organisational single-case study has been chosen as a research method, with research taking place in Porto Carras Grand Resort in Northern Greece. The purpose of this research has been to demonstrate the importance of employee job satisfaction in the hospitality industry in particular, since the quality of its services is greatly subject to the 'human chemistry' between employees and customers. Job...

  1. Extraction and Validation of Geomorphological Features from EU-DEM in The Vicinity of the Mygdonia Basin, Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Antonios; Karadimou, Georgia; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    The European Union Digital Elevation Model (EU-DEM) is a relatively new, hybrid elevation product, principally based on SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data, but also on publically available Russian topographic maps for regions north of 60° N. More specifically, EU-DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) over Europe from the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Reference Data Access (RDA) project - a realisation of the Copernicus (former GMES) programme, managed by the European Commission/DG Enterprise and Industry. Even if EU-DEM is indeed more reliable in terms of elevation accuracy than its constituents, it ought to be noted that it is not representative of the original elevation measurements, but is rather a secondary (mathematical) product. Therefore, for specific applications, such as those of geomorphological interest, artefacts may be induced. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of EU-DEM for geomorphological applications and compare it against other available datasets, i.e. topographic maps and (almost) global DEMs such as SRTM, ASTER-GDEM and WorldDEM™. This initial investigation is carried out in Central Macedonia, Northern Greece, in the vicinity of the Mygdonia basin, which corresponds to an area of particular interest for several geoscience applications. This area has also been serving as a test site for the systematic validation of DEMs for more than a decade. Consequently, extensive elevation datasets and experience have been accumulated over the years, rendering the evaluation of new elevation products a coherent and useful exercise on a local to regional scale. In this context, relief classification, drainage basin delineation, slope and slope aspect, as well as extraction and classification of drainage network are performed and validated among the aforementioned elevation sources. The achieved results focus on qualitative and quantitative aspects of automatic geomorphological feature extraction from

  2. Critical evaluation of financial supporting schemes for wind-based projects: Case study Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    After a long stagnating period during the second half of the 1990s, the market of wind energy in Greece was described by remarkable but unstable growth rates that resulted in the operation of 1 GW of wind power by the end of 2009. Still though, penetration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. On the other hand, national targets regarding the Renewable Energy Sources' (RES) contribution and existence of excellent wind potential areas across Greece challenge new wind energy investments. Acknowledging the unsteady development rates of wind power in Greece, efficiency of the State support mechanisms is currently investigated. Based on an analytical evaluation model, the investigation undertaken is extended to provide a detailed cost-benefit analysis of several wind energy case studies, including mainland and island applications as well as comparison with both conventional power stations and photovoltaic plants. For this purpose, the financial support provided by the State is directly compared with benefits accruing from the operation of wind parks, considering also the avoidance of social costs deriving from thermal power stations. Based on the results obtained, the beneficial characteristics of wind energy applications for the Greek society are clearly demonstrated, especially in the case of non-interconnected island grids. - Research highlights: → Since the mid-1990s, growth of wind power capacity in Greece has been unstable. → As a result, integration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. → Considering the situation, efficiency of State support mechanisms is evaluated. → An analytical cost-benefit model is developed and applied to various case studies. → Benefits from wind energy, especially in island regions, are designated.

  3. Millennial-scale climate variations recorded in Early Pliocene colour reflectance time series from the lacustrine Ptolemais Basin (NW Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbrink, J.; Kloosterboer-van Hoeve, M. L.; Hilgen, F. J.

    2003-03-01

    Quaternary climate proxy records show compelling evidence for climate variability on time scales of a few thousand years. The causes for these millennial-scale or sub-Milankovitch cycles are still poorly understood, not least due to the complex feedback mechanisms of large ice sheets during the Quaternary. We present evidence of millennial-scale climate variability in Early Pliocene lacustrine sediments from the intramontane Ptolemais Basin in northwestern Greece. The sediments are well exposed in a series of open-pit lignite mines and exhibit a distinct millennial-scale sedimentary cyclicity of alternating lignites and lacustrine marl beds that resulted from precession-induced variations in climate. The higher-frequency, millennial-scale cyclicity is particularly prominent within the grey-coloured marl segment of individual cycles. A stratigraphic interval of ˜115 ka, covering five precession-induced sedimentary cycles, was studied in nine parallel sections from two open-pit lignite mines located several km apart. High-resolution colour reflectance records were used to quantify the within-cycle variability and to determine its lateral continuity. Much of the within-cycle variability could be correlated between the parallel sections, even in fine detail, which suggests that these changes reflect basin-wide variations in environmental conditions related to (regional) climate fluctuations. Interbedded volcanic ash beds demonstrate the synchronicity of these fluctuations and spectral analysis of the reflectance time series shows a significant concentration of within-cycle variability at periods of ˜11, ˜5.5 and ˜2 ka. The occurrence of variability at such time scales at times before the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation suggests that they cannot solely have resulted from internal ice-sheet dynamics. Possible candidates include harmonics or combination tones of the main orbital cycles, variations in solar output or periodic motions of the Earth

  4. Identifying potential effects of climate change on the development of water resources in Pinios River Basin, Central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, G.; Panagopoulos, A.; Pisinaras, V.; Tziritis, E.; Wendland, F.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the future spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and temperature, and relate the corresponding change to water resources' quantitative status in Pinios River Basin (PRB), Thessaly, Greece. For this purpose, data from four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the periods 2021-2100 driven by several General Circulation Models (GCMs) were collected and bias-correction was performed based on linear scaling method. The bias-correction was made based on monthly precipitation and temperature data collected for the period 1981-2000 from 57 meteorological stations in total. The results indicate a general trend according to which precipitation is decreasing whilst temperature is increasing to an extent that varies depending on each particular RCM-GCM output. On the average, annual precipitation change for the period 2021-2100 was about - 80 mm, ranging between - 149 and + 35 mm, while the corresponding change for temperature was 2.81 °C, ranging between 1.48 and 3.72 °C. The investigation of potential impacts to the water resources demonstrates that water availability is expected to be significantly decreased in the already water-stressed PRB. The water stresses identified are related to the potential decreasing trend in groundwater recharge and the increasing trend in irrigation demand, which constitutes the major water consumer in PRB.

  5. Impact of the financial crisis on COPD burden: Greece as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourania S. Kotsiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and low socioeconomic status have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The current financial crisis has forced millions back into poverty. Greece is one of the countries hit the hardest, and is in the middle of a deep ongoing collapse. There have been early reports stating the apparent effects of the Greek downturn on respiratory health. This review summarises the overall impact of the financial crisis on COPD burden throughout the period of economic downturn by analysing the case study of Greece. In all levels of the healthcare system, current economic restrictions have reduced the capacity to prevent, diagnose and treat COPD in parallel with current higher detection rates of COPD. Remarkably, expenditure on healthcare has been reduced by >25%, resulting in major healthcare equipment shortages. Lower wages (by up to 20% and higher co-payments of up to 25% of a drug's purchase price have led to patients struggling to afford inhaled medications. Treatment nonadherence has been reported, resulting in 11.5% more exacerbations and 14.1% more hospitalisations annually, while the mean cost per severe COPD exacerbation has been approximated as €2600. Greece is a noteworthy example illustrating how COPD burden, quality of care and patients' outcome can be affected by economic crisis.

  6. Characteristics of prevalent and new COPD cases in Greece: the GOLDEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsiki E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eirini Mitsiki,1 Eleni Bania,2 Christos Varounis,1 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis,2 Evangelos C Alexopoulos3 1Medical Department, Novartis Hellas, Athens, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Medical School, University of Thessaly, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, 3School of Social Sciences, Hellenic Open University, Athens, Greece Background: Greece has one of the highest rates of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Europe. Aim: The study aimed to record both the disease characteristics among a sample of Greek COPD patients and the nationwide rates of newly diagnosed COPD cases.Methods: In this noninterventional, epidemiological cross-sectional study, a representative nationwide sample of 45 respiratory centers provided data on the following: 1 the demographic and clinical characteristics of COPD patients and 2 newly diagnosed COPD cases monitored over a period of 6 months by each physician.Results: Data from 6,125 COPD patients were collected. Advanced age (median age: 68 years, male predominance (71.3%, largely overweight status with median body mass index (BMI =27.5 kg/m2, high percentage of current and ex-smokers (89.8%, and presence of comorbidities (81.9% were evident in the sample. According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2011 criteria, majority of the COPD patients had moderate or severe airflow limitation (61%. Severity of airflow limitation was significantly associated with older age, male sex, obesity, ex-smoking status, and presence of comorbidity (all P-values <0.001. A total of 61.3% of the patients received medication, mostly bronchodilators (64.4% and fixed-dose combinations of long-acting β2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (39.9%, while 35.9% reported taking medication on demand. The majority (81.1% of patients reported a preference for fewer inhalations of their bronchodilator therapy. Based on the mixed-effect Poisson model, the rate of newly

  7. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  8. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    KAUST Repository

    Tziritis, E.

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  9. Syndromic Surveillance Models Using Web Data: The Case of Influenza in Greece and Italy Using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Loukas; García-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

    2017-11-20

    An extended discussion and research has been performed in recent years using data collected through search queries submitted via the Internet. It has been shown that the overall activity on the Internet is related to the number of cases of an infectious disease outbreak. The aim of the study was to define a similar correlation between data from Google Trends and data collected by the official authorities of Greece and Europe by examining the development and the spread of seasonal influenza in Greece and Italy. We used multiple regressions of the terms submitted in the Google search engine related to influenza for the period from 2011 to 2012 in Greece and Italy (sample data for 104 weeks for each country). We then used the autoregressive integrated moving average statistical model to determine the correlation between the Google search data and the real influenza cases confirmed by the aforementioned authorities. Two methods were used: (1) a flu score was created for the case of Greece and (2) comparison of data from a neighboring country of Greece, which is Italy. The results showed that there is a significant correlation that can help the prediction of the spread and the peak of the seasonal influenza using data from Google searches. The correlation for Greece for 2011 and 2012 was .909 and .831, respectively, and correlation for Italy for 2011 and 2012 was .979 and .933, respectively. The prediction of the peak was quite precise, providing a forecast before it arrives to population. We can create an Internet surveillance system based on Google searches to track influenza in Greece and Italy. ©Loukas Samaras, Elena García-Barriocanal, Miguel-Angel Sicilia. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.11.2017.

  10. Tsunami Evacuation Exercises: the Case of Heraklion, Crete Isl., Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, I.; Charalampakis, M.; Bocchini, G. M.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective tsunami evacuation requires appropriate awareness as regards good shelters selection. Field exercises may improve public awareness. A field exercise was organized in Heraklion, Crete Isl., in 2016. The area is part of the Hellenic Arc which is the most active structure in the Mediterranean. Large earthquakes triggered tsunamis that hit Heraklion in the past, such in AD 1303. After selecting various fault models, simulation of the 1303 tsunami showed important inundation zone in Heraklion. For the exercise needs a team of 30 volunteers was divided in 3 groups of 10 people each. Everyone was equipped with a mobile phone and a GPS device. The 3 groups were gathered in 3 coastal spots Heraklion situated 400 m apart each other. The scenario was that immediately after receiving in their mobile a tsunami warning message they will set on their personal GPS device and start evacuating inland on the best way they believed to do so. In each group, only 5 out of 10 volunteers were notified beforehand that the Eleftherias Square, located inland at distance satisfying evacuation needs in case of repeat of the 1303 tsunami, would be a good shelter to go. Using the Road Graph Plugin of QGIS, we calculated the shortest path distances which found equal to 800, 700 and 680 m. Adopting average velocity of 3 km/h we found that these distances can be covered within 18, 16 and 15 min, respectively. The routes towards the settlement spots as well as the times needed to arrive there by each one of the 30 volunteers were recorded by their personal GPS devices. The processing of the GPS tracks and their comparison with the theoretical routes and times showed good evacuation performance which is encouraging for the next phases of the Heraklion tsunami hazard mitigation program. This is contribution to the EU-FP7 projects ZIP (Zooming In between Plates, grant no: 604713, 2013) and ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant no: 603839, 2013.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Zomeni, Maria S.; Pantis, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The wolf ( Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7 %) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  12. Subsidence monitoring within the Athens Basin (Greece) using space radar interferometric techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcharidis, I.; Lagios, E.; Sakkas, V.; Raucoules, D.; Feurer, D.; Mouelic, S. L.; King, C.; Carnec, C.; Novali, F.; Ferretti, A.; Capes, R.; Cooksley, G.

    2006-05-01

    The application of conventional SAR Interferometry (InSAR) together with the two techniques of sub-centimeteraccuracy, the Stacking and the Permanent Scatterers (PS) Interferometry, were used to study the ground deformation in the broader area of Athens for the period 1992 to 2002. Using the Stacking interfero-metricmethod, 55 ERS-1&2 SAR scenes, between 1992 and 2002, were acquired producing 264 differential interferograms. Among these only 60 were finally selected as fulfilling certain criteria. The co-seismic deforma-tionassociated with the Athens Earthquake (Mw = 5 9, September 7, 1999) was excluded from the analytical procedure in an attempt to present results of only aseismic character. In total ground subsidence results of about12 mm in the southern suburbs of Athens, but higher value of about 40 mm in the northern ones for the period 1992-2002. Based on the PS technique, a precise average annual deformation rate-map was generated for the period 1992-1999, ending just before the Athens earthquake event. Both circular and elongated-shape areas of subsidence are recognizable especially in the northern part of the Athens Basin (3-4 mm/yr), as well as at its southern part (1-3 mm/yr). In addition, a rate of 2-3 mm/yr is also yielded for some part of the Athens city center. Subsidence rates of 1-2 mm/yr are measured at the western part of the basin over an area of old mining activities, and around the newly built Syntagma Metro Station. The correlation of the observed deformation pat-ternswith respect to the spatial distribution of water pumping, older mining activities, metro line tunneling and other local geological parameters is examined and discussed.

  13. Estimating truck operating costs for domestic trips – case studies from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoukopoulos Eleftherios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector represents a vital component of national economies and has significant impacts on productivity and social welfare. In 2012, the transport sector in Europe was estimated to account for 3.7% of the European Gross Domestic Product (GDP and 5.1% for employment. Road transport proves to be the predominant mode for moving goods within Europe holding a share of approximately 45.8% in 2012 (in ton-kms. In Greece, the share of road freight transport is significantly higher (98% indicating the importance of this sector for the Greek economy. To this end and considering the existing needs of road freight transport operators in Greece, the objective of this research is to establish an analytical and documented basis for estimating the operating cost of a truck on specific urban or national freight transport routes. To achieve this goal, an extended literature review has been conducted resulting in the identification of the main components comprising the total truck operating cost, which were then updated and validated through a series of personal interviews with selected road freight transport professionals. An excel-based application tool was also developed in order to facilitate operating cost estimates for different cases, through selection of the proper values of the relevant parameters. The resulting tool was used to analyse four test cases, which demonstrate the tool’s usability and applicability. Results from this analysis have been also validated by industry experts and they reflect real-world transport scenarios.

  14. Water and sediment transport modeling of a large temporary river basin in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamvroudis, C; Nikolaidis, N P; Tzoraki, O; Papadoulakis, V; Karalemas, N

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution of runoff and sediment transport in a large Mediterranean watershed (Evrotas River Basin) consisting of temporary flow tributaries and high mountain areas and springs by focusing on the collection and use of a variety of data to constrain the model parameters and characterize hydrologic and geophysical processes at various scales. Both monthly and daily discharge data (2004-2011) and monthly sediment concentration data (2010-2011) from an extended monitoring network of 8 sites were used to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In addition flow desiccation maps showing wet and dry aquatic states obtained during a dry year were used to calibrate the simulation of low flows. Annual measurements of sediment accumulation in two reaches were used to further calibrate the sediment simulation. Model simulation of hydrology and sediment transport was in good agreement with field observations as indicated by a variety of statistical measures used to evaluate the goodness of fit. A water balance was constructed using a 12 year long (2000-2011) simulation. The average precipitation of the basin for this period was estimated to be 903 mm yr(-1). The actual evapotranspiration was 46.9% (424 mm yr(-1)), and the total water yield was 13.4% (121 mm yr(-1)). The remaining 33.4% (302 mm yr(-1)) was the amount of water that was lost through the deep groundwater of Taygetos and Parnonas Mountains to areas outside the watershed and for drinking water demands (6.3%). The results suggest that the catchment has on average significant water surplus to cover drinking water and irrigation demands. However, the situation is different during the dry years, where the majority of the reaches (85% of the river network are perennial and temporary) completely dry up as a result of the limited rainfall and the substantial water abstraction for irrigation purposes. There is a large variability in the

  15. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  16. Greece reports prototype intervention with first peripherally inserted central catheter: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Stafylarakis, Emmanuil; Kapritsou, Maria; Mitsos, Aristotelis P; Fotis, Theofanis G; Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros; Argyras, Eriphyli; Nomikou, Irini Th; Dimitrakopoulos, Antonios

    2012-09-01

    Placement of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), definitely offers a clear advantage over any other method regarding central venous catheterization. Its ultrasonographic orientation enhances significantly its accuracy, safety and efficacy, making this method extremely comfortable for the patient who can continue his or her therapy even in an outpatient basis. We present the first reported case of a PICCS insertion in Greece, which has been performed by a university-degree nurse. The aim of this review of literature was to present the evolution in nursing practice in Greece. A PICC was inserted in a 77-year-old male patient suffering from a recent chemical pneumonia with a history of Alzheimer's disease. A description of all the technical details of this insertion is reported, focusing on the pros and cons of the method and a thorough review of the history and advances in central venous catheterization throughout the years is also presented. PICCs provide long-term intravenous access and facilitate the delivery of extended antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition. We strongly believe that PICCs are the safest and most effective method of peripherally inserted central venous catheterization. Larger series are necessary to prove the above hypothesis, and they are under construction by our team. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerefos, C.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, D.; Ganev, K.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at a detailed study and explanation of the pollution transport in the air basin over South-Western Bulgaria and Northern Greece and assessment of the air pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Greece. Some well known specific climatic air pollution effects were studied and explained. Calculations were made of the S0 2 pollution of the Balkan peninsula from both Greek and Bulgarian sources for 1995 and the country to country pollution budget diagrams were build. Days with extreme mean concentration for Bulgaria and Northern Greece were picked out and some further specification of the contribution of the different sources in both the countries to these cases of extreme pollution was made. Some preliminary studies of possible mesoscale effects on the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and northern Greece were carried out. A three-layer pollution transport model with more complex chemistry block was introduced and some preliminary simulations of Sulfur and Nitrogen compounds transport were performed. (author)

  18. Exploring Adult Digital Literacy Using Learners' and Educators' Perceptions and Experiences: The Case of the Second Chance Schools in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimoyiannis, Athanassios; Gravani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper aspires to shed light into adult digital literacy using learners' and educators' experiences and perceptions at Second Chance Schools, a project in Greece aiming at combating social exclusion through education. In exploring the above, this investigation uses a case-study approach within a qualitative paradigm…

  19. The ``battle of gold'' under the light of green economics: a case study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, D.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2006-05-01

    Mining firms stimulate local and national economies but this comes at a certain cost. In the light of increasing public concern, external costs of environmental degradation and social disruption are no longer of pure academic interest. The assessment of mining projects on the grounds of sustainable development is critical in order to decide whether the exploitation of mineral resources is socially desirable. In practice, few steps have been taken towards this end. In this paper, a case study is illustrated that provides the means for evaluating the social worthiness of mining projects. The analysis, which is the first of its kind in Greece, deals with a major problem of the mining industry: the gold debate on the grounds of green economics. The assessment is based on the social cost benefit approach. Well-established techniques (e.g. benefit transfer) and innovative approaches have been adopted to overcome various practical problems

  20. A case of imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection and public health response, Greece, April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, S; Baka, A; Mentis, A; Iliopoulos, D; Dedoukou, X; Papamavrou, G; Karadima, S; Emmanouil, M; Kossyvakis, A; Spanakis, N; Pavli, A; Maltezou, H; Karageorgou, A; Spala, G; Pitiriga, V; Kosmas, E; Tsiagklis, S; Gkatzias, S; Koulouris, Ng; Koutsoukou, A; Bakakos, P; Markozanhs, E; Dionellis, G; Pontikis, K; Rovina, N; Kyriakopoulou, M; Efstathiou, P; Papadimitriou, T; Kremastinou, J; Tsakris, A; Saroglou, G

    2014-04-24

    On 18 April 2014, a case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was laboratory confirmed in Athens, Greece in a patient returning from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Main symptoms upon initial presentation were protracted fever and diarrhoea, during hospitalisation he developed bilateral pneumonia and his condition worsened. During 14 days prior to onset of illness, he had extensive contact with the healthcare environment in Jeddah. Contact tracing revealed 73 contacts, no secondary cases had occurred by 22 April.

  1. Spatial and vertical distribution and risk assessment of natural radionuclides in soils surrounding the lignite-fired power plants in Megalopolis basin, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H V; Manousakas, M; Fouskas, A; Siavalas, G

    2013-01-01

    Twenty soil profile samples and fourteen surface soil samples collected from the vicinity of the lignite-fired power plants in the Megalopolis basin (Greece) were analysed for their natural radionuclide concentration and (137)Cs, since fossil fuels are associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials and hence with radiological impact. No significant enhancement of surface soil radioactivity levels in the vicinity of lignite-fired plants was observed. A downcore decreasing trend of (137)Cs was observed in a number of cores reflecting its atmospheric origin, whereas the uniform distribution observed in a number of other cores gave information on the mechanical alteration of the soil. The average dose rate value was found to be 63 ± 22 nGy h(-1), while the annual average effective dose from the terrestrial gamma radiation was found to be 0.08 ± 0.03 mSv.

  2. Implementation of the New Approach for the Dose-Response Functions Development for the Case of Athens and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C. G.; Varotsos, C. A.; Kouremadas, G.

    2016-08-01

    Dose-response functions (DRFs) are functions used for estimating corrosion and/or soiling levels of materials used in constructions and cultural monuments. In order to achieve this, DRFs lean on ground-based measurements of specific air pollution and climatic parameters like nitrogen oxides, ozone, temperature and others. In DRAGON 3 2015 Symposium we presented a new approach which proposed a technique for using satellite-based data for the necessary parameters instead of ground-based expanding in this way: a) the usage of DRFs in cases/areas where there is no availability of in situ measurements, b) the applicability of satellite-based data. In this work we present mapping results of deterioration levels (corrosion and soiling) for the case of Athens, Greece but also for the whole Greece country.

  3. Economic losses to buildings due to tsunami impact: the case of Rhodes city, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The expected economic losses to buildings due to the tsunami impact is of particular importance for the tsunami risk management. However, only few efforts can be found in this direction. In this study we approached this issue selecting the city of Rhodes Isl., Greece, as a test-site. The methodological steps followed include (a) selection of worst case scenario in the study area based on the tsunami history of the area which includes several powerful events, e.g. 142 AD, 1303, 1481, 1609, 1741, (b) numerical simulation of the tsunami and determination of the inundation zone, (c) application of the DAMASCHE empirical tool, produced by the SCHEMA EU-FP6 project, for the calculation of the damage level expected at each one of the buildings as a function of the water depth in the inundation area, (d) calculation of the buildings that would need reparation after partial damage and of those that would need reconstruction after total destruction, (e) calculation of the cost implied for both reparation and reconstruction. The several data sets which are needed for the execution of these steps, are susceptible to uncertainties and, therefore, the final results are quite sensitive to changes of the data sets. Alternative costs were calculated by taking into account the several uncertainties involved. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  4. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in cases of terminal cancer: the opinions of physicians and nurses in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Govina, Ourania; Vlahos, Lambros

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of physicians and nurses on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in advanced cancer patients in Greece. Two hundred and fifteen physicians and 250 nurses from various hospitals in Greece completed a questionnaire concerning issues on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. More physicians (43.3%) than nurses (3.2%, p < 0.0005) reported that in the case of a cardiac or respiratory arrest, they would not attempt to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. Only 1.9% of physicians and 3.6% of nurses agreed on physician-assisted suicide. Forty-seven per cent of physicians and 45.2% of nurses would prefer the legalization of a terminally ill patient's hastened death; in the case of such a request, 64.2% of physicians and 55.2% of nurses (p = 0.06) would consider it if it was legal. The majority of the participants tended to disagree with euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients, probably due to the fact that these acts in Greece are illegal.

  5. Laboratory investigation and phylogenetic analysis of an imported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus case in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kossyvakis

    Full Text Available Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of persons suspected of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection is important for timely implementation of infection control practices and disease management. In addition, monitoring molecular changes in the virus can help elucidate chains of transmission and identify mutations that might influence virus transmission efficiency. This was illustrated by a recent laboratory investigation we conducted on an imported MERS-CoV case in Greece. Two oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected on the 1st and 2nd day of patient hospitalization and tested using two real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR assays targeting the UpE and Orf-1a regions of the MERS-CoV genome and RT-PCR and partial sequencing of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and nucleocapsid genes. Serum specimens were also collected and serological test were performed. Results from the first swab sample were inconclusive while the second swab was strongly positive for MERS-CoV RNA by rRT-PCR and confirmed positive by RT-PCR and partial gene sequencing. Positive serologic test results further confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Full-length nucleocapsid and spike gene coding sequences were later obtained from the positive swab sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus was closely related to recent human-derived MERS-CoV strains obtained in Jeddah and Makkah, Saudi Arabia, in April 2014 and dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. These findings were consistent with the patient's history. We also identified a unique amino acid substitution in the spike receptor binding domain that may have implications for receptor binding efficiency. Our initial inconclusive rRT-PCR results highlight the importance of collecting multiple specimens from suspect MERS-CoV cases and particularly specimens from the lower respiratory tract.

  6. Reporting new cases of anaemia in primary care settings in Crete, Greece: a rural practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of anaemia represents an important task within primary care settings. This study reports on the frequency of new cases of anaemia among patients attending rural primary care settings in Crete (Greece and to offer an estimate of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA frequency in this study group. Methods All patients attending the rural primary health care units of twelve general practitioners (GPs on the island of Crete for ten consecutive working days were eligible to participate in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb levels were measured by portable analyzers. Laboratory tests to confirm new cases of anaemia were performed at the University General Hospital of Heraklion. Results One hundred and thirteen out of 541 recruited patients had a low value of Hb according to the initial measurement obtained by the use of the portable analyzer. Forty five (45.5% of the 99 subjects who underwent laboratory testing had confirmed anaemia. The mean value of the Hb levels in the group with confirmed anaemia, as detected by the portable analyzer was 11.1 g/dl (95% Confidence Interval (CI from 10.9 to 11.4 and the respective mean value of the Hb levels obtained from the full blood count was 11.4 g/dl (95% CI from 11.2 to 11.7 (P = 0.01. Sixteen out of those 45 patients with anaemia (35.6% had IDA, with ferritin levels lower than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion Keeping in mind that this paper does not deal with specificity or sensitivity figures, it is suggested that in rural and remote settings anaemia is still invisible and point of care testing may have a place to identify it.

  7. Assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses: case studies in Italy and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschonitis, V. G.; Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Salemi, E.; Castaldelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    LOS indices (abbr. of Losses) can be used for the assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses through percolation and runoff. The indices were applied on the lowland region of Ferrara Province (FP) in Italy and the upland region of Sarigkiol Basin (SB) in Greece. The most vulnerable zones in FP were the coastal areas consisting of high permeability sandy dunes and the areas close to riverbanks and palaeochannels, and in SB were the areas characterized by high slopes and high permeability soils at high altitude and areas belonging to the upper part of the alluvial plain close to the boundaries between agricultural land and mountainous regions. The application of LOS indices highlighted the specific features of both lowland and upland regions that contribute to water and nitrogen losses and showed their ability for use as tools in designing environmental management plans.

  8. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments of the potential future effects of climate change on water resources. This report presents a series of short, illustrative case studies using the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools.

  9. Spatiotemporal Variation and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Water of the Lower Catchment Basin of Acheloos River, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Nikolaos; Hela, Dimitra; Triantafyllidis, Vassilios; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    A three-year monitoring survey (March 2005–February 2008) was conducted to investigate, on monthly basis, the presence of thirty pesticides belonging to various categories and metabolites, in Acheloos River (Western Greece), one of the most important water resources in Greece. Six sampling stations along the river were established. Water analyses were performed using solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography with flame thermionic detector and mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test (P < 0.05) was used to compare annual mean concentrations of pesticides, seasonal and spatial distribution. In general, the highest mean concentrations of the pesticides were recorded at the three stations downstream. The greatest average concentrations were determined during spring and summer in agreement with the pesticide application period. The observed lower concentrations after 2006 reflect the land-use change because of the elimination of tobacco, the main cultivation of the area for many decades. The compounds most frequently detected were diazinon (78.6%), DEA (69.3%), and fenthion (52.6%). Environmental risk assessment using risk quotient (RQ) approach showed high risk for six insecticides in 2005 and one in 2007. A compliance with the European Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) was observed for the priority pesticides. PMID:24453814

  10. The religious tourism in Greece: Case study of Saint John Russian in N. Evia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeliki Chantziantoniou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing political and economic conditions both in Greece and around the world determine the general development of all forms of tourism. The development of specific forms of tourism, such as that of religious tourism, gains tremendous interest in the present economic circumstances, as it is a factor in strengthening the national economy and at the same time a legacy for the future with enormous social, cultural and environmental significance. The development of a strategic approach to religious tourism can build on the comparative advantage of our country in this field by creating new tourist sites to attract tourists with intellectual pursuits and special interests. The Prefecture of Evia has a rich range of natural and cultural resources, with particular characteristics of beauty, uniqueness, and authenticity, elements that are required for the design and development of specific forms of tourism. In the case study on religious tourism in Saint John Russian in the Prefecture of Evia, an attempt is being made to explore the contribution of religious tourism tolocaldevelopmentandthepreconditionsforthepromotionofthepilgrimageof SaintJohn Russian to a major destination of religious and cultural interest of international scope. Additionally, an effort is made to highlight the importance of religious tourism as a special form of tourism that contributes to the development of areas hosting religious monuments. Identifying the opportunities and opportunities that exist, exploring its growth prospects and identifying emerging markets, dictates the formulation of policy proposals where combined with the existing specific forms of tourism it will show it as an essential factor in the systematic organization, exploitation and promotion of the Area.

  11. Policy and Curriculum Development in Greece. the Case of Secondary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifanti, Amalia A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the politics and values of the secondary school curriculum in Greece and attempts to find out the influences of cultural tradition and centralized control on curriculum development. In particular, it studies the decision-making process and the politics of educational control, employing some theoretical elements from centralist…

  12. Detection of active faults using data fusion techniques : case study, Psachna Island of Evoia, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gountromichou, Chrysa; Pohl, Christine; Ehlers, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The identification of active faults (faults potentially capable to trigger an earthquake) is important for a seismically active country like Greece. Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis were used in order to detect, map and characterize the tectonic structures of Psachna town and the

  13. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  14. Arsenic, Chromium, and Other Potentially Toxic Elements in the Rocks and Sediments of Oropos-Kalamos Basin, Attica, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alexakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocks and sediments are non-anthropogenic sources of elements contamination. In this study, a series of potentially toxic elements were quantified in rocks and sediments of the Oropos-Kalamos basin. Only As, Hg, Pb, and Sb contents, in all the examined rocks and sediments, were higher than the levels given in international literature. Concentration of the elements As, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, and U is highly elevated in the lignite compared to crustal element averages. The enrichment of Cr and Ni in the lignite can be attributed to the known ultramafic rock masses surrounding the basin, while enrichment of As, Hg, Mo, Sb, and U is associated with the past geothermal activity of the Upper Miocene (about 15 million years ago. Nickel and Cr were transported into the lignite deposition basin by rivers and streams draining ultramafic rock bodies. The results of this study imply the natural source of Cr3+ and Cr6+ contamination of the Oropos-Kalamos groundwater, since high Cr contents were also recorded in the lignite (212.3 mg kg−1, chromiferous iron ore occurrences (256.6 mg kg−1, and alluvial deposits (212.5 mg kg−1, indicating Cr leaching and transportation to the depositional basin dating from the Upper Miocene age.

  15. A national scale flood hazard mapping methodology: The case of Greece - Protection and adaptation policy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2017-12-01

    The present work introduces a national scale flood hazard assessment methodology, using multi-criteria analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques in a GIS environment. The proposed methodology was applied in Greece, where flash floods are a relatively frequent phenomenon and it has become more intense over the last decades, causing significant damages in rural and urban sectors. In order the most prone flooding areas to be identified, seven factor-maps (that are directly related to flood generation) were combined in a GIS environment. These factor-maps are: a) the Flow accumulation (F), b) the Land use (L), c) the Altitude (A), b) the Slope (S), e) the soil Erodibility (E), f) the Rainfall intensity (R), and g) the available water Capacity (C). The name to the proposed method is "FLASERC". The flood hazard for each one of these factors is classified into five categories: Very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The above factors are combined and processed using the appropriate ANN algorithm tool. For the ANN training process spatial distribution of historical flooded points in Greece within the five different flood hazard categories of the aforementioned seven factor-maps were combined. In this way, the overall flood hazard map for Greece was determined. The final results are verified using additional historical flood events that have occurred in Greece over the last 100years. In addition, an overview of flood protection measures and adaptation policy approaches were proposed for agricultural and urban areas located at very high flood hazard areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Different Types of Delinquent Behavior in the Hospitality Industry. Case Study from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Polyxeni Moira; Dimitrios Mylonopoulos; Panagiota Vasilopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Delinquent behavior in hotels is well known both to the hotel industry professionals as well as to the customers. The particularity of hotels being considered to provide a "hospitable" and discreet environment, tranquility and security, prevents the disclosure of the incidents of delinquency that occur in them. In Greece, as well as abroad, despite the fact that delinquent acts are known to occur constantly in hotels, nonetheless the facts do not easily go public, and there seems to exist no ...

  17. Lignite As Contributory Factor to Regional Development of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Kordas

    2006-01-01

    Lignite (brown coal) is Greece's most important energy mineral raw material. Lignite exploitation has made a highly significant contribution to the development of energy sector of Greece on past 50 years, and will, according to estimations, continue to supply energy for another 40 years. Greece is very rich in Lignite resources. The two main basins - from where Lignite is extracted by opencast mining - are a) in Western Macedonia (northen Greece) where is generated the 70% of the whole electr...

  18. First Case of Glufosinate-Resistant Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud. in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias S. Travlos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Repeated applications of the same herbicide(s, which are characterized by the same mode of action, increase selection pressure, which in turn favours the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum non-selective herbicide being used for weed control for many years around the world. Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud. is an economically important grass weed in Greece. Recent complaints by growers about control failure of rigid ryegrass with glufosinate require further investigation and have been the basis of this study. The objectives of this study were to confirm the existence of glufosinate-resistant L. rigidum in Greece and evaluate the effect of L. rigidum growth stage on glufosinate efficacy. Twenty populations of rigid ryegrass from Greece were sampled from five regions, and whole plant dose–response studies were conducted for five populations under controlled conditions with eight rates of glufosinate (0.0, 0.098, 0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 kg a.i. ha−1. Glufosinate resistance was confirmed in three out of five populations with the level of resistance ranging from three-to seven-fold compared with the susceptible populations based on above-ground biomass reduction. Results also revealed that the level of glufosinate-resistance of rigid ryegrass was dependent on the growth stage at which it was applied.

  19. Hydrological simulation of Sperchios River basin in Central Greece using the MIKE SHE model and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios

    2017-05-01

    The MIKE SHE model is able to simulate the entire stream flow which includes direct and basic flow. Many models either do not simulate or use simplistic methods to determine the basic flow. The MIKE SHE model takes into account many hydrological data. Since this study was directed towards the simulation of surface runoff and infiltration into saturated and unsaturated zone, the MIKE SHE is an appropriate model for reliable conclusions. In the current research, the MIKE SHE model was used to simulate runoff in the area of Sperchios River basin. Meteorological data from eight rainfall stations within the Sperchios River basin were used as inputs. Vegetation as well as geological data was used to perform the calibration and validation of the physical processes of the model. Additionally, ArcGIS program was used. The results indicated that the model was able to simulate the surface runoff satisfactorily, representing all the hydrological data adequately. Some minor differentiations appeared which can be eliminated with the appropriate adjustments that can be decided by the researcher's experience.

  20. EFFECTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF IRRIGATION RESERVOIRS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF POLLUTANTS IN ESTUARINE ZONES OF SMALL MEDITERRANEAN RIVERS. THE CASE OF SPERCHIOS RIVER, GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manos Dassenakis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sperchios is a small river in central Greece and although its estuary has been characterised as an Important Bird Area and is included in the European network “NATURA 2000”, it is very poorly managed from an environmental point of view. The Sperchios basin is one of the most important agricultural regions in Greece but it is influenced also by industrial and urban pollution. An earthen dyke is erected b every summer about 2km upstream from the river mouth in order to collect the river water for irrigation purposes. The change in the site of the intermixing zone due to this fact affects the salinity of the water and the amount of suspended matter as well as the chemical behaviour and partitioning of both heavy metals and nutrients. The suspended matter was found to be the major carrier for most metals e.g. lead, zinc, copper whereas phosphorus was the limiting factor for the phytoplankton growth.

  1. Active tectonics in the Mygdonia basin (northern Greece): a combined seismological and remote-sensed geomorphology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkarlaouni, Charikleia; Andreani, Louis; Pennos, Chris; Gloaguen, Richard; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Kilias, Adamantios; Michail, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In Greek mainland, active extensional deformation resulted in the development of numerous seismogenic E- to SE-trending basins. The Mygdonia graben located in central Macedonia produced major historical earthquakes and poses a serious threat to the neighbouring city of Thessaloniki. Our aim is to determine which active seismic sources have the potential to generate strong events. Active tectonics shape the landscape, control the evolution of the fluvial network and cause the occurrence of strong and frequent earthquakes generated by fault populations. Thus, our approach combined both seismology and remote-sensed geomorphology. Seismological investigation and more especially relocation analysis was performed for recent seismicity in the area (2000-2012). Low magnitude earthquakes not exceeding 4.8 constitute the seismicity pattern for this period. Accurately determined focal parameters indicate that seismicity is not only localized along major fault zones. Smaller faults seem also to be activated. Temporal and spatial investigation show that seismicity is clustered and seismic bursts often migrate to adjacent faults. The hypocentral distribution of precisely determined microearthquake foci reveals the existence of high-angle (> 60º) normal faults dipping both south and north. This is consistent with fault plane solutions of stronger earthquakes. The largest amount of earthquakes is generated along the NW-SE sub-basin bounded from "Assiros-Analipsi" and "Lagina" fault zone, as well as in "Sochos" fault in the north which dips with approximately 70º-80º to the south. All these structures played an important role in the seismotectonic evolution of the area. We used geomorphic indices in order to analyse the landscapes of the Mygdonia region. Geomorphic indices were derived from DEM and computed using MATLAB scripts. We classified the landscapes according to their erosional stages using hypsometric integral and surface roughness. Both indices suggest stronger erosion

  2. Measuring Product Prices under Conditions of Quality Change: The Case of Passenger Cars in Greece.

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C; Panas, Epaminondas E

    1988-01-01

    The envelope curve of the bid functions for car characteristics in Greece is used to analyze the relationship between nominal and quality-adjusted car prices for 1965-85. It is estimated using the Box-Cox flexible functional form technique in a modification of S. Rosen's hedonic price model. The authors find that quality-adjusted prices of imports from West Germany, France, Italy, and Japan decline d from 1965 to 1970 and increased continuously thereafter; the quality of cars from France, Ita...

  3. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  4. Cognitive components of rural tourism destination images: The case of Lake Plastiras, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image (TDI) focusing on the cognitive component. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, factors comprising the cognitive component of the area's TDI were identified...... of these factors; (3) visitors can be classified in four clusters according to the cognitive factors; (4) tourists' clusters differ in terms of age, education and income as well as number of visits and perception of the area's attractiveness. Such findings point towards the need of both a new strategy for the area...

  5. Integrating Legacy Data into a New Method for Studying Architecture: A case study from Isthmia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J.R. Ellis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a new methodology developed to disentangle the hitherto incomprehensible maze of poorly preserved architecture at the Archaic through late Roman period Panhellenic sanctuary at Isthmia, Greece, into clearly defined buildings with their relative construction phases. The methodology combines on-site architectural analyses with the digitisation and reintegration of the site's legacy data within a GIS. The results of this study, still in its preliminary stages, reveal an area east of the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia as a built environment of rather large and complex units in contrast to the conventional interpretation of a series of small and unimportant structures.

  6. SMEs capital structure determinants during severe economic crisis: The case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to explore whether and how the main capital structure determinants of SMEs affected capital structure determination in different ways during the years of economic crisis. We used panel data of 8,052 SMEs operating in Greece during 2009–2012. We found that the effect of capital structure determinants on leverage does not change in an environment of economic crisis; larger SMEs continued to show higher debt ratios, the relationship between profitability and tangibility of assets with leverage continued to be negative, and growth was positively related to leverage.

  7. Managerial optimism and the impact of cash flow sensitivity on corporate investment: The case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios I. Maditinos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The existence of optimism as a personal psychological characteristic of managers is a necessity in contemporary economy and decision making, although the phenomenon of over-optimism may lead to unfavourable outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the optimism bias and its impact on the firms' future performance. Especially regarding the recent years where Greece faces increased economic depression, high percentages of unemployment and lack of budgetary discipline, the goal is therefore, to find whether managerial optimism has an impact on corporate investment of Greek firms. Design/methodology/approach - The investment of firms with optimistic managers is more sensitive to cash flow than the investment of firms with managers who are not optimistic. To test the research question a number of fixed effect panel regressions of capital expenditures (capital expenditures divided by lagged assets is the dependent variable is run. In all regressions we analyse cash flow divided by lagged assets and lagged Tobin's Q as the independent variables, for firms whose managers are classified as optimistic and not optimistic. This classification is based on the optimism "dummy" variable, which is equal to 1 when members of the Executive Board and the Supervisory Board (ALL, only the Executive Board (EB, and only CEO are classified as optimistic. The concept of this study is tested for firms which are listed in the Athens Stock Exchange. A total of 243 firms are recorded, for the time period between 2007 and 2012, including firms from 11 different industries; basic materials, chemicals, consumer goods, consumer services, health care, industrials, financials, oil and gas, technology, telecommunications and utilities. Based on the literature and on related methodology aspects, financial firms are excluded. Findings - It was revealed that managerial optimism affects corporate investment in firms with high degree of closely held shares. Moreover

  8. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from passenger cars: The cases of Greece and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannaki, Katerina; Diakoulaki, Danae

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a decomposition analysis of the changes in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from passenger cars in Denmark and Greece, for the period 1990-2005. A time series analysis has been applied based on the logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI I) methodology, which belongs to the wider family of index decomposition approaches. The particularity in road transport that justifies a profound analysis is its remarkably rapid growth during the last decades, followed by a respective increase in emissions. Denmark and Greece have been selected based on the challenging differences of specific socio-economic characteristics of these two small EU countries, as well as on the availability of detailed data used in the frame of the analysis. In both countries, passenger cars are responsible for half of the emissions from road transport as well as for their upward trend, which provokes the implementation of a decomposition analysis focusing exactly on this segment of road transport. The factors examined in the present decomposition analysis are related to vehicles ownership, fuel mix, annual mileage, engine capacity and technology of cars. The comparison of the results discloses the differences in the transportation profiles of the two countries and reveals how they affect the trend of CO 2 emissions.

  9. MARKETING POLICIES THROUGH THE INTERNET: THE CASE OF SKIING CENTERS IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis LEFAKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lately, Internet constitutes a major tool for transactions in every aspect and supports innovative marketing policies. Broadband Internet has become “the key to success” for businesses, as it offers various advantages and benefits through Internet marketing (e-marketing policies. In Greece, mountainous areas are usually covered with snow during winter months; so, skiing centers have become an important asset for winter tourism. The Internet evolution and the development of network infrastructure enhance marketing policies for winter tourism activities. This paper studies the use of marketing policies in Greek skiing centers through the Internet, such as promotional activities, website interactivity, accommodation & entertainment information, online weather forecast, guest book, etc Therefore, the paper aims to optimize and evaluate skiing centers in Greece, qualitatively and quantitatively according to e-marketing policies used as criteria, based on the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II and further to classify them in groups. Finally we identify and describe the optimum group of skiing centers to be used as a model with enhanced customer communication services.

  10. DEFORMATION EFFECTS OF DAMS ON COASTAL REGIONS USING SENTINEL-1 IW TOPS TIME SERIES: THE WEST LESVOS, GREECE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karamvasis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are vulnerable to erosion and loss by level sea rise. Subsidence caused by the reduction of fluvial sediments in coastal zones found close to dams, is another important deformation factor. Quantification of the deformation rate of coastal region is essential for natural and anthropogenic activities. The study utilizes Interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar techniques and exploits the archive of Sentinel-1 TOPS data for the period 2014–2016. The freely available, wide ground coverage (250 × 170 km and small temporal resolution Sentinel-1 TOPS datasets are promising for coastal applications. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI methodologies are considered state-of-the-art remote sensing approaches for land deformation monitoring. The selected PSI method is the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS multitemporal InSAR technique. The study area of this study is the coastal zone of west region of Lesvos Island, Greece. The main characteristic of the area is the reduction of the fluvial sediment supply from the coastal drainage basins due to construction of dams and the abstraction of riverine sediments. The study demonstrates the potentials of the SBAS method for measuring and mapping the dynamic changes in coastal topography in terms of subsidence rates and discusses its advantages and limitations. The results show that natural and rural environments appear to have diverse ground deformation patterns.

  11. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232Th, 228Ra and 40K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  12. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-01-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40 K, 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose

  13. Environmental monitoring of Micro Prespa Lake basin (Western Macedonia, Greece): hydrogeochemical characteristics of water resources and quality trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziritis, Evangelos P

    2014-07-01

    The Micro Prespa basin is a trilateral catchment area of significant importance with a unique ecosystem closely related to the homonymous lake. In this frame, a fully operational monitoring project was carried out including continuous real-time measurements in Micro Prespa Lake with the use of a multi-sensor probe, as well as periodical sampling and analyses of all available water systems for an extended set of 85 parameters. Four main interacting water systems were identified, including alluvial and karstic aquifers, Micro Prespa Lake and adjacent drainage network. The results outlined that general environmental conditions are satisfying in respect to the relative legislation and the hydrogeochemical signatures. However, trends of environmental pressures were ascertained as a result of natural (geogenic) factors, embracing seasonal peaks for Ni, Pb, and NH4 mainly in groundwater systems. Based on chlorophyll a records, Micro Prespa is classified as oligotrophic to slightly mesotrophic, subjected to seasonal variations. Heavy metal concentrations are low, except Ni which appears to have elevated values during the dry hydrological period. Finally, the hydrogeochemistry of drainage network is primarily influenced by surface runoff of the surrounding mountainous areas, hence elevated phosphorus values of the Aghios Germanos stream are possibly linked with the leaching of the granitic formations on the east.

  14. Comparing of the Financial Ratios: A case study on United States, Great Britain, Greece Due Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of the countries through the financial ratios that were analysed. This study was carried out in order to find the characteristics of each economy in comparison to the others. It would be worthy to mention that the three economies that were put under comparative study, are not of the same dynamic. The United States of America and Great Britain show some common characteristics due to the positions of power that they possess in the allocation of the global economy. However, in the case of Greece the same dynamic with the other two countries doesn’t exist, a fact that is greatly imprinted in their in-between comparison.

  15. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  16. Monitoring Reservoirs Using MERIS And LANDSAT Fused Images : A Case Study Of Polyfitos Reservoir - West Macedonia - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefouli, M.; Charou, E.; Vasileiou, E.; Stathopoulos, N.; Perrakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Research and monitoring is essential to assess baseline conditions in reservoirs and their watershed and provide necessary information to guide decision-makers. Erosion and degradation of mountainous areas can lead to gradual aggradation of reservoirs reducing their lifetime. Collected measurements and observations have to be communicated to the managers of the reservoirs so as to achieve a common / comprehensive management of a large watershed and reservoir system. At this point Remote Sensing could help as the remotely sensed data are repeatedly and readily available to the end users. Aliakmon is the longest river in Greece, it's length is about 297 km and the surface of the river basin is 9.210 km2.The flow of the river starts from Northwest of Greece and ends in Thermaikos Gulf. The riverbed is not natural throughout the entire route, because constructed dams restrict water and create artificial lakes, such as lake of Polyfitos, that prevent flooding. This lake is used as reservoir, for covering irrigational water needs and the water is used to produce energy from the hydroelectric plant of Public Power Corporation-PPC. The catchment basin of Polyfitos' reservoir covers an area of 847.76 km2. Soil erosion - degradation in the mountainous watershed of streams of Polyfitos reservoir is taking place. It has been estimated that an annual volume of sediments reaching the reservoir is of the order of 244 m3. Geomatic based techniques are used in processing multiple data of the study area. A data inventory was formulated after the acquisition of topographic maps, compilation of geological and hydro-geological maps, compilation of digital elevation model for the area of interest based on satellite data and available maps. It also includes the acquisition of various hydro-meteorological data when available. On the basis of available maps and satellite data, digital elevation models are used in order to delineate the basic sub-catchments of the Polyfytos basin as well as

  17. Book swapping and book exchange libraries: Aspects of the phenomenon and the case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Panagiota

    2015-02-01

    We have over the past years been witnessing an ever growing book-swapping movement, having begun its course from the mere existence of bookshelves offering books to be traded in public places or via the internet and ending with small exchange and free to use libraries scattered in different areas. We believe that through this movement an answer is being uttered to the request for a better world and against the economic crisis, which is also a crisis of values. Based on this perspective, in this paper, we first attempt an overall presentation of the phenomenon and its characteristics, as they manifest themselves worldwide. Then, we focus on aspects of relevant attempts in Greece, taking their first tentative steps.

  18. The potential of district heating using geothermal energy. A case study, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agioutantis, Zacharias; Bekas, Athanassios

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using low-enthalpy geothermal energy from the geothermal field of Sousaki in the province of Korinthos, Greece, to cover the thermal needs of the nearby town of Ag. Theodori. The possibility of developing a system of district heating was examined based on a proposed town model. Total thermal demands were calculated on the basis of a model dwelling and prevailing weather conditions in the area. Subsequently, a heat transfer circuit is proposed, including the distribution network, the heat exchanger, the production and reinjection pumps, and the pumping station. Finally, energy indices are presented, such as demand in tons of equivalent oil and CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  19. Economic crisis, austerity and unmet healthcare needs: the case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavras, Dimitris; Zavras, Athanasios I; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-07-27

    The programme for fiscal consolidation in Greece has led to income decrease and several changes in health policy. In this context, this study aims to assess how economic crisis affected unmet healthcare needs in Greece. Time series analysis was performed for the years 2004 through 2011 using the EU-SILC database. The dependent variable was the percentage of people who had medical needs but did not use healthcare services. Median income, unemployment and time period were used as independent variables. We also compared self-reported unmet healthcare needs drawn from a national survey conducted in pre-crisis 2006 with a similar survey from 2011 (after the onset of the crisis). A common questionnaire was used in both years to assess unmet healthcare needs, including year of survey, gender, age, health status, chronic disease, educational level, income, employment, health insurance status, and prefecture. The outcome of interest was unmet healthcare needs due to financial reasons. Ordinary least squares, as well as logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze the results. Unmet healthcare needs increased after the enactment of austerity measures, while the year of participation in the survey was significantly associated with unmet healthcare needs. Income, educational level, employment status, and having insurance, private or public, were also significant determinants of unmet healthcare needs due to financial reasons. The adverse economic environment has significantly affected unmet health needs. Therefore health policy actions and social policy measures are essential in order to mitigate the negative impact on access to healthcare services and health status.

  20. Distributed power generation: A case study of small scale PV power plant in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakos, G.C. [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Energy Economics, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In recent years, energy systems have been undergoing a development trend characterised by privatisation of the most important energy sectors (electricity and natural gas) that has turned former monopolies into free-market competitors. Furthermore, community awareness of environmental impact caused by large conventional power plants is growing, together with a greater interest in distributed-generation (DG) technologies based upon renewable energy sources (RES) and cogeneration. In this context, renewable energy technologies are emerging as potentially strong competitors for more widespread use. Despite the remarkable progress attained over the past decades, RES have not yet been fully integrated into the power sector. Some RES-technologies have already achieved a significant market share. The industry is now quite mature, although far from having developed its global potential. This paper deals with the current status of DG in Greece and the presentation of a 60 kWp PV power station, developed under Law 3468/06 ''Production of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources, High Efficiency Cogeneration of Heat and Power and Other De{nu}ices''. This application is the first DG installation with fixed PV modules implemented in the country after the approval of Law 3468/06. Cash flow economic analysis of the developed DG installation is performed and the experiences related to the potential of DG in Greek electricity market is presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Simulation of the solar hot water systems diffusion: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiras, D.; Koukios, E.

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this paper is the documentation and study of the main factors behind the spectacular diffusion of solar energy use for domestic hot water production in Greece. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat-plate solar collectors since its 'out of the blue' first appearance in 1974, shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 91,000 m 2 by 1980. A rate slow down in the early 1980s was followed by a brief period of explosive growth, with the annual sales figure reaching its peak value of more than 185,000 m 2 in mid-1980s. A rapid decline of the growth rate down to the present annual sales level followed. The installed solar collectors pattern has the characteristic form of an S-shape curve, representing the overall penetration of the flat-plate solar collector use for domestic hot water production in the Greek economy and society. This evolution has gone through an inflection point around 1987, i.e. at a time when about 1,000,000 m 2 of collectors had already been installed. By the year 2000, about 2,070,000 m 2 of collectors had been installed, with a tendency to level off by 2010, unless some the present conditions determining this phenomenon change. (author)

  2. Distributed power generation: A case study of small scale PV power plant in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, energy systems have been undergoing a development trend characterised by privatisation of the most important energy sectors (electricity and natural gas) that has turned former monopolies into free-market competitors. Furthermore, community awareness of environmental impact caused by large conventional power plants is growing, together with a greater interest in distributed-generation (DG) technologies based upon renewable energy sources (RES) and cogeneration. In this context, renewable energy technologies are emerging as potentially strong competitors for more widespread use. Despite the remarkable progress attained over the past decades, RES have not yet been fully integrated into the power sector. Some RES-technologies have already achieved a significant market share. The industry is now quite mature, although far from having developed its global potential. This paper deals with the current status of DG in Greece and the presentation of a 60 kWp PV power station, developed under Law 3468/06 ''Production of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources, High Efficiency Cogeneration of Heat and Power and Other Deνices''. This application is the first DG installation with fixed PV modules implemented in the country after the approval of Law 3468/06. Cash flow economic analysis of the developed DG installation is performed and the experiences related to the potential of DG in Greek electricity market is presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Integrating Cultural Heritage into Contemporary Life. The Perspective of Local Communities: The Case of Arcadia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to highlight the importance of integrating cultural heritage into contemporary life as a means to contribute to the economic and tourism development of a historical area and as an asset to local development. The study focuses on the cultural goods of Arcadia in central Peloponnese, Greece, an area of great history and rich architectural heritage, which gives a distinct cultural identity to the region. The overall objective of the current research is to describe how the different kinds of cultural benefits, derived by tourism, are perceived by the local community. A questionnaire based survey, conducted in Arcadia during the period 2012-2014, demonstrates that the locals strongly support the promotion of the architectural richness of the region in order to become an attraction for visitors, contributing both to the improvement of the quality of life, as well as the economic and tourism development of the area. The survey results confirm that cultural tourism is seen as an opportunity to contribute to the economic and cultural sustainability of the area and the local community. The implementation of a linear regression model shows that education is the key factor influencing the residents’ view regarding the promotion of cultural tourism in the region.

  4. Recycling of spent lead/acid batteries. The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabaniotou, A.; Kouskoumvekaki, E.; Sanopoulos, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the application of modern recycling technologies in accordance with the European and Greek legislation, aiming at the recovery of lead, polypropylene and sulfuric acid from spent lead (Pb)/acid batteries, is presented. The present state of their disposal and exploitation is also depicted. The international situation is reviewed, the general trends are marked and the main technologies related to lead/acid battery treatment are reported. General recommendations are given regarding the collection of spent batteries and the installation of a recycling plant in Greece. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to define the most significant parameters affecting the viability of a recycling scheme. The present study proves that a possible installation of a Pb/acid batteries recycling process unit, treating 17 000 t/year (estimated total quantity) and situated in the industrial area of the greater Athens region, seems to be economically profitable. The already existing operation of small-scale battery recycling plants, common in small countries, should be discouraged as they demonstrate a rather not environmentally acceptable recycling operation

  5. Environmental Behavior of Secondary Education Students: A Case Study at Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios Ntanos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, human behavior has been becoming energy alarming towards environmental sustainability. One of the most influential initiatives towards environmental protection and increased environmental consciousness is the solidification of primary and secondary environmental education. The purpose of this paper is to investigate different environmental profiles amongst secondary education students, in light of a multi-parametric analysis that involved the contributive role of school and family towards environmental awareness and participation. By reviewing relevant studies, the benefits offered by environmental education are presented. Accordingly, a questionnaire survey was deployed using a sample of 270 secondary education students, from schools situated in the prefecture of Larissa, central Greece. The statistical methods included factor analysis and cluster analysis. Particularly, four groups of different environmental characteristics are identified and interviewed. Results suggest that most students are environmental affectionate, although there is a need for more solidified environmental education and motivation from out-of-school societal opportunities, such as in the contexts of family and public socialization. The deployed research method and analysis can be proven supportive in adopting and scheduling school environmental programs after an initial identification of the various environmental attitudes among the student population.

  6. Multi-Sensor Geomagnetic Prospection: A Case Study from Neolithic Thessaly, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna Kalaycı

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-sensor prospecting is a fast-emerging paradigm in archaeological geophysics. Given suitable ground conditions for navigation, sensor arrays drastically increase efficiency in data collection. In particular, geomagnetic prospecting benefits from this development. Despite these advancements, data processing still lacks a best-practice approach. Conventional processing methods developed for gridded data has been challenged by sensor arrays “roaming” in the landscape. In realization of the issue, the Innovative Geophysical Approaches for the Study of Early Agricultural Villages of Neolithic Thessaly (IGEAN Project explored various innovative techniques for the betterment of the multi-sensor geomagnetic data processing. As a result, a modular pipeline is produced with minimal user intervention. In addition to standard steps, such as data clipping, various other algorithms have been introduced. This pipeline is tested over 20 Neolithic settlements in Thessaly, Greece, three of which are presented here in detail. The proposed workflow provides drastic improvements over raw data. As a result of these improvements, the IGEAN project revealed astonishing details on architectural elements, settlement enclosures, and paleolandscapes, changing completely the existing perspective of the Neolithic habitation in Thessaly.

  7. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Foteinis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF system. Heavy metal point sources included (i the effluents of small industries (tanneries, (ii wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed.

  8. The effect of payback time on solar hot water systems diffusion: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiras, Dimitrios K.; Koukios, Emmanuel G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the payback time on the spectacular diffusion of solar hot water systems (SHWS) in Greece was investigated in this work. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat plate solar collectors since its first appearance in 1974 shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 185,000 m 2 in the mid-80s. A rapid decline of the growth rate, down to the present annual sales level followed. By the year 2000, more than 2,000,000 m 2 of collectors had been installed. The economic behaviour of the main type of users (households and hotels) was found to have undergone two stages: in one of them, 1978-2002, the change of sales is in agreement with a change in economic feasibility, measured by payback time, while in the other, the early growth stage, 1974-1977, the demand grew despite a negative economic trend, obviously because of non-economic factors. The role of tax deduction, which is the most influential incentive, has been rather instrumental in the growth period 1978-1989, but lost its significance thereafter. This incentive has been withdrawn since the beginning of 1993

  9. The effect of payback time on solar hot water systems diffusion: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiras, D.K.; Koukios, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the payback time on the spectacular diffusion of solar hot water systems (SHWS) in Greece was investigated in this work. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat plate solar collectors since its first appearance in 1974 shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 185,000 m 2 in the mid-80s. A rapid decline of the growth rate, down to the present annual sales level followed. By the year 2000, more than 2,000,000 m 2 of collectors had been installed. The economic behaviour of the main type of users (households and hotels) was found to have undergone two stages: in one of them, 1978-2002, the change of sales is in agreement with a change in economic feasibility, measured by payback time, while in the other, the early growth stage, 1974-1977, the demand grew despite a negative economic trend, obviously because of non-economic factors. The role of tax deduction, which is the most influential incentive, has been rather instrumental in the growth period 1978-1989, but lost its significance thereafter. This incentive has been withdrawn since the beginning of 1993. [Author

  10. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  11. Factors that Influence Students in Choosing Physics Programmes at University Level: the Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Kalliopi; Lavidas, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Low enrolment in undergraduate level physics programmes has drawn the attention of the relevant disciplines, education policy-makers, and researchers worldwide. Many reports released during the previous decades attempt to identify the factors that attract young people to study science, but only few of them focus explicitly on physics. In Greece, in contrast to many other countries, physics departments are overflowing with young students. However, there are two categories of students: those for whom physics was the optimal choice of a programme ("choosers") and those for whom physics was an alternative choice that they had to settle for. We suggest that the latter category be called "nearly-choosers," in order to be differentiated from choosers as well as from "non-choosers," namely those candidates that did not apply to a physics programme at all. We are interested in the factors that attract high school students to study physics and the differences (if any) between choosers and nearly-choosers. A newly formed questionnaire was distributed within a Greek physics department (University of Patras), and the students' responses (n = 105) were analysed with exploratory factor analysis and specifically principal component analysis so as to extract broad factors. Three broad factors have arisen: school-based, career, and informal learning. The first two factors proved to be motivating for pursuing a degree in physics, while the third factor appeared to have a rather indifferent association. t tests and Pearson correlations indicated mild differentiations between choosers and nearly-choosers that pertain to school-based influences and informal learning.

  12. Transportation Infrastructure Impacts Evaluation: The Case of Egnatia Motorway in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios P. Vavatsikos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To expand GIS abilities to the consideration of decision criteria, OR/MS researchers strongly pronounce in favor of developing synergies between GIS and multicriteria decision making tools. The rationale of this integration is the GIS ability to store and manage and visualize geographically referenced data and the efficiency of Operational Research tools for modeling decision problems. As a result, MultiCriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS provide a consistent framework that allows alternatives’ ranking combining both spatial data and DMs preferences according to a selected decision rule. Regarding to their applicability in situations that involve classification, multiattribute decision models are considered as a very attractive procedure in urban and regional planning concerning the appraisal of transportation infrastructure construction. In the present a spatial multicriteria evaluation of the impacts derived by the realization of Egnatia Motorway is performed. Egnatia Motorway is considered one of the most significant interventions that have taken place in Greece during the early pre-Olympic Games period and up to the year 2007. With a length of 670 km, it crosses 12 prefectures starting from the Igoumenitsa Port, which provides links by boat to Italy, ending to Kipi in Evros (Greek-Turkish borders. It is a dual carriageway with two traffic lanes per direction with an overall construction cost of about 6b€. Aiming to enrich Northern Greece’s potential in transport industry and tourism, European Union has heavily invested in its construction. In the present paper an integration among GIS functionalities and multi-attribute decision making models such as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Ideal Point Methods is proposed in order to estimate the impacts provoked by the construction and operation of Egnatia Motorway in regional level.

  13. Using Big Data to Assess Prescribing Patterns in Greece: The Case of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Kani, Chara; Papageorgiou, Manto; Lionis, Dimitrios; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the top leading causes of death and disability, and its management is focused on reducing risk factors, relieving symptoms, and preventing exacerbations. The study aim was to describe COPD prescribing patterns in Greece by using existing health administrative data for outpatients. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study based on prescriptions collected by the largest social insurance fund, during the first and last trimester of 2012. Selection criteria were the prescription of specific active substances and a COPD diagnosis. Extracted information included active substance, strength, pharmaceutical form and number of packages prescribed, diagnosis, time of dispensing, as well as insurees' age, gender, percentage of co-payment and social security unique number. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. 174,357 patients received medicines for COPD during the study period. Patients were almost equally distributed between male and female, and age above 55 years was strongly correlated with COPD. Most patients received a long-acting beta agonist plus inhaled corticosteroid combination (LABA +ICS), followed by long-acting muscarinic agonist (LAMA). 63% patients belonging in the 35-54 age received LABA+ICS. LAMA was prescribed more frequently among males and was strongly correlated with COPD. The study provides big data analysis of Greek COPD prescribing patterns. It highlights the need for appropriate COPD classification in primary care illustrating the role of electronic prescribing in ensuring appropriate prescribing. Moreover, it indicates possible gender differences in treatment response or disease severity, and the impact of statutory co-payments on prescribing.

  14. Assessment and prediction of short term hospital admissions: the case of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassomenos, P.; Papaloukas, C.; Petrakis, M.; Karakitsios, S.

    The contribution of air pollution on hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases is a major issue in the health-environmental perspective. In the present study, an attempt was made to run down the relationships between air pollution levels and meteorological indexes, and corresponding hospital admissions in Athens, Greece. The available data referred to a period of eight years (1992-2000) including the daily number of hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases, hourly mean concentrations of CO, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and particulates in several monitoring stations, as well as, meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed/direction). The relations among the above data were studied through widely used statistical techniques (multivariate stepwise analyses) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Both techniques revealed that elevated particulate concentrations are the dominant parameter related to hospital admissions (an increase of 10 μg m -3 leads to an increase of 10.2% in the number of admissions), followed by O 3 and the rest of the pollutants (CO, NO 2 and SO 2). Meteorological parameters also play a decisive role in the formation of air pollutant levels affecting public health. Consequently, increased/decreased daily hospital admissions are related to specific types of meteorological conditions that favor/do not favor the accumulation of pollutants in an urban complex. In general, the role of meteorological factors seems to be underestimated by stepwise analyses, while ANNs attribute to them a more important role. Comparison of the two models revealed that ANN adaptation in complicate environmental issues presents improved modeling results compared to a regression technique. Furthermore, the ANN technique provides a reliable model for the prediction of the daily hospital admissions based on air quality data and meteorological indices, undoubtedly useful for regulatory purposes.

  15. Using Big Data to Assess Prescribing Patterns in Greece: The Case of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the top leading causes of death and disability, and its management is focused on reducing risk factors, relieving symptoms, and preventing exacerbations. The study aim was to describe COPD prescribing patterns in Greece by using existing health administrative data for outpatients.This is a retrospective cross-sectional study based on prescriptions collected by the largest social insurance fund, during the first and last trimester of 2012. Selection criteria were the prescription of specific active substances and a COPD diagnosis. Extracted information included active substance, strength, pharmaceutical form and number of packages prescribed, diagnosis, time of dispensing, as well as insurees' age, gender, percentage of co-payment and social security unique number. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression.174,357 patients received medicines for COPD during the study period. Patients were almost equally distributed between male and female, and age above 55 years was strongly correlated with COPD. Most patients received a long-acting beta agonist plus inhaled corticosteroid combination (LABA +ICS, followed by long-acting muscarinic agonist (LAMA. 63% patients belonging in the 35-54 age received LABA+ICS. LAMA was prescribed more frequently among males and was strongly correlated with COPD.The study provides big data analysis of Greek COPD prescribing patterns. It highlights the need for appropriate COPD classification in primary care illustrating the role of electronic prescribing in ensuring appropriate prescribing. Moreover, it indicates possible gender differences in treatment response or disease severity, and the impact of statutory co-payments on prescribing.

  16. Properties of the geoelectric structure that promote the detection of electrotelluric anomalies. The case of Ioannina, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, J. P. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Dept. of Electronics (Branch of Chania), Chalepa, Chania, Crete (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    The reliable detection and identification of electrotelluric anomalies that could be considered as precursory phenomena of earthquakes become fundamental aspects of earthquake prediction research. Special arrangements, in local and/or regional scale, of the geoelectric structure beneath the measuring point, may act as natural realtime filters on the ULF electrotelluric data improving considerably the signal to magnetotelluric-noise ratio of anomalies originated by probably non-magnetotelluric sources. Linear polarization, i.e. local channelling of the electric field on the surface is expected in cases where 3D-local inhomogeneities, producing strong shear distortion, are present in the vicinity of the monitoring site and/or when a 2D-regional geoelectrical setting exhibits high anisotropy. By assuming different generation mechanisms and modes of propagation for the electrotelluric anomalies that could be considered earthquake precursory phenomena, a rotationally originated residual electrotelluric field results, eliminating background magnetotelluric-noise and revealing hidden transient variations that could be associated to earthquakes. The suggested method is applicable in real-time data collection, thus simplifies and accelerates the tedious task of identification of suspicious signals. As an indicative example, the case of Ioannina (located in Northwestern Greece) is presented. The local polarization of the electrotelluric field varies dramatically even at neighboring points although the regional geoelectric strike direction does not change.

  17. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  18. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  19. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  20. TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS: THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL MARINE PARK OF ALONISSOS-NORTHERN SPORADES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos Paraskevopoulos

    2017-01-01

    The tourist development of Greece began in the '50s to become one of the main sources of income, both nationally and locally, since many areas are the main source of tourism revenue. The concepts of sustainability and viability of this product and its operation, is being strongly marked recent decades in many conferences, notices, and scientific research. Greece established 30 Management Bodies to integrated management of protected areas belonging to this network. One of the main problems fac...

  1. Magnetic characteristics and trace elements concentration in soils from Anthemountas River basin (North Greece): discrimination of different sources of magnetic enhancement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aidona, E.; Grison, Hana; Petrovský, Eduard; Kazakis, N.; Papadopoulou, L.; Voudouris, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 20 (2016), 1375/1-1375/16 ISSN 1866-6280 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10775S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15036 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetic susceptibility * day plot * trace elements * pollution * Greece Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2016

  2. Organic-carbon deposition in the Cretaceous of the Ionian Basin, NW-Greece : The Paquier Event (OAE 1b) re-visited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Tsikos, H.; Karakitsios, V.; Breugel, Y. van; Walsworth-Bell, B.; Petrizzo, M.R.; Bombardiere, L.; Schouten, S.; Erba, E.; Premoli Silva, I.; Farrimond, P.; Tyson, R.V.; Jenkyns, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present new stable (C, O) isotopic, biostratigraphic and organic geochemical data for the Vigla Shale Member of the Ionian Zone in NW Greece, in order to characterize organic carbon-rich strata that potentially record the impact of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). In a section exposed

  3. Green Urban Space Utilization for Mild ICT-Based Touristic Activities: The Case of Pafsilipo Park in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos KARAGIANNIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of mild touristic activities in green urban landscapes. More specifically, it uses the case of Pasfilipo Park in the city of Karditsa, Greece, where a green urban landscape has been utilized for local life improvement and illustrates existing touristic activities in this area. For the purposes of strengthening landscape’s role, various touristic activities are proposed accompanied by Information and Communications Technologies (ICT. Moreover, this paper queries scientific issues with regard to the capitalization of green urban spaces for small scale touristic and ecological activities, which support local life and local economic growth. This study addresses the above modern requirements for urban development with respect to existing natural and human resources. It attempts to answer the following question: can green open spaces in cities be capitalized for touristic activities that support sustainable growth? In this order, green spaces in cities are recognized as areas for smart growth, where mild touristic activities can be undertaken without ecologic damages and can result in simultaneous economic activities that can lead to local development.

  4. Decision support system for the optimal location of electrical and electronic waste treatment plants: A case study in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achillas, Ch.; Vlachokostas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally sound end-of-life management of Electrical and Electronic Equipment has been realised as a top priority issue internationally, both due to the waste stream's continuously increasing quantities, as well as its content in valuable and also hazardous materials. In an effort to manage Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), adequate infrastructure in treatment and recycling facilities is considered a prerequisite. A critical number of such plants are mandatory to be installed in order: (i) to accommodate legislative needs, (ii) decrease transportation cost, and (iii) expand reverse logistics network and cover more areas. However, WEEE recycling infrastructures require high expenditures and therefore the decision maker need to be most precautious. In this context, special care should be given on the viability of infrastructure which is heavily dependent on facilities' location. To this end, a methodology aiming towards optimal location of Units of Treatment and Recycling is developed, taking into consideration economical together with social criteria, in an effort to interlace local acceptance and financial viability. For the decision support system's needs, ELECTRE III is adopted as a multicriteria analysis technique. The methodology's applicability is demonstrated with a real-world case study in Greece.

  5. Seismic cycle and seismic risk of an active faults network: the Corinth rift case (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiselet, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    The Corinth rift (Greece) is one of the regions with the highest strain rates (16 mm/y extension rate) in the Euro-Mediterranean area and as such it has long been identified as a site of major importance for earthquake studies in Europe (20 years of research by the Corinth Rift Laboratory and 4 years of in-depth studies by the ANR-SISCOR project). This enhanced knowledge, acquired in particular, in the western part of the Gulf of Corinth (CRL region), an area about 50 by 40 km 2 , between the city of Patras to the west and the city of Aigion to the east, provides an excellent opportunity to compare fault-based (FB) and classical seismo-tectonic (ST) approaches currently used in seismic hazard assessment studies. An homogeneous earthquake catalogue was thus constructed for the purpose of this study along with a comprehensive database of all relevant geological, geodetic and geophysical information available in the literature and recently collected within the ANR-SISCOR project. The homogenized Mw earthquake catalogue is composed of data from the National Observatory of Athens and from the university of Thessaloniki as well as data acquired through historical and instrumental work performed within the ANR-SISCOR group for the CRL region. A frequency magnitude analysis confirms that seismicity rates are governed by Gutenberg-Richter (GR) statistic for 1.2 =6 earthquakes were computed for the region of study. Time dependent models (Brownian Passage time and Weibull probability distributions) were also explored. The probability (normalized by area) of a M≥6.0 earthquake is found to be greater in the CRL region compared to the eastern part of the Corinth rift. Probability estimates corresponding to the 16. and 84. percentile are also provided, as a means of representing the range of uncertainties in the results. Probability estimates based on the ST-approach are then compared to those based on the FB approach approach. In general ST tends to overestimate probabilities

  6. Pesticide exposure and lymphohaematopoietic cancers: a case-control study in an agricultural region (Larissa, Thessaly, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokouva, Maria; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Rachiotis, George; Papadoulis, Nikolaos; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2011-01-04

    The causality of lymphohaematopoietic cancers (LHC) is multifactorial and studies investigating the association between chemical exposure and LHC have produced variable results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between exposure to pesticides and LHC in an agricultural region of Greece. A structured questionnaire was employed in a hospital-based case control study to gather information on demographics, occupation, exposure to pesticides, agricultural practices, family and medical history and smoking. To control for confounders, backward conditional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used. To assess the dose-response relationship between exposure and disease, the chi-square test for trend was used. Three hundred and fifty-four (354) histologically confirmed LHC cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2006 and 455 sex- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Pesticide exposure was associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.00-3.51) and leukaemia (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.09-4.20). A dose-response pattern was observed for total LHC cases (P = 0.004), MDS (P = 0.024) and leukaemia (P = 0.002). Pesticide exposure was independently associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00 - 2.00) and leukaemia (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.12) after controlling for age, smoking and family history (cancers, LHC and immunological disorders). Smoking during application of pesticides was strongly associated with total LHC cases (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.81-5.98), MDS (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.18-12.11), leukaemia (OR 10.15, 95% CI 2.15-65.69) and lymphoma (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.02-8.00). This association was even stronger for total LHC cases (OR 18.18, 95% CI 2.38-381.17) when eating simultaneously with pesticide application. Lymphohaematopoietic cancers were associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. Smoking and eating during pesticide application were identified as

  7. Household consumption, associated fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Greece between 1990 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how Greece's household consumption has changed between 1990 and 2006 and its environmental implications in terms of fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results show that the 44% increase in Greece's household expenditure between 1990 and 2006 was accompanied by a 67% increase in fossil fuel demand. Of this total, indirect demand accounted for approximately 60% throughout the 16-year period, increasing by 56% overall, whereas direct fossil fuel demand grew by 80%. The results also show that associated CO 2 emissions increased by 60%, resulting in a 'relative decoupling' from energy demand. This relative decoupling is shown to be due to fossil fuel mix changes from the supply side rather than action from consumers. These insights highlight the opportunities for demand-side policies to further reduce fossil fuel demand and CO 2 emissions, allowing Greece to set more proactive and ambitious post-Kyoto targets.

  8. Organizing cross-sectoral collaboration in river basin management : Case studies from the Rhine and the Zhujiang (Pearl River) basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, André; Junier, S.J.; Hüesker, Frank; Qunfang, Fan; Rondorf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the drivers and constraints for effective cross-sectoral collaboration in river basin management and the extent to which factors identified in related literature determine success or failure of collaboration in selected case studies. Cases selected were from

  9. Transferring a Teaching Learning Sequence between Two Different Educational Contexts: The Case of Greece and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrtou, Anna; Lavonen, Jari; Zoupidis, Anastasios; Loukomies, Anni; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Juuti, Kalle; Kariotoglou, Petros

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report on the idea of exchanging educational innovations across European countries aiming to shed light on the following question: how feasible and useful is it to transfer an innovation across different national educational settings? The innovation, in this case, Inquiry-Based Teaching Learning Sequences, is recognized as…

  10. 3D Visualization Types in Multimedia Applications for Science Learning: A Case Study for 8th Grade Students in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, G.; Pavlatou, E. A.; Palyvos, J. A.; Spyrellis, N.

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to determine whether the use of specific types of visualization (3D illustration, 3D animation, and interactive 3D animation) combined with narration and text, contributes to the learning process of 13- and 14- years-old students in science courses. The study was carried out with 212 8th grade students in Greece. This…

  11. Deaf Clubs Today: Do They Still Have a Role to Play? The Cases of Cyprus and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Kika; Nikolaraizi, Magda

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the current functions of Deaf clubs in Cyprus and in Greece. The researchers conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 24 Cypriot and 22 Greek deaf individuals ages 19-54 years. The researchers found that the Deaf clubs in both countries provide a gathering place for deaf people, organize social and sport…

  12. Collaborative School Innovation Project as a Pivot for Teachers' Professional Development: The Case of Acharnes' Second Chance School in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Eleni; Tsafos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative school innovation project is explored as a pivot for the professional development of the teachers involved. The Second Chance School (SCS) of Acharnes in Greece constitutes such a collaborative innovative project, regarding the underlying theory of multiliteracies, its decentralised character, respect for student individuality, and…

  13. Critical Cases Faced by Mental Health Nurses and Assistant Nurses in Psychiatric Hospitals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evmorfia Koukia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric Nurses and nurses’ assistants working in an inpatient unit experience a significant number of critical cases. A small number of studies have explored which patients’ problems nurses perceive as ‘critical case or incident’ and particularly which interventions they choose. Aim: The aim of the research was 1. To identify the clinical problems that mental health nurses and assistant nurses characterize as critical 2. To report the main nursing interventions 3. To investigate the main person involved in the critical incident. Material-Method: Critical incident technique was used as a method of data collection. Content analysis was carried out in order nurses’ information to be categorized into subcategories. The sample consisted of 35 mental health nurses and nurses’ assistants who work in psychiatric acute inpatient wards.Results: Nurses identified ten types of critical incidents. They noted violence (verbal, physical by patients and psychotic symptoms to be the most critical situations. Nurses were the main person involved in these incidents. The study also described eight nursing interventions used by nurses when faced with critical events. Conclusions: The findings indicated that mental health nurses and assistant nurses working in acute inpatient wards are called to confront a variety of critical incidents in their every day practice. Further research is necessary to identify in-depth nursing interventions and decision-making used in these situations.

  14. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentoumis, Anastasios; Mantzoufas, Nikolaos; Kouris, Gavriil; Golna, Christina; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2010-11-10

    To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals.

  15. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golna Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania. We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental hospitals.

  16. Hydrological Modeling in temporary streams: A case study in Pardiela basin, Southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO, A.; MORAIS, M.; ROSADO, J.; SILVA, H.; SERAFIM, A.; NEVES, R.; BRITO, D.; POTES, M.; SALGADO, R.; LILLEBØ, I.; CHAMBEL, A.

    2011-01-01

    The project “Conservation and rehabilitation strategies for temporary Mediterranean river corridors: a case study on Pardiela basin, southern Portugal (Guadiana basin)", is being carried out,with the collaboration of researchers from diverse scientific areas, in order to increase the knowledge on temporary streams. The project includes different approaches at reach and basin scales, regarding the study of temporal interactions among different ecological components such as climate, morph...

  17. Culinary Tourism in Greece: Can the past define the future? A comparative analysis by using 10 case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Dimitris; Metaxas, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility that gastronomy, based on ancient Greek values, could be part of the answer for economic prosperity through the development of food tourism in a country with harsh economic environment such as Greece. We examine if local food, culture and tourism could become great fields of new entrepreneurial and thus regional development when paired with knowledge, innovation and quality. We shall examine what the historical background on ideas such as gastronomy, entrep...

  18. A Case Study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    and middle sections of the basin are covered with semi-deciduous forest with a lush growth of thick and tall trees. ... and scrub forest vegetation with only few isolated trees. There are ... which underlie the south-eastern part of the basin and the area south of Weija to the estuary. The rocks of ...... Association, Washington, D.C.

  19. Exploring for geothermal resources in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrinos, Dimitrios; Choropanitis, Ioannis; Polyzou, Olympia; Karytsas, Constantine [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES), 19th km Marathon Avenue, 19009 Pikermi (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    In Greece the geothermal areas are located in regions of Quaternary or Miocene volcanism and in continental basins of high heat flow. The existence of high-temperature (>200 C) resources has been proven by deep drilling on the islands of Milos and Nisyros and inferred on the island of Santorini by its active volcanism. Elsewhere, geological investigations, geochemical analyses of thermal springs and shallow drilling have identified many low-temperature (<100 C) reservoirs, utilized for spas and greenhouse/soil heating. Ternary K-Na-Mg geothermometer data suggest deep, medium-temperature resources (100-200 C) in Sousaki, the islands of Samothraki, Chios and Lesvos, in the basins of Nestos River Delta and Alexandroupolis and in the graben of Sperchios River. In the basins of northern Greece these resources are also inferred from deep oil exploration well data. (author)

  20. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  1. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  2. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  3. Ostracod assemblages as a tool for documenting dynamics in marginal semi-closed marine environments: a case study from Late Quaternary sediments of Saronikos Gulf (Attica, central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daioglou, Konstantinos; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Anastasakis, George

    2017-04-01

    The Saronikos Gulf is a semi-enclosed embayment situated in the west-central region of the Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean, and covers a total surface area of 1,117 km2. It is a neotectonic basin, divided by a very shallow north-south-oriented platform into a western and an eastern part. The western basin has depths exceeding 400 m, the eastern basin depths around 100 and 200 m. Furthermore, Elefsis Bay, situated to the north, is separated from the gulf by two shallow sills. This complex bottom morphology greatly influences the regional water circulation pattern. The Saronikos Gulf draws the attention of marine science because it constitutes the natural marine gateway of the city of Athens and the Piraeus harbor and receives the treated wastes of ˜4 million people. A sedimentary record spanning more than 16935+50 calyr BP was recovered at N 37.52'23.38" E 23.15'40", water depth 140 m, in the western basin of the gulf. A total of 50 samples from a 260 cm core were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for micropalaeontological study in order to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions. In the framework of this study, ostracod assemblages were used to trace changes in the depositional environment of the investigated core. Two main ostracod assemblages alternate along the core, indicating a gradual transition from a shallow marine infralittoral to an outer infralittoral-inner -circalittoral environment. A mesohaline shallow marine assemblage, mainly with Leptocythere lagunae, Leptocythere rara, and Callistocythere sp., is dominant for the largest part of the core (from 260 to about 50cm). At the upper part a deeper marine assemblage prevails, mainly with Callistocythere crispata, Acanthocythereis hystrix, Pterygocythereis jonesii and Bairdia sp. The pattern of the environmental change that took place in Saronikos Gulf during Late Quaternary is comparable with the one established by Tsourou et al. (2015) for Southern Evoikos Gulf, suggesting that similar

  4. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  5. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  6. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  7. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth: Parametric and non-parametric causality testing for the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergiades, Theologos; Martinopoulos, Georgios; Tsoulfidis, Lefteris

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute towards the understanding of the linear and non-linear causal linkages between energy consumption and economic activity, making use of annual time series data of Greece for the period 1960–2008. Two are the salient features of our study: first, the total energy consumption has been adjusted for qualitative differences among its constituent components through the thermodynamics of energy conversion. In doing so, we rule out the possibility of a misleading inference with respect to causality due to aggregation bias. Second, the investigation of the causal linkage between economic growth and the adjusted for quality total energy consumption is conducted within a non-linear context. Our empirical results reveal significant unidirectional both linear and non-linear causal linkages running from total useful energy to economic growth. These findings may provide valuable information for the contemplation of more effective energy policies with respect to both the consumption of energy and environmental protection. - Highlights: ► The energy consumption and economic growth nexus is investigated for Greece. ► A quality-adjusted energy series is used in our analysis. ► The causality testing procedure is conducted within a non-linear context. ► A causality running from energy consumption to economic growth is verified

  9. Threats to Mediterranean rangelands: a case study based on the views of citizens in the Viotia prefecture, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Abraham, Eleni M; Parissi, Zoi M

    2013-11-15

    Rangelands in Greece constitute a very important natural resource as they occupy 40% of the total surface. Not only is their forage production essential for the development of extensive livestock farming, but also they play a key role in outdoor recreational activities, protection from erosion, provision of water supplies and biodiversity conservation. However, land use changes, inappropriate management and wildfires threaten their existence. The research was conducted among the citizens of Viotia prefecture, an area close to Athens, Greece, using personal interviews with a structured questionnaire in 2008. The aim was to record citizens' opinions regarding the threats to rangelands. The results suggest that the main threats as perceived by the respondents, are land use changes especially for urban development, and wildfires. The application of cluster analysis highlighted the differentiation among the respondents in ranking these threats. The more ecologically aware citizens recognised that mismanagement, abandonment and agriculture also threaten rangelands. These threats can have a considerable impact on the lives of the local people. Policy makers and managers should take the opinions of local citizens into consideration, and engage them in decision making so that sustainable management policies could be applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk Management and Viability of Public Organizations. Development of a Risk Measurement Tool: The Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordanis Eleftheriadis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper provides an important contribution towards the development of a valid, reliable and cost-effective instrument that reduces operational and economic risk levels in public sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative methodology based on the collection of primary data via a questionnaire has been adopted in this research. Findings: The research results showed that the measurement tool selected, applied, presented and proposed is comprised of three (3 scales. The reliability analysis proved that all three scales are reliable; therefore, they are suitable for use as a risk measurement instrument. Research limitations/implications: The study's academic contribution is the application and testing of the aforementioned measurement instruments, which can now be utilised by researchers in the field of risk management, to further advance the study of risk management in public organizations in Greece. On the empirical level, the implementation of these three measurement instruments can assist public organizations in Greece via an easy and fast assessment of economic and operational risks. Originality/value: This tool can help public organizations gain insight into the level of risk they face at any given point in time in order plan their actions accordingly. At the same time, central state administration will have the necessary tools to monitor and support the organizations it evaluates.

  11. Expanding extension, subsidence and lateral segmentation within the Santorini - Amorgos basins during Quaternary: Implications for the 1956 Amorgos events, central - south Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Hübscher, C.; Papanikolaou, D.; Farangitakis, G. P.; Ruhnau, M.; Lampridou, D.

    2018-01-01

    New bathymetric and seismic reflection data from the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone in the southern Cyclades have been analysed and a description of the morphology and tectonic structure of the area has been presented. The basins of Anhydros, Amorgos and Santorini-Anafi have been distinguished together with the intermediate Anhydros Horst within the NE-SW oriented Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone which has a length of 60-70 km and a width of 20-25 km. The basins represent tectonic grabens or semi-grabens bordered by the active marginal normal faults of Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos, Ios, Anhydros and Astypalaea. The Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos and Ios marginal faults have their footwall towards the NW where Alpine basement occurs in the submarine scarps and their hangingwall towards the southeast, where the Quaternary sediments have been deposited with maximum thickness of 700 m. Six sedimentary Units 1-6 have been distinguished in the stratigraphic successions of the Santorini-Anafi and the western Anhydros Basin whereas in the rest area only the upper four Units 3-6 have been deposited. This shows the expansion of the basin with subsidence during the Quaternary due to ongoing extension in a northwest-southeast direction. Growth structures are characterized by different periods of maximum deformation as this is indicated by the different sedimentary units with maximum thickness next to each fault. Transverse structures of northwest-southeast direction have been identified along the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone with distinction of the blocks/segments of Santorini, Anhydros/Kolumbo, Anhydros islet and Amorgos. Recent escarpments with 7-9 m offset observed along the Amorgos Fault indicate that this was activated during the first earthquake of the 7.5 magnitude 1956 events whereas no recent landslide was found in the area that could be related to the 1956 tsunami.

  12. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    KAUST Repository

    Tziritis, E.; Lombardo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated

  13. Environmental and Socio-economic Aspects of the Operation of Industrial Regions: The Case Study of the Industrial Area of Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanoudi, Aglaia; Diakaki, Christina; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of a study concerning the operation of industrial plants and their effects to the environment. It also addresses, shortly, the consequences to the quality of human life and proposes potential measures that may contribute to the reduction of the negative environmental impacts. The relatively small organized Industrial Area of Alexandroupolis (Greece) is examined as a case study. In particular, the activities of its major industrial facilities are presented and their emissions to the environment are examined. In addition, the socio-economic aspects of the operation of the Industrial Area are studied. The results of the study showed that the operation of the Industrial Area has specific negative effects in the natural environment of the region and in the quality of life of the residents. Methodological and legislative tools, such as control systems for the environmental pollution, the green chemistry, and the environmental management systems, may be employed to assist the prevention and confrontation of environmental problems

  14. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  15. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...... during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease....

  16. Small scale turbidity currents in a tectonically active submarine graben, the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): their significance in dispersing mine tailings and their relevance to basin filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Stefatos, A.; Christodoulou, D.; Ferentinos, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth is an intra-plate active graben within the Aegean microplate, which is characterized by high frequency occurrence of gravitative mass movements. A detailed marine survey in Antikyra bay, on the northern margin of the graben, was carried out (i) to study the bathymetry and morphology of the seafloor and (ii) to examine the distribution and dispersion of bauxite “red-mud” tailings and the formation of present-day fine grained, thin bedded turbidites. The examination of high resolution seismic profiles has shown that the northern flank of the gulf of Corinth consists of the shelf, slope and basin floor. The shelf has an average width of 10 km and dips very gently at a gradient less than 1.2o to a depth of 300m. The slope extends from the 300m to the 700m isobath with a gradient ranging from 5o to 7.5o. The basin floor deeper than the 700m isobath is flat with a gradient less than 0.1o. The shelf break and upper slope are affected by mass-movements. The seafloor on slope is incised by numerous channels trending in a NNE-SSW direction. The floor of the plain is covered by ponded turbidites. The analysis of cores based on (i) the texture and the structure of the individual layers of the surficial sedimentary cover and (ii) the tracing of bauxite red-mud tailing which have been discharged since 1970 on the upper shelf of the Antikyra Bay, have shown that: (i) Shelf and upper slope sediments are transported to the basin floor by turbidity flows. (ii) The slope surface is affected by the erosional action of the turbidity currents. (iii) The basin floor is covered by thin-bedded fine-grained turbidites whose thickness ranges from 0.8-4 cm. (iv) The individual turbidite beds, which consist of silt and clay, are structureless and are separated by sharp, planar or erosional contacts. (v) Hemipelagic intercalations are absent. The number of turbiditic events recorded in the surveyed area is from 2-5 events over a period of 15 years or 122 to 333 events

  17. Deaf clubs today: do they still have a role to play? The cases of Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Kika; Nikolaraizi, Magda

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the current functions of Deaf clubs in Cyprus and in Greece. The researchers conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 24 Cypriot and 22 Greek deaf individuals ages 19-54 years. The researchers found that the Deaf clubs in both countries provide a gathering place for deaf people, organize social and sport activities, and promote their demands through legislation. In addition, Deaf clubs maintain and transmit Deaf culture and history to future generations, offer Deaf role models to young deaf children and their families, and provide Deaf awareness to hearing people (e.g., through sign languages classes). The study participants also stressed the role of Deaf clubs in deaf people's lives, unity, and prospects for future progress.

  18. The Role of Music in the Education of Young Male Workers in Nineteenth-Century Greece: The Case of Charity Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents music teaching in nineteenth-century Greece orphanages and schools of destitute children, which were the main schools for vocational training of the working class in that period. Five representative institutions were selected. Music education for young male workers in nineteenth-century Greece was both in accord with and…

  19. Application of chromium stable isotopes to the evaluation of Cr(VI) contamination in groundwater and rock leachates from central Euboea and the Assopos basin (Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria; Frei, Robert; Atsarou, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Major and trace elements (a) in groundwater, ultramafic rocks from natural outcrops and soil samples from cultivated sites of Central Euboea and Assopos basin, and (b) in experimentally produced laboratory water leachates of rocks and soils were investigated by SEM/EDS, XRD and ICP/MS. In addition......, stable chromium isotopes (expressed as δ53Cr values) were measured in groundwater and leachates in order to identify potential sources for Cr-contamination. The higher Cr(VI) concentrations in soil leachates compared to those in the rock pulp leachates potentially can be explained by the presence...... of larger amounts of Fe (Fe(II)) and Mn (Mn-oxides acting as oxidizing catalysts). Assuming that redox processes produce significant Cr isotope fractionation (groundwater δ53Cr values range between 0.8 and 1.98‰), the compilation of the obtained analytical data suggests that the dominant cause of Cr isotope...

  20. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations......Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management...

  1. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  2. Subsurface geological modeling using GIS and remote sensing data: a case study from Platanos landslide, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, K.; Kordouli, M.; Nikolakopoulos, K.; Elias, P.; Sykioti, O.; Tsagaris, V.; Drakatos, G.; Rondoyanni, Th.; Tsiambaos, G.; Sabatakakis, N.; Anastasopoulos, V.

    2014-08-01

    Landslide phenomena constitute a major geological hazard in Greece and especially in the western part of the country as a result of anthropogenic activities, growing urbanization and uncontrolled land - use. More frequent triggering events and increased susceptibility of the ground surface to instabilities as consequence of climate change impacts (continued deforestation mainly due to the devastating forest wildfires and extreme meteorological events) have also increased the landslide risk. The studied landslide occurrence named "Platanos" has been selected within the framework of "Landslide Vulnerability Model - LAVMO" project that aims at creating a persistently updated electronic platform assessing risks related with landslides. It is a coastal area situated between Korinthos and Patras at the northwestern part of the elongated graben of the Corinth Gulf. The paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform with engineering geological maps for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. This model is provided for being combined with inclinometer measurements for sliding surface location through the instability zone.

  3. Evaluation of water saving measures for mid-sized tourist lodging units: the case of Samos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria E. Klontza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hotel sector causes significant environmental stress in both natural and built up areas due to their consumption of water and energy. In addition, the production of large volumes of liquid and solid waste results in a significant environmental footprint. The use of water and energy by hotels is strongly linked (e.g. energy is consumed for hot water, operation of the pool, preparation of meals, etc. and usually referred to as the water – energy nexus. Thus, for big consumers like hotels, water and energy consumption should be addressed collectively as water-saving measures can lead to a reduction in energy consumption. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of mid-sized hotel units by analyzing and quantifying their use of water. An analysis using a two-step approach was made of 8 accommodation facilities located on Samos Island, Greece: (i a mapping of water use by adopting an end-use approach, and then (ii an assessment of saving practices using three main criteria: savings, cost of investment and payback time. The preliminary results indicate that for small sized lodging units, water consumed inside the guest rooms accounts for the majority of all the water used and low-cost water saving measures and actions can reduce the pressure on water resources without disturbing guests, while increasing the financial profitability of a hotel.

  4. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in two children in Greece: report of the first extensively drug-resistant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragkou, Aspasia; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Sdougka, Maria; Roilides, Emmanuel; Tsanakas, John

    2013-04-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents a serious and growing problem in both endemic and non-endemic countries. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with XDR-pulmonary TB and an 18-month-old boy with pre-XDR-central nervous system TB. Patients received individualized treatment with second-line anti-TB agents based on genotypic and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results. Both children achieved culture conversion 3 months and 1 month after treatment initiation, respectively. The child with XDR-pulmonary TB showed evidence of cure while treatment adverse events were managed without treatment interruption. The child with pre-XDR-central nervous system TB after 6-month hospitalization with multiple infectious complications had a dismal end due to hepatic insufficiency possibly related to anti-TB treatment. This is the first report of children with pre-XDR and XDR TB in Greece, emphasizing the public health dimensions and management complexity of XDR TB.

  5. Lithium, boron and chlorine as tracers for metasomatism in high-pressure metamorphic rocks: a case study from Syros (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Altherr, Rainer; Gméling, Katalin; Kasztovszky, Zsolt

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure metamorphic (HPM) rocks (derived from igneous protoliths) and their metasomatised rinds from the island of Syros (Greece) were analysed for their B and Cl whole-rock abundances and their H2O content by prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis (PGNAA) and for their Li and Be whole-rock abundances by ICP-OES. In the HPM rocks, B /Be and Cl /Be ratios correlate with H2O contents and appear to be controlled by extraction of B and Cl during dehydration and prograde metamorphism. In contrast, samples of the metasomatised rinds show no such correlation. B /Be ratios in the rinds are solely governed by the presence or absence of tourmaline, and Cl /Be ratios vary significantly, possibly related to fluid inclusions. Li/Be ratios do not correlate with H2O contents in the HPM rocks, which may in part be explained by a conservative behaviour of Li during dehydration. However, Li abundances exceed the vast majority of published values for Li abundances in fresh, altered, or differentiated oceanic igneous rocks and presumably result from metasomatic enrichment of Li. High Li concentrations and highly elevated Li/Be ratios in most metasomatised samples demonstrate an enrichment of Li in the Syros HP mélange during fluid infiltration. This study suggests that B and Cl abundances of HPM meta-igneous rocks can be used to trace prograde dehydration, while Li concentrations seem to be more sensitive for retrograde metasomatic processes in such lithologies.

  6. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  7. Radon measurements in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, E.; Ntalles, K.; Molfetas, M.; Athanassiadis, A.; Proukakis, C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of radon concentration in greek spas, in a cave, in constituents of the greek cement, in building materials in Greece and in greek mines have been published. Some preliminary studies of radon concentration in greek dwellings have been published. In order to get an idea of the problem in Greece we decided to carry out a national survey. Two different sites were selected: Athens, where domicile about 40% of the greek population and Domatia, a small village in northern Greece 600Km from Athens, located in an area known to have soil with increased uranium concentrations

  8. Land change in eastern Mediterranean wood-pasture landscapes: the case of deciduous oak woodlands in Lesvos (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high--especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9%. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  9. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes: The Case of Deciduous Oak Woodlands in Lesvos (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9 %. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  10. Future Availability of Water Supply from Karstic Springs under Probable Climate Change. The case of Aravissos, Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadis, M.; Spachos, Th.; Zampetoglou, K.; Soupilas, Th.

    2012-04-01

    The test site of Aravissos is located at 70 Km to the West (W-NW) of Thessaloniki at the south banks of mount Païko, in the north part of Central Macedonia The karstic Aravissos springs supply 40% of total volume needed for the water supply of Thessaloniki, Greece. As the water is of excellent quality, it is feed directly in the distribution network without any previous treatment. The availability of this source is therefore of high importance for the sustainable water supply of this area with almost 1000000 inhabitants. The water system of Aravissos is developed in a karstic limestone with an age of about Late Cretaceous that covers almost the entire western part of the big-anticline of Païko Mountain. The climate in this area and the water consumption area, Thessaloniki, is a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and humid winters and hot and dry summers. The total annual number of rainy days is around 110. The production of the Aravissos springs depends mostly from the annual precipitations. As the feeding catchement and the karst aquifer are not well defined, a practical empirical balance model, that contains only well known relevant terms, is applied for the simulation of the operation of the springs under normal water extraction for water supply in present time. The estimation of future weather conditions are based on GCM and RCM simulation data and the extension of trend lines of the actual data. The future evolution of the availability of adequate water quantities from the springs is finally estimated from the balance model and the simulated future climatic data. This study has been realised within the project CC-WaterS, funded by the SEE program of the European Regional Development Fund (http://www.ccwaters.eu/).

  11. Predicting soil properties for sustainable agriculture using vis-NIR spectroscopy: a case study in northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, Nikolaos L.; Tziolas, Nikolaos; Dimitrakos, Agathoklis; Galanis, Georgios; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Tsirika, Anastasia; Terzopoulou, Evangelia; Kalopesa, Eleni; Zalidis, George C.

    2017-09-01

    Soil Spectral Libraries facilitate agricultural production taking into account the principles of a low-input sustainable agriculture and provide more valuable knowledge to environmental policy makers, enabling improved decision making and effective management of natural resources in the region. In this paper, a comparison in the predictive performance of two state of the art algorithms, one linear (Partial Least Squares Regression) and one non-linear (Cubist), employed in soil spectroscopy is conducted. The comparison was carried out in a regional Soil Spectral Library developed in the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region of Northern Greece, comprised of roughly 450 Entisol soil samples from soil horizons A (0-30 cm) and B (30-60 cm). The soil spectra were acquired in the visible - Near Infrared Red region (vis- NIR, 350nm-2500nm) using a standard protocol in the laboratory. Three soil properties, which are essential for agriculture, were analyzed and taken into account for the comparison. These were the Organic Matter, the Clay content and the concentration of nitrate-N. Additionally, three different spectral pre-processing techniques were utilized, namely the continuum removal, the absorbance transformation, and the first derivative. Following the removal of outliers using the Mahalanobis distance in the first 5 principal components of the spectra (accounting for 99.8% of the variance), a five-fold cross-validation experiment was considered for all 12 datasets. Statistical comparisons were conducted on the results, which indicate that the Cubist algorithm outperforms PLSR, while the most informative transformation is the first derivative.

  12. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  13. Evidence for Complex P-T-t Histories in Subduction Zone Rocks: A Case Study from Syros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, J. S.; Kendall, J.; Caddick, M. J.; Baxter, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical models predict that material can move freely at the interface between the subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge (mélange zone) independent of the motion of the subducting slab (i.e. Cloos 1982, Gerya et al. 2002). This is possible because the mélange zone consists of rigid blocks of metagabbroic and metabasic material suspended in a strongly sheared matrix of serpentinite, talc, and chlorite. The implication of this is that blocks of subducted material exposed in outcrops at the earth's surface could experience complex Pressure-Temperature-time (P-T-t) paths due to the cycling and recycling of subducted material within the mélange zone. Such behavior can affect the expulsion and retention of fluid during metamorphism and thus affect elemental cycles, geodynamics, mineral phase equilibra and mass transport of materials in the mélange zone depending on the physical properties and location of the blocks. The island of Syros, Greece preserves rocks that experienced blueschist-eclogite grade metamorphism during the subduction of the Pindos Oceanic Unit and thus provides a natural laboratory for investigating the evolution of subducted lithologies. Complex compositional zoning in a garnet-bearing quartz mica schist indicates that garnet crystals grew in two distinct stages. The presence of distinct cores and rims is interpreted as the result of a complex P-T-t history. Through the use of thermodynamic modeling, we calculate that the core of the garnet equilibrated at 485oC and 22.5 kbars. The edge of the first growth zone is predicted to stop growing at approximately 530oC and 20.5 kbars. We calculate that the rim began to grow at 21.7 kbars and 560oC and that the end of garnet growth occurred at approximately 16 kbars and 500oC. Sm/Nd garnet geochronology was used to date the cores of the garnets at 47 ± 3 Ma, with preliminary results suggesting that the rims grew at a significantly younger age. These data support the hypothesis that the cycling

  14. Shallow Off-Shore Archaeological Prospection with 3-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography: The Case of Olous (Modern Elounda, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthis Simyrdanis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that nowadays as well as in the past the vast majority of human habitation and activities are mainly concentrated in littoral areas. Thus the increased attention to coastal zone management contributed to the development and implementation of shallow-water mapping approaches for capturing current environmental conditions. During the last decade, geophysical imaging techniques like electrical resistivity tomography (ERT have been used in mapping onshore buried antiquities in a non-destructive manner, contributing to cultural heritage management. Despite its increased implementation in mapping on-shore buried archaeological remains, ERT has minimal to non-existent employment for the understanding of the past dynamics in littoral and shallow off-shore marine environments. This work presents the results of an extensive ERT survey in investigating part of the Hellenistic to Byzantine submerged archaeological site of Olous, located on the north-eastern coast of Crete, Greece. A marine area of 7100 m2 was covered with 178 densely spaced ERT lines having a cumulative length of 8.3 km. A combination of submerged static and moving survey modes were used to document potential buried and submerged structures. The acquired data from the marine environment were processed with two-dimensional and three-dimensional inversion algorithms. A real time kinematic global navigation satellite system was used to map the visible submerged walls and compile the bathymetry model of the bay. The adaptation of ERT in reconstructing the underwater archaeological remains in a shallow marine environment presented specific methodological and processing challenges. The in situ experience from the archaeological site of Olous showed that ERT provided a robust method for mapping the submerged archaeological structures related to the ancient built environment (walls, buildings, roads, signifying at the same time the vertical stratigraphy of the submerged sediments

  15. Enlightenment and School History in 19th Century Greece: the Case of Gerostathis by Leon Melas (1862-1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Athanasiades

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Students in present-day Greek schools are taught History as a biography of the Greek nation from the Mycenaean times to the present. Over the course of three millennia, the Greek nation has experienced three periods of cultural flourishing and political autonomy: (i the period of Antiquity (from the times of legendary King Agamemnon to those of Alexander the Great, (ii the Byzantine period (from Justinian’s ascension in the 6th century to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and (iii the modern era (from the War of Independence in 1821 to the present day. However, in this article we argue that in the 19th century the history taught in Greek schools differed substantially from the tripartite schema described above. In support of our thesis, we examine the most popular school textbook of the 19th century, O Gerostathis, by Leon Melas. In the Gerostathis, the history of the Greek nation is identified with that of Classical Greece (i.e. from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC, which is held up as an exemplary era worthy of emulation. In contrast, the rise of Macedon under Philip II signals the cultural decline of the Greeks and the loss of their political autonomy, which was not regained for two millennia, until the 1821 national revolution. In that period, the Greek nation ceased not to exist, but survived as a subjugate of the Macedonians, the Romans, and finally the Ottomans. The Byzantine, on the other hand, is described as an unremarkable period of decadence that is only worth mentioning in relation to its final period, that of the Palaeologus dynasty, which bestowed upon the Greeks a legacy of resistance against the Ottomans. We argue that the above reading of the Greek past owed much to the Enlightenment, which as an intellectual movement still exerted a powerful influence (albeit to a gradually diminishing degree on Greek intellectuals up to the latter third of the 19th century.

  16. The influence of copper-based fungicide use in soils and aquatic sediments. Case study: Aetoliko lagoon, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Barouchas, Pantelis; Dünwald, Thomas; Unkel, Ingmar

    2017-04-01

    In the study area, in order farmers to keep their olive trees healthy, the first measure is to keep their olive trees well-fed that is the best initial defense against diseases. Copper-based fungicides are the most common fungicides to protect olive plantations against diseases such as the olive leaf spot. Pathogens are controlled by farmers with strategically timed disease control programs rely on copper sprays to protect the foliage and fruit from infection Successful disease control depends on even distribution and good retention of the copper over all of the plant surfaces before the disease develops. Artificially added copper has the ability to accumulate in soils and aquatic sediments and can cause adverse effects on flora and fauna in its environment. For the present study soil and aquatic sediments field campaign was carried out in the Aetoliko Lagoon ecosystem which is exclusively dominated by olive orchards. It is for the first time in Greece that soil as well as aquatic sediments samples of one coherent protected aquatic ecosystem were taken and compared. To determine the influence that the usage of copper-based fungicides have on the lagoon and surrounding areas, ten (10) sediment samples from the bottom of the lagoon and twenty five (25) soil samples at the different olive orchards that are bordering the water body were taken. The samples were analyzed for total copper content (total digestion) and extractable copper (DTPA and NH4NO3). Furthermore, soil / sedimentological and geochemical analyses such as pH, grain size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and calcium carbonate content were carried out. The results show in over 80 % of the orchard soils a critical accumulation of the total amount of copper. In some of the examined soils the value of 140 mg/kg(as set by the European Union as a limit for total copper in farmland) is exceeded by the factors of 2 to 4.5. Copper content in the aquatic sediments is generally lower and varies between 43.85 mg

  17. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  18. Acute bacterial meningitis cases diagnosed by culture and PCR in a children's hospital throughout a 9-Year period (2000-2008) in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasileiou, Konstantina; Papavasileiou, Eleni; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Voyatzi, Aliki; Kremastinou, Jenny; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2011-04-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis is one of the most severe infectious diseases, affecting mainly infants and, secondarily, older children and adolescents. Diagnosis in the early stages is often difficult and despite treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy, the case fatality rate remains high. In the present study, the incidence of bacterial meningitis was registered in a general pediatric hospital in Athens, Greece, during a 9-year period (2000-2008), and the use of molecular methods in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis versus the conventional cultural methods was evaluated. The impact of vaccination against meningitis-causing bacteria on the incidence of bacterial meningitis was also assessed. From a total of 1833 children hospitalized with suspected clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis, all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were analyzed by white blood cell (WBC) count, measurement of glucose, protein, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as by conventional bacteriologic culture methods. If samples showed altered CSF markers that were consistent with meningitis in general, they were further investigated by PCR for bacterial pathogens. Of the 1833 patients, 289 (15.76%) were found to be positive for meningitis after CSF examination, based on white blood cell count and differentiation, glucose, protein, and CRP. Fifty-six of the 289 (19.37%) had confirmed bacterial meningitis, as diagnosed by either culture and/or PCR. Of these 56 cases, 44 (78.6%) were detected only by PCR, and 12 cases (21.4%) were confirmed by PCR and culture. The predominant microorganism was Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (n = 40; 71.4%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae not typed [NT] (n = 7; 12.5%), Streptococcus spp. (n =4; 7.1%), Haemophilus influenzae NT (n = 2; 3.6%), and S. pneumoniae serotype 3, Streptococcus group B, and S. pneumoniae serotype 18C (each n = 1; 1.8%). In Greece, according to data from the National Meningitis Reference

  19. Renewable energy sources (RES) projects and their barriers on a regional scale: The case study of wind parks in the Dodecanese islands, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Emmanouil K.; Kilias, Vassilios; Goumas, Aggelos; Rigopoulos, Alexandrous; Karakatsani, Eirini; Damasiotis, Markos; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios; Marini, Natassa

    2009-01-01

    The increasing energy challenges faced, in particular, by isolated communities, such as insular communities, call for an integrated, flexible and easy-to-apply methodology aiming at providing a list of renewable energy sources) (RES) projects capable to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions, satisfy future energy forecasts and reach the objectives of international/national energy directives and obligations, as, for example, the ones set by the Kyoto Protocol by 2010. The EU project EMERGENCE 2010 developed such a methodology that is implemented here in the case study of wind parks in the Dodecanese islands in Greece. The results obtained consist of a final list of financially viable RES wind projects, for which various barriers have been previously identified and assessed. The additional advantages of the proposed methodology is that besides providing as an end result a comprehensive list of RES projects adopted to specific criteria and regional priorities, it also allows space for involving - from early stages - the local community and stakeholders in the decision-making process (participatory planning); in this way, the EMERGENCE 2010 methodology may assist towards the RES promotion and public acceptance, the profitability of RES investments and the regional sustainable development.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Burn Severity Field Data and Very High Resolution GeoEye Images: The Case of the 2011 Evros Wildfire in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Dragozi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring post-fire vegetation response using remotely-sensed images is a top priority for post-fire management. This study investigated the potential of very-high-resolution (VHR GeoEye images on detecting the field-measured burn severity of a forest fire that occurred in Evros (Greece during summer 2011. To do so, we analysed the role of topographic conditions and burn severity, as measured in the field immediately after the fire (2011 and one year after (2012 using the Composite Burn Index (CBI for explaining the post-fire vegetation response, which is measured using VHR satellite imagery. To determine this relationship, we applied redundancy analysis (RDA, which allowed us to identify which satellite variables among VHR spectral bands and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI can better express the post-fire vegetation response. Results demonstrated that in the first year after the fire event, variations in the post-fire vegetation dynamics can be properly detected using the GeoEye VHR data. Furthermore, results showed that remotely-sensed NDVI-based variables are able to encapsulate burn severity variability over time. Our analysis showed that, in this specific case, burn severity variations are mildly affected by the topography, while the NDVI index, as inferred from VHR data, can be successfully used to monitor the short-term post-fire dynamics of the vegetation recovery.

  1. An Empirical Study on Stochastic Mortality Modelling under the Age-Period-Cohort Framework: The Case of Greece with Applications to Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Bozikas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, life expectancy has risen significantly in the most developed countries all over the world. Greece is a case in point; consequently, higher governmental financial responsibilities occur as well as serious concerns are raised owing to population ageing. To address this issue, an efficient forecasting method is required. Therefore, the most important stochastic models were comparatively applied to Greek data for the first time. An analysis of their fitting behaviour by gender was conducted and the corresponding forecasting results were evaluated. In particular, we incorporated the Greek population data into seven stochastic mortality models under a common age-period-cohort framework. The fitting performance of each model was thoroughly evaluated based on information criteria values as well as the likelihood ratio test and their robustness to period changes was investigated. In addition, parameter risk in forecasts was assessed by employing bootstrapping techniques. For completeness, projection results for both genders were also illustrated in pricing insurance-related products.

  2. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  3. Physics-based and statistical earthquake forecasting in a continental rift zone: the case study of Corinth Gulf (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segou, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    I perform a retrospective forecast experiment in the most rapid extensive continental rift worldwide, the western Corinth Gulf (wCG, Greece), aiming to predict shallow seismicity (depth statistics, four physics-based (CRS) models, combining static stress change estimations and the rate-and-state laboratory law and one hybrid model. For the latter models, I incorporate the stress changes imparted from 31 earthquakes with magnitude M ≥ 4.5 at the extended area of wCG. Special attention is given on the 3-D representation of active faults, acting as potential receiver planes for the estimation of static stress changes. I use reference seismicity between 1990 and 1995, corresponding to the learning phase of physics-based models, and I evaluate the forecasts for six months following the 1995 M = 6.4 Aigio earthquake using log-likelihood performance metrics. For the ETAS realizations, I use seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 2.5 within daily update intervals to enhance their predictive power. For assessing the role of background seismicity, I implement a stochastic reconstruction (aka declustering) aiming to answer whether M > 4.5 earthquakes correspond to spontaneous events and identify, if possible, different triggering characteristics between aftershock sequences and swarm-type seismicity periods. I find that: (1) ETAS models outperform CRS models in most time intervals achieving very low rejection ratio RN = 6 per cent, when I test their efficiency to forecast the total number of events inside the study area, (2) the best rejection ratio for CRS models reaches RN = 17 per cent, when I use varying target depths and receiver plane geometry, (3) 75 per cent of the 1995 Aigio aftershocks that occurred within the first month can be explained by static stress changes, (4) highly variable performance on behalf of both statistical and physical models is suggested by large confidence intervals of information gain per earthquake and (5) generic ETAS models can adequately

  4. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Wang; Zhonggen Wang; Jingjie Yu; Yichi Zhang; Suzhen Dang

    2018-01-01

    Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrolo...

  5. Expansionary Adaptive Transformations of Socio-Hydrological Systems (SHSs): The Case of Drought in Messara Plain, Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzaki, Kalliopi; Daskalakis, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The paper attempts to document the ontology of socio-hydrological systems (SHSs), propose approaches of delimitation of SHSs' (territorial) boundaries, and investigate operational aspects of their adaptation to drought including repercussions on sustainability. To this end, a series of hypotheses are tested: (a) SHSs contain social subsystems with different expectations regarding water resources, different adaptive capacities, adaptation limits and prospects of sustainability, (b) SHSs do not adapt homogenously; some of their subsystems manage optimum adaptation, others fail to adapt and (c) territorial transformation of SHSs (e.g., through expansion of SHSs) may be the result of differential adaptation and sustainability potential within the SHS owing to power relations. After testing above hypotheses in the SHS of Messara Plain, Crete, the authors found out that powerful and dynamic sub-SHSs expand or break the boundaries of the initial SHS by establishing new relationships with other SHSs for the sake of resilience resources. Conversely, powerless sub-SHSs incapable to adapt descend and disappear. Therefore, territorial transformation of SHSs comes about from a combination of successful and failed adaptations, or in other words from different adaptation limits within SHSs. Consequently, water management and local development planning to guarantee adaptability to drought for all should be based on SHSs' analysis and management, not on jurisdictional areas or hydrological basins.

  6. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  7. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  8. A multi-criteria methodology for energy planning and developing renewable energy sources at a regional level: A case study Thassos, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourmouris, J.C.; Potolias, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rational energy planning under the pressure of environmental and economic problems is imperative to humanity. An evaluational framework is proposed in order to support energy planning for promoting the use of renewable energy sources. A multi-criteria decision analysis is adopted, detailing exploitation of renewable energy sources (including Wind, Solar, Biomass, Geothermal, and small Hydro) for power and heat generation. The aim of this paper is the analysis and development of a multilevel decision-making structure, utilizing multiple criteria for energy planning and exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources of at the regional level. The proposed evaluation framework focuses on the use of a multi-criteria approach as a tool for supporting energy planning in the area of concern, based on a pool of qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria. The final aim of this study is to discover the optimal amount of each Renewable Energy Source that can be produced in the region and to contribute to an optimal energy mix. In this paper, a case study for the island of Thassos, Greece is analyzed. The results prove that Renewable Energy Sources exploitation at a regional level can satisfy increasing power demands through environmental-friendly energy systems that combine wind power, biomass and PV systems. - Highlights: ► An evaluational framework is proposed in order to support energy planning. ► A multi-criteria decision analysis is adopted, detailing exploitation of RES for power and heat generation. ► The aim is to discover the optimal amount of each RES that can be produced in each region.

  9. Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

    2011-05-01

    Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

  10. Understanding how social enterprises can benefit from supportive legal frameworks : a case study report on social enterpreneurial models in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.a; Blomme, R.J.; Lambooy, T.E.; Kievit, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test how legal factors affect the corporate structure of a social enterprise. The current article focuses on the legal factor of governance as the decision-making power of stakeholders within the social enterprise. The authors conducted a case study and examined a major social

  11. Greece joins IPPOG as member

    CERN Document Server

    Marcelloni, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Dr. Patricia Kyprianidou, Secretary General for Research and Technology of Greece, signed the IPPOG MOU on behalf of Greece on 24 of May, 2018 in Athens. Christine Kourkoumelis, former representative of Greece in IPPOG handed over the documents to the IPPOG chairs, Hans Peter Beck and Steve Goldfarb and was present during a signature ceremony at CERN on 19 of June 2018. The current representative of Greece in IPPOG is Nicholas Tracas. IPPOG chairs would also like to thank Costas Foudas, delegate of Greece to the CERN council, for his support.

  12. Functioning of the Primary Aquifer Relating to the Maider Basin, Morocco: Case of the Ordovician aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-said, E.; Boukdir, A.; Mahboub, A.; Younsi, A.; Zitouni, A.; Alili, L.; Ikhmerdi, H.

    2018-05-01

    The basin of Maider is limited northly by the vast ensemble Oriental Saghro-Ougnate, from the east by the Tafilalet plain, from the west by the oriental Jbel Bani, finally from the south and south-east by the Cretaceous Hamada of Kern-Kem. During last decades, groundwater in the basin of Maider, is confronting degradation in both cases: Quantitative and qualitative, as a result of the drought, the overexploitation and the salinization. The aim of this action research is to understand the current state of water resources in the area of stady. At the end of this work, we can get the following conclusions: the general flow of the ordovician aquifer is always directed from the north to the south-east of the basin by following the principal axes of the wadis:Taghbalt, Hssiya and Fezzou. The recharge of the aquifer is primarily done, either by the underground flow, or by the surface runoff of torrential waters from the upstream of Jbel Saghro. The piezometric anomaly noticed at the level of Ait Saàdane, explained by overexploitation linked to the needs of irrigation water. The physicochemical approach for the Maider basin identifies two essential factors of the salinisation of groundwater: the dissolution of the aquifer which is rich in minerals with high temperature on the one hand, and the decrease of the piezometric surface due to the overexploitation and drought on the other hand.

  13. To Tip or Not to Tip: The Case of the Congo Basin Rainforest Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, S.; Bednar, J. E.; Fath, B. D.; Winter, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The future response of the Congo basin rainforest, the second largest tropical carbon reservoir, to climate change is still under debate. Different Climate projections exist stating increase and decrease in rainfall and different changes in rainfall patterns. Within this study we assess all options of climate change possibilities to define the climatic thresholds of Congo basin rainforest stability and assess the limiting conditions for rainforest persistence. We use field data from 199 research plots from the Western Congo basin to calibrate and validate a complex BioGeoChemistry model (BGC-MAN) and assess model performance against an array of possible future climates. Next, we analyze the reasons for the occurrence of tipping points, their spatial and temporal probability of occurrence, will present effects of hysteresis and derive probabilistic spatial-temporal resilience landscapes for the region. Additionally, we will analyze attractors of forest growth dynamics and assess common linear measures for early warning signals of sudden shifts in system dynamics for their robustness in the context of the Congo Basin case, and introduce the correlation integral as a nonlinear measure of risk assessment.

  14. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  15. Assesing the net fiscal consequences of tobacco use in a high consumption and high tobacco tax country: The case of Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsopoulos, N.; Mergos, G.; Postma, M.; Connolly, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Greece has increasing prevalence of tobacco use and one of the highest consumption rates in Europe. Notwithstanding that tobacco tax is an important fiscal revenue, smoking represents a major public health threat causing premature mortality, morbidity, costs and foregone productivity

  16. Reconstructing the 2015 Flash Flood event of Salgar Colombia, The Case of a Poor Gauged Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, N.; Zapata, E.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.; Velez, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods events associated with severe precipitation events are highly destructive, often resulting in significant human and economic losses. Due to their nature, flash floods trend to occur in medium to small basins located within complex high mountainous regions. In the Colombian Andean region these basins are very common, with the aggravating factor that the vulnerability is considerably high as some important human settlements are located within these basins, frequently occupating flood plains and other flash-flood prone areas. During the dawn of May 18 of 2015 two severe rainfall events generated a flash flood event in the municipality ofSalgar, La Liboriana basin, locatedin the northwestern Colombian Andes, resulting in more than 100 human casualties and significant economic losses. The present work is a reconstruction of the hydrological processes that took place before and during the Liboriana flash flood event, analyzed as a case of poorly gauged basin.The event conditions where recreated based on radar retrievals and a hydrological distributed model, linked with a proposed 1D hydraulic model and simple shallow landslide model. Results suggest that the flash flood event was caused by the occurrence of two successive severe convective events over the same basin, with an important modulation associated with soil characteristics and water storage.Despite of its simplicity, the proposed hydraulic model achieves a good representation of the flooded area during the event, with limitations due to the adopted spatial scale (12.7 meters, from ALOS PALSAR images). Observed landslides were obtained from satellite images; for this case the model simulates skillfully the landslide occurrence regions with small differences in the exact locations.To understand this case, radar data shows to be key due to specific convective cores location and rainfall intensity estimation.In mountainous regions, there exists a significant number of settlements with similar

  17. Ceramic analysis in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilditch, J.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific, analytical or ‘archaeometric’ techniques for investigating ceramic material have been used within archaeology for over 50 years and now constitute an indispensable tool for archaeologists in the Aegean world (see Jones 1986 for a detailed summary of early work in Greece and Italy) and

  18. Geochemical controls on fluoriferous groundwaters of the Pliocene and the more recent aquifers: The case of Aigion region, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Siavalas, G.; Lambrakis, N.

    2013-12-01

    High fluoride concentrations (> 8 mg/L) in the groundwater of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments are rare; however, this is the case around Aigion town, where teeth fluorosis has been detected since the 80s. Aiming to investigate the origin and the mobility mechanism of fluorine in groundwater and sediments a hydrogeological and geochemical research has been conducted. The hydrogeological research revealed that the Na-HCO3 water type of boreholes aligned along a fault and hosted in the confined aquifers display the higher fluoride content. The unconfined aquifer is mostly dominated by Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water, which displays much lower fluoride concentrations. The most permeable sectors of this aquifer host fresh water of Ca-HCO3 type. The geochemical research revealed significant amount of fluorine in the base of a lignite sequence hosted in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments.

  19. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  20. Mapping seismic intensity using twitter data; A Case study: The February 26th, 2014 M5.9 Kefallinia (Greece) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis; Parcharidis, Isaak; Kalogeras, Ioannis; Drakatos, George

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present an innovative approach for the development of seismic intensity maps in minimum time frame. As case study, a recent earthquake that occurred in Western Greece (Kefallinia Island, on February 26, 2014) is used. The magnitude of the earthquake was M=5.9 (Institute of Geodynamics - National Observatory of Athens). Earthquake's effects comprising damages in property and changes of the physical environment in the area. The innovative part of this research is that we use crowdsourcing as a source to assess macroseismic intensity information, coming out from twitter content. Twitter as a social media service with micro-blogging characteristics, a semantic structure which allows the storage of spatial content, and a high volume production of user generated content is a suitable source to obtain and extract knowledge related to macroseismic intensity in different geographic areas and in short time periods. Moreover the speed in which twitter content is generated affects us to have accurate results only a few hours after the occurrence of the earthquake. The method used in order to extract, evaluate and map the intensity related information is described in brief in this paper. At first, we pick out all the tweets that have been posted within the first 48 hours, including information related to intensity and refer to a geographic location. The geo-referencing of these tweets and their association with an intensity grade according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98) based on the information they contain in text followed. Finally, we apply various spatial statistics and GIS methods, and we interpolate the values to cover all the appropriate geographic areas. The final output contains macroseismic intensity maps for the Lixouri area (Kefallinia Island), produced from twitter data that have been posted in the first six, twelve, twenty four and forty eight hours after the earthquake occurrence. Results are compared with other intensity maps for same

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS AND THE QUALITY OF THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AS FACTORS TO ATTRACT FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos CHOROMIDES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI is considered by researchers as a critical factor for economic growth and development since they have shown a positive relationship between FDI and economic growth. The recent economic crisis in the European Union (EU has brought up again the discussion of the key drivers specific to the attraction of FDI. In addition to strict economic factors the literature emphasizes the role of institutions in a country as determinants in attracting FDI inflows. An analysis of the role that the quality of institutions in attracting FDI has in Greece is attempted using an econometric model on institutional, regulatory, country specific and firm level data. For the purpose of giving a regional dimension in the analysis, and for attempting a comparison of the findings, the analysis focuses besides Greece, in two other Southeastern European countries (SEE, Bulgaria and Romania, being two new member states of the EU.

  2. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  3. Hydrograph sensitivity to estimates of map impervious cover: a WinHSPF BASINS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, Theodore A.; Somerlot, Christopher; Hassett, James M.

    2003-04-01

    The BASINS geographic information system hydrologic toolkit was designed to compute total maximum daily loads, which are often derived by combining water quantity estimates with pollutant concentration estimates. In this paper the BASINS toolkit PLOAD and WinHSPF sub-models are briefly described, and then a 0·45 km2 headwater watershed in the New York Croton River area is used for a case study illustrating a full WinHSPF implementation. The goal of the Croton study was to determine the sensitivity of WinHSPF hydrographs to changes in land cover map inputs. This scenario occurs when scaling the WinHSPF model from the smaller 0·45 km2 watershed to the larger 1000 km2 management basin of the entire Croton area. Methods used to test model sensitivity include first calibrating the WinHSPF hydrograph using research-monitored precipitation and discharge data together with high spatial resolution and accuracy land cover data of impervious and pervious areas, and then swapping three separate land cover files, known as GIRAS, MRLC, and DOQQ data, into the calibrated model. Research results indicated that the WinHSPF land cover swapping had peak flow sensitivity in December 2001 hydrographs between 35% underestimation and 20% overestimation, and that errors in land-cover-derived runoff ratios for storm totals and peak flows tracked with the land cover data estimates of impervious area.

  4. Individual and contextual variables affecting entrepreneurship, innovation and application of new technologies in Greece. Case study from the Greek tourism and transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoni, Vicky; Sahinidis, Alexandros G.

    2018-01-01

    One of the remaining gaps in the extant entrepreneurship literature relates to the insufficient understanding of the role of culture, and the need for elucidating its effects on the entrepreneurial process dynamics. Despite the crisis, Greece experiences a vibrant start-up scene and the entire capital city of Athens is buzzing with activity. Despite cultural differences between the North and South of Europe, it seems that there is a lot of cooperation between young people wanting to create th...

  5. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Built Environment, Travel Attitudes and Travel Behaviour: Quasi-Longitudinal Analysis of Links in the Case of Greeks Relocating from US to Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Milakis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the possible causal links between the built environment, travel attitudes and travel behaviour of people that have moved between totally different urban and transportation contexts were investigated. A quasi-longitudinal design was developed to collect data about the perceived neighbourhood characteristics, neighbourhood preferences, travel attitudes and changes in car, walking and bicycle usage of 51 Greeks who relocated from the US to Greece. Variable reduction techniques were applied prior to developing our models because of the small sample size. The results of this study offer support for a causal relationship between the built environment and travel behaviour identified in the existing literature. For instance, longer travel time to city center was associated with higher car use, higher density neighbourhoods and increased accessibility to local amenities were associated with increased bike use and better access to a district shopping center was associated with more walking after relocation. Our results also showed that in contexts like Greece, where transport infrastructures are not adequately developed, lack of safe bike conditions and easy access to public transportation are important determinants of bicycle use and walking. Thus, according to our results, promoting sustainable mobility in contexts like Greece would require not only enhancing accessibility through relocation of activities, but also by improving infrastructures for public transport, bicycle and walking.

  7. Tsunami Induced Resonance in Enclosed Basins; Case Study of Haydarpasa Port In Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Rozita; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey; Aytore, Betul

    2015-04-01

    Coincidence of the frequency of forcing mechanisms and the natural frequency of free oscillations in the harbors or basins leads to formation of resonance oscillations and additional amplifications in the basins. This phenomenon becomes much more critical when it is caused by a tsunamis. In the cases of tsunami induced basin resonances, the wave amplifications may occur with more and unexpected damages. The harbor resilience against the marine hazards is important for the performance and success of recovery operations. Classifying the tsunami effects on the ports and harbors and on their functions is the main concern of this study. There are two types of impacts; direct impacts including structural damages due to strong currents, high water elevation and indirect ones because of basin resonance expose to seiche oscillations. The sea of Marmara has experienced numerous (more than 30) tsunamis in history where a highly populated metropolitan city Istanbul is located at North coast of Maramara sea. There are numerous ports and harbors located at Istanbul Coast. Haydarpasa port (41.0033 N, 29.0139 E) in Istanbul coast near Marmara sea, as a case study is selected to test its resilience under tsunami attack by numerical experiments. There are two breakwaters in Haydarpasa port with total length of three kilometers and the shape of basins are regular. Applying numerical model (NAMI DANCE) which solves nonlinear form of shallow water equations, the resonance oscillations in Haydarpasa Port is investigated by following the method given in Yalciner and Pelinovsky, (2006). In the applications, high resolution bathymetry and topography are used and an initial impulse is inputted to the study domain in the simulations. The computed time histories of water surface fluctuations at different locations inside the harbor are analyzed by using Fast Fourier Transform technique. The frequencies where the peaks of spectrum curves indicates the amplification of waves in the respective

  8. Drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins: A case study from the Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins was proposed in this paper. This paper utilized 3D seismic data, well-log and the principles methods associated with structural geology, sedimentology and geochemistry, to analyze the drowning unconformity and discuss the origins of drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin.Researching on it is not only important for a better understanding of tectonic evolution, palaeogeography and sedimentation of hydrocarbon source rocks, but also a vital guiding significance for the exploration of beach-bar sandstone reservoirs and shale oil.1. The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins is defined. With the consequences of rapid tectonic subsidence in basin, the sharp rise of lake-level and the increased rate of accommodation(A) in basin exceeded the rate of sediment supply(S),namely A>>S, the basin suddenly transformed into deep-water settings from shallow-water settings with sudden change of sediment transport and sediment dispersal patterns. 2.The sequence surface between Sha4 and Sha3 Member of Shahejie Formation is the drowning unconformity(43.5Ma). There are the sedimentary association of the reefs in shallow lacustrine, beach-bar sandstones and glutenite fan bodies under the surface. By contrast, there are the sedimentary association of deep-lake oil shales and shales over the surface. The drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag is a tectonic revolution surface which is changed from extensional tectonics to transtensional tectonics and it is also the surface of discontinuity from shallow lacustrine to deep lacustrine. The responses to sudden changes appeared in the parameters of geophysics, geochemistry and paleontology. 3. With the penetration of India into Asia plate in NNE trending,the subduction zones of Pacific Plate retreated. It caused the rapid downwelling of asthenospheric mantle, followed by the extensive drowning unconformity.

  9. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa : The case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  10. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa: The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  11. Analysis of efficiency of pollution reduction measures in rural basin using MIKE Basin model. Case study: Olšava River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiglová Jana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of testing the applicability of the MIKE Basin model for simulating the efficiency of scenarios for reducing water pollution. The model has been tested on the Olšava River Basin (520 km2 which is a typical rural region with a heterogeneous mix of pollution sources with variable topography and land use. The study proved that the model can be calibrated successfully using even the limited amount of data typically available in rural basins. The scenarios of pollution reduction were based on implementation and intensification of municipal wastewater treatment and conversion of arable land on fields under the risk of soil erosion to permanent grassland. The application of simulation results of these scenarios with proposed measures proved decreasing concentrations in downstream monitoring stations. Due to the practical applicability of proposed measures, these could lead to fulfilment of the water pollution limits required by the Czech and EU legislation. However, there are factors of uncertainty that are discussed that may delay or limit the effect of adopted measures in small rural basins.

  12. How Widely Applicable is River Basin Management? An Analysis of Wastewater Management in an Arid Transboundary Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Ines; Almog, Ram; Becker, Nir; Feitelson, Eran; Klawitter, Simone; Lindemann, Stefan; Mutlak, Natalie

    2010-05-01

    The basin scale has been promoted universally as the optimal management unit that allows for the internalization of all external effects caused by multiple water uses. However, the basin scale has been put forward largely on the basis of experience in temperate zones. Hence whether the basin scale is the best scale for management in other settings remains questionable. To address these questions this paper analyzes the economic viability and the political feasibility of alternative management options in the Kidron/Wadi Nar region. The Kidron/Wadi Nar is a small basin in which wastewater from eastern Jerusalem flows through the desert to the Dead Sea. Various options for managing these wastewater flows were analyzed ex ante on the basis of both a cost benefit and a multi-criteria analysis. The paper finds that due to economies of scale, a pure basin approach is not desirable from a physical and economic perspective. Furthermore, in terms of political feasibility, it seems that the option which prompts the fewest objections from influential stakeholder groups in the two entities under the current asymmetrical political setting is not a basin solution either, but a two plant solution based on an outsourcing arrangement. These findings imply that the river basin management approach can not be considered the best management approach for the arid transboundary case at hand, and hence is not unequivocally universally applicable.

  13. Measuring the efficiency of the Greek rural primary health care using a restricted DEA model; the case of southern and western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Argiris; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-12-01

    This is a study to measure the efficiency of the rural Health Centres (HCs) and their Regional Surgeries (RSs) of the 6th Health Prefecture (HP) of Greece, which covers Southern and Western Greece. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied under Constant and Variable Returns to Scale, using a weight-restricted, output-oriented model, to calculate pure technical efficiency (PΤΕ), scale efficiency (SE) and total technical efficiency (TE). The selection of inputs, outputs and their relative weights in the model was based on two consecutive consensus panels of experts on Primary Health Care (PHC). Medical personnel, nursing personnel and technological equipment were chosen as inputs and were attributed appropriate weight restrictions. Acute, chronic and preventive consultations where chosen as outputs; each output was constructed by smaller subcategories of different relative importance. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all HCs of the covered area. From the 42 HCs which provided complete data, the study identified 9 as technical efficient, 5 as scale efficient and 2 as total efficient. The mean TE, PTE and SE scores of the HCs of the 6th Health Prefecture were 0.57, 0.67 and 0.87, respectively. The results demonstrate noteworthy variation in efficiency in the productive process of the HCs of Southern and Western Greece. The dominant form of inefficiency was technical inefficiency. The HCs of the 6th HP can theoretically produce 33 % more output on average, using their current production factors. These results indicated potential for considerable efficiency improvement in most rural health care units. Emphasis on prevention and chronic disease management, as well as wider structural and organisational reforms, are discussed from the viewpoint of how to increase efficiency.

  14. Calcareous nannoplankton dating of the Late Quaternary deposits in Greece and the eastern Mediterranean: Case studies from terrestrial and marine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Triantaphyllou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi assemblages in the marine sediments of the Aravonitsa Plateau, Greece, and from the eastern Mediterranean are used (1 to evaluate the calcareous nannoplankton NN21a and NN21b biozones and the NN21a/NN21b boundary, and (2 to analyze the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions prevailing in this interval. The sediment succession displays varied E. huxleyi assemblages and these are interpreted as reflecting climatic variability during marine isotope stages MIS 1–8.

  15. Evaluation of the first outcomes of decentralization reform with “kallikratis plan” in greece: The case of Ilida’s municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Sofianou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, not only in the European Union but also throughout the world, are adopting decentralization reforms in order to empower local communities. Decentralization is the process of transferring authority, responsibility and accountability from central to local governments. To accomplish this, Greek government applied the Law 3852/10 «Kallikratis plan», reforming the local self administration and its duties. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the conceptual framework analysis of the relation between decentralization and democratic local governance in Greece, to explore opportunities and propose ways to establish or further strengthen democracy at the local level.

  16. Full cost accounting as a tool for the financial assessment of Pay-As-You-Throw schemes: a case study for the Panorama municipality, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Xirogiannopoulou, Anna; Tchobanoglous, George

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, implementation scenarios of a Pay-As-You-Throw program were developed and analyzed for the first time in Greece. Firstly, the necessary steps for implementing a Pay-As-You-Throw program were determined. A database was developed for the needs of the full cost accounting method, where all financial and waste-production data were inserted, in order to calculate the unit price of charging for four different implementation scenarios of the "polluter-pays" principle. For each scenario, the input in waste management cost was estimated, as well as the total waste charges for households. Finally, a comparative analysis of the results was performed.

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Burn Severity Field Data and Very High Resolution GeoEye Images: The Case of the 2011 Evros Wildfire in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Dragozi; Ioannis Z. Gitas; Sofia Bajocco; Dimitris G. Stavrakoudis

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring post-fire vegetation response using remotely-sensed images is a top priority for post-fire management. This study investigated the potential of very-high-resolution (VHR) GeoEye images on detecting the field-measured burn severity of a forest fire that occurred in Evros (Greece) during summer 2011. To do so, we analysed the role of topographic conditions and burn severity, as measured in the field immediately after the fire (2011) and one year after (2012) using the Composite Burn ...

  18. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  19. A case-control study of hopelessness and suicidal behavior in the city of Athens, Greece. The role of the financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Gkerekou, Maria; Bouras, Georgios; Papadopoulou, Athanasia; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in Greek patients with a recent suicide attempt, the predictive ability of BHS especially in terms of age and the possible effect of the financial crisis on hopelessness as it has been identified as a significant suicide risk factor. The study included a total of 510 individuals, citizens of Athens, Greece. Three hundred and forty individuals (170 attempted suicide patients, and 170 -age and gender- matched healthy individuals used as controls) completed BHS before the financial crisis onset (from 2009 to 2010). A sample of 170 healthy individuals also completed the BHS after the financial crisis onset (from 2013 to 2014), when the impact of the austerity measures was being felt by the Greek society. The Greek BHS version demonstrated good psychometric properties and a sufficient degree of internal consistency. Attempted suicide patients (M = 9) presented higher hopelessness than the controls (M = 3). The patients' age positively correlated with hopelessness (r s  = .35, p  .05) the crisis onset. Nevertheless, regarding the latter group, the women, the younger individuals, the less educated, the unemployed and the participants with low or mediocre self-reported financial status presented increased hopelessness. Our findings suggest that BHS could be a useful instrument especially when screening for suicide risk in people of older age, and that the financial crisis in Greece had a greater impact on subgroups of the population regarding hopelessness.

  20. Space-borne Observations of Atmospheric Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas: Case Study for Greece 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D. P.; Pulinets, S. A.; Davidenko, D. A.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    We are conducting theoretical studies and practical validation of atm osphere/ionosphere phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on monitoring of two physical parameters from space: outgoi ng long-wavelength radiation (OLR) on the top of the atmosphere and e lectron and electron density variations in the ionosphere via GPS Tot al Electron Content (GPS/TEC). We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of OLR an GPS/TEC parameters characterizing the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before four m ajor earthquakes (M>6) in Greece for 2008-2009: M6.9 of 02.12.08, M6. 2 02.20.08; M6.4 of 06.08.08 and M6.4 of 07.01.09.We found anomalous behavior before all of these events (over land and sea) over regions o f maximum stress. We expect that our analysis reveal the underlying p hysics of pre-earthquake signals associated with some of the largest earthquakes in Greece.

  1. The genesis of the Nissi peatland (northwestern Greece) as an example of peat and lignite deposit formation in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianis, K. (University of Patras, Patras (Greece). Dept of Geology)

    1994-07-01

    The Nissi Fen is located in a 12 km[sup 2] intramontane basin in northwestern Greece. Since the last glacial, limnotelmatic and pure telmatic conditions, controlled mainly by karstic springs and partly by surface waters, favoured peat formation in the basin, resulting in the accumulation of a peat deposit up to 15 m thick. The present fen occupies a large area of almost 9 km[sup 2]. Flora cover comprises mainly Cyperaceae ([ital Cladium mariscus] and [ital Carex] species), while [ital Phragmites australis] extend along the banks of a river flowing through the basin, as well as around a lake in the southern part of the fen. These species also contributed to the peat formation. The Nissi peatland shows many genetic similarities to the Philippi peat deposit, Eastern Macedonia, and may be considered as a recent analogue to the lignite deposits in the basins of Ptolemais, Western Macedonia and Megalopolis, the Peloponnese. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Late Pleistocene sedimentation: A case study of the central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D

    -Sea Research 1, Vol 40, No 4, pp 761-775, 1993 0967-0637/93 $6 00 + 0 00 Printed m Great Britain © 1993 Pergamon Press Lid Late Pleistocene sedimentation: a case study of the central Indian Ocean Basin D. V. BOROLE* (Recetved 26 August 1988, in revised... 26 + 0 11 4 10 + 0.20 1 30 + 0 10 5 03 20-25 1 10 + 0.07 3 60 + 0.14 1 08 ___ 0 09 5 3 30-35 1 51 + 0.10 3.28 + 0 34 1.10 + 0.15 5 3 65-70 1.08 + 0 05 3 20 + 0.23 0 97 + 0.09 4 38 80-85 0 81 + 0 05 1 80 + 0.12 0 63 + 0 06 4 37 Conanued 766 D V...

  3. A Case Study: Climate Change Decision Support for the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, Flint Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, G. N.; McMahon, G.; Friesen, N.; Carney, S.

    2011-12-01

    Riverside Technology, inc. has developed a Climate Change Decision Support System (DSS) to provide water managers with a tool to explore a range of current Global Climate Model (GCM) projections to evaluate their potential impacts on streamflow and the reliability of future water supplies. The system was developed as part of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The DSS uses downscaled GCM data as input to small-scale watershed models to produce time series of projected undepleted streamflow for various emission scenarios and GCM simulations. Until recently, water managers relied on historical streamflow data for water resources planning. In many parts of the country, great effort has been put into estimating long-term historical undepleted streamflow accounting for regulation, diversions, and return flows to support planning and water rights administration. In some cases, longer flow records have been constructed using paleohydrologic data in an attempt to capture climate variability beyond what is evident during the observed historical record. Now, many water managers are recognizing that historical data may not be representative of an uncertain climate future, and they have begun to explore the use of climate projections in their water resources planning. The Climate Change DSS was developed to support water managers in planning by accounting for both climate variability and potential climate change. In order to use the information for impact analysis, the projected streamflow time series can be exported and substituted for the historical streamflow data traditionally applied in their system operations models for water supply planning. This paper presents a case study in which climate-adjusted flows are coupled with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) ResSim model for the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint (ACF) River basins. The study demonstrates how climate scenarios can be used

  4. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Erin E; Naiman, Robert J; Marineau, Mathieu D

    2012-10-01

    We provide a case study prioritizing instream flow restoration activities by sub-basin according to the habitat needs of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonids relative to climate change in the central Columbia River basin in Washington State (USA). The objective is to employ scenario analysis to inform and improve existing instream flow restoration projects. We assess the sensitivity of late summer (July, August, and September) flows to the following scenario simulations - singly or in combination: climate change, changes in the quantity of water used for irrigation and possible changes to existing water resource policy. Flows for four sub-basins were modeled using the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) under historical and projected conditions of 2020 and 2040 for each scenario. Results indicate that Yakima will be the most flow-limited sub-basin with average reductions in streamflow of 41% under climate conditions of 2020 and 56% under 2040 conditions; 1.3-2.5 times greater than those of other sub-basins. In addition, irrigation plays a key role in the hydrology of the Yakima sub-basin - with flow reductions ranging from 78% to 90% under severe to extreme (i.e., 20-40%) increases in agricultural water use (2.0-4.4 times the reductions in the other sub-basins). The Yakima and Okanogan sub-basins are the most responsive to simulations of flow-bolstering policy change (providing salmon with first priority water allocation and at biologically relevant flows), as demonstrated by 91-100% target flows attained. The Wenatchee and Methow sub-basins do not exhibit similar responsiveness to simulated policy changes. Considering climate change only, we conclude that flow restoration should be prioritized first in the Yakima and Wenatchee sub-basins, and second in the Okanogan and Methow. Considering both climate change and possible policy changes, we recommend that the Yakima sub-basin receive the highest priority for flow restoration activities to sustain

  5. A comparison of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among students of helping professions in Crete, Greece: the cases of social work, psychology, medicine, and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Vasileia; Plotnikof, Kyriaki; Gioumidou, Meropi; Zisimou, Vasiliki; Papadaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among social work, psychology, medical, and nursing students in Crete, Greece, using Herek's ATLG scale. No respondents held completely heterosexist attitudes; only 1.6% held completely non-heterosexist attitudes. The 44.96 total ATLG score indicates a slightly positive attitude toward lesbians and gay men. Psychology students scored higher than all others on positive attitudes, followed by social work students, medical students, and nursing students. Gender, having lesbian or gay acquaintances or friends, and religiosity were significant factors influencing students' attitudes, while no impact on attitudes due to the effects of higher education could be discerned. Implications for curriculum design and teaching methods are discussed.

  6. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  7. Greece Experience of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan V. Labzhaniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism offers a real opportunity to invite investments, decline unemployment and increase production, which will help to overcome crisis and come to sustainable development, badly needed for Greece now.

  8. Soil moisture behavior in an experimental basin in Northeast of brazil - the case of Guaraira river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura Ramos Filho, Geraldo; das Neves Almeida, Cristiano; da Silva Freitas, Emerson

    2017-04-01

    In 2003, a hydrological network of the semiarid region (REHISA in Portuguese) was created in Brazil. Since then, experimental watersheds in this region have been providing hydro meteorological data collected in automatic gauges. One of these basins is the Guaraíra river basin, which is operated and maintained by the Federal University of Paraíba. This experimental watershed is located in the coastal region of Paraíba state, where the average annual rainfall is 1.700 mm. According to Köppen its climate is tropical with dry summer, and the drainage area is 5,84 km2. At this experimental basin four rainfall and one climate gauges were installed in 2003. In all of these gauges the soil moisture is monitored hourly with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe representing the 30 cm layer. According to previous analysis the spatial distribution of rainfall in the experimental basin is very low and also soil texture, which is sandy. However, the land use is different and the behavior of the soil moisture is also different. Thus, this paper present part of a study that tries to understand the difference between two gauges, in terms of soil moisture. In order to do this, two years data base were used of different gauges, gauges 2 and 4. In the first part of the study, just the descendent part of the soil moisture curve were used. Different data periods were select from a peak to a stabilization point and then the soil moisture Drying Rate (DR) was calculated to show the speed that a peak reaches the stabilization point. The data analysis was carried out considering the whole data together, then the data were shared into dry and wet periods. The results show that for the gauge 2 the DR range from 0.0335 to 2.772x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.632x10-3 kg/kg.h. On the other hand, the gauge 4 present values that range from 0.0139 to 3.617x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.375x10-3 kg/kg.h. As can be seen, both gauges presented different DR. When the data set is share into

  9. The Hack's law applied to young volcanic basin: the Tahiti case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Sichoix, L.; Barriot, J.; Serafini, J.

    2010-12-01

    We study the channel morphology over the Tahiti island from the Hack’s law perspective. The Hack’s law is an empirical power relationship between basin drainage area and the length of its main channel. It had also been shown that drainage area becomes more elongate with increasing basin size. For typical continental basins, the exponent value lies between 0.47 for basins larger than 260,000 km2 and 0.7 for those spanning less than 20,720 km2 (Muller, 1973). In Tahiti, we extracted 27 principal basins ranging from 7 km2 to 90 km2 from a Digital Terrain Model of the island with a 5 m-resolution. We demonstrate that the Hack’s law still apply for such small basins (correlation coefficient R2=0.7) with an exponent value being approximately 0.5. It appears that the exponent value is influenced by the local geomorphic condition, and does not follow the previous study results (the exponent value decreases with increasing drainage area.) Our exponent value matches the result found w.r.t. debris-flow basins of China for drainage areas less than 100 km2 (Li et al., 2008). Otherwise, the young volcanic basins of Tahiti do not become longer and narrower with increasing basin size (R2=0.1). Besides, there is no correlation between the basin area and the basin convexity (R2=0). This means that there is no statistical change in basin shape with basin size. We present also the drainage area-slope relationship with respect to sediment or transport-limited processes. Key words: Hack’s law, channel morphology, DTM

  10. Gender Wage Differentials in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelia Papapetrou

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies the existence of wage differentials between male and female employees in Greece employing quantile regession analysis techniques and applying a variant of the selection-adjusted Oaxaca and Ransom (1994) decomposition method to explain the components of the wage differentials. The results suggest that, in Greece, differences in wages between men and women can be identified. Decomposing the wage gap between genders, the results show that the difference in wages is attributed m...

  11. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Collischonn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems’ performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June. The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  12. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  13. Simulation of the catastrophic floods caused by extreme rainfall events - Uh River basin case study

    OpenAIRE

    Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Mitková, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    The extreme rainfall events in Central and East Europe on August 2002 rise the question, how other basins would respond on such rainfall situations. Such theorisation helps us to arrange in advance the necessary activity in the basin to reduce the consequence of the assumed disaster. The aim of the study is to recognise a reaction of the Uh River basin (Slovakia, Ukraine) to the simulated catastrophic rainfall events from August 2002. Two precipitation scenarios, sc1 and sc2, were created. Th...

  14. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  15. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Keskinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is promoted as a new approach for research and policy-making. But what does the nexus mean in practice and what kinds of benefits does it bring? In this article we share our experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake area. We conclude that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong. We also identify and discuss two parallel dimensions for the nexus, with one focusing on research and analysis and the other on integrated planning and cross-sectoral collaboration. In our study, the nexus approach was particularly useful in facilitating collaboration and stakeholder engagement. This was because the nexus approach clearly defines the main themes included in the process, and at the same time widens the discussion from mere water resource management into the broader aspects of water, energy and food security.

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  17. Changes without changes: the Puebla's Alto Atoyac sub-basin case in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Since the year 2000, actions at the three governmental levels have taken place to improve water quality in Mexico’s Puebla Alto Atoyac sub-basin. This paper reports a situation in which several policy actors have been striving for water quality improvement in that polluted sub-basin. However, when

  18. Incorporating ecosystem function concept in environmental planning and decision making by means of multi-criteria evaluation: the case-study of Kalloni, Lesbos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Vera; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Troumbis, Andreas Y

    2011-01-01

    Nature provides life-support services which do not merely constitute the basis for ecosystem integrity but also benefit human societies. The importance of such multiple outputs is often ignored or underestimated in environmental planning and decision making. The economic valuation of ecosystem functions or services has been widely used to make these benefits economically visible and thus address this deficiency. Alternatively, the relative importance of the components of ecosystem value can be identified and compared by means of multi-criteria evaluation. Hereupon, this article proposes a conceptual framework that couples ecosystem function analysis, multi criteria evaluation and social research methodologies for introducing an ecosystem function-based planning and management approach. The framework consists of five steps providing the structure of a participative decision making process which is then tested and ratified, by applying the discrete multi-criteria method NAIADE, in the Kalloni Natura 2000 site, on Lesbos, Greece. Three scenarios were developed and evaluated with regard to their impacts on the different types of ecosystem functions and the social actors' value judgements. A conflict analysis permitted the better elaboration of the different views, outlining the coalitions formed in the local community and shaping the way towards reaching a consensus.

  19. Assessing Wildfire Risk in Cultural Heritage Properties Using High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Satellite Imagery and Spatially Explicit Fire Simulations: The Case of Holy Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Mallinis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire management implications and the design of conservation strategies on fire prone landscapes within the UNESCO World Heritage Properties require the application of wildfire risk assessment at landscape level. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variation of wildfire risk on Holy Mount Athos in Greece. Mt. Athos includes 20 monasteries and other structures that are threatened by increasing frequency of wildfires. Site-specific fuel models were created by measuring in the field several fuel parameters in representative natural fuel complexes, while the spatial extent of the fuel types was determined using a synergy of high-resolution imagery and high temporal information from medium spatial resolution imagery classified through object-based analysis and a machine learning classifier. The Minimum Travel Time (MTT algorithm, as it is embedded in FlamMap software, was applied in order to evaluate Burn Probability (BP, Conditional Flame Length (CFL, Fire Size (FS, and Source-Sink Ratio (SSR. The results revealed low burn probabilities for the monasteries; however, nine out of the 20 monasteries have high fire potential in terms of fire intensity, which means that if an ignition occurs, an intense fire is expected. The outputs of this study may be used for decision-making for short-term predictions of wildfire risk at an operational level, contributing to fire suppression and management of UNESCO World Heritage Properties.

  20. A comprehensive approach for the simulation of the Urban Heat Island effect with the WRF/SLUCM modeling system: The case of Athens (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, Christos; Nenes, Athanasios; Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a comprehensive modeling approach for simulating the spatiotemporal distribution of urban air temperatures with a modeling system that includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) with a modified treatment of the impervious surface temperature. The model was applied to simulate a 3-day summer heat wave event over the city of Athens, Greece. The simulation, using default SLUCM parameters, is capable of capturing the observed diurnal variation of urban temperatures and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in the greater Athens Area (GAA), albeit with systematic biases that are prominent during nighttime hours. These biases are particularly evident over low-intensity residential areas, and they are associated with the surface and urban canopy properties representing the urban environment. A series of sensitivity simulations unravels the importance of the sub-grid urban fraction parameter, surface albedo, and street canyon geometry in the overall causation and development of the UHI effect. The sensitivities are then used to determine optimal values of the street canyon geometry, which reproduces the observed temperatures throughout the simulation domain. The optimal parameters, apart from considerably improving model performance (reductions in mean temperature bias from 0.30 °C to 1.58 °C), are also consistent with actual city building characteristics - which gives confidence that the model set-up is robust, and can be used to study the UHI in the GAA in the anticipated warmer conditions in the future.

  1. A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ioannou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW and food processing wastes for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production.

  2. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  3. USING THE FOURNIER INDEXES IN ESTIMATING RAINFALL EROSIVITY. CASE STUDY - THE SECAŞUL MARE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. COSTEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the Fournier Index in Estimating Rainfall Erosivity. Case Study - The Secaşul Mare Basin. Climatic aggressiveness is one of the most important factors in relief dynamic. Of all climatic parameters, rainfall is directly involved in versant dynamic, in the loss of soil quality and through pluvial denudation and the processes associated with it, through the erosivity of torrential rain. We analyzed rainfall aggressiveness based on monthly and annual average values through the Fournier's index (1970 and Fournier's index modified by Arnoldus (1980. They have the advantage that they can be used not only for evaluating the land susceptibility to erosion and the calculation of erodibility of land and soil losses, but also in assessing land susceptibility to sliding (Aghiruş, 2010. The literature illustrates the successful use of this index which provides a summary assessment of the probability of rainfall with significant erosive effects. The results obtained allow observation of differences in space and time of the distribution of this index.

  4. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A

    2017-02-01

      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  5. The Development of Topography in Ancient and Active Orogens: Case Studies of Landscape Evolution in the Southern Appalachians, USA and Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean Francis

    Understanding the development of topography is fundamental to the geosciences. Topography represents the sum of all tectonic and geodynamic processes that force the earth's surface upward paired with those that act to bring it down. Spatial and temporal changes in topographic relief can modulate the various feedbacks between atmospheric, earth surface and rock exhumation processes, sediment flux, and the magnitude and style of gravity driven natural hazards. Plate tectonics provides the first-order framework necessary to understand how topography is built through the interaction of lithospheric plates. However, density contrasts in the mantle can also influence the elevation of the earth's surface through dynamic topography, while poorly understood nuances of mountain building at convergent margins complicate drawing direct connections between tectonics and topography. Such linkages are further confounded by non-linearity between rock uplift and erosion, variations in rates of deformation, changes in climate and the properties of bedrock. Great advances in our understanding of the evolution of topography have been achieved, yet numerous questions remain regarding the evolution of topography in ancient and active orogens. This research addresses knowledge gaps in the development of topography through case-studies of landscape evolution in the southern Appalachians Mountains, USA and the forearc overlying the Hellenic subduction zone. Chapter 1 explores the origins of modern topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, where tectonic activity ceased prior to 200 Ma. Conventional theories invoked to explain modern relief in the region are challenged. Quantitative analyses of digital elevation models and numerical modeling are coupled to provide the magnitudes and timing of changes in topographic relief. The results suggest that the southern Appalachians experienced a phase of topographic rejuvenation during the Miocene that increased the distance between the

  6. Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater with Inter-Basin Transfer Approach: Case Study Piranshahr Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In IRAN, inconsideration to water as a key sustainable development is the water crisis. This problem is the biggest factor for being marginalize planning and long-term management of water. The sustainable development policies in water resources management of IRAN require consideration of the different aspects of management that each of them required the scientific integrated programs. Optimal operation from inter-basin surface and groundwater resources and transfer surplus water to adjacent basins is important from different aspects. The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient optimization model based on inter-basin water resources and restoration of outer-basin water resources. In the proposed model the different three objective function such as inter-basin water supply demand, reduce the amount of water output of the boundary of IRAN and increase water transfer to adjacent basins are considered. In this model, water allocation is done based on consumption and resources priorities and groundwater table level constrain. In this research, the non-dominate sorting genetic algorithm is used for solution developed model because the objectives function and decision variables are complex and nonlinear. The optimal allocation of each water resources and Water transfer to adjacent basin are can be determined by using of proposed model. Based on optimal value and planning horizon, optimal allocation policy presented. The result as shown that applying the optimal operation policy can be transfer considerable volume of water resources within the basin for restoration the outside basin. Based on policy, can be prevented the great flow of water from river border.

  7. Sustainable development of living sources, case-study of Karkheh's Dam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godarzi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The watershed basins with a plain system has been recognized as the factors which has direct effect on environment and human life. The beginning source of disturbing natural basins is where the unnecessary demands appears. Because of increasing demand for food in future, there fore, with increasing destruction on environment in world wide activity, on the other hand, it force use improving new technique and systems to over-come our demands. This reason seems to be enough for use to grow our activity through sustainable development of living sources. The present paper try to define and Explain the sustainable development and permanent stability base on general characteristics of Karkheh's watershed basin

  8. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  9. Deformation bands in porous sandstone: case study in basins of northeast Brazil; Bandas de deformacao em arenitos porosos: estudo de casos em bacias do nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Talles Souza [PETROBRAS, RN (Brazil). Interpretacao e Avaliacao de bacias da Costa Leste do Brasil E and P. Gerencia de Interpretacao], e-mail: tallesferreira@petrobras.com.br; Silva, Fernando Cesar Alves da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). Dept. de Geologia Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando@geologia.ufrn.br

    2010-05-15

    The meso and microscopic scale sandstone characterizations of the deformation bands of three sedimentary basins in northeastern Brazil; the Potiguar and Sergipe-Alagoas basins (Brazilian Atlantic Margin) and the Tucano Basin (aborted rift basin) were compared for their similarities and differences. Deformation bands are structures commonly developed in porous sandstones that make up the main reservoir-rock in siliciclastic petroleum systems. These structures influence the permo-porous properties and consequently the migration pathway into a sandstone reservoir. To understand their formation process and development has been the focus of a great number of articles in recent petroleum geology literature. This study highlights the similarities and the differences in the features and deformation mechanisms that provoked the development of deformation bands in the damage zones of major faults in three different sedimentary basins. In terms of basin tectonics, the deformation bands' formation and geometric arrangements are associated with major structures. In the case of the Acu Formation, a correlation was observed with the dextral Afonso Bezerra fault system, whereas in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin the normal dextral strike-slip faults can be associated with the faulting of the boarder basin. In the Tucano Basin case, the deformation basins are related to the Jeremoabo transpressional fault, a major structure a few kilometers to the north. This study applies structural geology tools to better understand the geometric arrangement and growing mechanisms of deformation bands in different lithological and tectonic settings. Although the deformation bands present a similar aspect in a macroscopic view, the interplay between depositional and mineralogical parameters of the host rock, as well as the basin's burial and tectonic history resulted in the development of different sandstone deformation bands in three northeastern brazilian basins. (author)

  10. An eco-efficient and economical optimum evaluation technique for the forest road networks: the case of the mountainous forest of Metsovo, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampekis, Stergios; Samara, Fani; Sakellariou, Stavros; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Christopoulou, Olga

    2018-02-12

    The sustainable forest management can be achieved only through environmentally sound and economically efficient and feasible forest road networks and transportation systems that can potentially improve the multi-functional use of forest resources. However, road network planning and construction suggest long-term finance that require a capital investment (cash outflow), which would be equal to the value of the total revenue flow (cash inflow) over the whole lifecycle project. This paper emphasizes in an eco-efficient and economical optimum evaluation method for the forest road networks in the mountainous forest of Metsovo, Greece. More specifically, with the use of this technique, we evaluated the forest roads' (a) total construction costs, (b) annual maintenance cost, and (c) log skidding cost. In addition, we estimated the total economic value of forest goods and services that are lost from the forest roads' construction. Finally, we assessed the optimum eco-efficient and economical forest roads densities based on linear equations that stem from the internal rate of return method (IRR) and have been presented graphically. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). The technique which is described in this study can be for the decision makers an attractive and useful implement in order to select the most eco-friendly and economical optimum solution to plan forest road network or to evaluate the existing forest transportation systems. Hence, with the use of this method, we can combine not only the multi-objective utilization of natural resources but also the environmental protection of forest ecosystems.

  11. Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Excess Heart Disease and Lung Cancer Mortality among Hospital Staff in Crete, Greece: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kafatos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel’s excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 μg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 μg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 μg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88 and 11.2 (range 2.3–18.8 personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2 and 23.5 (range 5.5–122 of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.

  12. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014: A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, while the Ångström exponent (AE aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%.

  13. The Presence of Ancient Greece in Modern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)

  14. Prescriptions for adaptive comanagement: the case of flood management in the German Rhine basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Becker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrally administered bureaucracies are ill suited to managing the environmental resources of complex social-ecological systems. Therefore management approaches are required that can better deal with its complexity and uncertainty, which are further exacerbated by developments such as climate change. Adaptive comanagement (ACM has emerged as a relatively novel governance approach and potential solution to the challenges arising. Adaptive comanagement hinges on certain institutional prescriptions intended to enhance the adaptability of management by improving the comprehension of and response to the complex context and surprises of social-ecological systems. The ACM literature describes that for enhanced adaptability, institutional arrangements should be polycentric, aligned with the scale of ecosystems (the bioregional approach, feature open and participatory governance, and involve much experimentation. The case of flood management in the German part of the Rhine basin is used to provide an assessment of these ideas. We analyze whether and to what degree the prescriptions have been implemented and whether or not certain fundamental changes seen in German flood management can be traced back to the application of the prescriptions. Our study demonstrates a transition from the traditional engineering and "flood control" approach to a more holistic management concept based on a risk perspective. In this process, the four ACM prescriptions have made an important contribution in preparing or facilitating policy changes. The findings suggest that the application of the prescriptions requires the right supporting context before they can be applied to the fullest extent possible, such as a high problem pressure, new discourses, or leading actors. A major constraint arises in the misalignment of political power and of the different interests of the actors, which contribute to reactive management and inadequate interplay. To address this, we recommend

  15. Finite Element Method Application in Areal Rainfall Estimation Case Study; Mashhad Plain Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irani

    2016-10-01

    ArcGIS10.0 were calculated. The base of the comparison was isohyetal method, because it showed the relief and took into account the effect of rain gauges, therefore it could represent rainfall data and region condition completely. The most accurate method was isohyetal method in estimating mean precipitation. Cross-validation was usually used to compare the accuracy of interpolation method. In this study, root mean square error (RMSE was used as validation criteria. Meanwhile, in the present study, the effects of altitude were neglected for two reasons. First, partial correlation coefficient of rainfall/altitude gradients was weak and second, the storms data were not accessible. Conclusions: In this study, the estimation of areal rainfall by Galerkin’s method was an innovative step. The case study was Mashhad basin (9909 km2 which included 42 rain gauges. Comparing other methods indicated that: Galerkin’s method was more efficient in comparison with arithmetic mean and it had more accurate results. Result of Galerkin’s method was similar to Kriging, IDW and Thiessen method. Unlike other methods, mesh of finite element could be used for calculating runoff, sediment and temperature and it did not need station weights. Even within one network the number of interpolation points can be varied, so that in a rugged region the number can be increased with little increase in effort, while in a more uniform region fewer are necessary.

  16. Economic Growth and Defense Spending in Greece, Turkey and Cyprus: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianou Tasos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and defense spending for three adjacent countries, namely Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. Greece and Cyprus, members-countries of European Union spend much more money than other member countries of EU relatively to their GDP. Turkey is in accession negotiations with EU and is among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure. These three countries are particularly interesting case studies because of their high military burdens and the bad relations between them (Greece and Cyprus opposite Turkey. The empirical analysis is based on panel data analysis of data over the period 1960 – 2006.

  17. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  18. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.

  19. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  20. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation and Hydropower Potential: A Case of Upper Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdella, E. J.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the growing pressure in water resource and climate change there is great uncertainty in the availability of water for existing as well as proposed irrigation and hydropower projects in the Upper Blue Nile basin (longitude 34oE and 39oE and latitude 7oN and 12oN). This study quantitatively assessed the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the basin which intern affect water availability for different use including hydropower and irrigation. Ensemble of four bias corrected regional climate models (RCM) of CORDEX Africa domain and two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to determine climate projections for future (2021-2050) period. The outputs from the climate models used to drive the calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model to simulate future runoff. The simulated discharge were used as input to a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) water allocation model to determine the implication in hydropower and irrigation potential of the basin. The WEAP model was setup to simulate three scenarios which includes Current, Medium-term (by 2025) and Long-term (by 2050) Development scenario. The projected mean annual temperature of the basin are warmer than the baseline (1982 - 2005) average in the range of 1 to 1.4oC. Projected mean annual precipitation varies across the basin in the range of - 3% to 7%, much of the expected increase is in the highland region of the basin. The water use simulation indicate that the current annual average irrigation water demand in the basin is 1.29Bm3y-1 with 100% coverage. By 2025 and 2050, with the development of new schemes and changing climate, water demand for irrigation is estimated to increase by 2.5 Bm3y-1 and 3.4 Bm3y-1 with 99 % and 96% coverage respectively. Simulation for domestic water demand coverage for all scenarios shows that there will be 100% coverage for the two major cities in the basin. The hydropower generation simulation indicate that 98% of hydroelectricity

  1. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  2. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

    2003-04-01

    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

  3. Eco policy: Environmental Stress and Conflicts in Africa. Case Study of Drainage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okidi, C.O

    1994-01-01

    The main cause for African misery is limited supply of water which has a direct impact on agricultural production. The continent of Africa has a reticulation of 54 drainage basins including rivers which either traverse boundaries or form part of such boundaries. These basins cover approximately half of the continent but only 2% of the total water is utilized leaving 98% to replenish the oceans. In future Africa should focus attention on control, apportionment and utilization of the waters of it's drainage basins in order to ameliorate the the problems brought about by scarcity of rainfall and consequent drought and famine. After the drought in the late 1970s and mid-1980s, there has been efforts to control the promising rivers and transfer the water to to centres of agriculture and human settlements and this is likely to cause international conflicts. The author recommends that, in order to control such conflicts the basin states there should be systematic collaboration among the basin states in the management of such waters

  4. Fault specific GIS based seismic hazard maps for the Attica region, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannakis, G.; Papanikolaou, I. D.; Roberts, G.

    2018-04-01

    Traditional seismic hazard assessment methods are based on the historical seismic records for the calculation of an annual probability of exceedance for a particular ground motion level. A new fault-specific seismic hazard assessment method is presented, in order to address problems related to the incompleteness and the inhomogeneity of the historical records and to obtain higher spatial resolution of hazard. This method is applied to the region of Attica, which is the most densely populated area in Greece, as nearly half of the country's population lives in Athens and its surrounding suburbs, in the Greater Athens area. The methodology is based on a database of 24 active faults that could cause damage to Attica in case of seismic rupture. This database provides information about the faults slip rates, lengths and expected magnitudes. The final output of the method is four fault-specific seismic hazard maps, showing the recurrence of expected intensities for each locality. These maps offer a high spatial resolution, as they consider the surface geology. Despite the fact that almost half of the Attica region lies on the lowest seismic risk zone according to the official seismic hazard zonation of Greece, different localities have repeatedly experienced strong ground motions during the last 15 kyrs. Moreover, the maximum recurrence for each intensity occurs in different localities across Attica. Highest recurrence for intensity VII (151-156 times over 15 kyrs, or up to a 96 year return period) is observed in the central part of the Athens basin. The maximum intensity VIII recurrence (115 times over 15 kyrs, or up to a 130 year return period) is observed in the western part of Attica, while the maximum intensity IX (73-77/15 kyrs, or a 195 year return period) and X (25-29/15 kyrs, or a 517 year return period) recurrences are observed near the South Alkyonides fault system, which dominates the strong ground motions hazard in the western part of the Attica mainland.

  5. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  6. Duality of roles and corporate governance in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duality of the role of President of the Board of Directors (BoD and CEO has been regarded as a good practice of corporate governance. These two roles are the ones with the most power an authority within the corporation. The paper depicts the formulating factors of duality of roles in Greece. Literature has linked duality with performance, organizational stability, ownership concentration and balance of power and control within the firm. The paper, using a Probit regression analysis, examines whether these relationships are valid in Greece. Statistical – econometric analysis has shown that financial performance is not related with concentration of power and control. The same conclusion is can be drawn for ownership concentration. There is a trend of change but this trend hasn’t the same dynamic or driving factors as the ones that are reported by Kirkbride and Letza (2002 and Muth and Donaldson (1998. The hypothesis posed by Heracleous (2001 and Baliga, 6oyer and Rao (1996 are more likely to be true in the case of Greece. Overall, duality in Greece is affected by the historical development of the firm, its organizational scheme and even more by the balance of power and control within the firm.

  7. Attitude of elderly patients towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chliara, Daphne; Chalkias, Athanasios; Horopanitis, Evaggelos E; Papadimitriou, Lila; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-10-01

    Although researchers in several countries have investigated patients' points of view regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there has been no research investigating this issue in Greece. The present study aimed at identifying the attitude of older Greek patients regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One basic questionnaire consisting of 34 questions was used in order to identify patients' opinions regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in five different hospitals from June to November 2011. In total, 300 questionnaires were collected. Although patients' knowledge regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation was poor, most of them would like to be resuscitated in case they suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Also, they believe that they should have the right to accept or refuse treatment. However, the legal and sociocultural norms in Greece do not support patients' choice for the decision to refuse resuscitation. The influence of several factors, such as their general health status or the underlying pathology, could lead patients to give a "do not attempt resuscitation" order. The attitudes of older Greek patients regarding resuscitation are not different from others', whereas the legal and sociocultural norms in Greece do not support patient choice in end-of-life decisions, namely the decision to refuse resuscitation. We advocate the introduction of advanced directives, as well as the establishment and implementation of specific legislation regarding the ethics of resuscitation in Greece. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The Gender Wage Gap as a Function of Educational Degree Choices in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliakas, Konstantinos; Livanos, Ilias

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by male and female university graduates contributes to the gender pay gap in Greece. The case of Greece is interesting as it is an EU country with historically large gender discrepancies in earnings and one of the highest levels of occupational gender segregation among OECD economies. Using micro-data from the most recently available waves (2000-2003) of the Greek Labour Force Survey (LFS), the returns ...

  10. Groundwater quality studies: A Case study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater samples from 68 communities within the Densu basin were sampled and analysed over a period of 1 year for various physico-chemical water quality parameters using appropriate certified and acceptable international procedures, in order to assess the water types as well as the suitability of groundwater within ...

  11. Volcanic ash and its enigma: A case study from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.

    An ash layer occurs between 10-35 cm depth in sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean basin. Morphology, major, trace and rare earth element composition of glass shards from the ash layer suggest that the Youngest Toba Tuff of ~74 ka from...

  12. The Use of Isotope Techniques to Separate of Hydrography Components. Case Study: Ankara-Guvenc Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekeli, Y.I.; Sorman, A.U.; Sayin, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this research, a stable environmental isotope study was carried out from analysis of water samples collected from rainfall, runoff (total discharge), springs (subsurface flows), and wells (ground waters)in Ankara-Guevenc basin having a drainage area of about 16.125 km 2 between 1996-2000. The aim of the study was to investigate the rainfall-runoff relationship for the basin. Recorded total ten discharge hydrographs are separated to their components using stable isotopes (Oxygen-18, Deuterium) contents. Among these samples, unit hydrographs from two one-peak storm hydrographs were derived using both isotope and graphical methods, and the derived unit hydrographs values including peaks were compared. Peak values of 10 and 20 minutes unit hydrographs of the basin derived by using isotope method (Q p = 1322 1/s and Q p = 1327 l/s) are compared with those of graphical method (Q p = 1656 1/s, and Q p = 1250 1/s) using Barnes semi-log approach. It was found out that, the contribution of subsurface flow which is component of total discharge hydrograph and originating from various sub layers are important in the total flow of basin using isotope method of approach

  13. TRANSGRESSIVE SEQUENCES ON FORELAND MARGINS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NEOGENE CENTRAL GUADALQUIVIR BASIN, SOUTHERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GABRIEL PENDÓN

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir foreland basin, located between the Iberian basement northward and the Betic orogen to the South, represents the western sector of the earlier foredeep basin of the Betic Cordillera. Along the northern foreland margin, the sedimentary fill of this basin includes a Tortonian Basal Transgressive Complex (BTC, composed of five internal sequences bounded by transgressive surfaces. Two main parts are distinguished within each sequence: the lower transgressive lag deposits, and the upper stillstand/prograding sediments. Three facies associations were distinguished within this stratigraphic succession along the central sector of this basin margin: unfossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (A, fossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (B, and yellow medium-coarse-grained fossiliferous sands (C. A fourth facies association (D: blue silty marlstones and shales overlies the BTC. Deposits of alluvial sediments (facies association A and shallow-marine/foreshore sediments (facies association C, were recurrently interrupted by transgressive pulses (facies associations B and C. Every pulse is recorded by an erosional, cemented sandy-conglomerate bar with bivalves (Ostreidae, Isognomon, balanids, gastropods and other marine bioclasts; or their transgressive equivalents. The lateral facies changes in each individual sequence of the BTC are related to: (1 the influence on the northern foreland margin of the tectonic activity of the southern orogenic margin; (2 the palaeorelief formed by irregularities of the substrate which controls the sediment dispersal; and (3 the evolution stages of the sedimentary systems. 

  14. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlu, Ergun; Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Akpinar, Adem

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  15. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-08-01

    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future

  16. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  17. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  18. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  19. Greece: Too Strategic To Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    institutions? According to American sociologist Fred Block, in a capitalist society, business--hoping to maximize profits--acts as a source of inertia for...Dream of the European Union.” 36 Note: The rationale for bringing Greece into the EEC is noteworthy. As the self -appointed “protector of democracy...have historically defined … the ‘Orient’ or ‘East’ … whether as a geographic entity, a 96

  20. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  1. Health economic evaluation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.

  2. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  3. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  4. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Hydrological peculiarities of high mountain basins: the case of the Spanish Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer Castillo, Cesar; Alonso-Muiioyerro, Justo Mora; Parra, Miguel Arenillas; Campos, Guillermo Cobos

    2004-01-01

    The exploitation of a reservoir is determined by the availability of information within which the information provided by hydrological information systems must be included. This should be complemented, especially in flood circumstances, by meteorological forecasts and the results obtained by from hydrological and hydraulic simulation and forecasting models. In mountain basins with marked influence of snow, specific hydrological modelling is necessary, permitting simulation of the phenomenon of snow runoff. In particular, the hydrology of the basin of the River Ebro (Spain) is clearly influenced by this phenomenon. This basin is affected by flood situations caused by rapid melt of the snow accumulated on its Pyrenean slopes. This has brought about the need for a specific study to be undertaken in order to facilitate greater understanding and control. Additionally, the volume of accumulated snow in the catchment areas determines the management and everyday exploitation of the reservoirs for the achievement of maximum yield from water resources. This interest in the understanding of snow phenomena has given rise to numerous studies in the Pyrenean area: field study campaigns to carry out point measurements of thickness and density, hydrological-statistical modelling for the forecasting of melts and course flows and the development and application of hydrological simulation models. In the Pyrenean slopes basin the ASTER model has been applied to the reservoir of Yesa during a period of more than five years, achieving quite satisfactory results with regard to watercourse flow forecasting and the volume of water stored in the form of snow. This has enabled appropriate management of the reservoir during flood circumstances - minimising possible damage as well as under everyday conditions. The results obtained from this period have led to the generalisation of the ASTER model to apply to all sources of the Pyrenean tributaries of the Ebro with clear snow influence and

  6. Urban flood mitigation planning for Guwahati: A case of Bharalu basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Tanaya; Das, Sutapa

    2018-01-15

    Guwahati, the capital city of Assam and the gateway to the seven north-eastern Indian states, is located in the Brahmaputra valley-one of the most flood prone regions of the world. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1688 mm and is highly vulnerable towards frequent urban floods because of uncontrolled dumping of solid waste and siltation have choked the natural water channels. This coupled with the absence of an integrated drainage network and rapid urbanisation causes floods in many parts of the city, after a quick downpour. Bharalu river is the main natural water channel of the city and Bharalu basin is the most vulnerable one. The present paper is an attempt to plan for urban flood mitigation, by designing an integrated drainage network for the Bharalu basin which includes the low-lying urbanized areas bordered by the Guwahati-Shillong Road, the Radha Gobindo Baruah Road and the Rajgarh Road. Data regarding land use, flood level, rainfall, urban pattern and vulnerability towards urban flood were collected from available literature, field survey to find highest water level for 11.4 km road stretch, expert opinion survey from 18 experts and feedback from 77 community elders who have been residing in the city since the 1980s. The Bharalu basin is divided into seven drainage blocks and storm run-off has been calculated based on the inputs. Seven different trapezoidal drainage sections were designed to form an integrated drainage network which is 'self-healing' to a certain extent. This can serve as a template for the other catchment basins and to design a drainage network for the entire Guwahati city, thereby reducing urban flood hazard to a significant extent. The study illustrates the necessity of an urban flood mitigation planning approach in sub-Himalayan urban settlements such as Guwahati. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on Law of Groundwater Evolution under Natural and Artificial Forcing with Case study of Haihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinjun; Gan, Hong; Wang, Lin; Bi, Xue; Du, Sisi

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of groundwater is one of the key problems of water cycle study. It is a result of joint effect of natural condition and human activities, but until now the driving forces of groundwater system evolution were not fully understood due to the complexity of groundwater system structures and the uncertainty of affecting factors. Geology, precipitation and human activity are the main factors affecting the groundwater system evolution and interact each other, but the influence of such three factors on groundwater system are not clarified clearly on a macroscopic scale. The precipitation changes the volume of water recharge and the groundwater pumping effect the discharge of groundwater. Another important factor influencing balance of groundwater storage is the underlaying that affects the renewablility of groundwater. The underlaying is decided mainly by geological attributes but also influenced by human activited. The macroscopic environment of groundwater evolves under the natural and anthropic factors. This paper study the general law of groundwater evolution among the factors based on the case study in Haihe River Basin, a typical area with dramatic groundwater change under natural precipitation attenuation and gradually increase of water suuply. Haihe River Basin is located in north-China, covers an area of 320,041 km2 with over 40% plain areas. The plain area of Haihe Basin is densely populated with many large and medium-sized cities, including metropolis of Beijing and Tianjin, and concentrated irrigated areas, playing important roles in China's economy and food production. It is the unique basin where groundwater occupies majority of total water supply in China. Long-term groundwater over-exploitation causes a series of ecological and environmental problems that threats the sustainable development. In this paper, the historical process of groundwater balance in Haihe Basin is divided into three phases by decrease of rainfall and increase of water

  8. How does Diversity Matter? The Case of Brazilian River Basin Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity as a concept has often been perceived as a positive system attribute to pursue and protect. However, in some social settings, the way different kinds of diversity shape outcomes can vary significantly. Diversity of ideas and individuals sometimes can lead to disagreement and conflict, which in turn can lead to both positive and negative outcomes. In this study, we examine identity diversity, i.e., age, income, education, worldviews, etc., within the context of Brazilian water governance. We find that within the basins studied in this project, first, the more diversity in organizations and the sectors represented on the council, the more council members participate in council activities, perceive decision making to be democratic, and perceive technical information to facilitate decision making. Second, diversity in what members perceive to be the most pressing problems facing the basin and also diversity in worldviews often correlate negatively with some measures of participation and the perceived importance of technical knowledge. Third, diversity in the level of experience with water issues negatively correlates with some measures of participation and perceived democratic decision making. Fourth, diversity in the perception of the most important problem facing the basin leads to poorer outcomes in the council. Our work provides an argument for supporting broad sectoral representation of interests within deliberative decision making bodies; however, it also illustrates that it is critical for these bodies to explore ways to resolve basic disagreements about the most important problems that need to be addressed and where their collective efforts should be focused.

  9. Tidal River Management (TRM and Tidal Basin Management (TBM: A case study on Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talchabhadel Rocky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is the biggest delta of the world. Construction of numbers of polders is one of the flood resilient approach. But the presence of coastal polders de-linked the flood plain. The siltation in river causes riverbeds to become higher than the adjacent crop lands, and vast area under the polders became permanently water logged rendering large tract of land uncultivable. The current practice is temporarily de-poldering by cutting embankment. This is a natural water management process with very little human interventions but it needs strong participation and consensus with a great deal of sacrifice by the stakeholders for a specific period (3 to 5 years or even more[1]. An attempt has been made to study the phenomena of tidal basin management reviewing some secondary data and processes involved in successfully operated tidal basins of Bangladesh. And preliminary laboratory experiments are carried out to precisely look into the suspended sediment transport. With varying outflow discharge and sediment supply, the transport processes are investigated. 3D sediment transport model developed using openFOAM has good agreement with experimental result and can be used to better understand effectiveness of tidal basin management.

  10. Hydroclimatic variability in East Asia: A case study in the Yangtze river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Fok, H. S.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Klaus, J.; Mamet, S.

    2017-12-01

    New regional patterns of droughts and flooding are emerging at south and east Asia river basins, but the causal climatic mechanisms underlying these new hydrological extreme events are yet unknown. The Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures affect hydrological conditions in Asia at different spatiotemporal scales. During the negative phase of the Southern Oscillation, anticyclone systems occur more frequently and modulate precipitation patterns near the southeast coast of China. Monsoons related to the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) locations have been used to explain regional droughts and flooding. Moreover, sea surface temperatures affect wind anomalies and thermocline adjustments across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here we propose using a major catchment in China, the Yangtze river basin, to understand regional modes of climate variability influencing local hydrological dynamics in Asia. By decomposing the variance of precipitation and hydrological time series, we are able to quantify the relative contributions of the Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures to the Yangtze river discharges. Our results suggest that the Southern Oscillation has a relatively weak effect on discharges, whereas the Indian and western North Pacific monsoons are important for the upstream and downstream Yangtze river, respectively. Furthermore, rising Pacific sea surface temperatures may be related to more intensive precipitation at the downstream basin. Based on the hydroclimatic relationships identified here, we discuss future scenarios of changing environmental conditions in the region.

  11. Thermo-hydrodynamical modelling of a flooded deep mine reservoir - Case of the Lorraine Coal Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, cessation of dewatering in Lorraine Coal Basin (France) led to the flooding of abandoned mines, resulting in a new hydrodynamic balance in the area. Recent researches concerning geothermal exploitation of flooded reservoirs raised new questions, which we propose to answer. Our work aimed to understand the thermos-hydrodynamic behaviour of mine water in a flooding or flooded system. Firstly, we synthesized the geographical, geological and hydrogeological contexts of the Lorraine Coal Basin, and we chose a specific area for our studies. Secondly, temperature and electric conductivity log profiles were measured in old pits of the Lorraine Coal Basin, giving a better understanding of the water behaviour at a deep mine shaft scale. We were able to build a thermos-hydrodynamic model and simulate water behaviour at this scale. Flow regime stability is also studied. Thirdly, a hydrodynamic spatialized meshed model was realized to study the hydrodynamic behaviour of a mine reservoir as a whole. Observed water-table rise was correctly reproduced: moreover, the model can be used in a predictive way after the flooding. Several tools were tested, improved or developed to ease the study of flooded reservoirs, as three-dimensional up-scaling of hydraulic conductivities and a coupled spatialized meshed model with a pipe network. (author) [fr

  12. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties During a Rare Case of Long-range Transport of Mixed Biomass Burning-polluted Dust Aerosols from the Russian Federation-kazakhstan to Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar measurements with elastic depolarization at 532 nm were combined with sun photometry during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece, on May-June 2014. We retrieved the aerosol optical [3 aerosol backscatter profiles (baer at 355-532-1064 nm, 2 aerosol extinction (aaer profiles at 355-532 nm and the aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm] and microphysical properties [effective radius (reff, complex refractive index (m, single scattering albedo (ω]. We present a case study of a long distance transport (~3.500-4.000 km of biomass burning particles mixed with dust from the Russian Federation-Kazakhstan regions arriving over Athens on 21-23 May 2014 (1.7-3.5 km height. On 23 May, between 2-2.75 km we measured mean lidar ratios (LR of 35 sr (355 nm and 42 sr (532 nm, while the mean Ångström exponent (AE aerosol backscatter-related values (355nm/532nm and 532nm/1064nm were 2.05 and 1.22, respectively; the mean value of δ at 532 nm was measured to be 9%. For that day the retrieved mean aerosol microphysical properties at 2-2.75 km height were: reff=0.26 μm (fine mode, reff=2.15 μm (coarse mode, m=1.36+0.00024i, ω=0.999 (355 nm, fine mode, ω=0.992(355 nm, coarse mode, ω=0.997 (532 nm, fine mode, and ω=0.980 (532 nm, coarse mode.

  13. The interdependence of major european stock markets: evidence for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Καινούργιος, Δημήτριος Φ.; Σαμίτας, Αριστείδης Γ.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between the Greek "blue chip" stock market and the six relative European markets by applying cointegration tests. The time period examined is 1998 to 2000, which marks the entry of Greece to the European Exchange Rates Mechanism II. The empirical results indicate that the Athens Stock Exchange has no considerable links, except for one case, with any other European developed markets examined. These findings have some significa...

  14. Detrital fission-track-compositional signature of an orogenic chain-hinterland basin system: The case of the late Neogene Quaternary Valdelsa basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, M. L.; Benvenuti, M.; Tangocci, F.

    2013-05-01

    Detrital thermochronological data collected in syn-tectonic basin deposits are a promising tool for deciphering time and processes of the evolution of orogenic belts. Our study deals with the Valdelsa basin, one of the wider basins of central Tuscany, Italy. The Valdelsa basin is located at the rear of the Northern Apennines, a collisional orogen whose late Neogene Quaternary development is alternatively attributed to extensional and compressional regimes. These contrasting interpretations mostly rely on different reconstructions of the tectono-sedimentary evolution of several basins formed at the rear of the chain since the late Tortonian. Here, we explore the detrital thermochronological-compositional signature of tectonic and surface processes during the Valdelsa basin development. For this aim, detrital apatite fission-track analysis of 21 sand samples from the latest Messinian Gelasian fluvial to shallow marine basin deposits, has been accompanied by a clast composition analysis of 7 representative outcrops of the conglomerate facies. The grain-age distributions of the sediment samples are generally characterized by two distinct components, one younger peak (P1) varying between 5.5 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 1.0 Ma and one older peak (P2) varying from 15.0 ± 8.0 to 41.0 ± 10 Ma. By comparison with some bedrock ages obtained from the E-NE basin shoulder, we attributed the P2 peak to the Ligurian Units and the P1 peak to the Macigno Formation (Tuscan Units). These units are arranged one upon the other in the complex nappe pile forming the Northern Apennines orogen. While the gravel composition indicates a predominant feeding from the Ligurian units all along the sedimentary succession with a subordinate occurrence of Macigno pebbles slightly increasing upsection, the P1 peak is present even in the oldest collected sandy sediments. The early P1 occurrence reveals that the Macigno was exposed in the E-NE basin shoulder since at least the latest Messinian-early Zanclean

  15. Evaluating the need for economic support policies in promoting greenhouse gas emission reduction measures in the building sector: The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Mirasgedis, S.; Balaras, C.A.; Gaglia, A.; Lalas, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade the CO 2 emissions from the residential and tertiary sectors have been rising continuously. This is cause for concern but also an area to be targeted for emission reduction measures in national action plans. This paper proposes a methodological framework, using the Greek building sector (characterized by an aging building stock constructed mostly in the period before 1980) as a case study for the examination of the economic attractiveness of possible measures, which incorporates crucial parameters such as local climate, use of buildings, age of building stock, etc. that affect the energy conservation potential and consequently the economic performance of available measures. Utilizing this framework, the approach is able to classify measures into three categories, namely 'win-win' cases (i.e. where the implementation of emission reduction measures presents a net economic benefit for end-users), measures that require the implementation of appropriate economic support policies in order to make them economically attractive for end-users, and measures that have excessive cost. The results indicate that the emissions reduction potential of 'win-win' cases is significant. They also demonstrate how individual measures can provide significant reductions if carefully targeted economic support policies are applied. Finally, sensitivity analyses performed with respect to the discount rate applied indicate that it has a substantial impact on the economic performance of some measures and consequently on the magnitude of the 'win-win' potential associated to emissions reduction

  16. The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission

  17. Percutaneous aortic valve implantation of the Medtronic CoreValve self-expanding valve prosthesis via left subclavian artery access: the first case report in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolias, George K; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Houri, Mazen; Sbarouni, Eftihia; Thomopoulou, Sofia; Tsiapras, Dimitrios; Smirli, Anna; Balanika, Marina; Voudris, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a percutaneous aortic valve implantation with the Medtronic CoreValve selfexpanding valve prosthesis in a patient with severe aortic stenosis. The approach was made via the left subclavian artery because of the lack of femoral vessel access. The patient was a 78-year-old female with breathlessness on minimal effort, a recent hospitalisation due to pulmonary oedema, and frequent episodes of pre-syncope; surgical valve replacement had been ruled out. The prosthetic valve was successfully implanted with mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation. At 30 days, the patient's clinical condition had significantly improved, with excellent functioning of the aortic valve prosthesis.

  18. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  19. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  20. Indoor radon measurements in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proukakis, C.; Molfetas, M.; Ntalles, K.; Georgiou, E.; Serefoglou, A.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out in order to measure air concentrations of radon 222 and 220 isotopes in Athenian houses, as a first step of a national survey in Greece. In this paper the authors deal with radon concentration in air and water and will rely on measurements conducted in Greece. (author)

  1. Image-Based 3d Reconstruction Data as AN Analysis and Documentation Tool for Architects: the Case of Plaka Bridge in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouimtzoglou, T.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2017-02-01

    Μodern advances in the field of image-based 3D reconstruction of complex architectures are valuable tools that may offer the researchers great possibilities integrating the use of such procedures in their studies. In the same way that photogrammetry was a well-known useful tool among the cultural heritage community for years, the state of the art reconstruction techniques generate complete and easy to use 3D data, thus enabling engineers, architects and other cultural heritage experts to approach their case studies in an exhaustive and efficient way. The generated data can be a valuable and accurate basis upon which further plans and studies will be drafted. These and other aspects of the use of image-based 3D data for architectural studies are to be presented and analysed in this paper, based on the experience gained from a specific case study, the Plaka Bridge. This historic structure is of particular interest, as it was recently lost due to extreme weather conditions and serves as a strong proof that preventive actions are of utmost importance in order to preserve our common past.

  2. Vegetation Response to Changing Climate - A Case Study from Gandaki River Basin in Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, J., Sr.; Kirat, N. H.; Dahal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the Himalayan region is changing rapidly - temperature is increasingly high and rainfall has become unpredictable. IPCC predicts that average annual mean temperature over the Asian land mass, including the Himalayas, will increase by about 3°C by the 2050s and about 5°C by the 2080s and the average annual precipitation in this region will increase by 10-30% by 2080s. Climate and the human activities can influence the land cover status and the eco-environmental quality. There are enough evidences that there is strong interaction between climate variability and ecosystems. A project was carried out in Gandaki river basin in central Nepal to analyze the relationship of NDVI vegetation index with the temperature, rainfall and snowcover information. The relationships were analyzed for different landuses classes-grassland, forest and agriculture. Results show that the snowcover area is decreasing at the rate of 0.15% per year in the basin. The NDVI shows seasonal fluctuations and lightly correlated with the rainfall and temperature.

  3. A Behavioral Model of Landscape Change in the Amazon Basin: The Colonist Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. A.; Drzyzga, S. A.; Li, Y. L.; Wi, J. G.; Caldas, M.; Arima, E.; Vergara, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a predictive model capable of describing both magnitudes of deforestation and its spatial articulation into patterns of forest fragmentation. In a departure from other landscape models, it establishes an explicit behavioral foundation for algorithm development, predicated on notions of the peasant economy and on household production theory. It takes a 'bottom-up' approach, generating the process of land-cover change occurring at lot level together with the geography of a transportation system to describe regional landscape change. In other words, it translates the decentralized decisions of individual households into a collective, spatial impact. In so doing, the model unites the richness of survey research on farm households with the analytical rigor of spatial analysis enabled by geographic information systems (GIs). The paper describes earlier efforts at spatial modeling, provides a critique of the so-called spatially explicit model, and elaborates a behavioral foundation by considering farm practices of colonists in the Amazon basin. It then uses, insight from the behavioral statement to motivate a GIs-based model architecture. The model is implemented for a long-standing colonization frontier in the eastern sector of the basin, along the Trans-Amazon Highway in the State of Para, Brazil. Results are subjected to both sensitivity analysis and error assessment, and suggestions are made about how the model could be improved.

  4. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrlã, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure.

  5. Landslide inventory updating by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI: the Setta basin (Italy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangioni Sara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the contribution of Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR technique to landslide detection, using interferometric data acquired in C-band by European remote-sensing satellite (ERS 1/2 and environmental satellite (ENVISAT satellites. The main purpose is to update a pre-existing landslide inventory map, by changing or confirming the landslide geometry and state of activity and eventually, identifying new phenomena.This work presents an application of satellite remote sensing to analyse ground displacement movements in the Setta basin, located on the northern Appennine (Bologna province, Italy and extended up 268 km2.The proposed methodology, resting upon pre-existing works already consolidated in the scientific community, combines interferometric measures with aerial imagery and other auxiliary data, in order to detect landslide indicators, finally validated with field surveys. The use of an activity matrix allows the identification of the state of activity of landslide phenomena with respect to the velocity of the radar displacement rates. Field validations are carried out in the areas that are more relevant because of the highest ground velocities and the presence of structures extensively affected by ground movements.The final updated landslide database of the Setta basin, based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis and in situ checks, consists of 1550 landslides, 236 of which have persistent scatterer information.

  6. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  7. Quantification of structural uncertainties in multi-scale models; case study of the Lublin Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małolepszy, Zbigniew; Szynkaruk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    The multiscale static modeling of regional structure of the Lublin Basin is carried on in the Polish Geological Institute, in accordance with principles of integrated 3D geological modelling. The model is based on all available geospatial data from Polish digital databases and analogue archives. Mapped regional structure covers the area of 260x80 km located between Warsaw and Polish-Ukrainian border, along NW-SE-trending margin of the East European Craton. Within the basin, the Paleozoic beds with coalbearing Carboniferous and older formations containing hydrocarbons and unconventional prospects are covered unconformably by Permo-Mesozoic and younger rocks. Vertical extent of the regional model is set from topographic surface to 6000 m ssl and at the bottom includes some Proterozoic crystalline formations of the craton. The project focuses on internal consistency of the models built at different scales - from basin (small) scale to field-scale (large-scale). The models, nested in the common structural framework, are being constructed with regional geological knowledge, ensuring smooth transition in the 3D model resolution and amount of geological detail. Major challenge of the multiscale approach to subsurface modelling is the assessment and consistent quantification of various types of geological uncertainties tied to those various scale sub-models. Decreasing amount of information with depth and, particularly, very limited data collected below exploration targets, as well as accuracy and quality of data, all have the most critical impact on the modelled structure. In deeper levels of the Lublin Basin model, seismic interpretation of 2D surveys is sparsely tied to well data. Therefore time-to-depth conversion carries one of the major uncertainties in the modeling of structures, especially below 3000 m ssl. Furthermore, as all models at different scales are based on the same dataset, we must deal with different levels of generalization of geological structures. The

  8. Impact of land-use and climatic changes on hydrology of the Himalayan Basin: A case study of the Kosi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Keshav Prasad

    1997-10-01

    Land-use and climatic changes are of major concern in the Himalayan region because of their potential impacts on a predominantly agriculture-based economy and a regional hydrology dominated by strong seasonality. Such concerns are not limited to any particular basin but exist throughout the region including the downstream plain areas. As a representative basin of the Himalayas, we studied the Kosi basin (54,000 km2) located in the mountainous area of the central Himalayan region. We analyzed climatic and hydrologic information to assess the impacts of existing and potential future land-use and climatic changes over the basin. The assessment of anthropogenic inputs showed that the population grew at a compound growth rate of about one percent per annum over the basin during the last four decades. The comparison of land-use data based on the surveys made in the 1960s, and the surveys of 1978-79 did not reveal noticeable trends in land-use change. Analysis of meteorological and hydrological trends using parametric and nonparametric statistics for monthly data from 1947 to 1993 showed some increasing tendency for temperature and precipitation. Statistical tests of hydrological trends indicated an overall decrease of discharge along mainstem Kosi River and its major tributaries. The decreasing trends of streamflow were more significant during low-flow months. Statistical analysis of homogeneity showed that the climatological as well as the hydrological trends were more localized in nature lacking distinct basinwide significance. Statistical analysis of annual sediment time series, available for a single station on the Kosi River did not reveal a significant trend. We used water balance, statistical correlation, and distributed deterministic modeling approaches to analyze the hydrological sensitivity of the basin to possible land-use and climatic changes. The results indicated a stronger influence of basin characteristics compared to climatic characteristics on flow

  9. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos

    2017-07-01

    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  10. Basin characterization and determination of hydraulic connectivity of mega basins using integrated methods: (The case of Baro-Akobo and mega watershed beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Taye; Kebede, Tesfaye; Liu, Lanbo

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the longest river and the fourth in drainage area, Nile River has the lowest discharge per unit areas among the top ten rivers of the world. Understanding the hydrologic significance of the regional litho-stratigraphy and structures help to better understand the hydrodynamics. This work is aimed at characterizing the Baro-Akobo-Sobbat sub-basin of Nile and determine trans-basin flows. Integrated method is used to characterize the basin and determine the Baro-Akobo-Sobbat sub-basin's relationship with African Mesozoic Rifts. Oil and water well drilling logs; aeromagnetic, gravity and vertical electrical sounding data; and various study reports are used to establish regional lithostratigraphic correlations and determine trans-regional hydrogeological connectivity. A total of 633 samples collected from wells, springs, rivers, lakes, swamps and rain water are analysed for their chemical, stable isotopes, tritium and radon properties. The Baro-Akobo river basin is commonly presumed to have good groundwater potential, particularly in its lowland plain. However, it has poor exploitable groundwater potential and recharge rate due to the extensive clay cover, limited retention capacity and the loss of the bulk of the groundwaters through regional geological structures to the deep seated continental sediments; presumably reaching the hydraulically connected African Mesozoic Rifts; mainly Melut and Muglad. The deep underground northward flows, along Nile River is, presumably, retarded by Central African Shear Zone in the Sudan.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  12. Regional and Household Adaptation Strategies to Climate Extremes: the Case Study of the Beava River Basin, the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duží, Barbora; Stojanov, Robert; Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2013-04-01

    We investigate regional and household adaptation strategies in the region affected by climate extremes, focusing on floods occurrence during past 15 years period. The main research question is: What is the overall state of adaptation measurements to climate extremes on the Bečva river basin? Target area is located along upper and middle part of the Bečva river basin in the east of the Czech Republic. The main theoretical concepts draw from differentiations between coping/adaptation strategies to climate extremes and theory of focusing event as a starter of changes in attention and agenda of problem solution. We apply mixed empirical research and case study approach. First we use qualitative research to serve as an initial entrance to the issue, to find out the perception of adaptation progress and preparedness to climate extremes on regional level. We conducted deep interviews (N=20) with relevant stakeholders. We proceed with quantitative research through the conducting face-to face questionnaires with household residents (N=305) in no, low and no risk area in relation to flood occurrence. We designed set of questions to find out relation among experiences with flood, the level of damages and applied emergency and adaptation measurements.

  13. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  14. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  15. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated water resources management : A case study in the Hehei river basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siqi; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2017-04-01

    The lack of water resources experienced in different parts of the world has now been recognized and analyzed by different international organizations such as WHO, the World Bank, etc. Add to this the growing urbanization and the fast socio-economic development, the water supply of many urban areas is already or will be severely threatened. Recently published documents from the UN Environmental Program confirms that severe water shortage affects 400 million people today and will affect 4 billion people by 2050. Water nowadays is getting scarce, and access to clean drinking water and water for agricultural usage is unequally distributed. The biggest opportunity and challenge for future water management is how to achieve water sustainability to reduce water consumption. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. We take the Heibe river basin where agriculture water there accounted for 90% of total water consumption as an example to study the impacts of IWRM on regional water resources. We calculated the elasticity of substitution values between labor and land, water by each irrigation areas to find the variable elastic value among irrigation areas, and the water-use efficiency based on NPP estimation with the C-fix model and WUE estimation with NPP and ET. The empirical analysis indicated that the moderate scale of farmland is 0.27-0.53hm2 under the condition of technical efficiency of irrigation water and production. Agricultural water use accounted for 94% of the social and economic water consumption in 2012, but water efficiency and water productivity were both at a low stage. In conclusion, land use forms at present in Heihe river basin have a detrimental impact on the availability of ecological water use. promoting water

  17. Methodological proposal for evaluating and selecting environment al indicators, Case: Chachafruto Stream Basin, Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Velez, Luis Fernando; Pineda Correa, Marcelena

    2000-01-01

    The investigation mainly responds to the necessity of developing a methodology that allows getting indicators to make easier the process of making decisions in the environmental administration field. The elaboration was relied on the support of the Corporacion Autonoma Regional Rionegro - Nare CORNARE in Antioquia - Colombia, through a subscribed agreement between this entity and the authors. The development of the investigation was carried out in two parts: the first involves the search of methodological paths for the evaluation and selection of applicable indicators to basins, Through the creation of parameters that allow qualifying these indicators in direct form; this is followed by a statistical treatment that allows selecting indicators in a rational way. For application purposes, some criterions are defined in a such way that the selected indicators can be evaluated; with these criterions the matrix is constructed; this allows to view and qualify the indicators, starting from ranges and scales previously defined; once the evaluation and qualification matrix are carried out, the selection process is begun from multivariate analysis. The second part consists in the methodology application expounded to a pattern of indicators previously defined and a determined territory (Basin of the Chachafruto Stream, Rionegro - Antioquia - Colombia); starting from the listing of the whole reported indicators in the consulted literature, the ability of themselves to reflex the basin problems is analyzed, based on parameters such as local contextualization and focuses of the topic. Once the first selection is done, the indicators are submitted to the qualification and evaluation matrix and its results are analyzed by multivariate analysis, in order to condense the environmental indicators to be used. Subsequently, for the evaluation of selected indicators, it is necessary to compile diverse thematic information and to identify the existent databases for the select territory

  18. Seismic images of an extensional basin, generated at the hangingwall of a low-angle normal fault: The case of the Sansepolcro basin (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Massimiliano R.; Ciaccio, Maria Grazia

    2009-12-01

    The study of syntectonic basins, generated at the hangingwall of regional low-angle detachments, can help to gain a better knowledge of these important and mechanically controversial extensional structures, constraining their kinematics and timing of activity. Seismic reflection images constrain the geometry and internal structure of the Sansepolcro Basin (the northernmost portion of the High Tiber Valley). This basin was generated at the hangingwall of the Altotiberina Fault (AtF), an E-dipping low-angle normal fault, active at least since Late Pliocene, affecting the upper crust of this portion of the Northern Apennines. The dataset analysed consists of 5 seismic reflection lines acquired in the 80s' by ENI-Agip for oil exploration and a portion of the NVR deep CROP03 profile. The interpretation of the seismic profiles provides a 3-D reconstruction of the basin's shape and of the sedimentary succession infilling the basin. This consisting of up to 1200 m of fluvial and lacustrine sediments: this succession is much thicker and possibly older than previously hypothesised. The seismic data also image the geometry at depth of the faults driving the basin onset and evolution. The western flank is bordered by a set of E-dipping normal faults, producing the uplifting and tilting of Early to Middle Pleistocene succession along the Anghiari ridge. Along the eastern flank, the sediments are markedly dragged along the SW-dipping Sansepolcro fault. Both NE- and SW-dipping faults splay out from the NE-dipping, low-angle Altotiberina fault. Both AtF and its high-angle splays are still active, as suggested by combined geological and geomorphological evidences: the historical seismicity of the area can be reasonably associated to these faults, however the available data do not constrain an unambiguous association between the single structural elements and the major earthquakes.

  19. Impacts of air pollution and climate on materials in Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, John; Tzanis, Chris G.; Varotsos, Costas A.; Ferm, Martin; Tidblad, Johan

    2017-01-01

    For more than 10 years now the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, has contributed to the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) ICP Materials (International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments) programme for monitoring the corrosion/soiling levels of different kinds of materials due to environmental air-quality parameters. In this paper we present the results obtained from the analysis of observational data that were collected in Athens during the period 2003-2012. According to these results, the corrosion/soiling of the particular exposed materials tends to decrease over the years, except for the case of copper. Based on this long experimental database that is applicable to the multi-pollutant situation in the Athens basin, we present dose-response functions (DRFs) considering that dose stands for the air pollutant concentration, response for the material mass loss (normally per annum) and function, the relationship derived by the best statistical fit to the data.

  20. Structural characteristics of epicentral areas in Central Europe: study case Cheb Basin (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankwitz, P.; Schneider, G.; Kämpf, H.; Bankwitz, E.

    2003-03-01

    The earthquake distribution pattern of Central Europe differs systematically from the neighbouring areas of NW and southern Europe regarding the fault plane kinematics. Within a belt between the French Massif Central and the northern part of the Bohemian Massif (1000 km) sinistral faulting along N-S zones dominates on the contrary to the Alps and their foreland with common bookshelf shears. One of the prominent N-S structures is the Regensburg-Leipzig-Rostock Zone (A) with several epicentral areas, where the main seismic center occurs in the northern Cheb Basin (NW Bohemia). The study demonstrates new structural results for the swarm-quake region in NW-Bohemia, especially for the Nový Kostel area in the Cheb Basin. There the N-S-trending newly found Počatky-Plesná zone (PPZ) is identical with the main earthquake line. The PPZ is connected with a mofette line between Hartušov and Bublák with evidence for CO 2 degassing from the subcrustal mantle. The morphologically more prominent Mariánské Lázně fault (MLF) intersects the PPZ obliquely under an acuate angle. In the past the MLF was supposed to be the tectonic structure connected with the epicentral area of Nový Kostel. But evidence from the relocated hypocentres along the PPZ (at 7-12 kms depth) indicate that the MLF is seismically non-active. Asymmetric drainage patterns of the Cheb Basin are caused by fault related movement along Palaeozoic basement faults which initiate a deformation of the cover (Upper Pliocene to Holocene basin filling). The PPZ forms an escarpment in Pliocene and Pleistocene soft rock and is supposingly acting as an earthquake zone since late Pleistocene time. The uppermost Pleistocene of 0.12-0.01 Ma deposited only in front of the fault scarp dates the fault activity. The crossing faults envelope crustal wedges under different local stress conditions. Their intersection line forms a zone beginning at the surface near Nový Kostel, dipping south with increasing depth, probably down

  1. Mapping the social impacts of small dams: The case of Thailand's Ing River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Zali; Pomun, Teerapong; Charles, Katrina J; Kirchherr, Julian

    2018-05-24

    The social impacts of large dams have been studied extensively. However, small dams' social impacts have been largely neglected by the academic community. Our paper addresses this gap. We examine the social impacts of multiple small dams in one upstream and one downstream village in Thailand's Ing River basin. Our research is based on semi-structured interviews with beneficiaries, government and NGOs. We argue that small dams' social impacts are multi-faceted and unequal. The dams were perceived to reduce fish abundance and provide flood mitigation benefits. Furthermore, the dams enabled increased access to irrigation water for upstream farmers, who re-appropriated water via the dams at the expense of those downstream. The small dams thus engendered water allocation conflicts. Many scholars, practitioners and environmentalists argue that small dams are a benign alternative to large dams. However, the results of our research mandate caution regarding this claim.

  2. Mining and environment: a case study of the Lish-Gish basins of the eastern Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.R.; Ghatowar, Likhaneswar

    1990-01-01

    This paper calls for attention to the effects of the unscientific quarrying operations in the coal-fields of the Lish-Gish Basin which have continued intermittently since 1896. The sudden abandonment of the mining operation in 1965, taking least concern of the scars formed due to the extraction of coal have disturbed the natural equilibrium in slopes. This has already taken its toll in the form of disastrous landslips. All these, in turn, incapacitate the rivers pouring in too much detritus which raise the river-beds alarmingly (50 cm. per year) and aggravate the flood situation in times of high rainfall. Immediate steps should therefore, be taken to prevent such unhealthy and destructive processes and specially, in view of the recent attempt by the government of West Bengal, to restart the quarry operations in near future, in order to cope with the longstanding fuel demand of the local inhabitants. (author). 7 refs

  3. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also is announcing that... report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for...

  4. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  5. Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change: A Case Study on the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Bellin, A.; Majone, B.; Bovolo, C. I.; Blenkinsop, S.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in projections from climate models limits the understanding of future hydrological impacts and complicates the assessment of mitigation policies. This work presents hydrological simulations of the Ebro River Basin (Spain), using both control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climate scenarios, in order to investigate the effect of climate change on the water availability of the basin. Using the SWAT model, hydrological simulations were carried out for four catchments with different climatological regimes. Sets of model parameters were identified using sensitivity analysis, long-term calibration and uncertainty analysis procedures, which enabled the historical behaviour of the catchments to be reproduced. Following validation, the parameters were used to simulate the effects of climate change on future streamflow. Bias-corrected daily time series of precipitation and mean temperature from an ensemble of 6 Regional Climate Models (RCMs), using the SRES A2 emissions scenario, were used as drivers of the hydrological simulations during the future scenarios. Important annual and seasonal differences in the projected future precipitation and temperature fields were observed among the RCMs. However, a general decrease in annual mean precipitation and an increase in annual mean temperature relative to the control period were observed, with the strongest differences during the summer season. When these changes were used to project future streamflows, a general decrease was observed at the outlet of the catchments. Changes in streamflows were in general agreement with the projections of daily precipitation and temperature fields, with a larger drop in predicted monthly streamflows for catchments with more semi-arid climatological regimes, and seasonal differences that are related to the elevation range of the catchments.

  6. Coalbed methane accumulation and dissipation patterns: A Case study of the Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Fu, Xuehai; Yang, Xuesong; Ge, Yanyan; Quan, Fangkai

    2018-07-01

    The Junggar Basin is a potential replacement area of coalbed methane (CBM) development in China. To improve the efficiency of CBM exploration, we investigated CBM accumulation and dissipation patterns of coal profiles located in the northwestern, southern, eastern, and central Junggar Basin based on the following criteria: burial depth, hydrogeological zone, CBM origin, CBM phase, and CBM migration type. We identified four types of CBM accumulation patterns: (1) a self-sourcing CBM pattern containing adsorbed gas of biogenic origin from shallow-depth coal within a weak runoff zone; (2) an endogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed gas of thermogenic origin from the medium and deep coals within a stagnant zone; (3) an exogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed gas of thermogenic origin from deep coal within a stagnant zone; and (4) an exogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed and free gas of thermogenic origin from ultra-deep coal within a stagnant zone. We also identified two types of CBM dissipation patterns: (1) shallow-depth coal within a runoff zone with mixed origin CBM; and (2) shallow and medium-deep coal seams with mixed origin CBM. CBM migration in low-rank coals was more substantial than that adsorbed in high-rank coal. CBM in shallow coal could easily escape, in the absence of closed structures or hydrogeological seals. CBM reservoirs occurred in deep coal where oversaturated gas may accumulate. Future exploration should focus on gas-water sealing structures in shallow coalbeds. CBM that occurred in adsorbed and free phases and other unconventional natural gas dominated by free gas in the coal stratum should be co-explored and co-developed.

  7. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    water and watershed management of the Wei River basin, or even the Yellow River basin.

  8. Diversion Canal to Decrease Flooding (Case Study : Kebon Jati-Kalibata Segment, Ciliwung River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Dian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The flood in Jakarta has become a national concern in Indonesia. It is a haunting disaster, with a high probability to happen when heavy rainfalls in Jakarta and/or its upstream area. Based on data that was provided by Public Work Agency of DKI Jakarta, there are 78 vulnerable points of inundation in which, most of them are located in Ciliwung river basin, commonly in the meandering segments. One of the worst flooding occurs in Pancoran, at Kebonjati to Kalibata segment in particular. The river discharge in this segment is much higher as compared to the carrying capacity. In addition, this area has a high density of population and thus, difficult to increase the *river capacity* by enlarging the river dimension. In this research, a closed diversion canal is proposed as a solution. The effectiveness of the solution is evaluated using a numerical model, HEC-RAS 4.1. The diversion canal is designed as two culverts, with 2.0 m in diameter. Nevertheless, hydraulic jump may occur at the outlet of the canal due to the relatively steep slope. Therefore, the canal outlet should be designed accordingly. A Hydraulic structure such as a stilling basin can be employed to reduce the energy. The results show that the diversion canal has a good performance in decreasing water level and flood discharge in the study area. The canal has the capacity of 17,72 m3/sec and succesfully decreases the water level by 4.71 – 5.66 m from flood level for 2 – 100 years returned period.

  9. Geology and geochemistry of endoroique basin case of Baghdad chott southern of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamini, Abdellah; Hacini, Messaoud

    2018-05-01

    Chott Baghdad is an inland saline lake of the type Na-(Mg)-CI-(SO4). It is situated in septontrional Algerian sahara basin (northern of Africa).these small depression is fall dawn about 31m below sea level. One of characteristic of this zone is dry climate in summer when temperature reach 45°C and decrease in winter 5 °C. Chott Baghdad irrigate with surface water zone, continental saharan aquifer and precipitated water. Evaporative lakes without river outlets are common and their chemical composition has been reported to exhibit a wide diversity (Hardie and Eugster, 1970; Eugster and Hardie, 1978). Geologics and gitologic characteristics of deposed evaporates in Baghdad basin, small closed lagon take place with brines rich in ions SO42 - , Ca2+, Na+, Cl- and under the effect of evaporation generate the rock salt and gypsum precipitation. The objective of this study is to simulate evolution the geochemical cycle inside of chott Baghdad, in addition try to interpreter behavior of major element which constructs this small depression. The most important thing is to calculate saturated index of evaporated mineral and compare it with DRX result. To reach this study, monthly brine samples were collected from January to December. Different analytic methods were used: physico-chemical analytic (PH, temperature and conductivity). In addition, spectrophotometer and titration, phlameemissions were done to calculate major element concentration. From this study, we can conclude that major element behavior (Na+, Cl-, SO42 - , Mg+, K+, HCO3-, and Ca2+) is as follow: Chlore and sodium was decreasing at end of geochemical cycle. In addition, Bicarbonate, potassium and magnesium have characteristic evolution, where they increase at the beginning of geochemical cycle till summer then decrease steadily at the end of cycle. Where us, Calcium is quit steady during one year cycle.

  10. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  11. Radon Survey in Kalamata (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.; Kakoulidou, M.; Mavroidi, Ph.; Moschou, M.; Fisher, S.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    A national radon survey is still lacking for Greece. Some groups have carried out several more or less local or extended radon surveys and valuable experience has been gained. After the first preliminary survey carried out by our group, where 500 Kodak LR-115 etched track detectors were placed in Greek schools and dwellings for one year, indoor radon measurements were continued by placing the same number of detectors in a restricted area, covering the city of Kalamata (a medium size city with 60,000 inhabitants), situated in the south of Peloponnese. Although Kalamata was not of special radon interest, the local authorities insisted on knowing for their citizens' sake the level of this natural radiation. At first, the intention was to use a different method of organisation and distribution of the etched-track detectors from the previous one, attempting mainly to acquire more reliable results and to collect as many detectors as possible. Secondly, it was of great importance to test the statistics of the indoor radon concentrations for a rather small area, and thirdly, to estimate independently the annual absorbed dose by children, taking into account radon concentrations measured both in their home and at school. The set of detectors' readings (about 370), revealed, in general, lower values for Kalamata, compared to the ones found in the preliminary radon survey in Greece and almost all concentrations were found to be below the NRPB action level (200 Bq.m -3 ) (author)

  12. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Greece, with an area of 131,944 km 2 , has been actively explored since 1971 under a programme of co-operation with UNDP and IAEA on which close to US $1 million have been spent so far. The programme is focused on the Rhodope Precambrian massif, which is the most attractive structural unit from the geological point of view. The indications available at present, and which have been known for a long time, are also to be found in this unit. They are associated either with Tertiary continental volcanism or with detritic sediments in basins covering this massif. So far there is no evidence of their being of any economic value. The paucity of data available on the basement of the Rhodope precludes any prediction as to the possibility of its containing Pre-cambrian uranium mineralizations. One might perhaps think in terms of mineralizations of the alaskite or alkaline complex type, or also of vein-type deposits. But it is primarily in the deposits associated with tertiary trachy-rhyolitic volcanism that we have most confidence, especially in the Rhodope massif and the Vardar region but possibly elsewhere in the Hellenides as well. All things considered, we place Greece in Group 2 of the IUREP classification. (author)

  14. Flood impact assessment on the development of Archaia Olympia riparian area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaporti, Christina; Podimata, Marianthi; Yannopoulos, Panayotis

    2013-04-01

    A long list of articles in the literature examines several issues of flood risk management and applications of flood scenarios, taking into consideration the climate changes, as well as decision making tools in flood planning. The present study tries to highlight the conversation concerning flood impacts on the development rate of a riparian area. More specifically, Archaia (Ancient) Olympia watershed was selected as a case study area, since it is considered as a region of special interest and international significance. In addition, Alfeios River, which is the longest river of Peloponnisos Peninsula, passes through the plain of Archaia Olympia. Flood risk scenarios allow scientists and practitioners to understand the adverse effects of flooding on development activities such as farming, tourism etc. and infrastructures in the area such as road and railway networks, Flokas dam and the hydroelectric power plant, bridges, settlements and other properties. Flood risks cause adverse consequences on the region of Archaia Olympia (Ancient Olympic stadium) and Natura 2000 site area. Furthermore, SWOT analysis was used in order to quantify multicriteria and socio-economic characteristics of the study area. SWOT analysis, as a planning method, indicates the development perspective by identifying the strengths, weaknesses, threads and opportunities. Subsequent steps in the process of intergraded River Management Plan of Archaia Olympia could be derived from SWOT analysis. The recognition and analysis of hydro-geomorphological influences on riparian development activities can lead to the definition of hazardous and vulnerability zones and special warning equipment. The former information combined with the use of the spatial database for the catchment area of the River Alfeios, which aims to gather multiple watershed data, could serve in preparing the Management Plan of River Basin District 01 where Alfeios R. belongs. Greece has to fulfill the obligation of implementing River

  15. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers.

  16. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt - A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Chia Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and

  17. Probabilistic evaluation of the water footprint of a river basin: Accounting method and case study in the Segura River Basin, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2018-06-15

    In the current study a method for the probabilistic accounting of the water footprint (WF) at the river basin level has been proposed and developed. It is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle and combines a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain, and four historical scenarios were evaluated (1998-2010-2015-2027). The results indicate that the WF of the river basin reached 5581 Mm 3 /year on average in the base scenario, with a high variability. The green component (3231 Mm 3 /year), mainly generated by rainfed crops (62%), was responsible for the great variability of the WF. The blue WF (1201 Mm 3 /year) was broken down into surface water (56%), renewable groundwater (20%) and non-renewable groundwater (24%), and it showed the generalized overexploitation of aquifers. Regarding the grey component (1150 Mm 3 /year), the study reveals that wastewater, especially phosphates (90%), was the main culprit producing water pollution in surface water bodies. The temporal evolution of the four scenarios highlighted the successfulness of the water treatment plans developed in the river basin, with a sharp decrease in the grey WF, as well as the stability of the WF and its three components in the future. So, the accounting of the three components of the WF in a basin was integrated into the management of water resources, it being possible to predict their evolution, their spatial characterisation and even their assessment in probabilistic terms. Then, the WF was incorporated into the set of indicators that usually is used in water resources management and hydrological planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasingly, Data Availability Limits Model Predictive Capacity: the Western Lake Erie Basin, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, K. D.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Norfleet, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent algal blooms in Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) have renewed scientific community's interest in developing process based models to better understand and predict the drivers of eutrophic conditions in the lake. At the same time, in order to prevent future blooms, farmers, local communities and policy makers are interested in developing spatially explicit nutrient and sediment management plans at various scales, from field to watershed. These interests have fueled several modeling exercises intended to locate "hotspots" in the basin where targeted adoption of additional agricultural conservation practices could provide the most benefit to water quality. The models have also been used to simulate various scenarios representing potential agricultural solutions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and its sister model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX), have been used to simulate hydrology of interacting land uses in thousands of scientific studies around the world. High performance computing allows SWAT and APEX users to continue to improve and refine the model specificity to make predictions at small-spatial scales. Consequently, data inputs and calibration/validation data are now becoming the limiting factor to model performance. Water quality data for the tributaries and rivers that flow through WLEB is spatially and temporally limited. Land management data, including conservation practice and nutrient management data, are not publicly available at fine spatial and temporal scales. Here we show the data uncertainties associated with modeling WLEB croplands at a relatively large spatial scale (HUC-4) using site management data from over 1,000 farms collected by the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The error associated with downscaling this data to the HUC-8 and HUC-12 scale is shown. Simulations of spatially explicit dynamics can be very informative, but care must be taken when policy decisions are made based on models

  19. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  20. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  1. Bioenergy in Greece: Policies, diffusion framework and stakeholder interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides a high-level scene setting analysis to understand the policy context in which the diffusion of bioenergy takes place in Greece and analysis of the perceptions of the key stakeholders at local and national levels. It is divided into six sections. Firstly the framework conditions for biomass heat and electricity generation in Greece are presented. In the second section, the policy context is set in order to identify the key support mechanisms for bioenergy in the country. The third section presents an outline of the diffusion of bioenergy in terms of key groups involved as well as key factors affecting the planning and implementation of a bioenergy scheme at local/regional and national levels. The fourth section reviews the perception of key stakeholders towards bioenergy/biofuels schemes at national level based on national networks. The fifth section focuses on a case study region (Rodopi, northern Greece) and provides an in-depth analysis for the perception of the main local actors (farmers and end users) based on structured questionnaire interviews. The final section provides the main conclusions from the surveys and draws a set of recommendations for the integration of bioenergy schemes into the Greek energy system

  2. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  3. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Daily rainfall statistics of TRMM and CMORPH: A case for trans-boundary Gandak River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Patra, Kanhu Charan; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-07-01

    Satellite precipitation products offer an opportunity to evaluate extreme events (flood and drought) for areas where rainfall data are not available or rain gauge stations are sparse. In this study, daily precipitation amount and frequency of TRMM 3B42V.7 and CMORPH products have been validated against daily rain gauge precipitation for the monsoon months (June-September or JJAS) from 2005-2010 in the trans-boundary Gandak River basin. The analysis shows that the both TRMM and CMORPH can detect rain and no-rain events, but they fail to capture the intensity of rainfall. The detection of precipitation amount is strongly dependent on the topography. In the plains areas, TRMM product is capable of capturing high-intensity rain events but in the hilly regions, it underestimates the amount of high-intensity rain events. On the other hand, CMORPH entirely fails to capture the high-intensity rain events but does well with low-intensity rain events in both hilly regions as well as the plain region. The continuous variable verification method shows better agreement of TRMM rainfall products with rain gauge data. TRMM fares better in the prediction of probability of occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events, but it underestimates intensity at high altitudes. This implies that TRMM precipitation estimates can be used for flood-related studies only after bias adjustment for the topography.

  5. Impact of potash mining in streams: the Llobregat basin (northeast Spain as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ladrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potash mining is significantly increasing the salt concentration of rivers and streams due to lixiviates coming from the mine tailings. In the present study, we have focused on the middle Llobregat basin (northeast Spain, where an important potash mining activity exists from the beginning of the XX century. Up to 50 million tonnes of saline waste have been disposed in the area, mainly composed of sodium chloride. We assessed the ecological status of streams adjacent to the mines by studying different physicochemical and hydromorphological variables, as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. We found extraordinary high values of salinity in the studied streams, reaching conductivities up to 132.4 mS/cm. Salt-polluted streams were characterized by a deterioration of the riparian vegetation and the fluvial habitat. Both macroinvertebrate richness and abundance decreased with increasing salinity. In the most polluted stream only two families of macroinvertebrates were found: Ephydridae and Ceratopogonidae. According to the biotic indices IBMWP and IMMi-T, none of the sites met the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD; i.e., good ecological status. Overall, we can conclude that potash-mining activities have the potential to cause severe ecological damage to their surrounding streams. This is mainly related to an inadequate management of the mine tailings, leading to highly saline runoff and percolates entering surface waters. Thus, we urge water managers and policy makers to take action to prevent, detect and remediate salt pollution of rivers and streams in potash mining areas.

  6. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  7. Towards an integrated analysis of rural systems: the case study of the Alento basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    The role and the functions of rural areas are undergoing considerable change due to economic, social and environmental drivers. The outcome of the transformation is the production of highly heterogeneous landscapes, rural mosaics, which are home to varying degrees of intensity of land-use and processes of deactivation, abandonment and land degradation. The identification of rural mosaics has implications both for determining the impacts on the stock of connected natural resources and for defining measures and policies able to support the resilience of rural territories and the identification of sustainable strategies for development. The study proposes a methodology for the integrated analysis of the rural territory which combines the analysis of land cover dynamics, using GIS, with an assessment of socio-economic dynamics, reconstructed through the combined use of indicators and local history, and which is aware that the differences and peculiarities within rural territories are the result of actions taken over time and of the different adaptive strategies undertaken by communities operating in different fields, under the influence of specific ecologic and environmental conditions. The methodology, applied to a socio-ecological system which is representative of the Mediterranean basin, is proposed as a tool to support the territorialisation of polices, opening the process up to perspectives able to better comprehend the dynamic evolution of rural territories, internalising that evolution in the definition of the instruments and measures to adopt.

  8. Streamflow profile classification using functional data analysis: A case study on the Kelantan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Suhaila

    2017-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events such as floods and prolonged dry spells have become common phenomena in tropical countries like Malaysia. Floods are regular natural disasters in Malaysia, and happen nearly every year during the monsoon season. Recently, the magnitude of streamflow seems to have altered frequently, both spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to have effective planning and an efficient water management system, it is advisable that streamflow data are analysed continuously over a period of time. If the data are treated as a set of functions rather than as a set of discrete values, then this ensures that they are not restricted by physical time. In addition, the derivatives of the functions may themselves be treated as functional data, which provides new information. The objective of this study is to develop a functional framework for hydrological applications using streamflow as the functional data. The daily flow series from the Kelantan River Basin were used as the main input in this study. Seven streamflow stations were employed in the analysis. Classification between the stations was done using the functional principal component, which was based on the results of the factor scores. The results indicated that two stations, namely the Kelantan River (Guillemard Bridge) and the Galas River, have a different flow pattern from the other streamflow stations. The flow curves of these two rivers are considered as the extreme curves because of their different magnitude and shape.

  9. Biostratigraphy, sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the northern Danube Basin: Ratkovce 1 well case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ratkovce 1 well, drilled in the Blatné depocenter of the northern Danube Basin penetrated the Miocene sedimentary record with a total thickness of 2000 m. Biostratigraphically, the NN4, NN5 and NN6 Zones of calcareous nannoplankton were documented; CPN7 and CPN8 foraminifer Zones (N9, 10, 11 of the global foraminiferal zonation; and MMi4a; MMi5 and MMi6 of the Mediterranean foraminiferal zonation were recognized. Sedimentology was based on description of well core material, and together with SP and RT logs, used to characterize paleoenvironmental conditions of the deposition. Five sedimentary facies were reconstructed: (1 fan-delta to onshore environment which developed during the Lower Badenian; (2 followed by the Lower Badenian proximal slope gravity currents sediments; (3 distal slope turbidites were deposited in the Lower and Upper Badenian; (4 at the very end of the Upper Badenian and during the Sarmatian a coastal plain of normal marine to brackish environment developed; (5 sedimentation finished with the Pannonian-Pliocene shallow lacustrine to alluvial plain deposits. The provenance analysis records that the sediment of the well-cores was derived from crystalline basement granitoides and gneisses and from the Permian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary cover and nappe units of the Western Carpathians and the Eastern Alps. Moreover, the Lower Badenian volcanism was an important source of sediments in the lower part of the sequence.

  10. Small hydropower spot prediction using SWAT and a diversion algorithm, case study: Upper Citarum Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardhana, Hadi; Arya, Doni Khaira; Hadihardaja, Iwan K.; Widyaningtyas, Riawan, Edi; Lubis, Atika

    2017-11-01

    Small-Scale Hydropower (SHP) had been important electric energy power source in Indonesia. Indonesia is vast countries, consists of more than 17.000 islands. It has large fresh water resource about 3 m of rainfall and 2 m of runoff. Much of its topography is mountainous, remote but abundant with potential energy. Millions of people do not have sufficient access to electricity, some live in the remote places. Recently, SHP development was encouraged for energy supply of the places. Development of global hydrology data provides opportunity to predict distribution of hydropower potential. In this paper, we demonstrate run-of-river type SHP spot prediction tool using SWAT and a river diversion algorithm. The use of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with input of CFSR (Climate Forecast System Re-analysis) of 10 years period had been implemented to predict spatially distributed flow cumulative distribution function (CDF). A simple algorithm to maximize potential head of a location by a river diversion expressing head race and penstock had been applied. Firm flow and power of the SHP were estimated from the CDF and the algorithm. The tool applied to Upper Citarum River Basin and three out of four existing hydropower locations had been well predicted. The result implies that this tool is able to support acceleration of SHP development at earlier phase.

  11. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  12. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  13. Monitoring Water Levels and Discharges Using Radar Altimetry in an Ungauged River Basin: The Case of the Ogooué

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaros Bogning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Radar altimetry is now commonly used for the monitoring of water levels in large river basins. In this study, an altimetry-based network of virtual stations was defined in the quasi ungauged Ogooué river basin, located in Gabon, Central Africa, using data from seven altimetry missions (Jason-2 and 3, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Cryosat-2, SARAL, Sentinel-3A from 1995 to 2017. The performance of the five latter altimetry missions to retrieve water stages and discharges was assessed through comparisons against gauge station records. All missions exhibited a good agreement with gauge records, but the most recent missions showed an increase of data availability (only 6 virtual stations (VS with ERS-2 compared to 16 VS for ENVISAT and SARAL and accuracy (RMSE lower than 1.05, 0.48 and 0.33 and R² higher than 0.55, 0.83 and 0.91 for ERS-2, ENVISAT and SARAL respectively. The concept of VS is extended to the case of drifting orbits using the data from Cryosat-2 in several close locations. Good agreement was also found with the gauge station in Lambaréné (RMSE = 0.25 m and R2 = 0.96. Very good results were obtained using only one year and a half of Sentinel-3 data (RMSE < 0.41 m and R2 > 0.89. The combination of data from all the radar altimetry missions near Lamabréné resulted in a long-term (May 1995 to August 2017 and significantly improved water-level time series (R² = 0.96 and RMSE = 0.38 m. The increase in data sampling in the river basin leads to a better water level peak to peak characterization and hence to a more accurate annual discharge over the common observation period with only a 1.4 m3·s−1 difference (i.e., 0.03% between the altimetry-based and the in situ mean annual discharge.

  14. Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012. Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1, 33-45.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DeRosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five parts: general information (including gender, age, education, position, and professional experience; questions on computer and Internet accessibility; questions regarding individual information needs; questions on information-seeking obstacles; and a question regarding the satisfaction with the current degree of information availability in the hospital. The last question was ranked using a 5-point Likert scale. Each questionnaire was distributed with a cover letter explaining the anonymity and consent of the respondent. Hospital members were randomly selected using a number generator and respondents returned completed surveys to the hospital personnel office in a sealed envelope within a specified time frame. The sampled group was representative of the overall population of the hospital.Main Results – The authors discuss demographic data of respondents: 65.7% were women; 56.7% were over 40 years old; 29.0% were graduates of higher technological institutes; 28.3% were university graduates; 9.7% held a postgraduate degree; 8.3% had a PhD; and 1.4% had only secondary education. As for the remainder of the survey questions: 64% of respondents had access to the Internet both at home and at work, while only 8.2% had no access to the Internet at all; most respondents noted using the Internet for seeking scientific information (83.0% and e-mail communication (65.3%; the main obstacle respondents noted experiencing when seeking information was the lack of

  15. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  16. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  17. Health seeking behaviour among suspected cases of cholera in Cameroonian health districts in Lake Chad basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Walter, Ebile Akoh; Ram, Malathi; Debes, Amanda K; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Nafack, Sonia Sonkeng; Sack, David A

    2017-08-30

    Cholera outbreaks are recurrent in Cameroon and despite the efforts put together during epidemics, they are always associated with a high case fatality. Inadequate demand for health care is one of the major factors that might be responsible for the high case fatality. This study was conducted to describe the health seeking behaviour of suspected cases of cholera in four health districts of the Far North Cameroon. We conducted a health facility based descriptive study involving suspected cases of cholera received in health facilities. Data was collected from August 2013 to October 2015 with the help of a questionnaire and analysis done by running frequency and calculating confidence interval at 95% with Epi Info version 3.5.4. A total of 1849 cases were enrolled, with 997 (53.9%) being males. 534 (28.9%) were children under the age of 5 and 942 (50.9%) were above the age of 14. About 373 (20%) of diarrhoeal patients arrived in the health facility more than 2 days following the onset of diarrhoea, with 916 (50%) of them being seriously dehydrated. Also, about 624 (34%) of these patients had sought treatment elsewhere before coming to the health facility where they were enrolled, and about 86% of them did not received ORS. Taking 2 or more days after diarrhoea onset or taking more than 1 h to travel from home to health facility was associated with severe dehydration in patients. The delay between the onset of diarrhoea and seeking treatment from a health provider determines the seriousness of suspected cases of cholera in the Far North Cameroon. While conducting an anthropological study to understand reasons why a health provider is not the first option during diarrhoeal episodes, we recommend that a system of community case detection and reference to health facilities should be put in place during cholera outbreaks to minimize its case fatality rate.

  18. The epidemiology of Brucellosis in Greece, 2007-2012: a 'One Health' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouskis, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Christidou, Athanasia; Tsatsaris, Andreas; Tzanakis, Nikos; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2018-04-26

    Brucellosis remains a disease that is very difficult to control and eradicate in Greece. Information exchange between the responsible authorities is crucial in order to support public health infrastructure in the sense of the 'One-Health' strategy model. The data for 2007-2012 were retrieved from the notifiable diseases system and analysed statistically for correlations between human brucellosis cases and the disease in small ruminants. Disease-related risk factors were also estimated with parallel exploitation mapping software. In Greece the dominant strain for brucellosis is Brucella melitensis. The average incidence in Greece was estimated to be 1.43/100,000. The majority of human cases were males (67.60%). The age distribution of brucellosis patients differs significantly between men and women. Brucellosis in male patients was related to high risk jobs and animal contact, while brucellosis in females was related to recent consumption of dairy products. Seasonality of the disease was different in relation to the European countries an observation attributed to the traditional customs. There was a statistically significant difference in human brucellosis incidence between the eradication and vaccination zones. The updated information on brucellosis in Greece revealed differences in seasonality and transmission patterns. A more active cooperation between the involved public health-related sectors should be followed in order to effectively fight brucellosis as there are still foci of brucellosis in Greece.

  19. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S.R.; Perkins, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water fights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  20. The hydrochemistry of a semi-arid pan basin case study: Sua Pan, Makgadikgadi, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, Frank D.; Bryant, Robert G.; McCulloch, Graham; Spiro, Baruch; Wood, Warren W.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents results on the fluid and salt chemistry for the Makgadikgadi, a substantial continental basin in the semi-arid Kalahari. The aims of the study are to improve understanding of the hydrology of such a system and to identify the sources of the solutes and the controls on their cycling within pans. Sampling took place against the backdrop of unusually severe flooding as well as significant anthropogenic extraction of subsurface brines. This paper examines in particular the relationship between the chemistry of soil leachates, fresh stream water, salty lake water, surface salts and subsurface brines at Sua Pan, Botswana with the aim of improving the understanding of the system's hydrology. Occasionally during the short wet season (December-March) surface water enters the saline environment and precipitates mostly calcite and halite, as well as dolomite and traces of other salts associated with the desiccation of the lake. The hypersaline subsurface brine (up to TDS 190,000 mg/L) is homogenous with minor variations due to pumping by BotAsh mine (Botswana Ash (Pty) Ltd.), which extracts 2400 m 3 of brine/h from a depth of 38 m. Notable is the decrease in TDS as the pumping rate increases which may be indicative of subsurface recharge by less saline water. Isotope chemistry for Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr average 0.722087) and S (δ 34 S average 34.35) suggests subsurface brines have been subject to a lithological contribution of undetermined origin. Recharge of the subsurface brine from surface water including the Nata River appears to be negligible

  1. Greece and NATO: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    adept diplomatic maneuvers. Andreas Papandreou, the leader of PASOK (the main opposition party in Greece), maintains that Karamanlis is still pro...at the expense of the center party, was PASOK (Panhellenic Socialist Movement) led by Andreas Papandreou. PASOK polled 25% of the vote, almost double...its 1974 vote. This gave PASOK 93 seats in the Greek parliament. PASOK’s platform advocates the transformation of Greece into a socialist state. It is

  2. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  3. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  4. Water Resources Management in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources have become an increasingly important topic of discussion in natural resources and environmental management courses. To address the need for more critical thinking in the classroom and to provide an active learning experience for undergraduate students, we present a case study based on water competition and management in the…

  5. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  6. Cross-Border organisations as an adaptive water management response to clmate change: the case of the Guadiana river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cots, F.; Tabara, J.D.; McEvoy, D.; Werners, S.E.; Roca, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role played by cross-border organisations in the Guadiana river basin in Iberia, and the extent to which new emerging institutional arrangements carry on adaptive management practice as a response to mounting climate change risks in the river basin. Particular attention

  7. Incorporating rainfall uncertainty in a SWAT model: the river Zenne basin (Belgium) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa Leta, Olkeba; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy

    2013-04-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) called its member countries to achieve a good ecological status for all inland and coastal water bodies by 2015. According to recent studies, the river Zenne (Belgium) is far from this objective. Therefore, an interuniversity and multidisciplinary project "Towards a Good Ecological Status in the river Zenne (GESZ)" was launched to evaluate the effects of wastewater management plans on the river. In this project, different models have been developed and integrated using the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI). The hydrologic, semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is hereby used as one of the model components in the integrated modelling chain in order to model the upland catchment processes. The assessment of the uncertainty of SWAT is an essential aspect of the decision making process, in order to design robust management strategies that take the predicted uncertainties into account. Model uncertainty stems from the uncertainties on the model parameters, the input data (e.g, rainfall), the calibration data (e.g., stream flows) and on the model structure itself. The objective of this paper is to assess the first three sources of uncertainty in a SWAT model of the river Zenne basin. For the assessment of rainfall measurement uncertainty, first, we identified independent rainfall periods, based on the daily precipitation and stream flow observations and using the Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO). Secondly, we assigned a rainfall multiplier parameter for each of the independent rainfall periods, which serves as a multiplicative input error corruption. Finally, we treated these multipliers as latent parameters in the model optimization and uncertainty analysis (UA). For parameter uncertainty assessment, due to the high number of parameters of the SWAT model, first, we screened out its most sensitive parameters using the Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) technique

  8. The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, L B; Tzonou, A; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Zavitsanos, X; Trichopoulos, D

    1999-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a case-control study in greater Athens, Greece. The study comprised 184 patients surgically treated for BPH within one year of its diagnosis (cases) and 246 patients with no symptoms of BPH who were treated in the same hospitals for minor diseases or conditions (controls). All cases and controls were permanent residents of the greater Athens area, Greece. The data were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. After controlling for age and education, cases and controls had similar distributions for height, body mass index, sibship size and birth order in the parental family, marital status, number of offspring and a series of previous medical diagnoses or surgical operations. The sole exception was surgery for haemorrhoids, that appeared to be related to the incidence of BPH, possibly by chance. There was no evidence that vertex baldness, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption or coffee drinking increased the risk for BPH. Men who had spent most of their lives in a rural rather than an urban environment appeared to be at reduced risk for BPH. The lifestyle factors assessed here have no major effect on the aetiology of BPH.

  9. Results of a QC program on dental radiography in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappous, George; Kolitsi, Zoi; Pallikarakis, Nikolas [Medical Physics Department, Patras University, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Arvanitakis, Gerasimos [Achaia branch of Hellenic Dental Association, Pantanasis 70-72, 262 21 (Greece)

    1999-12-31

    Quality Control (QC) performed on 99 intraoral dental X-Ray units, installed in equal in number dental offices, at the Achaia prefecture, a region of south west Greece. The QC procedure includes collection of general information, radiation safety checks, beam qualitative and quantitative characteristic checks, and film processing checks, according to international established protocols. The collected data are characterised by a non-uniformity and in some cases indicate a poor performance level. The results of the study on a representative sample of dental X-Ray units helps to map the existing situation and may be useful in the reviewing and optimisation of the applied process. (authors) 10 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Results of a QC program on dental radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappous, George; Kolitsi, Zoi; Pallikarakis, Nikolas; Arvanitakis, Gerasimos

    1998-01-01

    Quality Control (QC) performed on 99 intraoral dental X-Ray units, installed in equal in number dental offices, at the Achaia prefecture, a region of south west Greece. The QC procedure includes collection of general information, radiation safety checks, beam qualitative and quantitative characteristic checks, and film processing checks, according to international established protocols. The collected data are characterised by a non-uniformity and in some cases indicate a poor performance level. The results of the study on a representative sample of dental X-Ray units helps to map the existing situation and may be useful in the reviewing and optimisation of the applied process. (authors)

  11. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  12. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  13. Macrofaunal assemblages associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (Porifera: Demospongiae) at the coasts of Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavloudi, Christina; Christodoulou, Magdalini; Mavidis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset of macrofaunal organisms associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862, collected by scuba diving from two sampling sites: one in Greece (North Aegean Sea) and one in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). This dataset includes macrofaunal taxa inhabiting the demosponge Sarcotragus foetidus and contributes to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. This is the first paper, to our knowledge, where the macrofauna associated with S. foetidus from the Levantine Basin is being recorded. In total, 90 taxa were recorded, from which 83 were identified to the species level. Eight of these species are new records for the Levantine Basin. The dataset contains 213 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. It is accessible at http://lifewww-00.her.hcmr.gr:8080/medobis/resource.do?r=organismic_assemblages_sarcotragus_foetidus_cyprus_greece.

  14. Deriving Design Flood Hydrograph Based on Conditional Distribution: A Case Study of Danjiangkou Reservoir in Hanjiang Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design flood hydrograph (DFH for a dam is the flood of suitable probability and magnitude adopted to ensure safety of the dam in accordance with appropriate design standards. Estimated quantiles of peak discharge and flood volumes are necessary for deriving the DFH, which are mutually correlated and need to be described by multivariate analysis methods. The joint probability distributions of peak discharge and flood volumes were established using copula functions. Then the general formulae of conditional most likely composition (CMLC and conditional expectation composition (CEC methods that consider the inherent relationship between flood peak and volumes were derived for estimating DFH. The Danjiangkou reservoir in Hanjiang basin was selected as a case study. The design values of flood volumes and 90% confidence intervals with different peak discharges were estimated by the proposed methods. The performance of CMLC and CEC methods was also compared with conventional flood frequency analysis, and the results show that CMLC method performs best for both bivariate and trivariate distributions which has the smallest relative error and root mean square error. The proposed CMLC method has strong statistical basis with unique design flood composition scheme and provides an alternative way for deriving DFH.

  15. Insights and participatory actions driven by a socio-hydrogeological approach for groundwater management: the Grombalia Basin case study (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.

  16. Representing Geospatial Environment Observation Capability Information: A Case Study of Managing Flood Monitoring Sensors in the Jinsha River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuli; Guan, Qingfeng; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Chen, Nengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Sensor inquirers cannot understand comprehensive or accurate observation capability information because current observation capability modeling does not consider the union of multiple sensors nor the effect of geospatial environmental features on the observation capability of sensors. These limitations result in a failure to discover credible sensors or plan for their collaboration for environmental monitoring. The Geospatial Environmental Observation Capability (GEOC) is proposed in this study and can be used as an information basis for the reliable discovery and collaborative planning of multiple environmental sensors. A field-based GEOC (GEOCF) information representation model is built. Quintuple GEOCF feature components and two GEOCF operations are formulated based on the geospatial field conceptual framework. The proposed GEOCF markup language is used to formalize the proposed GEOCF. A prototype system called GEOCapabilityManager is developed, and a case study is conducted for flood observation in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River Basin. The applicability of the GEOCF is verified through the reliable discovery of flood monitoring sensors and planning for the collaboration of these sensors. PMID:27999247

  17. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  18. Geometry and subsidence history of the Dead Sea basin: A case for fluid-induced mid-crustal shear zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Flores, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Pull-apart basins are narrow zones of crustal extension bounded by strike-slip faults that can serve as analogs to the early stages of crustal rifting. We use seismic tomography, 2-D ray tracing, gravity modeling, and subsidence analysis to study crustal extension of the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large and long-lived pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST). The basin gradually shallows southward for 50 km from the only significant transverse normal fault. Stratigraphic relationships there indicate basin elongation with time. The basin is deepest (8-8.5 km) and widest (???15 km) under the Lisan about 40 km north of the transverse fault. Farther north, basin depth is ambiguous, but is 3 km deep immediately north of the lake. The underlying pre-basin sedimentary layer thickens gradually from 2 to 3 km under the southern edge of the DSB to 3-4 km under the northern end of the lake and 5-6 km farther north. Crystalline basement is ???11 km deep under the deepest part of the basin. The upper crust under the basin has lower P wave velocity than in the surrounding regions, which is interpreted to reflect elevated pore fluids there. Within data resolution, the lower crust below ???18 km and the Moho are not affected by basin development. The subsidence rate was several hundreds of m/m.y. since the development of the DST ???17 Ma, similar to other basins along the DST, but subsidence rate has accelerated by an order of magnitude during the Pleistocene, which allowed the accumulation of 4 km of sediment. We propose that the rapid subsidence and perhaps elongation of the DSB are due to the development of inter-connected mid-crustal ductile shear zones caused by alteration of feldspar to muscovite in the presence of pore fluids. This alteration resulted in a significant strength decrease and viscous creep. We propose a similar cause to the enigmatic rapid subsidence of the North Sea at the onset the North Atlantic mantle plume. Thus, we propose that aqueous fluid flux

  19. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    land sub-systems, the first one showing an average 4.2 mm net daily water loss during the summer season (about 0.975 m3/s) for the years 2000-2009. Lake inflow is constituted of two main terms: an anthropogenic one related to the drainage of the reclaimed land of about 1.1 m3/s (ranging 75-81% of the total inflow); a natural one defined by recharge through rainfall, the western coastal aquifer and the eastern reliefs, accounting for 0.25 m3/s (varying 19-25% of the total inflow). On the other hand, lake water loss is mainly due to evaporation from water surface and evapotranspiration from the palustrine vegetation for around 56-61% (1.31 m3/s on average), while 13 to 15% (0.325 m3/s) is due to inefficient irrigation schemes using lake water and, being the lake perched, recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer (26 to 29%) by means of water infiltrating along the embankments (0.64 m3/s on average). Since several springs on the eastern margin, which would flow to the lacustrine system for about 0.160 m3/s (Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007), are tapped (for residential, tourism and industrial users), the anthropogenic impact on the water deficit constitutes about 50% of the total, being 34% due to irrigation and 16% to other users. This demonstrates the naturally induced water deficit, already known by historical sources, is heavily altered by anthropogenic pressure defining a not sustainable balance between the socio-economic system and the natural one. It is then clear, that in order to reduce the water stress, a new water management strategy in the whole basin must be devised by revising and enhancing the irrigation schemes and the residential, industrial and tourism water distribution. Reference Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007. Piano di Bacino 'Bilancio idrico del bacino del lago di Massaciuccoli' Relazione di piano. Lucca, Italy.

  20. Causes and possible solutions to water resource conflicts in the Okavango River Basin: The case of Angola, Namibia and Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E.

    This paper reviews available literature concerning water resources use in the Okavango River Basin (ORB). It describes a number of common arguments regarding possibilities for the emergence of violent conflict in and among Basin states, particularly those states party to the Okavango River Basin Commission (Okacom)-Angola, Botswana and Namibia. The paper presents data concerning present and future water demands and examines a number of formal, institutional steps taken by global and regional actors to facilitate sustainable development, natural resources management and peaceful cooperation in the Basin. Contrary to trends in much of the literature, the paper suggests that there is great scope for enhanced inter-state cooperation in the Basin. It argues that to achieve sustainable utilisation of water resources and avoid violent conflict in the ORB, an integrated management plan for the entire basin needs to be developed. In addition, each basin member-state should observe international and regional conventions and treaties governing the use of water resources when designing national water development projects that require the use of water from the ORB.

  1. Importance of isotope hydrology techniques in water resources management: A case study of the Makutupora basin in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senguji, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Makutupora groundwater basin has been the main source of water supply for Dodoma town since 1950s. the water is mainly used for domestic water supply to over one million inhabitants, for industrial purposes and livestock watering. Conventional hydrogeological investigations have been carried out in the basin to gather information on the groundwater potential of the basin to meet the ever-increasing demand for water. However, firm conclusions could not be reached with conventional methods. This paper highlights on the isotope techniques applied in an integrated manner with conventional hydrogeological methods to study the groundwater regime of the Makutupora basin. Results of isotope techniques have provided adequate information on recharge locations, recharge rates and age of groundwater in the basin, that is very important and open up prospects for further investigations using isotope techniques. The ongoing investigation in the basin regarding pollution and depletion of the groundwater resource, has not succeeded in defining specific pumping limits or groundwater protection zones. Isotope data are sought to provide a clear basis for regulatory and future groundwater management in the Makutupora basin. (author)

  2. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  3. Enhancing Students' Critical Awareness in a Second Chance School in Greece: Reality or Wishful Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a case study investigating into a Second Chance School in Greece as an institution for raising students' social awareness along the principles of critical pedagogy. Through the prism of symbolic interactionism, students' and teachers' negotiated perspectives formulating school and classroom culture reveal that students'…

  4. Architecture of buried reverse fault zone in the sedimentary basin: A case study from the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun; Du, Yannan

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the faults can act as the conduits or the barrier for oil and gas migration. Years of studies suggested that the internal architecture of a fault zone is complicated and composed of distinct components with different physical features, which can highly influence the migration of oil and gas along the fault. The field observation is the most useful methods of observing the fault zone architecture, however, in the petroleum exploration, what should be concerned is the buried faults in the sedimentary basin. Meanwhile, most of the studies put more attention on the strike-slip or normal faults, but the architecture of the reverse faults attracts less attention. In order to solve these questions, the Hong-Che Fault Zone in the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Province, is chosen for an example. Combining with the seismic data, well logs and drill core data, we put forward a comprehensive method to recognize the internal architectures of buried faults. High-precision seismic data reflect that the fault zone shows up as a disturbed seismic reflection belt. Four types of well logs, which are sensitive to the fractures, and a comprehensive discriminated parameter, named fault zone index are used in identifying the fault zone architecture. Drill core provides a direct way to identify different components of the fault zone, the fault core is composed of breccia, gouge, and serpentinized or foliated fault rocks and the damage zone develops multiphase of fractures, which are usually cemented. Based on the recognition results, we found that there is an obvious positive relationship between the width of the fault zone and the displacement, and the power-law relationship also exists between the width of the fault core and damage zone. The width of the damage zone in the hanging wall is not apparently larger than that in the footwall in the reverse fault, showing different characteristics with the normal fault. This study provides a

  5. Ecosystem Services Mapping Uncertainty Assessment: A Case Study in the Fitzroy Basin Mining Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping is becoming increasingly popular through the use of various readily available mapping tools, however, uncertainties in assessment outputs are commonly ignored. Uncertainties from different sources have the potential to lower the accuracy of mapping outputs and reduce their reliability for decision-making. Using a case study in an Australian mining region, this paper assessed the impact of uncertainties on the modelling of the hydrological ecosystem service, water provision. Three types of uncertainty were modelled using multiple uncertainty scenarios: (1 spatial data sources; (2 modelling scales (temporal and spatial and (3 parameterization and model selection. We found that the mapping scales can induce significant changes to the spatial pattern of outputs and annual totals of water provision. In addition, differences in parameterization using differing sources from the literature also led to obvious differences in base flow. However, the impact of each uncertainty associated with differences in spatial data sources were not so great. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of uncertainty assessment and highlight that any conclusions drawn from ecosystem services mapping, such as the impacts of mining, are likely to also be a property of the uncertainty in ecosystem services mapping methods.

  6. Comparative assessment of landslide susceptibility. Case study: the Niraj river basin (Transylvania depression, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoŞca Sanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a comparison between two independent models used to evaluate landslide susceptibility in Romania: first, the model derived from the Romanian Governmental Decision no. 447/2003 (H.G. 447 and second, the bivariate statistical analysis. Considering the numerous objections to the first approach, which is also imposed by law, the accuracy of the results was analyzed using an alternative method which takes into consideration the reality from the field to a greater extent (the inventory of the existing landslides. The case study is focused on the Niraj catchment area (658 km2, a representative area for frequent landslide occurrence. The H.G. 447 model implies the estimation of the importance of eight factors involved in landslide occurrence: lithology, geomorphology, structure, hydro-climatic factors, hydrogeology, seismicity, forest cover and the anthropogenic factor. A thematic map was generated and analyzed for each one of the eight factors influencing slope instability and a specific coefficient was assigned. The statistical model, based on the bivariate probability analysis, was applied in order to predict the spatial distribution of the susceptibility classes. The probability of landslide occurrence was estimated based on the assumption that the prediction of the spatial distributions of landslides starts from the existing ones. In order to validate the model, the resulting maps were compared with the existing landslide maps: the relative landslide density index (R and the relative operation curve (ROC value were calculated, which indicate that the statistical model emphasizes a better correlation between the susceptibility classes and the active landslides (ROC value 0.972, the causative factors selected being relevant for the applied models.

  7. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  8. Application of the ELOHA Framework to Regulated Rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dolloff, Dr. Charles A [USDA Forest Service, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Tech; Mathews, David C [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    2013-01-01

    In order for habitat restoration in regulated rivers to be effective at large scales, broadly applicable frameworks are needed that provide measurable objectives and contexts for management. The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA) framework was created as a template to assess hydrologic alterations, develop relationships between altered streamflow and ecology, and establish environmental flow standards. We tested the utility of ELOHA in informing flow restoration applications for fish and riparian communities in regulated rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin (UTRB). We followed the steps of ELOHA to generate flow alteration-ecological response relationships and then determined whether those relationships could predict fish and riparian responses to flow restoration in the Cheoah River, a regulated system within the UTRB. Although ELOHA provided a robust template to construct hydrologic information and predict hydrology for ungaged locations, our results do not support the assertion that over-generalized univariate relationships between flow and ecology can produce results sufficient to guide management in regulated rivers. After constructing multivariate models, we successfully developed predictive relationships between flow alterations and fish/riparian responses. In accordance with model predictions, riparian encroachment displayed consistent decreases with increases in flow magnitude in the Cheoah River; however, fish richness did not increase as predicted four years post- restoration. Our results suggest that altered temperature and substrate and the current disturbance regime may have reduced opportunities for fish species colonization. Our case study highlights the need for interdisciplinary science in defining environmental flows for regulated rivers and the need for adaptive management approaches once flows are restored.

  9. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiec Lech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  10. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  11. Critical evaluation of the hydropower applications in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldellis, J.K. [Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, TEI Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece)

    2008-01-15

    Hydropower is a proven technology for electricity generation, contributing with almost 20% to the fulfilment of the planet electricity demand. Hydropower is also renewable because it draws its essential energy from the sun and particularly from the hydrological cycle. Greece and more precisely the west and north part of the mainland possesses significant hydropower potential that is up to now partially exploited. In the present survey, one investigates the existing situation concerning the applications of hydropower plants in Greece, while the results obtained are compared with the corresponding international and European situation. Subsequently, emphasis is laid on estimating the electricity-generation utilization degree of the existing large hydropower stations, using 25-year long official data. The results obtained underline the fact that the electricity generation is not a priority for the national water management policy and most Greek hydropower stations are used mainly to meet the corresponding peak load demand. On the other hand, increased interest to create numerous new small hydropower plants throughout Greece has been expressed during the last 5 years. According to the information gathered and analyzed, one may state that the available local hydropower potential is quite promising and can substantially contribute to the accomplishment of the national-EU target to cover the 21% of the corresponding electricity consumption from renewable resources. For this purpose one should first define an approved and rational water resources management plan and secondly support the increased utilization of large and small hydropower plants for electricity generation. In this case, properly designed hydropower plants should lead to considerable profits, contributing also in the country's independency from imported oil and accomplishing the Kyoto protocol obligations. (author)

  12. Decadal Climate Information Needs of Stakeholders for Decision Support in Water and Agriculture Production Sectors: A Case Study in the Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. M.; Knutson, C.; Rosenberg, N.

    2012-12-01

    Many decadal climate prediction efforts have been initiated under the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. There is considerable ongoing discussion about model deficiencies, initialization techniques, and data requirements, but not much attention is being given to decadal climate information (DCI) needs of stakeholders for decision support. We report the results of exploratory activities undertaken to assess DCI needs in water resources and agriculture sectors, using the Missouri River Basin (the Basin) as a case study. This assessment was achieved through discussions with 120 representative stakeholders. Stakeholders' awareness of decadal dry and wet spells and their societal impacts in the Basin is established; and stakeholders' DCI needs and potential barriers to their use of DCI are enumerated. We find that impacts, including economic impacts, of DCV on water and agricultural production in the Basin are distinctly identifiable and characterizable. Stakeholders have clear notions about their needs for DCI and have offered specific suggestions as to how these might be met. But, while stakeholders are eager to have climate information, including decadal climate outlooks (DCOs), there are many barriers to the use of such information. The first and foremost is that the credibility of DCOs is yet to be established. Secondly, the nature of institutional rules and regulations, laws, and legal precedents that pose obstacles to the use of DCOs must be better understood and means to modify these, where possible, must be sought. For the benefit of climate scientists, these and other stakeholder needs will also be articulated in this talk. We are engaged in a project to assess simulation and hindcast skills of DCV phenomena and their associations with hydro-meteorological variability in the Basin in the HadCM3, GFDL-CM2.1, NCAR CCSM4, and MIROC5 global coupled models participating in the WCRP's CMIP5 project. Results from this project

  13. Application of MODIS Products to Infer Possible Relationships Between Basin Land Cover and Coastal Waters Turbidity Using the Magdalena River, Colombia, as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrinan, Max Jacobo Moreno; Cordova, Africa Flores; Olivares, Francisco Delgado; Irwin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Basin development and consequent change in basin land cover have been often associated with an increased turbidity in coastal waters because of sediment yield and nutrients loading. The later leads to phytoplankton abundance further exacerbating water turbidity. This subsequently affects biological and physical processes in coastal estuaries by interfering with sun light penetration to coral reefs and sea grass, and even affecting public health. Therefore, consistent estimation of land cover changes and turbidity trend lines is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Ground solely methods to estimate land cover change would be unpractical and traditional methods of monitoring in situ water turbidity can be very expensive and time consuming. Accurate monitoring on the status and trends of basin land cover as well as the water quality of the receiving water bodies are required for analysis of relationships between the two variables. Use of remote sensing (RS) technology provides a great benefit for both fields of study, facilitating monitoring of changes in a timely and cost effective manner and covering wide areas with long term measurements. In this study, the Magdalena River basin and fixed geographical locations in the estuarine waters of its delta are used as a case to study the temporal trend lines of both, land cover change and the reflectance of the water turbidity using satellite technology. Land cover data from a combined product between sensors Terra and Aqua (MCD12Q1) from MODIS will be adapted to the conditions in the Magdalena basin to estimate changes in land cover since year 2000 to 2009. Surface reflectance data from a MODIS, Terra (MOD09GQ), band 1, will be used in lieu of in situ water turbidity for the time period between 2000 and present. Results will be compared with available existing data.

  14. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-contr...

  15. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  16. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (Entrepreneurship" co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the Ministry of Education and Relegious Affairs.

  17. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  18. A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction: A case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Skinner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.

  19. The Role of Trust-building in Fostering Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin: A Case of Experimental Game Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Motlagh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating tension and a sense of mistrust currently prevail between downstream and upstream countries in the Nile Basin over Ethiopia's construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD. Striving for self-sufficiency in hydropower generation, Ethiopia has initiated a new series of upstream reservoir construction projects, with the GERD being the largest, and this may affect the water availability in downstream countries of Egypt and Sudan. This paper examines a set of compensation options to induce cooperation through trust-building, possibly minimizing uncertainties in water allocation decision-making and simplifying complex inter-relationships in the basin using laboratory game experiments. The game was developed and conducted using hydro-economic modeling of the basin with GAMS software, an expert survey with the SPSS program and Z-tree software to design and analyze the laboratory experiment. This paper presents the results of the laboratory game experiment where the Eastern Nile Basin scenario was modeled as a multi-round, adjusted trust game with non-binding deals among players. The results suggest that the "win for all" situation may be reached through a stable integrative, cooperative framework. Building the enabling environment, in particular, transparency, knowledge, trust, and confidence among riparian states is the first step in developing transboundary cooperation. Basin-wide cooperation requires a transparent environment including a variety of compensation options, institutional changes, and incentive-compatible considerations.

  20. Modeling the hydrologic effects of land and water development interventions: a case study of the upper Blue Nile river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Over 67% of the Ethiopian landmass has been identified as very vulnerable to climate variability and land degradation. These problems are more prevalent in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN, often called Abay) river basin covering a drainage area of about 199,800 km2. The UBN River runs from Lake Tana (NW Ethiopia) to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. To enhance the adaptive capacity to the high climate variability and land degradation in the basin, different land and water management measures (stone/soil bunds, runoff collector trenches, exclosures) have been extensively implemented, especially since recent years. Moreover, multipurpose water harvesting schemes including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD, reservoir area of ca. 4000 km2) and 17 other similar projects are being or to be implemented by 2025. However, impact studies on land and water management aspects rarely include detailed hydrological components especially at river basin scale, although it is generally regarded as a major determinant of hydrological processes. The main aim of this study is therefore to model the significance of land and water management interventions in surface runoff response at scale of UBN river basin and to suggest some recommendations. Spatially-distributed annual surface runoff was simulated for both present-day and future (2025) land and water management conditions using calibrated values of the proportional loss model in ArcGIS environment. Average annual rainfall map (1998-2012) was produced from calibrated TRMM satellite source and shows high spatial variability of rainfall ranging between ca. 1000 mm in the Eastern part of the basin to ca. 2000 mm in the southern part of the basin. Present-day land use day condition was obtained from Abay Basin Master Plan study. The future land use map was created taking into account the land and water development interventions to be implemented by 2025. Under present-day conditions, high spatial variability of annual runoff depth was observed

  1. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  2. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  3. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  4. Greece - energy situation 1986/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of Greece is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  5. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. New information The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes. PMID:27956851

  6. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkelis, Spyros; Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes.

  7. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  8. The Cost of Living in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Morales Harley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the most relevant economic aspects of Ancient Greece, more specifically, 5th century BC Athens. It explores the Greek notion of economy, the monetary system, the financial administration and the labor market, in order to contextualize the cost of living. The examples on this matter take into account the products’ costs and the people’s wages.

  9. Top Income Shares in Greece: 1957-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Chrissis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of top income shares in Greece for the period 1957 to 2010 following Piketty (2001 methodology. We present the 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 2%, 1.5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% income shares estimates which are based on tax statistics. The empirical results indicate that the behavior of the alternative estimated top income shares is quite similar. A ‘flat’ Ushaped pattern for most cases seems to exist. This common pattern is more apparent for the 2.5-0.1% top income shares. The top 10% and 5% income shares seem to be more volatile, accompanied with an increasing trend by the end of the period. This paper is an attempt to extend the existing research in southern Europe by presenting the relevant Greek experience. For the whole period, country comparisons show that the 1% top income share in Greece is in lower levels than that of USA and the other European countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain, France, Germany.

  10. Modelling and simulation of compressible fluid flow in oil reservoir: a case study of the Jubilee Field, Tano Basin (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawusu, S.

    2015-07-01

    Oil extraction represents an important investment and the control of a rational exploitation of a field means mastering various scientific techniques including the understanding of the dynamics of fluids in place. This thesis presents a theoretical investigation of the dynamic behaviour of an oil reservoir during its exploitation. The study investigated the dynamics of fluid flow patterns in a homogeneous oil reservoir using the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) as well as two phase oil-water flow equations. The RDE model was solved analytically and numerically for pressure using the Constant Terminal Rate Solution (CTRS) and the fully implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) respectively. The mathematical derivations of the models and their solution procedures were presented to allow for easy utilization of the techniques for reservoir and engineering applications. The study predicted that the initial oil reservoir pressure will be able to do the extraction for a very long time before any other recovery method will be used to aid in the extraction process depending on the rate of production. Reservoir simulation describing a one dimensional radial flow of a compressible fluid in porous media may be adequately performed using ordinary laptop computers as revealed by the study. For the simulation of MATLAB, the case of the Jubilee Fields, Tano Basin was studied, an algorithm was developed for the simulation of pressure in the reservoir. It ensues from the analysis of the plots of pressure vrs time and space that the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) was duly followed. The approximate solutions of the analytical and numerical solutions to the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) were in excellent agreement, thus the reservoir simulation model developed can be used to describe typical pressure-time relationships that are used in conventional Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA). The study was extended to two phase oil-water flow in reservoirs. The flow of fluids in multi

  11. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  12. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, A.; Rijnveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate

  13. Rainfall characteristics and their implications for rain-fed agriculture : a case study in the Upper Zambezi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, M.; Wallner, M.; Bahlmann, L.; Thiemig, V.; Dietrich, J.; Billib, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates rainfall characteristics in the Upper Zambezi River Basin and implications for rain-fed agriculture. Seventeen indices describing the character of each rainy season were calculated using a bias-corrected version of TRMM-B42 v6 rainfall estimate for 1998–2010. These were

  14. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: A test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global

  15. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in

  16. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: A test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed

  17. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.; Sideri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  18. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K., E-mail: kmodis@mail.ntua.gr; Sideri, D. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  19. A case study on the diagnosis and consequences of flash floods in south-western Romania: The upper basin of Desnatui River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosanu Gabriela Adina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the flash floods that may appear in a representative river basin occupying the south-western Romania and also feature an example of the most recent flash flood from 2005-2006, more specifically, its causes and consequences. In order to accomplish the objectives, hydrological data were used to identify the characteristics of the floods. Finally, the case study of the flash flood was delivered through the field research, observational method, discussion with the authorities and investigation of the meteorological and hydrological available data. The research offers an insight on the dimension of damages triggered by a flash flood event, based on the statistical data provided by the village hall and the few remaining places preserving the traces of the floods (houses, bridges. Because we could not provide all the necessary data in order to determine the frequency and scale of such risk phenomena, the analysis is assessed on general hydrological statistics of flood events between 1964 to 2011. By leading the research, it resulted that the specific feature of the upper basin of Desnatui River is its temporary drainage and that in the periods of high flow, the capacity of the river channels is diminshed and the floods may occur. The paper succeeds to revive the insufficient scientific concerns on this kind of hydrological risks issued in the space occupied by the upper basin of Desnatui River and eventually, to supply the need for such study in the context of modern hydrological research preoccupations.

  20. Natural and human forcing in recent geomorphic change; case studies in the Rio de la Plata basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonachea, Jaime; Bruschi, Viola M; Hurtado, Martín A; Forte, Luis M; da Silva, Mario; Etcheverry, Ricardo; Cavallotto, José L; Dantas, Marcilene F; Pejon, Osni J; Zuquette, Lázaro V; Bezerra, Maria Angélica de O; Remondo, Juan; Rivas, Victoria; Gómez-Arozamena, José; Fernández, Gema; Cendrero, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    An analysis of geomorphic system's response to change in human and natural drivers in some areas within the Río de la Plata basin is presented. The aim is to determine whether an acceleration of geomorphic processes has taken place in recent years and, if so, to what extent it is due to natural (climate) or human (land-use) drivers. Study areas of different size, socio-economic and geomorphic conditions have been selected: the Río de la Plata estuary and three sub-basins within its watershed. Sediment cores were extracted and dated ((210)Pb) to determine sedimentation rates since the end of the 19th century. Rates were compared with time series on rainfall as well as human drivers such as population, GDP, livestock load, crop area, energy consumption or cement consumption, all of them related to human capacity to disturb land surface. Data on river discharge were also gathered. Results obtained indicate that sedimentation rates during the last century have remained essentially constant in a remote Andean basin, whereas they show important increases in the other two, particularly one located by the São Paulo metropolitan area. Rates in the estuary are somewhere in between. It appears that there is an intensification of denudation/sedimentation processes within the basin. Rainfall remained stable or varied very slightly during the period analysed and does not seem to explain increases of sedimentation rates observed. Human drivers, particularly those more directly related to capacity to disturb land surface (GDP, energy or cement consumption) show variations that suggest human forcing is a more likely explanation for the observed change in geomorphic processes. It appears that a marked increase in denudation, of a "technological" nature, is taking place in this basin and leading to an acceleration of sediment supply. This is coherent with similar increases observed in other regions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking Governance to Sustainable Management Outcomes: Applying Dynamic Indicator Profiles to River Basin Organization Case Studies around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Bouckaert, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Institutional best practice for integrated river basin management advocates the river basin organisation (RBO) model as pivotal to achieve sustainable management outcomes and stakeholder engagement. The model has been widely practiced in transboundary settings and is increasingly adopted at national scales, though its effectiveness remains poorly studied. A meta-analysis of four river basins has been conducted to assess governance models and linking it to evaluation of biophysical management outcomes. The analysis is based on a Theory of Change framework, and includes functional dynamic governance indicator profiles, coupled to sustainable ecosystem management outcome profiles. The governance and outcome profiles, informed by context specific indicators, demand that targets for setting objectives are required in multiple dimensions, and trajectory outlines are a useful tool to track progress along the journey mapped out by the Theory of Change framework. Priorities, trade-offs and objectives vary in each basin, but the diagnostics tool allows comparison between basins in their capacity to reach targets through successive evaluations. The distance between capacity and target scores determines how program planning should be prioritized and resources allocated for implementation; this is a dynamic process requiring regular evaluations and adaptive management. The findings of this study provide a conceptual framework for combining dimensions of integrated water management principles that bridge tensions between (i) stakeholder engagement and participatory management (bottom-up approach) using localized knowledge and (ii) decision-making, control-and-command, system-scale, accountable and equitable management (top-down approach).The notion of adaptive management is broadened to include whole-of-program learnings, rather than single hypothesis based learning adjustments. This triple loop learning combines exploitative methods refinement with explorative evaluation of

  2. MIRU-VNTR typing of drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Karabela, Simona; Constantoulakis, Pantelis; Michou, Vassiliki; Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sgountzos, Vassileios; Roussos, Charis; Poulakis, Nikolaos

    2011-08-01

    The increasing immigration rate in Greece from countries with a high prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) may have an impact οn the number of MDR-TB cases in Greece. The aim of this study was to genotypically characterize the MTB isolates from patients with pulmonary drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in Greece, and to determine whether there is any association between the prevalent genotypes and drug resistance. Fifty-three drug-resistant MTB strains isolated from culture specimens of clinical material from native Greeks and immigrant patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were genotyped using the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) method. The phylogenetically distinct groups of isolates identified were: the Beijing (34%), the LAM (11%), the Haarlem (24.5%), the Uganda I (9.4%), the Ural (3.8%), the Delhi/CAS (9.4%) and the Cameroon (3.8%) families. Greek patients were more likely to have monoresistant and polyresistant TB with the most prevalent isolates belonging to the Haarlem family. Among foreign-born patients with MDR-TB, the most prevalent genotypes belonged to the Beijing family. MIRU-VNTR rapidly obtained clinically useful genotyping data, by characterizing clonal MTB heterogeneity in the isolated strains. Our results underline the need for more effective antituberculosis control programs in order to control the expansion of DR-TB in Greece.

  3. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on the behavior of the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and 137Cs in an estuarine ecosystem using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: the case of Thermaikos gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Florou, H.

    2006-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bioindicators and used in Mussel Watch programs, because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in relation to pollutant biological availability in the marine environment. The present study deals with the use of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a local bioindicator of heavy metal and 137 Cs contamination in an estuarine ecosystem (Thermaikos gulf, Greece in Eastern Mediterranean). M. galloprovincialis samples were collected monthly from two aquaculture farms during the period April to October 2000. Analyses for the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and 137 Cs showed that the concentrations measured were low and similar to those from other non-polluted Mediterranean areas. In terms of the two sampling stations, there were no statistically significant differences between them. On the contrary, the seasonal evolution of either heavy metals or 137 Cs levels presented high variation. The levels were found to increase during the cold period of the year, especially for Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr which are essential for life. Stable metals were positively inter-related and moreover, metals more involved in biochemical activities seem to present more correlations than others with less significant role in the metabolism of the organisms

  6. Potential compensation of hydrological extremes in headwaters: case study of upper Vltava River basin, Šumava Mts., Czechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír.; Česák, Julius

    2010-05-01

    Increasing frequency of catastrophic flash floods and extreme droughts in recent years results in an urgent need of solving of flood protection questions and measures leading to discharge increase in dry periods. Flattening of discharge call for the use of untraditional practices as a suitable complement to classical engineering methods. These measures could be represented by gradual increase of river catchment retention capacity in headstream areas. Very favorable conditions for this research solution are concentrated to the upper part of Otava River basin (Vltava River left tributary, Šumava Mts., southwestern Czechia) representing the core zone of a number of extreme floods in Central Europe and the area with high peat land proportion. A number of automatic ultrasound and hydrostatic pressure water level gauges, climatic stations and precipitation gauges and utilization of modern equipment and methods were used in chosen experimental catchments to assess the landscape retention potential and to find out rainfall-runoff relations in this area. Successively, the detailed analysis of peat land hydrological function was carried out. The peat bogs influence on runoff conditions were assessed by thorough comparison of runoff regimes in subcatchments with different peat land proportion. The peat bog influence on hydrological process can be considered also with respect to its affecting of water quality. Therefore, hydrological monitoring was completed by ion, carbon (TOC) and oxygen isotopes balance observing within periods of high or low discharges in order to precise runoff phases separation by means of anion deficiency. Pedological survey of different soil types and textures was carried out to precise the estimation of its water capacity. Detailed analyses of extreme runoff ascending and descending phases and minimum discharges in profiles closing several subcatchments with different physical-geographic conditions show higher peak flow frequency and their shorter

  7. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  8. Mapping of groundwater quality in the Turonian aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia Basin, Morocco: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-08-01

    This study takes the groundwater of the Moroccan limestone aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia as an example of statistical and cartographical approaches in water resources management. Statistical analyses based on frequency distribution and PCA methods revealed the homogeneity of waters with the existence of abnormal points and have helped to assess correlations between the studied variables. The mapping approach illustrated that waters are influenced by the lithology of the surrounding rocks and are of Ca Mg HCO3, Ca Mg Cl SO4, and mixed types according to the Piper classification. The quality of water is of high to medium, north of the basin, but it is of medium to bad, NE and south, due to excessive contents of chloride, sulfate and nitrate. According to the US Salinity Laboratory classification, water used for irrigation in the eastern and the southern parts of the basin should take into consideration the drainage conditions, the nature of plants and the addition of gypsum doses.

  9. Temporal evolution of fault systems in the Upper Jurassic of the Central German Molasse Basin: case study Unterhaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budach, Ingmar; Moeck, Inga; Lüschen, Ewald; Wolfgramm, Markus

    2018-03-01

    The structural evolution of faults in foreland basins is linked to a complex basin history ranging from extension to contraction and inversion tectonics. Faults in the Upper Jurassic of the German Molasse Basin, a Cenozoic Alpine foreland basin, play a significant role for geothermal exploration and are therefore imaged, interpreted and studied by 3D seismic reflection data. Beyond this applied aspect, the analysis of these seismic data help to better understand the temporal evolution of faults and respective stress fields. In 2009, a 27 km2 3D seismic reflection survey was conducted around the Unterhaching Gt 2 well, south of Munich. The main focus of this study is an in-depth analysis of a prominent v-shaped fault block structure located at the center of the 3D seismic survey. Two methods were used to study the periodic fault activity and its relative age of the detected faults: (1) horizon flattening and (2) analysis of incremental fault throws. Slip and dilation tendency analyses were conducted afterwards to determine the stresses resolved on the faults in the current stress field. Two possible kinematic models explain the structural evolution: One model assumes a left-lateral strike slip fault in a transpressional regime resulting in a positive flower structure. The other model incorporates crossing conjugate normal faults within a transtensional regime. The interpreted successive fault formation prefers the latter model. The episodic fault activity may enhance fault zone permeability hence reservoir productivity implying that the analysis of periodically active faults represents an important part in successfully targeting geothermal wells.

  10. Assessment of soil erosion by RUSLE model using remote sensing and GIS - A case study of Nethravathi Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Ganasri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a serious problem arising from agricultural intensification, land degradation and other anthropogenic activities. Assessment of soil erosion is useful in planning and conservation works in a watershed or basin. Modelling can provide a quantitative and consistent approach to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield under a wide range of conditions. In the present study, the soil loss model, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE integrated with GIS has been used to estimate soil loss in the Nethravathi Basin located in the southwestern part of India. The Nethravathi Basin is a tropical coastal humid area having a drainage area of 3128 km2 up to the gauging station. The parameters of RUSLE model were estimated using remote sensing data and the erosion probability zones were determined using GIS. The estimated rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic and crop management factors range from 2948.16 to 4711.4 MJ/mm·ha−1hr−1/year, 0.10 to 0.44 t ha−1·MJ−1·mm−1, 0 to 92,774 and 0 to 0.63 respectively. The results indicate that the estimated total annual potential soil loss of about 473,339 t/yr is comparable with the measured sediment of 441,870 t/yr during the water year 2002–2003. The predicted soil erosion rate due to increase in agricultural area is about 14,673.5 t/yr. The probability zone map has been derived by the weighted overlay index method indicate that the major portion of the study area comes under low probability zone and only a small portion comes under high and very high probability zone. The results can certainly aid in implementation of soil management and conservation practices to reduce the soil erosion in the Nethravathi Basin.

  11. Hydrological Modeling of Watersheds Using the Only Corresponding Competitor Method: The Case of M'Zab Basin, South East Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oulad Naoui Noureddine; Cherif ELAmine; Djehiche Abdelkader

    2017-01-01

    Water resources management includes several disciplines; the modeling of rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important discipline to prevent natural risks. There are several models to study rainfall-runoff relationship in watersheds. However, the majority of these models are not applicable in all basins of the world. In this study, a new stochastic method called The Only Corresponding Competitor method (OCC) was used for the hydrological modeling of M’ZAB Watershed (South East of Alge...

  12. Application of artificial neural networks in hydrological modeling: A case study of runoff simulation of a Himalayan glacier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A. M.; Narain, A.; Pandey, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of runoff from a Himalayan Glacier basin using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is presented. The performance of the ANN model is found to be superior to the Energy Balance Model and the Multiple Regression model. The RMS Error is used as the figure of merit for judging the performance of the three models, and the RMS Error for the ANN model is the latest of the three models. The ANN is faster in learning and exhibits excellent system generalization characteristics.

  13. NAMMU results for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin - HYDROCOIN Level 2-Test case 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Paige, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    The HYDROCOIN project is an international collaborative venture for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 2 of this project concerns the validation of models in order to test their ability adequately to represent reality. This report describes calculations for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. This region constitutes one of the few areas where low permeability rocks, similar to those likely to be used for repository sites, have been investigated by hydrogeologists. (author)

  14. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  15. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of Multi-Sector Partnerships to manage droughts: The case of the Jucar river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María.; Máñez Costa, María.; Andreu, Joaquín.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Haro-Monteagudo, David; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Cremades, Roger

    2017-07-01

    South-east Spain is a drought prone area, characterized by climate variability and water scarcity. The Jucar River Basin, located in Eastern Spain, has suffered many historical droughts with significant socio-economic impacts. For nearly a hundred years, the institutional and non-institutional strategies to cope with droughts have been successful through the development of institutions and partnerships for drought management including multiple actors. In this paper, we show how the creation and institutionalisation of Multi-Sector Partnerships (MSPs) has supported the development of an efficient drought management. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of one of the suggested instruments by the partnership related to drought management in the basin. Two methodologies are used for these purposes. On one hand, the Capital Approach Framework to analyze the effectiveness of the governance processes in a particular partnership (Permanent Drought Commission), which aims to highlight the governance strength and weakness of the MSP for enhancing drought management in the Jucar River Basin. Through a dynamic analysis of the changes that the partnership has undergone over time to successfully deal with droughts, its effectiveness on drought management is demonstrated. On the other hand, an econometric approach is used to analyze the economic efficiency of the emergency drought wells as one of the key drought mitigation measures suggested by the Permanent Drought Commission and implemented. The results demonstrate the potential and efficiency of applying drought wells as mitigation measures (significant reduction of economic losses, around 50 M€ during the drought period, 2005-2008).

  17. Assessing spatial patterns of extreme droughts associated to return periods from observed dataset: Case study of Segura River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Galiano, Sandra G.; Diego Giraldo Osorio, Juan

    2013-04-01

    In basins of South-eastern Spain, such as the Segura River Basin (SRB), a strong decrease in runoff from the end of the 1970s has been observed. In the SRB, due to intensive reforestation aimed at halting desertification and erosion, added to climate variability and change, the default assumption of stationarity in water resources systems cannot be guaranteed. Therefore there is an important need for improvement in the ability of monitoring and predicting the impacts associated with the change of hydrologic regime. It is thus necessary to apply non-stationary probabilistic models, which are able to reproduce probability density functions whose parameters vary with time. From a high-resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset of more than 50 years (1950-2007 time period), the spatial distribution of lengths of maximum dry spells for several thresholds are assessed, applying GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape) models at grid site. Results reveal an intensification of extreme drought events in some headbasins of the SRB important for water supply. The identification of spatial patterns of drought hazards at basin scale, associated to return periods, contribute to designing strategies of drought contingency preparedness and recovery operations, which are the leading edge of adaptation strategies.

  18. The plight of the beaches of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L.; Foteinis, S.; Kalligeris, N.; Palaiologou, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The coastlines of the Greece are rapidly retreating at a rate that has increased substantially in the past decade. We describe here specific examples of rapid erosion and we speculate as to the causes. In some instances, erosion is advancing at a rate of 1m/year. As in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include sand mining from the beaches and rivers, poor design of coastal structures that create reflection patterns that focus waves on vulnerable areas, removal of sand dunes to build roads, and coastal construction too close to shoreline. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent salvage measures to protect the beaches and end sand mining and dune removal, several beaches will disappear within the next decade.

  19. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  20. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  1. Agriculture and Regional Development in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrkilis, Dimitrios; Semasis, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effects of post-war war economic development model followed in Greece. The model is characterized by both the neglect of Greek agriculture and the emphasis on industrialization, mainly around the two major cities, Athens and Thessaloniki. The model has to develop a strong industrial sector but to inflate services and it devastated agriculture. At the regional level the uneven growth path that has been adopted perpetuated between urban and tourist areas on th...

  2. Country policy profile - Greece. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014

  3. Supporting better decisions across the nexus of water, energy and food through earth observation data: case of the Zambezi basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Gomo, Fortune; Macleod, Christopher; Rowan, John; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Topp, Kairsty

    2018-02-01

    The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has been promoted in recent years as an intersectional concept designed to improve planning and regulatory decision-making across the three sectors. The production and consumption of water, energy and food resources are inextricably linked across multiple spatial scales (from the global to the local), but a common feature is competition for land which through different land management practices mediates provisioning ecosystem services. The nexus perspective seeks to understand the interlinkages and use systems-based thinking to frame management options for the present and the future. It aims to highlight advantage and minimise damaging and unsustainable outcomes through informed decisions regarding trade-offs inclusive of economic, ecological and equity considerations. Operationalizing the WEF approach is difficult because of the lack of complete data, knowledge and observability - and the nature of the challenge also depends on the scale of the investigation. Transboundary river basins are particularly challenging because whilst the basin unit defines the hydrological system this is not necessarily coincident with flows of food and energy. There are multiple national jurisdictions and geopolitical relations to consider. Land use changes have a profound influence on hydrological, agricultural, energy provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Future policy decisions in the water, energy and food sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land and water resources, intensifying competition for these resources in the future. In this study, we used Google Earth Engine (GEE) to analyse the land cover changes in the Zambezi river basin (1.4 million km2) from 1992 to 2015 using the European Space Agency annual global land cover dataset. Early results indicate transformative processes are underway with significant shifts from tree cover to cropland, with a 4.6 % loss in tree cover and a 16 % gain in cropland

  4. Supporting better decisions across the nexus of water, energy and food through earth observation data: case of the Zambezi basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Gomo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The water–energy–food (WEF nexus has been promoted in recent years as an intersectional concept designed to improve planning and regulatory decision-making across the three sectors. The production and consumption of water, energy and food resources are inextricably linked across multiple spatial scales (from the global to the local, but a common feature is competition for land which through different land management practices mediates provisioning ecosystem services. The nexus perspective seeks to understand the interlinkages and use systems-based thinking to frame management options for the present and the future. It aims to highlight advantage and minimise damaging and unsustainable outcomes through informed decisions regarding trade-offs inclusive of economic, ecological and equity considerations. Operationalizing the WEF approach is difficult because of the lack of complete data, knowledge and observability – and the nature of the challenge also depends on the scale of the investigation. Transboundary river basins are particularly challenging because whilst the basin unit defines the hydrological system this is not necessarily coincident with flows of food and energy. There are multiple national jurisdictions and geopolitical relations to consider. Land use changes have a profound influence on hydrological, agricultural, energy provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Future policy decisions in the water, energy and food sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land and water resources, intensifying competition for these resources in the future. In this study, we used Google Earth Engine (GEE to analyse the land cover changes in the Zambezi river basin (1.4 million km2 from 1992 to 2015 using the European Space Agency annual global land cover dataset. Early results indicate transformative processes are underway with significant shifts from tree cover to cropland, with a 4.6 % loss in tree cover and a

  5. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  6. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  7. Problems experienced by haemodialysis patients in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, E; Bellou, P; Iordanou, P; Andrea, S; Kyritsi, E; Gerogianni, G; Zetta, S; Swigart, V

    Even though Greece has a disproportionate number of haemodialysis stations for the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and a rapidly rising number of patients on dialysis, there has been no study of the lived experience of haemodialysis treatment in Greece. ESRD and dialysis drastically impact patients' everyday life, therefore expectations and desires play a major role in adapting to alterations and restrictions. An understanding of these culturally-influenced expectations and desires is essential for the delivery of holistic nursing care. This study aimed to explore how Greek patients receiving long-term haemodialysis perceived their problems and to describe the impact of haemodialysis on their lives. Using a grounded theory approach, 23 patients with ESRD receiving haemodialysis were purposively recruited from two hospital dialysis centres in Athens, Greece. Data were collected during 2006 by personal interviews. Given a distinctive patient experience of haemodialysis, some insight into their common concerns can facilitate provision of healthcare services that adequately meets their needs. By developing an understanding of the experience of renal illness and therapy for a group of people using dialysis, this study was intended as a contribution towards enabling healthcare professionals to provide more effective support to people who are living with this chronic condition.

  8. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    that OVDO can be useful for treating extreme pain and swellings, forming one of the best eye salves. Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment, an opium-based treatment, forms a "patch" when applied externally as an ointment, because it quickly dries to cover a localized region but still retains its elastic properties......Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states...... abilities in terms of drug delivery, which could be transferred to modern medicine. Indeed, this may lead to a better choice of morphine use and controlled management in individual patient cases, taking both pain relief and anti-inflammatory aspects into account....

  9. Influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover in urban river basin: case study in Campinas/SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Silva, Alessandra; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: In most Brazilian municipalities, urban development was not based on adequate planning; one of the consequences was the reduction of the original vegetation, limiting the forest formations to scarce and isolated fragments. In Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, the vegetation fragmentation was mainly related to the expeditions and to the cycles of sugar cane and coffee. In this way, the present study aims to identify, quantify and evaluate the remaining arboreal vegetation spatial distribution in the Anhumas River Basin - Campinas/SP, Brazil. This study was developed with the aid of GIS software and field visits in order to construct a diagnosis of these areas and subsidize future actions required and to discuss the influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover. The area was initially occupied by the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous forest) and drains one of the oldest urban occupation areas in the municipality; according to researchers, based on the water and geomorphological conditions of the basin, it can be subdivided into high, medium and low course. With a total area of 156,514 km2, only 16.74% are classified as green areas; where just 1.07% and 6.17% of total area represents forests and reforestation areas, respectively. The remaining green areas consists of: wetlands close to water bodies, but with no presence of trees and shrubs (area of 0.12% of the basin); urban green space, including parks and squares (2.19%); and natural field, constituted by natural non-arboreous vegetation (7.18%). In a scenario like this, a characteristic situation is the forest fragmentation; this process results in native vegetation remnants, isolated and more susceptible to external interference, coming from, for example, the proximity to agricultural areas or others land uses. The ecological knowledge of the remnants and their correct management can not only make it possible to diagnose current problems and to estimate future influences, but also to point out the

  10. Simulation of Snowmelt Runoff Using SRM Model and Comparison With Neural Networks ANN and ANFIS (Case Study: Kardeh dam basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza akbari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Snowmelt runoff plays an important role in providing water and agricultural resources, especially in mountainous areas. There are different methods to simulate the process of snowmelt. Inter alia, degree-day model, based on temperature-index is more cited. Snowmelt Runoff Model is a conceptual hydrological model to simulate and predict the daily flow of rivers in the mountainous basins on the basis of comparing the accuracy of AVHRR and TM satellite images to determine snow cover in Karun Basin. Additionally, overestimation of snow-covered area decreased with increasing spatial resolution of satellite data.Studies conducted in the Zayandehrood watershed dam, showed that in the calculation of the snow map cover, changes from MODIS satellite imagery, at the time that the image does not exist, using the digital elevation model and regression analysis can provide to estimate the appropriate data from satellites. In the study of snow cover in eastern Turkey, in the mountainous regions of the Euphrates River, data from five meteorological stations and MODIS images were used with a resolution of 500 m. The results showed that satellite images have a good accuracy in estimating snow cover. In a Watershed in northern Pakistan in the period from 2000 to 2006, SRM model was used to estimate the snow cover using MODIS images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the snowmelt runoff using remote sensing data and SRM model for flow simulation, based on statistical parameters in the Kardeh dam basin. Materials and Methods: Kardeh dam basin has an area of about 560 square kilometers and is located in the north of Mashhad. This area is in the East of Hezarmasjed – kopehdagh zone that is one of the main basins of Kashafrood. This basin is a mountainous area. About 261 km of the basin is located at above 2000 m. The lowest point of the basin is at the watershed outlet with1300 meters and the highest point in the basin, in the North West part

  11. SYRIZA’S electoral rise in Greece: protest, trust and the art of political manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakatika, Myrto

    2016-01-01

    Between 2010 and 2015, a period of significant political change in Greece, the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA), a minor party, achieved and consolidated major party status. This article explores the role of political strategy in SYRIZA’s electoral success. It argues that contrary to accepted wisdom, targeting a ‘niche’ constituency or protesting against the establishment will not suffice for a minor party to make an electoral breakthrough. SYRIZA’s case demonstrates that unless a minor...

  12. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-04-27

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-control studies that included 5327 longevity cases and 4608 controls. In our case-control study, we found rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G were beneficial to longevity after Bonferroni correction (pallele = 0.005, OR = 1.266; pallele = 0.026, OR = 1.207). In addition, in the longevity group, carriers with rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G presented reduced HbA1c (p = 0.001), and homozygotes of rs2802292*GG presented improved HOMA-IR (p = 0.014). The meta-analysis further revealed the overall contribution of rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G to longevity. However, our stratified analysis revealed that rs2802292*G might act more strongly in Asians than Europeans, for enhancement of longevity. In conclusion, our study provides convincing evidence for a significant association between the rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G gene variants in FOXO3 and human longevity, and adds the Southern Chinese in the Red River Basin to the growing number of human replication populations.

  13. Radioactivity in the environment; a case study of the Puerco and Little Colorado River basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    This report, written for the nontechnical reader, summarizes the results of a study from 1988-91 of the occurrence and transport of selected radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and Little Colorado River basins, Arizona and New Mexico. More than two decades of uranium mining and the 1979 failure of an earthen dam containing mine tailings released high levels of radionuclides and other chemical constituents to the Puerco River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River. Releases caused public concern that ground water and streamflow downstream from mining were contaminated. Study findings show which radioactive elements are present, how these elements are distributed between water and sediment in the environment, how concentrations of radioactive elements vary naturally within basins, and how levels of radioactivity have changed since the end of mining. Although levels of radioactive elements and other trace elements measured in streamflow commonly exceed drinking-water standards, no evidence was found to indicate that the high concentrations were still related to uraniurn mining. Sediment radioactivity was higher at sample sites on streams that drain the eastern part of the Little Colorado River basin than that of samples from the western part. Radioactivity of suspended sediment measured in this study, therefore, represents natural conditions for the streams sampled rather than an effect of mining. Because ground water beneath the Puerco River channel is shallow, the aquifer is vulnerable to contamination. A narrow zone of ground water beneath the Puerco River containing elevated uranium concentrations was identified during the study. The highest concentrations were nearest the mines and in samples collected in the first few feet beneath the streambed. Natuxal radiation levels in a few areas of the underlying sedimentary aquifer not connected to the Puerco River also exceeded water quality standards. Water testing would enable those residents

  14. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  15. Radioactivity in the environment: a case study of the Puerco and Little Colorado River Basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirt, L.

    1994-01-01

    This report, written for the nontechnical reader, summarizes the results of a study from 1988-91 of the occurrence and transport of selected radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and Little Colorado River basins, Arizona and New Mexico. More than two decades of uranium mining and the 1979 failure of an earthen dam containing mine tailings released high levels of radionuclides and other chemical constituents to the Puerco River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River. Releases caused public concern that ground water and streamflow downstream from mining were contaminated. Study findings show which radioactive elements are present, how these elements are distributed between water and sediment in the environment, how concentrations of radioactive elements vary naturally within basins, and how levels of radioactivity have changed since the end of mining. Although levels of radioactive elements and other trace elements measured in streamflow commonly exceed drinking-water standards, no evidence was found to indicate that the high concentrations were still related to uraniurn mining. Sediment radioactivity was higher at sample sites on streams that drain the eastern part of the Little Colorado River basin than that of samples from the western part. Radioactivity of suspended sediment measured in this study, therefore, represents natural conditions for the streams sampled rather than an effect of mining. Because ground water beneath the Puerco River channel is shallow, the aquifer is vulnerable to contamination. A narrow zone of ground water beneath the Puerco River containing elevated uranium concentrations was identified during the study. The highest concentrations were nearest the mines and in samples collected in the first few feet beneath the streambed. Natuxal radiation levels in a few areas of the underlying sedimentary aquifer not connected to the Puerco River also exceeded water quality standards. Water testing would enable those residents

  16. Case Study: On Objective Functions for the Peak Flow Calibration and for the Representative Parameter Estimation of the Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwook Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective function is usually used for verification of the optimization process between observed and simulated flows for the parameter estimation of rainfall–runoff model. However, it does not focus on peak flow and on representative parameter for various rain storm events of the basin, but it can estimate the optimal parameters by minimizing the overall error of observed and simulated flows. Therefore, the aim of this study is to suggest the objective functions that can fit peak flow in hydrograph and estimate the representative parameter of the basin for the events. The Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation (SSARR model was employed to perform flood runoff simulation for the Mihocheon stream basin in Geum River, Korea. Optimization was conducted using three calibration methods: genetic algorithm, pattern search, and the Shuffled Complex Evolution method developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA. Two objective functions of the Sum of Squared of Residual (SSR and the Weighted Sum of Squared of Residual (WSSR suggested in this study for peak flow optimization were applied. Since the parameters estimated using a single rain storm event do not represent the parameters for various rain storms in the basin, we used the representative objective function that can minimize the sum of objective functions of the events. Six rain storm events were used for the parameter estimation. Four events were used for the calibration and the other two for validation; then, the results by SSR and WSSR were compared. Flow runoff simulation was carried out based on the proposed objective functions, and the objective function of WSSR was found to be more useful than that of SSR in the simulation of peak flow runoff. Representative parameters that minimize the objective function for each of the four rain storm events were estimated. The calibrated observed and simulated flow runoff hydrographs obtained from applying the estimated representative

  17. Oilfield geothermal exploitation in China-A case study from the Liaohe oilfield in Bohai Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shejiao; Yao, Yanhua; Fan, Xianli; Yan, Jiahong

    2017-04-01

    The clean geothermal energy can play a huge role in solving the problem of severe smog in China as it can replace large coal-fired heating in winter. Chinese government has paid close attention on the development and utilization of geothermal energy. In the "13th Five-Year" plan, the geothermal development is included into the national plan for the first time. China is very rich in the medium and low-temperature geothermal resources, ranking first in the geothermal direct use in the world for a long time. The geothermal resources are mainly concentrated in sedimentary basins, especially in petroliferous basins distributed in North China (in North China, heating is needed in winter). These basins are usually close to the large- and medium-sized cities. Therefore, tapping oilfield geothermal energy have attracted a great attention in the last few years as the watercut achieved above 90% in most oilfields and significant progress has been made. In this paper, taking the Liaohe Oilfield in the Bohai Bay Basin as an example, we discussed the distribution and potential of the geothermal resources, discussed how to use the existed technology to harness geothermal energy more effectively, and forecasted the development prospect of the oilfield geothermal energy. By using the volumetric method, we calculated the geothermal resources of the Guantao Formation, Dongying Formation, Shahejie Formation and basement rock in the Liaohe depression. We tested the geothermal energy utilization efficiency in different conditions by applying different pump technologies and utilizing geothermal energy in different depth, such as shallow geothermal energy (0-200m), middle-deep depth geothermal energy (200-4000m), and oilfield sewage heat produced with oil production. For the heat pump systems, we tested the conventional heat pump system, high-temperature heat pump system, super high-temperature heat pump system, and gas heat pump system. Finally, based on the analysis of national policy

  18. A WEB BASED SERVICE APPLICATION FOR VISUAL SINKHOLE INVENTORY INFORMATION SYSTEM; CASE STUDY OF KONYA CLOSED BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, Osman; YAKAR, Murat; KIRTILOĞLU, Osman Sami

    2017-01-01

    Sinkholes are commonly defined as deep pits giving the appearance of a chimney or well resulting by collapsing of underground rivers in horizontal or near-bedded lime stones or active cave ceilings. Sinkholes appear as deep pits in the so-called karst land, usually on limestones and carbonates that are easily rinsed with water. The sinkhole occurrences in our country are very often seen on the Obruk Plateau in the Konya Closed Basin. In Karapinar region and its surroundings located in this pl...

  19. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  20. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  1. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  2. INTEGRATION OF RS/GIS FOR SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK MODELING. CASE STUDY: AL-ABRASH SYRIAN COASTAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yaghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers – lakes and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP and non-point Source pollution (NPSP. Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  3. The harmony between the natural and anthropogenic environments within the natural parks. Case study- The Viseu river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SIMA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By definition a natural park is a protected area designed to protect and conserve the natural environment in which the interaction between human activities and nature createda unique area, of significant environmental and cultural value and with great biodiversity.The main purpose of these natural parks is to maintain the harmony between humans and nature by protecting the biological diversity of the habitats and the environment. In recent years both the natural and anthropic areas of the Vişeu Basin have been greatly damaged by extreme hydric phenomenon caused by the chaotic deforestation of the area, increased precipitation, high pluvio-nival regime and the accentuated asymmetry of the basin itself. By developing certain hydrographical installations and conserving the protected areas a balance can be reached between the natural harmony and the strict necessities of the anthropic habitats. The first priority of this developing is theenvironmental legislation and biodiversity protection.

  4. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  5. Integration of Rs/gis for Surface Water Pollution Risk Modeling. Case Study: Al-Abrash Syrian Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Y.; Salim, H.

    2017-09-01

    Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers - lakes) and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP) and non-point Source pollution (NPSP). Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers) and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  6. The Importance of Water Temperature Fluctuations in Relation to the Hydrological Factor. Case Study – Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc Gianina Maria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in most components of the climate over the past 50 years, including air and water temperature, is a real phenomenon, as attested by the numerous specialized researches according to IPCC (2013. The water temperature is one of the most important climatic components in analyzing the hydrological regime of the Bistrita River (Romania. The thermal regime of the Bistrita River basin and the frost phenomena associated with the risk factor are particularly important and frequently appear in this area. In recent years, under the Siret Water Basin Administration, this parameter was permanently monitored, so we could do an analysis, which shows that the water temperature fluctuations, influenced by air temperature, lead to the emergence of the ice jam phenomenon. The present study aims to analyze the water temperature, as compared to the air temperature, and the effect of these components on the liquid flow regime (the values were recorded at the hydrological stations on the main course of the Bistrita River. The negative effects resulted from the ice jam phenomenon require developing methods of damage prevention and defense. The frost phenomena recorded after the construction of the Bicaz dam are analyzed in this article

  7. Understanding the impacts of climate change and human activities on streamflow: a case study of the Soan River basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Cong, Zhentao; Zhang, Danwu

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and land use change are the two main factors that can alter the catchment hydrological process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative contribution of climate change and land use change to runoff change of the Soan River basin. The Mann-Kendal and the Pettit tests are used to find out the trends and change point in hydroclimatic variables during the period 1983-2012. Two different approaches including the abcd hydrological model and the Budyko framework are then used to quantify the impact of climate change and land use change on streamflow. The results from both methods are consistent and show that annual runoff has significantly decreased with a change point around 1997. The decrease in precipitation and increases in potential evapotranspiration contribute 68% of the detected change while the rest of the detected change is due to land use change. The land use change acquired from Landsat shows that during post-change period, the agriculture has increased in the Soan basin, which is in line with the positive contribution of land use change to runoff decrease. This study concludes that aforementioned methods performed well in quantifying the relative contribution of land use change and climate change to runoff change.

  8. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slob, A.F.L.; Rijnveld, M.; Chapman, A.S.; Strosser, P.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate on the 'two-communities theory', which explains the problems of the policy-science interface by relating and comparing the different cultures, contexts, and languages of researchers and policy makers. Within AquaTerra, the EUPOL subproject examines the policy-science interface with the aim of achieving a good connection between the scientific output of the project and EU policies. We have found two major barriers, namely language and resources, as well as two types of relevant relationships: those between different research communities and those between researchers and policy makers. - Using scientific output in River Basin Management requires researchers and policy makers to acknowledge the multiple rationalities and different viewpoints that are brought in by the variety of stakeholders involved

  9. The estimation of CO2 storage potential of gas-bearing shale complex at the early stage of reservoir characterization: the case of Baltic Basin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Adam; Jarosiński, Marek

    2017-04-01

    For the stage of shale gas production, like in the USA, prediction of the CO2 storage potential in shale reservoir can be performed by dynamic modeling. We have made an attempt to estimate this potential at an early stage of shale gas exploration in the Lower Paleozoic Baltic Basin, based on data from 3,800 m deep vertical well (without hydraulic fracking stimulation), supplemented with additional information from neighboring boreholes. Such an attempt makes a sense as a first guess forecast for company that explores a new basin. In our approach, the storage capacity is build by: (1) sorption potential of organic matter, (2) open pore space and (3) potential fracture space. the sequence. our estimation is done for 120 m long shale sequence including three shale intervals enriched with organic mater. Such an interval is possible to be fracked from a single horizontal borehole as known from hydraulic fracture treatment in the other boreholes in this region. The potential for adsorbed CO2 is determined from Langmuir isotherm parameters taken from laboratory measurements in case of both CH4 and CO2 adsorption, as well as shale density and volume. CO2 has approximately three times higher sorption capacity than methane to the organic matter contained in the Baltic Basin shales. Finally, due to low permeability of shale we adopt the common assumption for the USA shale basins that the CO2 will be able to reach effectively only 10% of theoretical total sorption volume. The pore space capacity was estimated by utilizing results of laboratory measurements of dynamic capacity for pores bigger than 10 nm. It is assumed for smaller pores adsorption prevails over free gas. Similarly to solution for sorption, we have assumed that only 10 % of the tight pore space will be reached by CO2. For fracture space we have considered separately natural (tectonic-origin) and technological (potentially produced by hydraulic fracturing treatment) fractures. From fracture density profile and

  10. Combining Multifunctionality and Ecosystem Services into a Win-Win Solution. The Case Study of the Serchio River Basin (Tuscany—Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rovai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-war development—characterized by intensive processes of urbanization, concentration of agriculture on the most fertile lands, and abandonment of mountainous and marginal areas—brought about negative environmental and socio-economic consequences. They have been particularly severe in terms of increase of hydrogeological risk, which is high in most Italian regions. Over time, there has been an increasing awareness of the multiple functions played by agriculture in terms of provision of Ecosystem Services (ES, which contribute fundamentally to human well-being. In particular, some ES provided by farmers may help to reduce the hydrogeological risk of territories prone to landslides and floods. In this framework, the paper presents as a case study the project “Farmers as Custodians of a Territory.” This project was implemented in the Serchio River basin, Tuscany (Italy, and combines a multifunctional farm strategy of diversification with the provision of Ecosystem Services related to the hydraulic and hydrogeological protection of the river-basin territory. Although this case study should be read within the framework of the theories of agricultural multifunctionality and ES provision, it nevertheless took a very pragmatic and innovative approach, which differentiates it from most of the case studies given in the literature. Results of our analysis show that, by involving farmers as custodians of the territory, it is possible to reach a “win-win” solution characterized, on the one hand, by better services for the community at a lower cost for the Land Reclamation Consortia involved with hydrogeological risk prevention, thus improving the effectiveness and efficiency of ES provision; and on the other hand, by improving the economic situation and survival chances of local farms.

  11. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  12. Chernobyl radioactivity in grain produced in Greece in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Panetsos, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl radioactive cloud reached Greece in the first days of May 1986. During this period, the gain was in maximum growth; therefore, in absorbing the radionuclides it has become an excellent indicator of the deposited radioactivity. Measurements carried out in grain samples which were obtained from Greece are reported and some conclusions regarding population doses are presented

  13. Academic Libraries in Greece: The Present Situation and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dean H., Ed.

    The purpose of this collection of essays is to examine academic libraries in Greece at a time when the potential for changes and advance in librarianship is great. The 15 papers are as follows: "International Interlibrary Cooperation: Exchanging Goals, Values and Culture" (Don L. Tolliver); "Academic Libraries in Greece" (James…

  14. Greek Immigrants and Greece: An Introduction to the Multi-Media Package on Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Susanne; Witzel, Anne

    This is another of several multi-media packages on ethnic groups in Toronto that attempt to introduce Toronto teachers (especially those who teach English as a second language) to the cultures and societies from which their students came. An introduction to the multi-media package on Greece is given here. Sections included in the document are:…

  15. A Combined Hydrological and Hydraulic Model for Flood Prediction in Vietnam Applied to the Huong River Basin as a Test Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Thanh Mai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined hydrological and hydraulic model is presented for flood prediction in Vietnam. This model is applied to the Huong river basin as a test case study. Observed flood flows and water surface levels of the 2002–2005 flood seasons are used for model calibration, and those of the 2006–2007 flood seasons are used for validation of the model. The physically based distributed hydrologic model WetSpa is used for predicting the generation and propagation of flood flows in the mountainous upper sub-basins, and proves to predict flood flows accurately. The Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS hydraulic model is applied to simulate flood flows and inundation levels in the downstream floodplain, and also proves to predict water levels accurately. The predicted water profiles are used for mapping of inundations in the floodplain. The model may be useful in developing flood forecasting and early warning systems to mitigate losses due to flooding in Vietnam.

  16. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  17. Mountainous areas and decentralized energy planning: Insights from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.

    2016-01-01

    Mountainous areas have particular characteristics, whose influence on energy planning is explored in this paper, through a suitably tailored methodology applied to the case of Greece. The core element of the methodology is a linear optimization model with a “total cost” objective function, which includes financial, as well as external costs and benefits. Altitude proves to have decisive influence on energy optimization results, because it affects energy demand. The improvement of local energy systems provides greater socioeconomic benefits in mountainous settlements, due to the high shares of renewables and energy efficiency interventions in the optimal solutions. Energy poverty can be alleviated by redesigning local energy systems and the structure of the energy market. However, spatial and aesthetic restrictions, presented often in mountainous settlements, may affect the operational costs of energy systems, which is a crucial parameter for confronting energy poverty. Furthermore, the study indicates that it could be better to electrify remote areas, far from electricity grids, by decentralized systems than by grid expansion. The results of this study and the assumptions made about the way in which energy market should function, could be utilized for reconsidering energy policy measures, aiming at supporting sensitive societies to improve their development perspectives. - Highlights: •The influence of mountains' characteristics on energy planning was analyzed. •Optimal energy solutions present differentiations with respect to altitude. •Greater socioeconomic benefits by energy optimization in mountainous areas. •Remoteness favors the development of decentralized energy systems. •The study is based on data from Greece.

  18. Principles for an interactive multi-scale assessment of sustainable production limits - lessons from the Limpopo river basin case, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, Jochen; de Cleccq, Willem; Veraart, Jeroen; Vullings, Wies

    2015-04-01

    About 7.2 billion people currently live on the Earth and the population is projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, that growth will be mainly in developing countries, with more than half in Africa (United Nations 2013). Any local extension of irrigated agriculture in a region of scarce natural resources may potentially restrict the possibility to extend land and water use at another location of the same river basin. In order to support, develop and to assess such future interventions, it is important to define limits until which a sustainable production can take place at a given location, taking into account competing claims on natural resources, human welfare and impacts on environmental quality. We define Sustainable production limits as limits for the possible resource use, within which a production can be extended without restricting the growth opportunities at a neighboured location. The more threatened the natural resources become, the more important it is to consider the effect of other upcoming interventions within the same region. As a consequence, interventions for future resource use have to be assessed against the future available natural resources. This is of particular relevance for evaluating possible extensions of irrigation areas within a river basin. Investigating possible limits for extending irrigated agriculture at local scale requires an understanding of the complexity, including boundaries, activities, stakeholders, and opportunities at river basin scale, and more. Switching between the scales in this information, in a participatory process, appears to be a challenge in its own. Within the Limpopo River basin (South Africa), we analysed (i) possible interventions at local scale (transdisciplinary innovation of irrigation by smallholders, launching of PPPs), (ii) restrictions for developing irrigation at the Letaba sub basin scale, and (iii) water balance at the scale of the Limpopo basin. Experiences from the Limpopo case revealed, that

  19. Hepatitis A among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants living in hosting facilities, Greece, April to December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellou, Kassiani; Chrisostomou, Anthi; Sideroglou, Theologia; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Kyritsi, Maria; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of hepatitis A cases among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants residing in hosting facilities in Greece were recorded between April and December 2016. In total, 177 laboratory-confirmed symptomatic cases were reported; of these, 149 (84%) occurred in hosting camps mostly among Syrian children under 15 years. All cases reported symptom onset after their entry into the country. Public health interventions focused on hygiene measures and vaccination. PMID:28181904

  20. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of 3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural

  1. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  2. River levels derived with CryoSat-2 SAR data classification - A case study in the Mekong River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boergens, Eva; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    becomes smaller. Therefore, we developed a classification approach to divide the observations into water and land returns based solely on the data. T