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Sample records for basin eastern china

  1. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  2. Meso–Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

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    Zongxing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Bay Basin is a region where part of the North China Craton has been thinned and destroyed. It has experienced two periods of crustal thinning that occurred during the Cretaceous and Paleogene, but investigations of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure are limited. Therefore, in this study, the distributions of mantle heat flow, crustal heat flow, and Moho temperatures during the Meso–Cenozoic are calculated based on analyses of the thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that the ratio of mantle heat flow to surface heat flow peaked during the late stages of the early Cretaceous and during the middle to late Paleogene. The corresponding mantle heat flow was more than 65% of the surface heat flow. Moho temperatures reached three peaks: 900–1100 °C in the late stages of the early Cretaceous; 820–900 °C in the middle to late Paleogene; and (in the Linqing Depression, Cangxian Uplift, and Jizhong Depression 770–810 °C during the early Neogene. These results reveal that the Bohai Bay Basin experienced significant geological change during the Cretaceous, including the transformation of lithospheric thermal structure from “cold mantle and hot crust” before the Cretaceous to “hot mantle and cold crust” after the Cretaceous. The results also indicate that the basin experienced two large-scale rifting events. Therefore, this work may provide the thermal parameters for further investigations of the geodynamic evolution of eastern China.

  3. The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous of eastern Heilongjiang, Northeast China: stratigraphy and regional basin history

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    Sha, J.G.; Matsukawa, M.; Cai, H.W.; Jiang, B.Y.; Ito, M.; He, C.Q.; Gu, Z.W. [Academy of Sinica, Nanjing (China)

    2003-12-01

    In eastern Heilongjiang, the Upper Jurassic is marine and restricted to the Suibin and Dong'an areas, where it is characterized faunally by Callovian-Volgian (Tithonian) bivalves and florally by dinoflagellates. The Lower Cretaceous is widely distributed in eastern Heilongjiang, and characterized faunally by Berriasian-Valanginian bivalves, Barremian-Albian ammonites and Aucellina, and florally by dinoflagellates. To the west, the marine facies grade into non-marine beds. Thus, in the east, for example in the Dong'an and Dajiashan areas, near the northwestern Palaeo-Pacific, the Lower Cretaceous is marine; westward, in the Yunshan, Longzhaogou. Peide, and Zhushan areas, marine and non-marine deposits alternate, whereas further west still, e.g. in the Jixi Basin, non-marine facies are intercalated with marine beds. This regional distribution is indicative of a large, shallow embayment opening eastwards to the Palaeo-Pacific; during the Early Cretaceous successive transgressive-regressive events influenced the climate and biota of eastern Heilongjiang and northeastern China. Many of the Lower Cretaceous sections contain abundant coals, demonstrating that in this region the Early Cretaceous was an important coal-forming period.

  4. Fission track dating of mesozoic sandstones and its tectonic significance in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chuanbo; Mei Lianfu; Xu Sihuang

    2009-01-01

    To establish the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sichuan basin, apatite fission track dating and time-temperature thermal history modeling were carried to analyze on 11 samples collected from Jurassic sandstones. The results indicate that the cooling and exhumation process of the eastern Sichuan basin can be divided into three stages since Cretaceous, (1) a rapid cooling phase between ∼100 and ∼70 Ma, (2) following by a period of relative thermal stability phase between ∼70 and ∼15 Ma, (3) and then a new rapid cooling stage after ∼15 Ma. Two rapid cooling events imply that the eastern Sichuan basin once underwent two tectonic movements since Cretaceous. The first rapid cooling is associated with Mesozoic tectonic reactivation beginning at 100 Ma, which result in folds and faults of the eastern Sichuan basin. The second tectonic movement occurred at 15 Ma, which is related to denudation by compression resulting from the eastward growth of Tibetan plateau uplift.

  5. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  6. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

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    Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  7. Origin of back-arc basins and effects of western Pacific subduction systems on eastern China geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    trench retreat in the western Pacific readily result in the horizontal stagnation of the Pacific plate in the transition zone beneath eastern Asian continent [2]. Dehydration of this slab supplies water, which rises and results in 'basal hydration weakening' of the eastern China lithosphere and its thinning by converting it into weak material of asthenospheric property [3]. We note the proposal that multiple subduction zones with more water (i.e., subduction of the South China Block beneath the North China Craton, NCC; subduction of the Siberian/Mongolian block beneath the NCC) all contribute to the lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC [4]. However, 'South China-NCC' and 'Siberian/Mongolian-NCC' represent two collisional tectonics involving no trench retreat, causing no transition-zone slab stagnation, supplying no water, and thus contributing little to lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC. Furthermore, lithosphere thinning happened to the entire eastern China, not just limited to the NCC, emphasizing the effects of the western Pacific subduction system on eastern China geology. References: [1] Niu et al., 2003, Journal of Petrology, 44, 851-866. [2] Kárason & van der Hilst, R., 2000, Geophysical Monograph, 121, 277-288. [3] Niu, 2005, Geological Journal of China Universities, 11, 9-46. [4] Windley et al., 2010, American Journal of Science, 310, 1250-1293.

  8. New insights into the distribution and evolution of the Cenozoic Tan-Lu Fault Zone in the Liaohe sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

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    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang; Xu, Chang-gui; Wu, Kui; Wang, Guang-yuan; Jia, Nan

    2018-01-01

    As the largest strike-slip fault system in eastern China, the northeast-trending Tan-Lu Fault Zone (TLFZ) is a significant tectonic element contributing to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional geologic evolution of eastern Asia, as well as to the formation of ore deposits and oilfields. Because of the paucity of data, its distribution and evolutionary history in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin of the northern Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) are still poorly understood. Investigations of the strike-slip fault system in the western portion of the offshore Liaohe sub-basin via new seismic data provide us with new insights into the characteristics of the Cenozoic TLFZ. Results of this study show that Cenozoic dextral strike-slip faults occurred near the center of the Liaoxi graben in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin; these strike-slip faults connect with their counterparts to the north, the western part of the onshore Liaohe sub-basin, and have similar characteristics to those in other areas of the BBB in terms of kinematics, evolutionary history, and distribution; consequently, these faults are considered as the western branch of the TLFZ. All strike-slip faults within the Liaoxi graben merge at depth with a central subvertical basement fault induced by the reactivation of a pre-existing strike-slip basement fault, the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. Data suggest that the TLFZ across the whole Liaohe sub-basin comprises two branches and that the Cenozoic distribution of this system was inherited from the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. This characteristic distribution might be possessed by the whole TLFZ, thus the new understandings about the distribution and evolutionary model of the TLFZ in this study can be inferred in many research fields along the whole fault zone, such as regional geology, ore deposits, petroleum exploration and earthquake hazard.

  9. Tectono-thermal modeling of Cenozoic multiple rift episodes in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China and its geodynamic implications

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    Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Chen, Lichun

    2018-01-01

    The Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) is the largest Cenozoic rifted basin in eastern China, which exhibited a multi-episodic behavior. A 2D multi-episodic finite extension model is employed to estimate the stretching factor and strain rate for each rift episode along six seismic profiles. The modeling is based on a reconstruction of pre-rift crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, and is calibrated with the present-day heat flow and Moho depth. The pre-rift thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere are determined to be 34-39 and 80-105 km. The stretching factors range from 1.28 to 1.97, with a peak in the middle-to-late Eocene during which the average strain rate reached 1.1 × 10- 15 s- 1. Our analyses show that the centers of stretching migrated generally from south to north and from west to east during the Cenozoic. The results also indicate an inverse relationship between variations of the average strain rate and the relative motion rate between Pacific plate and Eurasian plate. Combining the results of the previous studies with ours, we infer that the changing subduction rate of the Pacific plate accompanied by episodic eastward retreat of the subduction zone plays important roles in the episodic extension of the BBB and eastward migration of the centers of stretching.

  10. The current strain distribution in the North China Basin of eastern China by least-squares collocation

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    Wu, J. C.; Tang, H. W.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, Y. X.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the velocities of 154 stations obtained in 2001 and 2003 GPS survey campaigns are applied to formulate a continuous velocity field by the least-squares collocation method. The strain rate field obtained by the least-squares collocation method shows more clear deformation patterns than that of the conventional discrete triangle method. The significant deformation zones obtained are mainly located in three places, to the north of Tangshan, between Tianjing and Shijiazhuang, and to the north of Datong, which agree with the places of the Holocene active deformation zones obtained by geological investigations. The maximum shear strain rate is located at latitude 38.6°N and longitude 116.8°E, with a magnitude of 0.13 ppm/a. The strain rate field obtained can be used for earthquake prediction research in the North China Basin.

  11. Evolution of Meso-Cenozoic lithospheric thermal-rheological structure in the Jiyang sub-basin, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

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    Xu, Wei; Qiu, Nansheng; Wang, Ye; Chang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The Meso-Cenozoic lithospheric thermal-rheological structure and lithospheric strength evolution of the Jiyang sub-basin were modeled using thermal history, crustal structure, and rheological parameter data. Results indicate that the thermal-rheological structure of the Jiyang sub-basin has exhibited obvious rheological stratification and changes over time. During the Early Mesozoic, the uppermost portion of the upper crust, middle crust, and the top part of the upper mantle had a thick brittle layer. During the early Early Cretaceous, the top of the middle crust's brittle layer thinned because of lithosphere thinning and temperature increase, and the uppermost portion of the upper mantle was almost occupied by a ductile layer. During the late Early Cretaceous, the brittle layer of the middle crust and the upper mantle changed to a ductile one. Then, the uppermost portion of the middle crust changed to a thin brittle layer in the late Cretaceous. During the early Paleogene, the thin brittle layer of the middle crust became even thinner and shallower under the condition of crustal extension. Currently, with the decrease in lithospheric temperature, the top of the upper crust, middle crust, and the uppermost portion of the upper mantle are of a brittle layer. The total lithospheric strength and the effective elastic thickness ( T e) in Meso-Cenozoic indicate that the Jiyang sub-basin experienced two weakened stages: during the late Early Cretaceous and the early Paleogene. The total lithospheric strength (approximately 4-5 × 1013 N m-1) and T e (approximately 50-60 km) during the Early Mesozoic was larger than that after the Late Jurassic (2-7 × 1012 N m-1 and 19-39 km, respectively). The results also reflect the subduction, and rollback of Pacific plate is the geodynamic mechanism of the destruction of the eastern North China Craton.

  12. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and sources of salinity of the springs near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Lidong; Zhang, Yuqi; Shen, Xiaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Ye, Shen; Fang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Natural springs have the potential to provide important information on hydrogeochemical processes within aquifers. This study used traditional and classic technical methods and procedures to determine the characteristics and evolution of springs to gain further knowledge on the differences between hot saline springs and cold fresh springs. In a short river segment near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, southwest China, several natural springs coexist with total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from less than 1 to 15 g/L and temperatures from 15 to 40 °C. The springs emanate from the outcropping Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates in the river valley cutting the core of an anticline. The cold springs are of Cl·HCO3-Na·Ca and Cl·SO4-Na types, and the hot saline springs are mainly of Cl-Na type. The chemistry of the springs has undergone some changes with time. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate that the spring waters are of a meteoric origin. The salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The evolution of the springs involves the following mechanisms: the groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, then undergoes deep circulation in the core of the anticline (incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing strata occurs), and emerges in the river valley in the form of hot springs with high TDS. Groundwater also undergoes shallow circulation in the northern and southern flanks of the anticline and appears in the river valley in the form of cold springs with low TDS.

  13. Dynamic analysis of pan evaporation variations in the Huai River Basin, a climate transition zone in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Chu, Ronghao; Shen, Shuanghe; Islam, Abu Reza Md Towfiqul

    2018-06-01

    Pan evaporation (E pan ), which we examine in this study to better understand atmospheric evaporation demand, represents a pivotal indicator of the terrestrial ecosystem and hydrological cycle, particularly in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in eastern China, where high potential risks of drought and flooding are commonly observed. In this study, we examine the spatiotemporal trend patterns of climatic factors and E pan by using the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen estimator based on a daily meteorological dataset from 89 weather stations during 1965-2013 in the HRB. Furthermore, the PenPan model is employed to estimate E pan at a monthly time scale, and a differential equation method is applied to quantify contributions from four meteorological variables to E pan trends. The results show that E pan significantly decreased (P<0.001) at an average rate of -8.119mm·a -2 at annual time scale in the whole HRB, with approximately 90% of stations occupied. Meanwhile, the generally higher E pan values were detected in the northern HRB. The values of the aerodynamic components in the PenPan model were much greater than those of the radiative components, which were responsible for the variations in the E pan trend. The significantly decreasing wind speed (u 2 ) was the most dominant factor that controlled the decreasing E pan trend at each time scale, followed by the notable decreasing net radiation (R n ) at the annual time scale also in growing season and summer. However, the second dominant factor shifted to the mean temperature (T a ) during the spring and winter and the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) during the autumn. These phenomena demonstrated a positive link between the significance of climate variables and their control over the E pan trend. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geometry, kinematics and dynamic characteristics of a compound transfer zone: the Dongying anticline, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

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    Tian Fei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dongying anticline is an E-W striking complex fault-bounded block unit which located in the central Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The anticline covers an area of approximately 12 km2. The overlying succession, which is mainly composed of Tertiary strata, is cut by normal faults with opposing dips. In terms of the general structure, the study area is located in a compound transfer zone with major bounding faults to the west (Ying 1 fault and east (Ying -8 and -31 faults. Using three-dimensional seismic data, wireline log and checkshot data, the geometries and kinematics of faults in the transfer zone were studied, and fault displacements were calculated. The results show that when activity on the Ying 1 fault diminished, displacement was transferred to the Ying -8, Ying -31 and secondary faults so that total displacement increased. Dynamic analysis shows that the stress fields in the transfer zone were complex: the northern portion was a left-lateral extensional shear zone, and the southern portion was a right-lateral extensional shear zone. A model of potential hydrocarbon traps in the Dongying transfer zone was constructed based on the above data combined with the observed reservoir rock distribution and the sealing characteristics of the faults. The hydrocarbons were mainly expulsed from Minfeng Sag during deposition periods of Neogene Guantao and Minghuazhen Formations, and migrated along major faults from source kitchens to reservoirs. The secondary faults acted as barriers, resulting in the formation of fault-bound compartments. The high points of the anticline and well-sealed traps near secondary faults are potential targets. This paper provides a reservoir formation model of the low-order transfer zone and can be applied to the hydrocarbon exploration in transfer zones, especially the complex fault block oilfields in eastern China.

  15. Quantifying Climatic Impact on Reference Evapotranspiration Trends in the Huai River Basin of Eastern China

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    Meng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETref is an important study object for hydrological cycle processes in the context of drought-flood risks of the Huai River Basin (HRB. In this study, the FAO-56 Penman–Monteith (PM model was employed to calculate seasonal and annual ETref based on 137 meteorological station data points in HRB from 1961 to 2014. The Mann–Kendall (MK trend analysis was adopted together with Theil–Sen’s estimator to detect tendencies of ETref and climate factors. Furthermore, a developed differential equation method based on the FAO-56 PM model was applied to quantify the sensitivities of ETref to meteorological factors and their contributions to ETref trends. The results showed that the ETref demonstrated a strong spatially heterogeneity in the whole HRB at each time scale. ETref showed a significant decreasing trend in the upper-middle HRB and Yi-Shu-Si River Basin, especially at the annual time scale, in growing season and summer, while a generally increasing trend in ETref was detected in the lower HRB, and the significance only showed in spring. These phenomena could be reasonably explained by a significantly increasing mean temperature (TA, a significantly decreasing wind speed (WS, solar radiation (SR, and a slightly decreasing relative humidity (RH. The most sensitive factor to ETref was RH in most sub-regions and most time scales, except in the growing season and summer. Based on the developed differential equation method, the dominant factor of the decreasing ETref was WS in the annual time scale, spring, autumn, and winter in most sub-regions, except the lower HRB, which then shifted to SR in the growing season and summer. However, in the lower HRB, the significantly decreasing RH was the most dominant factor, especially in the annual time scale, growing season, and spring, which might be responsible for the slightly increasing ETref there.

  16. Main factors for large accumulations of natural gas in the marine carbonate strata of the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Quanyou Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural gas accumulation zone, where the marine carbonate rock strata are developed, was formed in the eastern Sichuan Basin under the influence of several main tectonic movements (Caledonian Movement, Indosinian Movement, Yanshanian Movement, and Himalayan Movement. Most natural gas reservoirs exhibit the structural-stratigraphic traps together with multistage accumulation, late-stage adjustment and reformation, et cetera. The natural gas accumulation zone (or so-called gas reservoir groups is controlled by the following main factors: multi-sourced and multi-formed hydrocarbons for marine source rocks (i.e. Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation, Lower Permian, Upper Permian Longtan Formation, paleo-uplift, paleoslope, and the hinge belt controlled by the steep dip structures, namely the Lower and Middle Triassic high-quality gypsum. Three sets of high-quality source rocks (i.e. S1l, P1, P2l account for the abundant hydrocarbon supply for natural gas accumulation in the eastern Sichuan area, especially in the destructed oil reservoir formed earlier. The said destructed oil reservoir not only provides the preservation space for natural gas reservoir that will take place later, but it also provides the hydrocarbon source for thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Although the gas reservoirs in the eastern part of the Sichuan Basin experienced multi-stage adjustment and reformation at later times, the thick and high-quality gypsum as well as the mudstone, as available caprocks, have offered a good preservation condition for the underlying gas reservoirs. The paleohighs (e.g. Luzhou paleohigh and Kaijiang paleohigh, the Permian platform margin slope, and the structurally transformed slope under the function of the steep dip anticline in the eastern Sichuan not only form the high-quality carbonate reservoir, but they also became favorable for oil and gas accumulation. The difference in hydrocarbon generation

  17. Stable isotope (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb distribution along a Cambrian outcrop section in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China and its geochemical significance

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    Hu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geochemical features of the lower Paleozoic strata of Yaerdang Mountain outcrop along with the core samples from well TD2∈ in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China. The total organic carbon abundance, hydrocarbon-generating precursor biospecies, and stable isotope ratios of organics and carbonate (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were comprehensively studied for their possible correlative constraints during sedimentary evolution. The results revealed that the δ13Cker (VPDB of Cambrian kerogens along the outcrop section varied from −34.6‰ to −28.4‰, indicating an increasing tendency from the lower Cambrian to the upper Cambrian. This was on the whole accompanied by the variation in the δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb along the profile, which might be associated with the changes in the sea level and also in the compositional variation of benthic and planktonic biomass. The large variation in the stable carbon isotope ratios up to 6‰ along the outcrop section reflected the heterogeneity of the Cambrian source rocks from the eastern Tarim Basin. Hence, the 13C-enriched crude oils from well TD2∈ might have been derived from a localized stratum of Cambrian source rocks. The results from this study showed the possibility of multiple source kitchens in the Cambrian–lower Ordovician portion of Tarim Basin.

  18. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Extreme Precipitation Regimes in the Eastern Inland River Basin of Inner Mongolian Plateau, China

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    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the gridded precipitation dataset (with a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° of the eastern part of inland river basin of Inner Mongolian Plateau from 1961–2015 as the basis and adopt the methods of climatic diagnosis (e.g., the Modified Mann-Kendall method, principal component analysis, and correlation analysis to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of six extreme precipitation indices. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO events and the observed extreme precipitation. The results indicated that the gridded dataset can be used to describe the precipitation distribution in our study area. In recent 55 years, the inter-annual variation trends of extreme precipitation indices are generally dominated by declination except for the maximum precipitation over five days (RX5DAY and the heavy precipitation (R95P, in particular, the decreasing regions of consecutive dry days (CDD accounts for 91% of the entire basin, 17.28% of which is showing the significant downward trend. Contrary to CDD, the spatial distribution of the other five indices is gradually decreasing from northeast to southwest, and the precipitation intensity (SDII ranges from 3.8–5.3 mm·d−1, with relatively small spatial differences. To some extent, CDD and R95P can used to characterize the extreme precipitation regimes. Moreover, the number of days with heavy precipitation (RR10, SDII, and R95P are more susceptible to the ENSO events. In addition, the moderate El Niño event may increase the probability of CDD, while the La Niña events may increase the risk of the heavy rainfall regime in the study area.

  19. Toxic elements in the stream sediments of an urbanized basin, Eastern China: urbanization greatly elevates their adverse biological effects.

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    Wu, Pengbao; Yin, Aijing; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huan; Fan, Manman; Gao, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The concentration of toxic elements (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and As) was measured in the sediments of the Qinhuai River in Eastern China along a rural to urban gradient. Multiple approaches were undertaken to evaluate the degree of enrichment and adverse biological effects of these elements. The results showed that the concentration of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb increased exponentially from the agricultural headwater to the urbanized downstream, which reflects a severe anthropogenic influence. In addition, area-specific references, such as the local soil background (LSB) and upper continental crust (UCC) derived from the Yangtze craton, were more applicable for evaluating the enrichment of toxic elements in the Qinhuai River than was global UCC. In addition, Cd and Hg had the highest enrichment factor values (EF, with averages of 9.18 and 7.14, respectively); Zn, Pb and Cu had moderate EFs (averages from 1.52 to 2.40), while the average EFs of Ni, Cr and As were approximately equal to 1. Based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the contamination characteristics of all of the samples studied were associated with low to moderate priority of adverse biological effects (ABEs) in the rural upstream area, while it was associated with a high to moderate priority of ABEs in the urban sections of the Qinhuai River. Our results suggest that the adverse biological effects of elevated levels of toxic elements were strongly related to the degree of anthropogenic pollution.

  20. Intra-continental back-arc basin inversion and Late Carboniferous magmatism in Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Constraints from the Shaquanzi magmatic suite

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    Hongjun Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Yamansu belt, an important tectonic component of Eastern Tianshan Mountains, of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China hosts many Fe–(Cu deposit. In this study, we present new zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data of the volcanic rocks of Shaquanzi Formation and diorite intrusions in the Yamansu belt. The Shaquanzi Formation comprises mainly basalt, andesite/andesitic tuff, rhyolite and sub-volcanic diabase with local diorite intrusions. The volcanic rocks and diorites contain ca. 315–305 Ma and ca. 298 Ma zircons respectively. These rocks show calc-alkaline affinity with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs, light rare-earth elements (LREEs, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs in primitive mantle normalized multi-element diagrams, which resemble typical back-arc basin rocks. They show depleted mantle signature with εNd(t ranging from +3.1 to +5.6 for basalt; +2.1 to +4.7 for andesite; −0.2 to +1.5 for rhyolite and the εHf(t ranges from −0.1 to +13.0 for andesites; +5.8 to +10.7 for andesitic tuffs. We suggest that the Shaquanzi Formation basalt might have originated from a depleted, metasomatized lithospheric mantle source mixed with minor (3–5% subduction-derived materials, whereas the andesite and rhyolite could be fractional crystallization products of the basaltic magma. The Shaquanzi Formation volcanic rocks could have formed in an intra-continental back-arc basin setting, probably via the southward subduction of the Kangguer Ocean beneath the Middle Tianshan Massif. The Yamansu mineralization belt might have undergone a continental arc to back-arc basin transition during the Late Carboniferous and the intra-continental back-arc basin might have closed in the Early Permian, marked by the emplacement of dioritic magma in the Shaquanzi belt.

  1. Sources, distribution and potential risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Qingshan Lake basin, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Saichang; Chen, Hong; Li, Jianan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we examined the occurrence and distribution of 12 selected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in Qingshan Lake basin and evaluated their potential ecological risks. Caffeine was the dominant compound among all selected PPCPs in the aqueous phase (23.8-344.7ng/L). Sediment release contributed minimally to caffeine levels found in the aqueous phase of Qingshan Lake. Concentrations of selected PPCPs in dry season water samples were generally higher than those in the water samples obtained during the wet or median water seasons. The risks of residual caffeine in water on aqueous organisms was minimal (risk quotient values below 0.01). Sulfamethoxazole and triclocarban posed the highest environmental risks despite their low concentrations (below 25ng/L in water and 10μg/kg in sediment) in Qingshan Lake basin. The risks produced by selected PPCPs in sediments were generally higher than in the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of a tectonically active mountain belt on its foreland basin: Evidence from detrital zircon dating of bedrocks and sediments from the eastern Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ning; Song, Xiangsuo; Xu, Hongyan; Jiang, Hanchao

    2017-09-01

    The tectonically active eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) impacts the populous Sichuan Basin in the form of dust and exhumed detrital materials. To better understand a detailed transport process of detrital material from the eastern TP to the Sichuan Basin, eight samples were collected from the upper reaches of the Min River in the eastern TP to the Sichuan Basin, for zircon U-Pb chronological and grain-size analysis. The results are compared with those of previously studies. Zircon grains are comparatively coarse in three bedrock samples, one fluvial sand sample and one dust sample, but are distinctly fine in three lacustrine samples. Intriguingly, the zircon grain-size parameters from the fluvial sand and dust samples are similar to each other. Consistent with previous studies of this area, the analysis of our U-Pb zircon ages indicates five major age populations at 180-350 Ma, 350-550 Ma, 700-1000 Ma, 1600-2000 Ma, and 2200-2600 Ma, which broadly correspond to five known granitoid magmatic events within the Yangtze Block. The Min River links lacustrine sediments from Lixian, fluvial sands from Wenchuan, Leshan, Yibin, and from the Dadu River and the Dayi conglomerate, implying the Dayi conglomerate was transported by fluvial rather than glacial processes. The denuded detrital material, mainly generated by seismic events in the eastern TP, was transported by water flow into the western Sichuan Basin, where two thick sedimentary depocenters developed, and the relatively fine grains were then transported by wind to the northern Sichuan Basin. Thus, the thick sediments in the western Sichuan Basin mainly transported by the Min River probably exerted a major influence on dust deposition in the northern Sichuan Basin. In contrast, the Jialing and Dadu rivers made a minor contribution.

  3. Summer extreme precipitation in eastern China: mechanisms and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Yongjie; Singh, Vijay P.; Luo, Ming; Xie, Zhenghui

    2017-04-01

    changes and the related mechanisms are of great significance for regional management of water resources and agricultural irrigation. In this study, the impacts of western north Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) on precipitation changes in eastern China and the underling processes are investigated. The results indicate that the strength and location of WNPSH are in close relations with the changes of summer precipitation in eastern China, and their influences vary across both space and time. In particular, WNPSH exerts remarkable impacts on precipitation in June and July in Jiang-Huai region and precipitation in June in South China such as the Pearl River basin. The inter-annual variations of WNPSH exhibits significant correlations with water vapor flux in East Asia and, and the variations of the location and direction of west flank of WNPSH is well corroborated that influences of East Asia summer monsoon on precipitation in eastern China. The westward extension of WNPSH tends to move the East Asian summer monsoon west and thus increasing water vapor flux in East Asia, which greatly benefits the occurrence of Meiyu regimes in Jiang-huai region. Besides, analysis results also show that the westward extension of WNPSH drives tropical cyclones sourthwards so as to increase the occurrence of extreme precipitation in South China. This study helps to bridge the knowledge gap in the relationship between WNPSH, tropical cyclones, summer precipitation events in eastern China.

  4. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  5. Types and characteristics of carbonate reservoirs and their implication on hydrocarbon exploration: A case study from the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are deposited in the Ordovician, Cambrian, and Sinian of eastern Tarim Basin with a cumulative maximum thickness exceeding 2000 m. They are the main carriers of oil and gas, and a great deal of natural gas has been found there in the past five years. Based on lithofacies and reservoir differences, natural gas exploration domains of eastern Tarim Basin can be classified into five types: Ordovician platform limestone; Ordovician platform dolomite; Cambrian platform margin mound shoal; Cambrian slope gravity flow deposits, and; Sinian dolomite. Carbonate reservoir characteristics of all the types were synthetically analyzed through observation on drilling core and thin sections, porosity and permeability measurement, and logging data of over 10 drilling wells. We find distribution of part of good fracture and cave reservoir in carbonate platform limestone of Ordovician. In the Ordovician, platform facies dolomite is better than limestone, and in the Cambrian, platform margin mound shoal dolomite has large stacking thickness. Good quality and significantly thick carbonate gravity deposit flow can be found in the Cambrian slope, and effective reservoir has also been found in Sinian dolomite. Commercial gas has been found in the limestone and dolomite of Ordovician in Shunnan and Gucheng areas. Exploration experiences from these two areas are instructive, enabling a deeper understanding of this scene.

  6. Genetic types and origins of natural gases from eastern Fukang Sub-depression of the Junggar Basin, NW China: Implication for low-mature coal-derived gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Gong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the Fukang Sub-depression is the largest hydrocarbon generation depression in the Junggar Basin and promises favorable potential for oil and gas exploration, only several small–medium oil/gas accumulations have been discovered so far. After analyzing the molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of natural gases and its associated low molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHs from eastern Fukang Sub-depression, their genetic types and origins are discussed in this study. Natural gases are wet gases with an average dryness coefficient of 0.84. Stable carbon isotopes of methane and ethane are well correlated with the thermal evolution trend of coal-derived gases. The C5–7 LMWHs are enriched in methyl cyclohexane but they lack n-alkanes, indicating a predominance of higher plant input. Gases have maturities ranging 0.76%–0.93%Ro and are well consistent with their low n-heptane (H and iso-heptane (I contents. The geochemical characteristics of natural gases from eastern Fukang Sub-depression are quite similar with those from the Turpan–Hami Basin. Their gases are considered to be low-mature gases derived from the Lower–Middle Jurassic coal measures. In contrast, they show remarkable differences with those from the Wucaiwan gas field; they are considered to have high-mature gases derived from the Carboniferous coal measures. Keywords: Coal-derived gas, Stable carbon isotopes, Low molecular weight hydrocarbons, Fukang sub-depression, Junggar Basin, Middle–Lower Jurassic

  7. Hydrocarbon seeps in petroliferous basins in China: A first inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Wang; Etiope, Giuseppe; Ma, Xiangxian; Liang, Shouyun; Fan, Qiaohui; Sajjad, Wasim; Li, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread phenomenon in sedimentary basins, with important implications in petroleum exploration and emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. China has vast petroleum (oil and gas) bearing sedimentary basins, but hydrocarbon seepage has rarely been the object of systematic studies and measurements. Based on the available Chinese literature, we report a first inventory of 932 hydrocarbon seeps or seepage zones (710 onshore seeps and 222 offshore seeps), including 81 mud volcanoes, 449 oil seeps, 215 gas seeps, and 187 solid seeps (bitumen outcrops). The seeps are located within the main 20 Mesozoic-Cenozoic petroliferous sedimentary basins, especially along the marginal, regional and local faults. The type of manifestations (oil, gas or mud volcano) reflects the type and maturity of the subsurface petroleum system and the sedimentary conditions of the basin. Oil seeps are particularly abundant in the Junggar Basin. Gas seeps mostly developed in the Lunpola Basin, in smaller basins of the eastern Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, onshore Taiwan and in the offshore Yinggehai Basin. Mud volcanoes developed in basins (Junggar, Qaidam, Qiangtang, onshore and offshore Taiwan) that experienced rapid sedimentation, which induced gravitative instability of shales and diapirism. In comparison to available global onshore seep data-bases, China results to be the country with the highest number of seeps in the world. The massive gas seepage in China could represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and a key process that may drive future hydrocarbon exploration.

  8. Occurrence and partitioning of phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) between surface water and suspended particulate matter in the north Tai Lake basin, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Zhang; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Concentrations and distribution of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the north Tai Lake basin, China were studied. Aqueous and particulate (dry weight) concentrations for OP, NP, and BPA varied from 10.5-1,175 ng/L to gradually increased from upstream to downstream. There were good correlations between particulate EDCs and particulate organic carbon, with correlation coefficients of 0.46-0.57. Regression analysis of in situ SPM-water partition coefficients (log K' oc) and log K ow for EDCs indicated that the hydrophobicity of chemicals greatly contributed to their SPM-water partitioning. Strong positive correlations (r = 0.68-0.82) among in situ log K' oc of OP, NP, and BPA and flow velocity of water were observed, indicating the critical importance of riverine hydrodynamics on the sorption of these compounds.

  9. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes major findings about nutrients in surface and groundwater in the eastern Iowa basins (see map) between 1996 and 1998. The data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared with conditions found in all 36 National NAWQA study areas assessed to date. Findings are explained in the context of selected national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarks, such as those for drinking water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms.

  10. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  11. Petroleum systems of the Eastern Venezuelan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The Eastern Venezuelan basin (area 165,000 km{sup 2}) is well known for its Orinoco Heavy Oil belt and many large accumulations of medium and light oils and gas in the Maturin and Guarico subbasins. A single petroleum system is responsible for all the oil accumulations in the Orinoco Oil belt and the maturin subbasin and the majority of oil deposits in the Guarico subbasin. Source rocks for the system are the calcareous shales and limestones of Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations. Geologic reconstruction and basin modeling have shown the development of huge generating areas along the northern parts of the Guarico and Maturin subbasins during early stages of foreland basin development in lower/middle Miocene times. Expelled oils migrated southward and updip for long distances (150-300 km) along undistributed homoclinal surfaces successively through the Upper Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene sandstone carrier beds under progressively younger Tertiary marine shales. The oils finally accumulated in Miocene sandstone stratigraphic traps. Biodegradation of originally mature medium to light oils in shallow lower/middle Miocene reservoirs formed the heavy and extra-heavy oils of the Orinoco Oil belt. The oils in the Maturin and Guarico subbasins are found in structural traps within many different reservoirs. They are mainly mature and medium to light gravity oils but some heavy oils were formed in shallow reservoirs by biodegradation and in deep reservoirs by deasphaltenation. The Cretaceous sourced oils generated during upper Miocene-Recent times migrated vertically along thrusts and faults that caused disruptions of regional carrier beds and seals and accumulated into different stratigraphic and structural levels.

  12. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhuang, Wei; Qian, Yu; Xia, Bisheng; Yang, Yang; Qian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity (T) has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), lead (Pb)) and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R2 = 0.86–0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R2 = 0.60–0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals’ concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density. PMID:27028017

  13. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    Full Text Available Turbidity (T has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al, titanium (Ti, nickel (Ni, vanadium (V, lead (Pb and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R(2 = 0.86-0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R(2 = 0.60-0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals' concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density.

  14. Reference Evapotranspiration Variation Analysis and Its Approaches Evaluation of 13 Empirical Models in Sub-Humid and Humid Regions: A Case Study of the Huai River Basin, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable estimations of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 are imperative in irrigation scheduling and water resource planning. This study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal trends of the monthly ET0 calculated by the Penman–Monteith FAO-56 (PMF-56 model in the Huai River Basin (HRB, eastern China. However, the use of the PMF-56 model is limited by the insufficiency of climatic input parameters in various sites, and the alternative is to employ simple empirical models. In this study, the performances of 13 empirical models were evaluated against the PMF-56 model by using three common statistical approaches: relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, and the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NS. Additionally, a linear regression model was adopted to calibrate and validate the performances of the empirical models during the 1961–2000 and 2001–2014 time periods, respectively. The results showed that the ETPMF increased initially and then decreased on a monthly timescale. On a daily timescale, the Valiantzas3 (VA3 was the best alternative model for estimating the ET0, while the Penman (PEN, WMO, Trabert (TRA, and Jensen-Haise (JH models showed poor results with large errors. Before calibration, the determination coefficients of the temperature-based, radiation-based, and combined models showed the opposite changing trends compared to the mass transfer-based models. After calibration, the performance of each empirical model in each month improved greatly except for the PEN model. If the comprehensive climatic datasets were available, the VA3 would be the recommended model because it had a simple computation procedure and was also very well correlated linearly to the PMF-56 model. Given the data availability, the temperature-based, radiation-based, Valiantzas1 (VA1 and Valiantzas2 (VA2 models were recommended during April–October in the HRB and other similar regions, and also, the mass transfer-based models were

  15. Controlling effect of fractures on gas accumulation and production within the tight sandstone: A case study on the Jurassic Dibei gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hui; Lu, Xuesong; Fan, Junjia; Zhao, Mengjun; Wei, Hongxing; Zhang, Baoshou; Lu, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Using Dibei tight sandstone gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin as an example, this paper discusses tight sandstone reservoir fractures characterization, its effect on storage space and gas flow capacity, and its contribution to gas accumulation, enrichment and production in tight sandstone reservoir by using laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) observation, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) testing, and gas-water two-phase relative permeability testing...

  16. Modelling the petroleum generation and migration of the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaowen; He, Sheng; Liu, Keyu; Shi, Zhongsheng; Bachir, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The mudstones in the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) are the primary source rocks in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin. They are rich in organic matter with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content up to 3.5%. The sandstones in the Es3 member are the deepest proven hydrocarbon reservoir rocks with measured porosity and permeability values ranging from 3.6% to 32.4% and from 0.01 md to 3283.7 md, respectively. One, two and three-dimensional basin modelling studies were performed to analyse the petroleum generation and migration history of the Es3 member in the Banqiao Depression based on the reconstruction of the burial, thermal and maturity history in order to evaluate the remaining potential of this petroleum province. The modelling results are calibrated with measured vitrinite reflectance ( R o), borehole temperatures and some drilling results of 63 wells in the study area. Calibration of the model with thermal maturity and borehole temperature data indicates that the present-day heat flow in the Banqiao Depression varies from 59.8 mW/m 2 to 61.7 mW/m 2 and the paleo-heat flow increased from 65 Ma to 50.4 Ma, reached a peak heat-flow values of approximately 75 mW/m 2 at 50.4 Ma and then decreased exponentially from 50.4 Ma to present-day. The source rocks of the Es3 member are presently in a stage of oil and condensate generation with maturity from 0.5% to 1.8% R o and had maturity from 0.5% to 1.25% R o at the end of the Dongying Formation (Ed) deposition (26 Ma). Oil generation (0.5% R o) in the Es3 member began from about 37 Ma to 34 Ma and the peak hydrocarbon generation (1.0% R o) occurred approximately from 30 Ma to 15 Ma. The modelled hydrocarbon expulsion evolution suggested that the timing of hydrocarbon expulsion from the Es3 member source rocks began from 31 Ma to 10 Ma with the peak hydrocarbon expulsion shortly after 26 Ma. Secondary petroleum migration pathways in the Es3 member of the Banqiao Depression are modelled based on the

  17. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A dinocyst zonation for the Neogene succession in the eastern part of the North Sea Basin (Denmark) is presented. The zonation is based on an extensive database comprising data from more than fifty onshore and offshore boreholes and about twenty five outcrops. Most of the nineteen dinocyst zones ...

  18. Tectonic subsidence of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Zhu, Junzhang; Long, Zulie; Jiang, Guangzheng; Huang, Shaopeng; Hu, Shengbiao

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Mouth Basin, which is situated on the northern margin of the South China Sea, has attracted great attention not only because of its tectonic setting but also because of its abundant hydrocarbon resources. We have analyzed the Cenozoic tectonic subsidence history of 4 drilled wells and 43 artificial wells from the Zhu 1 Sub-basin of the Pearl River Mouth Basin by back-stripping, using newly interpreted seismic profiles. We also calculated the average tectonic subsidence rates of the four sags in the Zhu 1 Sub-basin. The rifting and post-rifting stages are separated by abrupt changes in the tectonic subsidence curves and average subsidence rates. In the eastern sags of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin, tectonic subsidence started to slow at ca. 30 Ma, compared with ca. 23.8 Ma in the western sags. This probably corresponds to the timing of break-up and suggests that rifting in the Pearl River Mouth Basin ended earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Anomalously accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred at 17.5-16.4 Ma during the post-rifting stage, with average subsidence rates as high as 301.9 m/Myr. This distinguishes the Pearl River Mouth Basin from classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, which demonstrate exponentially decaying post-rift tectonic subsidence.

  19. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D. [Corpoven S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela); Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G. [Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  20. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediments of Representative Limnetic Ecosystems in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui; Rong, Nan; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis of heavy metal pollution was conducted in the representative limnetic ecosystems of eastern China, which are subject to rapid economic development and population growth. The results demonstrated that the average contents with standard deviations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediments were 0.925 +/- 0.936, 142 +/- 46.8, 54.7 +/- 29.1, 60.5 +/- 21.6, 61.9 +/- 36.0 and 192 +/- 120 mg/kg dry wt., respectively, and that higher values were mainly observed in the southern portion of the study area, especially in the basins of Southeast Coastal Rivers (SCRB) and the Zhu River (ZRB). The six heavy metals in the surface sediments all had anthropogenic origins. In addition, the limnetic ecosystems, especially in the southern portion of the study area were found to be polluted by heavy metals, especially Cd. Overall, two hotspots of heavy metal pollution in the limnetic ecosystems of eastern China were found, one that consisted of the heavy pollution regions, SCRB and ZRB, and another composed of Cd pollution. These results indicate that heavy metal contamination, especially Cd, should be taken into account during development of management strategies to protect the aquatic environment in the limnetic ecosystems of eastern China, especially in the two aforementioned basins.

  2. Error Analysis and Evaluation of the Latest GSMap and IMERG Precipitation Products over Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprehensively analyzes error characteristics and performance of the two latest GPM-era satellite precipitation products over eastern China from April 2014 to March 2016. Analysis results indicate that the two products have totally different spatial distributions of total bias. Many of the underestimations for the GSMap-gauged could be traced to significant hit bias, with a secondary contribution from missed precipitation. For IMERG, total bias illustrates significant overestimation over most of the eastern part of China, except upper reaches of Yangtze and Yellow River basins. GSMap-gauged tends to overestimate light precipitation (<16 mm/day and underestimate precipitation with rain rate larger than 16 mm/day; however, IMERG underestimates precipitation at rain rate between 8 and 64 mm/day and overestimates precipitation at rain rate more than 64 mm/day. IMERG overestimates extreme precipitation indices (RR99P and R20TOT, with relative bias values of 17.9% and 11.5%, respectively. But GSMap-gauged shows significant underestimation of these indices. In addition, both products performed well in the Huaihe, Liaohe, and Yangtze River basins for extreme precipitation detection. At basin scale comparisons, the GSMap-gauged data has a relatively higher accuracy than IMERG, especially at the Haihe, Huaihe, Liaohe, and Yellow River basins.

  3. Relationship between deep structure and oil-gas in the eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changqing; Qu, Chen; Han, Jianguang

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Basin is a large composite superimposed basin which developed in the Presinian continental basement. It is an important area for oil and gas replacement in China. In the eastern part of Tarim Basin, the exploration and research degree is very low and less system, especially in the study of tectonic evolution and physical property change. Basing on the study of geophysics, drilling and regional geological data in this area, analysis of comprehensive geophysical, geological and geophysical analysis comparison are lunched by new methods and new technology of geophysical exploration. Fault, tectonic evolution and change of deep character in the eastern Tarim Basin are analyzed in system. Through in-depth study and understanding of the deep structure and physical changes of the eastern region, we obtain the fault characteristics in the study area and the deep structure and physical change maps to better guide the oil and gas exploration in this area. The east area is located in the eastern Tarim Basin, west from the Garr Man depression, Well Kunan 1 - Well Gucheng 4 line to the East, north to Kuruketage uplift group near Qunke 1 wells, south to Cherchen fault zone, east to Lop Nor depression, an area of about 9 * 104 square kilometres, Including the East of Garr Man sag, Yingjisu depression, Kongquehe slope, Tadong low uplift and the Lop Nor uplift, five two grade tectonic units. The east area of Tarim is belonging to Tarim plate. It changes with the evolution of the Tarim plate. The Tarim plate is closely related to the collision between the Yining - the Junggar plate, the Siberia plate and the southern Qiangtang - the central Kunlun plate. Therefore, it creates a complex tectonic pattern in the eastern Tarim basin. Earth electromagnetic, gravity, deep seismic and other geophysical data are processed by a new generation of geophysical information theory and method, including multi-scale inversion of potential field inversion (Hou and Yang, 2011), 3D

  4. Structural evolution of Lake Superior II: Eastern basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.J. (Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)); Coakley, B.J.; Wang, H.F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    The authors have interpreted 1,400 km of industry and government multichannel seismic reflection data from eastern Lake Superior. Seismic sequences have been identified by using reflection character and reflector terminations and truncations. This framework, coupled with outcrop information, has allowed them to assign lithologic units to some of these reflectors and reconstruct the timing and geometry of structures within the basin. The authors have mapped the Base Jacobsville-Bayfield Group/Top oronto Group, Base oronto Group/Top Keweenawan volcanics, and Basement as well as several reflectors internal to these groups. Integration of gravity and magnetic data with the seismic grid permits regional mapping of faults and folds between seismic lines. In the eastern part of the basin, high-angle basement-involved reverse faults, such as the southeastern combination of the Keweenaw fault, trend NNW-SSE, while broad folds trend E-W. The Keweenaw fault is a complex structural zone and, in the Manitou Island region, steeply-dipping reflectors with abrupt dip reversals indicate a transpressive flower structure. Reactivation of the Keweenaw fault along the southern margin of the basin has rotated and uplifted the basin fill. This region is where the unconformity on top of the Oronto Group is best developed and shows that much of the compressive motion on this fault system occurred post-Oronto and syn-Jacobsville as the top of Jacobsville Group reflector is only slightly deformed. The stratal relationships seen in the seismic data suggest that compressive deformation was synchronous with Oronto and early Jacobsville deposition.

  5. Molecular isotopic characterisation of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Palaeocene-Eocene evaporitic, lacustrine source rocks from the Jianghan Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, Kliti; Schouten, S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    Immature organic matter in lacustrine source rocks from the Jianghan Basin, eastern China, was studied for distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (13C) of hydrocarbon biomarkers. All of the bitumens contain isorenieratane (13C ca. −17 ) indicating the presence of Chlorobiaceae, and

  6. Hui Students' Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we explored Hui students' lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and…

  7. Controlling effect of fractures on gas accumulation and production within the tight sandstone: A case study on the Jurassic Dibei gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using Dibei tight sandstone gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin as an example, this paper discusses tight sandstone reservoir fractures characterization, its effect on storage space and gas flow capacity, and its contribution to gas accumulation, enrichment and production in tight sandstone reservoir by using laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM observation, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP testing, and gas-water two-phase relative permeability testing. The statistics of laser scanning confocal microscopy observation showed that the microstructural fractures width in the Dibei gas reservoir was mainly 8–25 μm, and the associated micro-fractures width was mainly 4–10 μm. Additionally, the throat radius was mainly 1–4 μm. The fractures width was significantly wider than the throat radius that served as the main channel of in gas flow. In addition, it illustrated that the samples with developed fractures became easier for gas to flow under equal porosity condition, because of lower expulsion pressure, higher mercury injection saturation, and increased gas relative permeability based on the physical simulation experiment of gas charging into core samples with saturated water, mercury injection and gas-water two-phase permeability experiments. Furthermore, it had been concluded that the fractures control tight gas in the following aspects: (1 Fractures play a significant role in reservoir property improvement. The isolated pores were linked by the fractures to form connective reservoir spaces, and dissolution is prone to occur along the fractures forming new pores. The fractures with bigger width are reservoir space as well. (2 Fractures increased fluid flow capacity because it decreased the starting pressure gradient, and it increased gas effective permeability. Thus, fractures improved the gas injection efficiency as well as gas production. (3 Fractures that developed in different time and spatial

  8. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

  9. Triomicrus Sharp of Eastern China (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia-Wei; Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-08-31

    Twelve species of the genus Triomicrus Sharp are here recognized in eastern China, with eleven of them described as new: T. Inaequalis Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. mirus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Anhui, T. abhorridus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. aculeus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. damingensis Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. frondosus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. gutianensis Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. tibialis Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Zhejiang, T. anfractus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Anhui and Zhejiang, T. Hamus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Jiangxi, and T. contus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Jiangxi and Zhejiang. New distributional data for T. rougemonti Löbl, Kurbatov &Nomura is given. A key for the identification of the Triomicrus species in eastern China is presented.

  10. Predictability of summer extreme precipitation days over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Extreme precipitation events have severe impacts on human activity and natural environment, but prediction of extreme precipitation events remains a considerable challenge. The present study aims to explore the sources of predictability and to estimate the predictability of the summer extreme precipitation days (EPDs) over eastern China. Based on the region- and season-dependent variability of EPDs, all stations over eastern China are divided into two domains: South China (SC) and northern China (NC). Two domain-averaged EPDs indices during their local high EPDs seasons (May-June for SC and July-August for NC) are therefore defined. The simultaneous lower boundary anomalies associated with each EPDs index are examined, and we find: (a) the increased EPDs over SC are related to a rapid decaying El Nino and controlled by Philippine Sea anticyclone anomalies in May-June; (b) the increased EPDs over NC are accompanied by a developing La Nina and anomalous zonal sea level pressure contrast between the western North Pacific subtropical high and East Asian low in July-August. Tracking back the origins of these boundary anomalies, one or two physically meaningful predictors are detected for each regional EPDs index. The causative relationships between the predictors and the corresponding EPDs over each region are discussed using lead-lag correlation analyses. Using these selected predictors, a set of Physics-based Empirical models is derived. The 13-year (2001-2013) independent forecast shows significant temporal correlation skills of 0.60 and 0.74 for the EPDs index of SC and NC, respectively, providing an estimation of the predictability for summer EPDs over eastern China.

  11. Evaluation and assessment of water budget in the eastern aquifer basin of the West Bank, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dweik, Fadi; Rahil, Mahmoud; Salama, Mhd Suhyb

    2017-01-01

    The study is mainly intended to assess and evaluate the water budget in the eastern basin at 1 km resolution, through a comprehensive model of the eastern aquifer by estimating the evapotranspiration (evaporation and transpiration), surface runoff and groundwater recharge in the targeted aquifer for

  12. Ecological health of river basins in forested regions of eastern Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Wissmar; Jeanette E. Smith; Bruce A. McIntosh; Hiram W. Li; Gordon H. Reeves; James R. Sedell

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective examination of the history of the cumulative influences of past land and water uses on the ecological health of select river basins in forest regions of eastern Washington and Oregon indicates the loss of fish and riparian habitat diversity and quality since the 19th century. A physiographic framework of the eastern Washington and Oregon in terms of...

  13. Performance of RegCM4 over major river basins in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejie; Shi, Ying; Han, Zhenyu; Wang, Meili; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    A long-term simulation for the period 1990-2010 is conducted with the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics' Regional Climate Model (RegCM4), driven by ERA-Interim boundary conditions at a grid spacing of 25 km. The Community Land Model (CLM) is used to describe land surface processes, with updates in the surface parameters, including the land cover and surface emissivity. The simulation is compared against observations to evaluate the model performance in reproducing the present day climatology and interannual variability over the 10 main river basins in China, with focus on surface air temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are also considered in the model assessment. Results show that the model reproduces the present day climatology over China and its main river basins, with better performances in June-July-August compared to December-January-February (DJF). In DJF, we find a warm bias at high latitudes, underestimated precipitation in the south, and overestimated precipitation in the north. The model in general captures the observed interannual variability, with greater skill for temperature. We also find an underestimation of heavy precipitation events in eastern China, and an underestimation of consecutive dry days in northern China and the Tibetan Plateau. Similar biases for both mean climatology and extremes are found in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, indicating the difficulties for climate models in simulating extreme monsoon climate events over East Asia.

  14. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin.

  15. Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp nov and associated shoots from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jixi Basin, Heilongjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing (China). Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology

    2004-10-01

    Ginkgoalean leaves attributed to Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp. nov. and associated long and dwarf shoots were collected from the Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing Muling Formation of the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang, China. The common characteristic feature of the various leaves is the dense venation. The species may be distinguished from other known species of Ginkgoites from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of eastern Asia in having 8-18 closely arranged oblanceolate segments each with 6-16 veins. The fragmentary long and dwarf shoots are similar to those of extant Ginkgo biloba in gross morphology. They are considered to belong to the same tree as that which produced Ginkgoites myrioneurus.

  16. Joint inversion of high resolution S-wave velocity structure underneath North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    North China basin is one of earthquake prone areas in China. Many devastating earthquakes occurred in the last century and before, such as the 1937 M7.0 Heze Earthquake in Shandong province, the 1966 M7.2 Xingtai Earthquake and 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Hebei province. Knowing the structure of the sediment cover is of great importance to predict strong ground motion caused by earthquakes. Unconsolidated sediments are loose materials, ranging from clay to sand to gravel. Earthquakes can liquefy unconsolidated sediments, thus knowing the distribution and thickness of the unconsolidated sediments has significant implication in seismic hazard analysis of the area. Quantitative estimates of the amount of extension of the North China basin is important to understand the thinning and evolution of the eastern North China craton and the underlying mechanism. In principle, the amount of lithospheric stretching can be estimated from sediment and crustal thickness. Therefore an accurate estimate of the sediment and crustal thickness of the area is also important in understanding regional tectonics. In this study, we jointly invert the Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion and Z/H ratio data to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath North China area. We use 4-year ambient noise data recorded from 249 temporary stations, and 139 earthquake events to extract Rayleigh wave Z/H ratios. The Z/H ratios obtained from ambient noise data and earthquake data show a good agreement within the overlapped periods. The phase velocity dispersion curve was estimated from the same ambient noise data. The preliminary result shows a relatively low Z/H ratio and low velocity anomaly at the shallow part of sediment basins.

  17. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  18. Study on exploration theory and SAR technology for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit and its application in Eastern Jungar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei; Liu Dechang; Rui Benshan; Zhao Yingjun; Huang Xianfang; Huang Shutao

    2001-01-01

    Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

  19. Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a

  20. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  1. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner

    2018-02-23

    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  2. Toxicological and chemical insights into representative source and drinking water in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhou, Sicong; Xiao, Hongxia; Qiu, Jingfan; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing; Pan, Yang; Hollert, Henner

    2018-02-01

    Drinking water safety is continuously threatened by the emergence of numerous toxic organic pollutants (TOPs) in environmental waters. In this study, an approach integrating in vitro bioassays and chemical analyses was performed to explore toxicological profiles of representative source and drinking water from waterworks of the Yangtze River (Yz), Taihu Lake (Th), and the Huaihe River (Hh) basins in eastern China. Overall, 34 of 96 TOPs were detected in all water samples, with higher concentrations in both source and drinking water samples of Hh, and pollutant profiles also differed across different river basins. Non-specific bioassays indicated that source water samples of Hh waterworks showed higher genotoxicity and mutagenicity than samples of Yz and Th. An EROD assay demonstrated dioxin-like toxicity which was detected in 5 of 7 source water samples, with toxin concentration levels ranging from 62.40 to 115.51 picograms TCDD equivalents per liter of water (eq./L). PAHs and PCBs were not the main contributors to observed dioxin-like toxicity in detected samples. All source water samples induced estrogenic activities of 8.00-129.00 nanograms 17β-estradiol eq./L, and estrogens, including 17α-ethinylestradiol and estriol, contributed 40.38-84.15% of the observed activities in examined samples. While drinking water treatments efficiently removed TOPs and their toxic effects, and estrogenic activity was still observed in drinking water samples of Hh. Altogether, this study indicated that the representative source water in eastern China, especially that found in Hh, may negatively affect human health, a finding that demonstrates an urgent requirement for advanced drinking water treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey and discussion of history of prospecting in the oil and gas basin Tszyankhan. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed description is made of the history of prospecting for oil and gas which started in the first half of the 1950's. The oil and gas basin Tszinkhan is located in the central part of Eastern China, and southwest of Ukhan. A large number of oil and gas reserves are confined to the mass of lake-saline deposits which were formed in the late Paleogene under conditions of isolated groove basins. The greatest part of the reserves is confined to the northern part of the asymmetrical basin Tszyantsyan. Accumulation of oil here was controlled by sandstones of alluvial fans (Tszyantsyan series) and saline-cupola structures associated with eddy tectonic systems (specific type of structure isolated by the Chinese geologists for which concentric arrangement of the structural axes is characteristic). This special type of trap was isolated for the first time in this oil and gas basin. Initially, until the role of sandy bodies in the ancient alluvial fans was established in controlling oil content, prospecting encountered great difficulties.

  4. Distribution of Actual Evapotranspiration over Qaidam Basin, an Arid Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Jin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration is a major loss flux of the water balance in arid and semi-arid areas. The estimation of actual evapotranspiration has significance for hydrological and environmental purposes. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was applied to estimate actual evapotranspiration in the Qaidam Basin and its eight hydrological sub-regions, Northwest China. There were 3,036 cloud-free and atmospherically corrected MODIS satellite images from 2001 to 2011 used in the SEBS algorithm to determine the actual evapotranspiration. The result indicated that the estimated annual actual evapotranspiration of the basin increased with time and the value varied from 72.7 to 182.3 mm. SEBS estimates were 7.5% and 14.1% of observed pan evaporation over the western and eastern areas, respectively. The variation of SEBS actual evapotranspiration is influenced by climate factors, vegetation, net radiation, land cover type and water table depth. The analysis of the evaporative behavior of different land cover types in the basin presented that water bodies, marsh, and farmland had relatively higher mean actual evapotranspiration though these land cover types make up less than 3.5% of the total basin. Bare soil has very low evapotranspiration and covered almost 60% of the study area. The actual evapotranspiration was observed to be decreased with an increase of water table depth. Overall, the SEBS algorithm proved to be useful and has potential for estimating spatial actual evapotranspiration on a regional scale.

  5. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  6. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Signal Propagating Through the South China Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROPAGATING THROUGH THE SOUTH CHINA SEA BASIN by Meihuei Chen March 2016 Thesis Advisor...ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROPAGATING THROUGH THE SOUTH CHINA SEA BASIN 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Meihuei Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...China Sea (SCS) basin to study the effects of nonlinear internal waves on 400- Hz acoustic signal propagation. The acoustic arrival structure for this

  7. Differences in development among children and adolescents in eastern and western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2010-01-01

    There are wide-ranging differences in human growth, not only between ethnic groups but also between regions. China covers a vast area and has a very large population. However, no studies on the differences in development among children and adolescents in eastern and western China have been reported. This study assessed the differences in stature and body weight in children and adolescents in eastern and western China. Using data derived from two national surveys on students' constitution and health carried out by the Chinese government in 1985 and 2005, the average stature and body weight for children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in eastern and western China were calculated. The differences of mean values between eastern and western China were compared. Boys and girls in eastern China were taller and heavier than their counterparts in western China in all age groups (7-18 years) in 2005, the average differences being 3.56 cm, 4.56 kg (urban boys), 3.05 cm, 2.92 kg (urban girls), 4.04 cm, 4.19 kg (rural boys) and 3.48 cm, 2.96 kg (rural girls). In 18-year-old groups, the differences in the stature and body weight between eastern and western China were 2.82 cm, 5.17 kg for urban boys, 1.86 cm, 2.11 kg for urban girls, 2.26 cm, 3.38 kg for rural boys and 1.96 cm, 1.38 kg for rural girls, respectively. From 1985 to 2005, differences in stature and body weight of children and adolescents between eastern and western China have continuously expanded. There have been obvious regional variations in development in children and adolescents in China, the variations in development in children and adolescents between eastern and western China being related to regional economic status and living standards of residents.

  8. Physicomechanical parameters of sedimentary rocks in eastern Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jian; Sun, Yan; Shu, Liangshu; Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Feng; Li, Benliang; Liu, Deliang

    2009-01-01

    Rock samples were collected and selected from the sedimentary covering strata from Cambrian to Jurassic in eastern Sichuan, China, which belongs to the Upper Yangtze plate. Physicomechanical parameters were measured systematically. Based on parametric texture characteristics and observation data of geology, five regional layer-slip systems are derived. The five layer-slip systems correspond to five reservoir–cover systems, as the incompetent beds correspond to cover beds and the competent beds to reservoir beds. In comparison with the Middle and Lower Yangtze plates, the physicomechanical parameters, lithologic composition and structural characteristics are basically similar to the Upper Yangtze plate. This comparison offers some insight into the oil and gas reservoir–cover systems in the region

  9. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Geophysics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. 3. National Institute of Oceanography, Council of ... ous geophysical exploration for several decades. Studies on ECMI are significant due to the pre- ... the break-up. Of these, the Krishna–Godavari. (K–G) basin with its high hydrocarbon produc-.

  10. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flexure caused by regional isostatic compensation by Krishna (2003). The magnetic anomalies of the ridge are attributed to the volcanic construct above the Moho level, which can create a depression in the Moho causing the gravity low. Thus the inter- pretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies in the offshore K–G basin ...

  11. Sunshine Duration Variability in Haihe River Basin, China, during 1966–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine can have a profound impact on the systematic change in climate elements, such as temperature and wind speed, and in turn affects many aspects of the human society. In recent years, there has been a substantial interest in the variation of sunshine duration due to the dramatic global climate change. Hence, there is a need to better understand the variation of sunshine duration in order to cope with climate change. This study aimed to analyze the variation of sunshine duration in Haihe River basin, China, and its relationship with temperature, wind speed and low-level cloudiness. The annual, seasonal and monthly changes of sunshine duration were analyzed based on the data collected from 33 meteorological stations over the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. It is evident that the annual, seasonal and monthly sunshine duration shows a decreasing trend over time. In addition, the annual sunshine duration is lower with a higher climate tendency rate in the southern and eastern coastal regions than that in the northwestern regions. It is negatively correlated with temperature (r = −0.50 and low-level cloudiness (r = −0.29, but positively with wind speed (r = 0.61. Wind speed may be one of the important causes of the decrease of sunshine duration in the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. These changes may have significant implications for the hydrological cycle in the area.

  12. Reservoir Space Evolution of Volcanic Rocks in Deep Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; HU, J.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years, large amount of natural gas has been discovered in volcanic rock of Lower Crataceous of Songliao basin. Volcanic reservoirs have become one of the important target reservoir types of eastern basin of China. In order to study the volcanic reservoirs, we need to know the main factors controlling the reservoir space. By careful obsercation on volcanic drilling core, casting thin sections and statistical analysis of petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir in Songliao basin, it can be suggested that the igneous rock reservoir in Yingcheng formation of Lower Crataceous is composed of different rock types, such ad rohylite, rohylitic crystal tuff, autoclastic brecciation lava and so on. There are different reservoirs storage space in in various lithological igneous rocks, but they are mainly composed of primary stoma, secondary solution pores and fractures.The evolution of storage space can be divided into 3 stage: the pramary reservoir space,exogenic leaching process and burial diagenesis.During the evolution process, the reservoir space is effected by secondary minerals, tectonic movement and volcanic hydrothermal solution. The pore of volcanic reservoirs can be partially filled by secondary minerals, but also may be dissoluted by other chemical volcanic hydrothermal solution. Therefore, the favorable places for better-quality volcanic reservoirs are the near-crater facies of vocanic apparatus and dissolution zones on the high position of paleo-structures.

  13. 3D Crustal Velocity Structure Model of the Middle-eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, F.; Lin, J.; Wei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lithosphere thinning and destruction in the middle-eastern North China Craton (NCC), a region susceptible to strong earthquakes, is one of the research hotspots in solid earth science. Up to 42 wide-angle reflection/refraction deep seismic sounding (DSS) profiles have been completed in the middle-eastern NCC, we collect all the 2D profiling results and perform gridding of the velocity and interface depth data, and build a 3D crustal velocity structure model for the middle-eastern NCC, named HBCrust1.0, using the Kriging interpolation method. In this model, four layers are divided by three interfaces: G is the interface between the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust, with velocities of 5.0-5.5 km/s above and 5.8-6.0 km/s below. C is the interface of the upper and lower crust, with velocity jump from 6.2-6.4 km/s to 6.5-6.6 km/s. M is the interface between the crust and upper mantle, with velocity 6.7-7.0 km/s at the crust bottom and 7.9-8.0 km/s on mantle top. Our results show that the first arrival time calculated from HBCust1.0 fit well with the observation. It also demonstrates that the upper crust is the main seismogenic layer, and the brittle-ductile transition occurs at depths near interface C. The depth of interface Moho varies beneath the source area of the Tangshan earth-quake, and a low-velocity structure is found to extend from the source area to the lower crust. Based on these observations, it can be inferred that stress accumulation responsible for the Tangshan earthquake may have been closely related to the migration and deformation of the mantle materials. Comparisons of the average velocities of the whole crust, the upper and the lower crust show that the average velocity of the lower crust under the central part of the North China Basin (NCB) in the east of the craton is obviously higher than the regional average, this high-velocity probably results from longterm underplating of the mantle magma. This research is founded by the Natural Science

  14. Lower crustal earthquakes in the North China Basin and implications for crustal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, D. A.; Dong, Y.; Ni, S.; LI, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rift basin on the eastern North China Craton. It is the central region of craton destruction, also a very seismically active area suffering severely from devastating earthquakes, such as the 1966 Xingtai M7.2 earthquake, the 1967 Hejian M6.3 earthquake, and the 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake. We found remarkable discrepancies of depth distribution among the three earthquakes, for instance, the Xingtai and Tangshan earthquakes are both upper-crustal earthquakes occurring between 9 and 15 km on depth, but the depth of the Hejian earthquake was reported of about 30 72 km, ranging from lowermost crust to upper mantle. In order to investigate the focal depth of earthquakes near Hejian area, we developed a method to resolve focal depth for local earthquakes occurring beneath sedimentary regions by P and S converted waves. With this method, we obtained well-resolved depths of 44 local events with magnitudes between M1.0 and M3.0 during 2008 to 2016 at the Hejian seismic zone, with a mean depth uncertainty of about 2 km. The depth distribution shows abundant earthquakes at depth of 20 km, with some events in the lower crust, but absence of seismicity deeper than 25 km. In particular, we aimed at deducing some constraints on the local crustal rheology from depth-frequency distribution. Therefore, we performed a comparison between the depth-frequency distribution and the crustal strength envelop, and found a good fit between the depth profile in the Hejian seismic zone and the yield strength envelop in the Baikal Rift Systems. As a conclusion, we infer that the seismogenic thickness is 25 km and the main deformation mechanism is brittle fracture in the North China Basin . And we made two hypotheses: (1) the rheological layering of dominant rheology in the North China Basin is similar to that of the Baikal Rift Systems, which can be explained with a quartz rheology at 0 10 km depth and a diabase rheology at 10 35 km

  15. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye

    2018-04-01

    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  16. Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mason

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian–Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental setting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present – a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of ’reptilian‘ fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

  17. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  18. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  19. The collision of South China with NW India to join Gondwanaland in the Cambrian: Provenance constraints from foreland basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The paleogeographic position of the South China Block (SCB) during the early Paleozoic is important for understanding its affinity with Gondwanaland and addressing potential tectonic trigger for both the early Paleozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and similar-aged orogenic events along Gondwanan margins. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Cambrian sandstones/metasandstones from the southwestern SCB reveal a predominant population at 1100¬-950 Ma, and zircon Hf-O isotopic results suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth for the source provenance (ca. 3.0 Ga, ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.0 Ga), with major crustal reworking at 0.58-0.50 Ga. This provenance record is distinctly different from the known tectonomagmatic record of the SCB, but matches well with the provenance record of Cambrian sandstones and Cambro-Ordovician tectonomagmatic events in the NW Indian Himalaya. Such a provenance linkage between the two continents appears to have started from the Ediacaran. We thus propose that the SCB likely collided with NW India during the assembling of Gondwanaland between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The collisional event propagated to eastern Himalaya during Cambro-Ordovician time as South China rotated relative to India to close the remnant ocean, causing the Cambro-Ordovician North India orogeny (also known as the Kurgiakh orogeny) along the Himalaya, as well as the intraplate Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny (>460-415 Ma) in South China. This collisional event also generated two peripheral foreland basins on both the Indian Gondwanaland and the South China sides. The foreland basin on the South China side (the Nanhua foreland basin), started as a failed Neoproterozoic continental rift, and appears to have experienced two stage of development. During the first stage between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian, the basin likely shared the same detrital sources as the foreland basin in NW India, with sediments predominantly derived from the East Africa orogen and the

  20. Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Ning, Chao; Hagelberg, Erika; Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Wenying; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2015-07-08

    The Tarim Basin in western China, known for its amazingly well-preserved mummies, has been for thousands of years an important crossroad between the eastern and western parts of Eurasia. Despite its key position in communications and migration, and highly diverse peoples, languages and cultures, its prehistory is poorly understood. To shed light on the origin of the populations of the Tarim Basin, we analysed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in human skeletal remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, used by the local community between 4000 and 3500 years before present, and possibly representing some of the earliest settlers. Xiaohe people carried a wide variety of maternal lineages, including West Eurasian lineages H, K, U5, U7, U2e, T, R*, East Eurasian lineages B, C4, C5, D, G2a and Indian lineage M5. Our results indicate that the people of the Tarim Basin had a diverse maternal ancestry, with origins in Europe, central/eastern Siberia and southern/western Asia. These findings, together with information on the cultural context of the Xiaohe cemetery, can be used to test contrasting hypotheses of route of settlement into the Tarim Basin.

  1. The study on the spatial-temporal changes of land use pattern in eastern Sichuan basin based on RS/GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siqi; Xiao, Yi; Guo, Luo

    2018-02-01

    Eastern Sichuan Basin is one of the areas sensitive to global climate change. Due to impacts from human disturbance, the farmland in the study area has been degrading, and the desertification of land has been expanding rapidly. Based on the data of Landsat TM/ETM image in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, this thesis analysed the spatial characteristics and dynamic trends of land use pattern in eastern Sichuan basin using software for remote sense and geographical information system. The driving factors of land-use change in study area were also discussed. The results indicated that: (i) the area of farmland has significantly decreased because of degradation and conversion from grassland into building land; (ii) farmland patches have changed into fragmented and isolated ones; (iii) the main landscapes in study area, are farmland and forests; (iv) land-use change is significantly associated with the human activities. This study provides a strong theoretical and technical basis for the policy-making of environmental protection and management in Eastern Sichuan Basin of Sichuan Province in china.

  2. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  3. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  4. Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Zoige depression in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages and fission-track ages of the Triassic sedimentary sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Tong, Lili

    2018-01-01

    The Zoige depression is an important depocenter within the northeast Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, which is bounded by the South China, North China and Qiangtang Blocks and forms the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This paper discusses the sediment provenance and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Zoige depression in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau, using the detrital zircon U-Pb ages and apatite fission-track data from the Middle to Late Triassic sedimentary rocks in the area. The U-Pb ages of the Middle to Late Triassic zircons range from 260-280 Ma, 429-480 Ma, 792-974 Ma and 1800-2500 Ma and represent distinct source region. Our new results demonstrate that the detritus deposited during the Middle Triassic (Ladinian, T2zg) primarily originated from the Eastern Kunlun and North Qinling Orogens, with lesser contributions from the North China Block. By the Late Triassic (early Carnian, T3z), the materials at the southern margin of the North China Block were generally transported westward to the basin along a river network that flowed through the Qinling region between the North China and South China Blocks: this interpretation is supported by the predominance of the bimodal distribution of 1.8 Ga and 2.5 Ga age peaks and a lack of significant Neoproterozoic zircon. Since the Late Triassic (middle Carnian, T3zh), considerable changes have occurred in the source terranes, such as the cessation of the Eastern Kunlun Orogen and North China Block sources and the rise of the northwestern margin of the Yangtze Block and South Qinling Orogen. These drastic changes are compatible with a model of a sustained westward collision between the South China and North China Blocks during the late Triassic and the clockwise rotation of the South China Block progressively closed the basin. Subsequently, orogeny-associated folds have formed in the basin since the Late Triassic (late Carnian), and the study area was generally subjected to uplifting and

  5. Novel active kinetoplastids associated with hypersaline anoxic basins in the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgcomb, V. P.; Orsi, W.; Breiner, H.-W.; Stock, A.; Filker, S.; Yakimov, M. M.; Stoeck, T.

    2011-10-01

    The combination of nearly saturated salt concentration and corresponding high density, high hydrostatic pressure, absence of light, anoxia, and a sharp chemocline make the deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea some of the most polyextreme habitats on Earth. Using kinetoplastid-specific primers, we detected kinetoplastid flagellates in some of the harshest deep-sea environments known to date, including some whose small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences are not closely related to cultured representatives. Kinetoplastids, including presumably novel representatives appear to be specialists of halocline environments in the Eastern Mediterranean, and to comprise a significant fraction of the protist communities in the brines and haloclines of several basins. Fluorescent in situ hybridization data indicate a novel 'unidentified' sequence clade of kinetoplastids related to bodonids represents as much as 10% of the total protist community in the Discovery Basin halocline. Different kinetoplastid groups are unevenly represented in the different basins and habitats we sampled, which we discuss as a result of environmental selection.

  6. Shallow Investigations of the Deep Seafloor: Quantitative Morphology in the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, M.; Ketter, T.; Tibor, G.; Schattner, U.

    2017-12-01

    We aim to characterize the seafloor morphology and its shallow sub-surface structures and deformations in the deep part of the Levant basin (eastern Mediterranean) using recently acquired high-resolution shallow seismic reflection data and multibeam bathymetry, which allow quantitative analysis of morphology and structure. The Levant basin at the eastern Mediterranean is considered a passive continental margin, where most of the recent geological processes were related in literature to salt tectonics rooted at the Messinian deposits from 6Ma. We analyzed two sets of recently acquired high-resolution data from multibeam bathymetry and 3.5 kHz Chirp sub-bottom seismic reflection in the deep basin of the continental shelf offshore Israel (water depths up to 2100 m). Semi-automatic mapping of seafloor features and seismic data interpretation resulted in quantitative morphological analysis of the seafloor and its underlying sediment with penetration depth up to 60 m. The quantitative analysis and its interpretation are still in progress. Preliminary results reveal distinct morphologies of four major elements: channels, faults, folds and sediment waves, validated by seismic data. From the spatial distribution and orientation analyses of these phenomena, we identify two primary process types which dominate the formation of the seafloor in the Levant basin: structural and sedimentary. Characterization of the geological and geomorphological processes forming the seafloor helps to better understand the transport mechanisms and the relations between sediment transport and deposition in deep water and the shallower parts of the shelf and slope.

  7. Tectonic and hydrothermal activities in Debbagh, Guelma Basin, Eastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, S.; Abtout, A.; Merabet, N.; Aïfa, T.; Lamali, A.; Bouyahyaoui, B.; Boughchiche, S.; Ayache, M.

    2012-04-01

    Quaternary and Pliocene travertine, deposited from hot springs, can reveal much about tectonic and hydrothermal activities. The aim of this work is to understand the actual tectonic activity in the Guelma Basin and in one of its spas structure. Considering the fieldwork observations in the Hammam Debbagh area, gravity data were analyzed to better highlight the architecture of its subsurface underlying hydrothermal structures. Analysis of the gravity data included the computation of a Bouguer anomaly, upward continuations, as well as residual and derivative maps. Comparison of gravity maps, field geology, geomorphic observations and structural maps allowed us to identify the major structural features. As a result we propose a model of three subsurface structure sources at 0.2, 1 and 7 km depth from north to south, respectively. This confirms some structural elements collected from outcrops and defines subsurface structures, where the Hammam Debbagh active fault is superimposed to the hydrothermal active source in the NW-SE direction characterized by a negative gravity anomaly.

  8. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  9. Increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions: INCREASE IN WINTER HAZE IN EASTERN CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liao, Hong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Lou, Sijia [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-05

    The increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades due to variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions was quantified using observed atmospheric visibility from the National Climatic Data Center Global Summary of Day database for 1980–2014 and simulated PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005 from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Observed winter haze days averaged over eastern China (105–122.5°E, 20–45°N) increased from 21 d in 1980 to 42 d in 2014, and from 22 to 30 d between 1985 and 2005. The GEOS-Chem model captured the increasing trend of winter PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005, with concentrations averaged over eastern China increasing from 16.1 μg m-3 in 1985 to 38.4 μg m-3 in 2005. Considering variations in both anthropogenic emissions and meteorological parameters, the model simulated an increase in winter surface-layer PM2.5 concentrations of 10.5 (±6.2) μg m-3 decade-1 over eastern China. The increasing trend was only 1.8 (±1.5) μg m-3 decade-1 when variations in meteorological parameters alone were considered. Among the meteorological parameters, the weakening of winds by -0.09 m s-1 decade-1 over 1985–2005 was found to be the dominant factor leading to the decadal increase in winter aerosol concentrations and haze days over eastern China during recent decades.

  10. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  11. Examining the effects of urban agglomeration polders on flood events in Qinhuai River basin, China with HEC-HMS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuqin; Yuan, Yu; Wang, Huaizhi; Schmidt, Arthur R; Wang, Kexuan; Ye, Liu

    2017-05-01

    The urban agglomeration polders type of flood control pattern is a general flood control pattern in the eastern plain area and some of the secondary river basins in China. A HEC-HMS model of Qinhuai River basin based on the flood control pattern was established for simulating basin runoff, examining the impact of urban agglomeration polders on flood events, and estimating the effects of urbanization on hydrological processes of the urban agglomeration polders in Qinhuai River basin. The results indicate that the urban agglomeration polders could increase the peak flow and flood volume. The smaller the scale of the flood, the more significant the influence of the polder was to the flood volume. The distribution of the city circle polder has no obvious impact on the flood volume, but has effect on the peak flow. The closer the polder is to basin output, the smaller the influence it has on peak flows. As the level of urbanization gradually improving of city circle polder, flood volumes and peak flows gradually increase compared to those with the current level of urbanization (the impervious rate was 20%). The potential change in flood volume and peak flow with increasing impervious rate shows a linear relationship.

  12. Structural imaging of the East Beni Sueif Basin, north eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, E.; Sehim, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Beni Sueif Basin is the only tested hydrocarbon-bearing basin on the eastern side of the Nile in Egypt. The basin is located around 150 km to the south of Cairo. This work introduces the first attempt of seismic interpretation and structural patterns of this basin, for which subsurface published works are lacking. Structural imaging of the area is achieved through interpretation of pre-stack time migration (PSTM) seismic cube and data sets of seven wells. The penetrated sedimentary section is represented by Albian-Middle Eocene sediments. The East Beni Sueif Basin is a type of the whole graben-system and is bounded by two NW-SE bounding faults. These faults had continued activity in an extensional regime associated with fault-propagating folds. The basin is traversed by a N75°E-trending fault system at basement level. This fault system separates the basin into two structural provinces. The Northwestern Province is deeper and shows more subsidence with a predominance of NW-trending longitudinal faults and N60·W oblique faults to the basin trend. The Southeastern Province is shallow and crossed by N14·W-trending faults which are slightly oblique to the basin axis. Albian time had witnessed the main extensional tectonic phase and resulted in major subsidence along basin-bounding faults associated with growth thickening of basal deposits. During Senonian time, the basin experienced a mild phase of transtensional tectonics, which formed negative-flower structures entrapping different folds along the N75°E and N60·W faults. The timing and style of these structures are similar to the Syrian-Arc structures in several Western Desert oil fields. The basin emerged during the Paleocene with scoured and eroded top Cretaceous sediments. Subsidence was resumed during the Early Eocene and resulted in 1500 m-thick carbonate sediments. Lastly, a mild extensional activity possibly occurred during the Oligocene-Miocene time. Despite the possible restricted potentiality

  13. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  14. Numerical simulation on the southern flood and northern drought in summer 2014 over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lianlian; He, Shengping; Li, Fei; Ma, Jiehua; Wang, Huijun

    2017-12-01

    In summer 2014, Eastern China suffered a typical "southern flood and northern drought" anomalous climate. Observational analyses indicated that the anomalous vertical motion, East Asian subtropical westerly jet stream, and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) played important roles in the formation of such precipitation anomaly. Furthermore, using the climate model (IAP-AGCM-4.1) perturbed by simultaneous observed sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in global scale and four different regions (North Pacific, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic, and Equatorial Pacific), this study investigated the potential contribution of ocean to such "southern flood and northern drought" over Eastern China in summer 2014. The simulations forced by global-scale SSTAs or North Pacific SSTAs displayed the most similarity to the observed "southern flood and northern drought" over Eastern China. It was revealed that the global-scale and North Pacific SSTAs influenced the rainfall over Eastern China via modulating the EASM. The related simulations successfully reproduced the associated atmospheric circulation anomalies. The experiment driven by Indian Ocean SSTAs could also reproduce the similar precipitation anomaly pattern and suggested that the Indian Ocean exerted pronounced influence on the North Pacific Subtropical High. Additionally, the simulations forced by SSTAs in the North Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific successfully reproduced the northern drought but failed to capture the southern flood. The simulations suggested that precipitation anomaly over Eastern China in summer 2014 was a comprehensive effect of global SSTAs and the dominant contribution to the "southern flood and northern drought" pattern came from the North Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  15. The Impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on Outpatient Visits for Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Chen, Renjie; Shen, Yuetian; Kan, Haidong; Kuang, Xingya

    2016-06-23

    There have been relatively few opportunities to examine the cardiovascular effects of an extreme air pollution event in China. We aimed to examine the impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog occurring from 2 to 9 December 2013, on outpatient visits for coronary heart diseases (CHD) in a typical hospital in Shanghai, China. We used the over-dispersed, generalized additive model to estimate the relative risk (RR) of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on the outpatient visits by comparing the smog period (2-9 December 2013; 8 days) to the non-smog period (1 November-1 December 2013, and 10 December-28 February 2014; 112 days). This model also controlled for time trends, days of the week, holidays, and meteorological factors. A stratification analysis was performed to estimate sex- and age-specific RRs. The daily average PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) concentrations during the smog period were 212 μg/m³, which were three times higher than during the non-smog period (76 μg/m³). The smog in Eastern China in 2013 was significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for CHD. For example, the RR was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.32) on lag 0 day. There were similar effects on males and females. Our analyses provided preliminary evidence that smog constituted a significant risk factor of CHD in China.

  16. The Impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on Outpatient Visits for Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few opportunities to examine the cardiovascular effects of an extreme air pollution event in China. We aimed to examine the impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog occurring from 2 to 9 December 2013, on outpatient visits for coronary heart diseases (CHD in a typical hospital in Shanghai, China. We used the over-dispersed, generalized additive model to estimate the relative risk (RR of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on the outpatient visits by comparing the smog period (2–9 December 2013; 8 days to the non-smog period (1 November–1 December 2013, and 10 December–28 February 2014; 112 days. This model also controlled for time trends, days of the week, holidays, and meteorological factors. A stratification analysis was performed to estimate sex- and age-specific RRs. The daily average PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm concentrations during the smog period were 212 μg/m3, which were three times higher than during the non-smog period (76 μg/m3. The smog in Eastern China in 2013 was significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for CHD. For example, the RR was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 on lag 0 day. There were similar effects on males and females. Our analyses provided preliminary evidence that smog constituted a significant risk factor of CHD in China.

  17. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  18. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  19. The surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa Hamad

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The schema of the Atlantic Water (AW, 100-200 m thick circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea elaborated in the 1990s (and widely referred to nowadays mainly shows jets meandering offshore across the whole basin. However, all previous schemata (since the 1910s and an analysis of infrared (IR satellite images in the 1990s show counterclockwise circulation at basin scale. A former controversy about the circulation was elucidated in the western basin where IR images helped describe the mesoscale features and demonstrate their role in the circulation. This motivated the detailed analysis of IR daily and weekly composites (~1000 from 1996 to 2000, and of monthly composites since 1985. We show that AW circulates along the upper part of the continental slope in a counterclockwise direction around the whole basin. In the south and all year long, this circulation is unstable and generates mesoscale anticyclonic eddies that spread AW offshore; in the north dense water formation induces larger seasonal variability. These mesoscale eddies, as well as the Etesian-induced eddies Ierapetra and Pelops, can be followed for years, sometimes several hundreds of km away from where they are formed, and they can merge and/or interact with the alongslope circulation.

  20. Geological evolution history of petroliferous basins on continental shelf of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidesheng

    1983-03-01

    Coastlines of China are about 18,000 km (11,118 mi) in length, and their aggregate continental shelf area within 200 m (656 ft) seawater depth is more than one million km/sup 2/ (386,102 mi/sup 2/). Recent geophysical exploration work and numerous petroleum drilling records are available and give a general understanding of the geological evolution history of these petroliferous basins. There are two tectonic types of basins distributed on the continental shelf areas: the tectonic types of Bohai Gulf, South Yellow Sea, and Beibu Gulf basins are the intraplate polyphase rifting-depression basins; the East China Sea, Pearl River mouth, and Yingge Sea basin are the epicontinental rifting-depression basins. They are believed to be extensional in origin. Because of the severe convergence of Indian plate with Eurasia plate, there has been produced NNE-spreading movement of the South China Sea basin, which permits two triple junctions on its northern margins. The extension mechanism could be derived from the rising of an upper mantle plume to produce two NNE weak fracturing zones, resulting in a series of intraplate and epicontinental rifting-depression basins. The depositional models and sea-level variations of these basins are interpreted from the drilling records and seismic profiles. They can be explained by the tectono-eustatic changes in sea level and Cenozoic climate changes of China.

  1. Toward tracing routes of bottom waters in the Eastern Mediterranean basin using a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Angelo; Zanchettin, Davide; Bensi, Manuel; Cardin, Vanessa; Hainbucher, Dagmar; Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Mapelli, Francesca; Borin, Sara

    2013-04-01

    We use near-bottom measurements of total mercury, biopolymeric carbon and its constituents, microbial activities, and bacterial diversity to attempt tracing routes of convectively generated bottom waters toward the abyss of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. The advantage of employing these parameters -which are often linked to persistent biological activities rather than to episodic flow phenomena- to complement the traditionally used ones (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) is twofold: they can yield valuable information even when the values of temperature and salinity in competing sources are virtually indistinguishable and they can allow also for a spatial and temporal integration of the export of newly formed deep waters. In our case study -the Eastern Mediterranean basin, which can be considered as a miniature global ocean - the proposed method seems to be able to capture two different exporting routes from the northern convective source and one exporting route from the eastern convective source, thus elucidating further aspects of the structure and variability of the local deep stratification.

  2. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-10-14

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  3. Reliability and validity of a physical activity scale among urban pregnant women in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; He, Gengsheng; Li, Mu; Fan, Yanyan; Jiang, Hongyi; Bauman, Adrian; Qian, Xu

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the physical activity scale adapted from a Danish scale for assessing physical activity among urban pregnant women in eastern China. Participants recruited in an urban setting of eastern China were asked to complete the physical activity scale, the activity diary, and to wear a pedometer for the same 4 days, followed by repeating the activity scale for another 4 days within 2 weeks. A total of 109 pregnant women completed data recording. Good reliability of the physical activity scale was observed (intraclass correlation coefficient = .87). There was also a good comparability between the activity scale and the activity diary (Spearman's r = .75 for total energy expenditure). The agreement between the scale and pedometer reading was acceptable (Spearman's r = .45). The adapted physical activity scale is a reliable and reasonably accurate instrument for estimating physical activity among urban pregnant women in eastern China. © 2012 APJPH.

  4. Tectonic influence on depositional sequence development, Columbus Basin, eastern offshore Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.J. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The Columbus Basin is located off the eastern coast of Trinidad and the northeastern coast of Venezuela, along the margins of the converging Caribbean and Atlantic plates. Post-Miocene tectonics have resulted in transpressional structures oriented NE-SW and tensional faults oriented NW-SE. Sea level has undergone high frequency fluctuations throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. The Orinoco River, which drains the Andean Highlands, has fed enormous quantities of sediment into the basin since the late Miocene (>30,000[prime]). Several observations from an Integrated Depositional Sequence Analysis of the Columbus Basin are applicable to basins in similar settings, such as the Nile and Niger deltas. These include the following: (1) Limited shelf development, associated with limited shelf subsidence, may be an indicator of shelf bypass and slope Canyon development. (2) United basin-floor and slope fan development may be an indicator of shelf aggradation, associated with subsidence at the shelf-break. (3) Extensional and compressional structures focus feeder systems and localize accommodation space. (4) Drill deeper; the basal deepening of a regressive package may be in response to localized tectonics and indicate only temporary loss of good reservoir. (5) Limited transgressive systems tract development is associated with limited transgressive-time accommodation space, and creates better reservoir-seal relationships. (6) Interactively, integrating data sets provides the best chance for discerning: sequence relationships across the basin, local versus basinwide chronologic events, sediment bypass versus aggradation zones, reservoir trends and TRUE age of the section. (7) Interpreting the rock record in terms of accommodation space and sediment supply provides a much more practical methodology in tectonically active areas than traditional sequence stratigraphic techniques using the classic eustatic-driven model.

  5. Tectonic influence on depositional sequence development, Columbus Basin, eastern offshore Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.J. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Columbus Basin is located off the eastern coast of Trinidad and the northeastern coast of Venezuela, along the margins of the converging Caribbean and Atlantic plates. Post-Miocene tectonics have resulted in transpressional structures oriented NE-SW and tensional faults oriented NW-SE. Sea level has undergone high frequency fluctuations throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. The Orinoco River, which drains the Andean Highlands, has fed enormous quantities of sediment into the basin since the late Miocene (>30,000{prime}). Several observations from an Integrated Depositional Sequence Analysis of the Columbus Basin are applicable to basins in similar settings, such as the Nile and Niger deltas. These include the following: (1) Limited shelf development, associated with limited shelf subsidence, may be an indicator of shelf bypass and slope Canyon development. (2) United basin-floor and slope fan development may be an indicator of shelf aggradation, associated with subsidence at the shelf-break. (3) Extensional and compressional structures focus feeder systems and localize accommodation space. (4) Drill deeper; the basal deepening of a regressive package may be in response to localized tectonics and indicate only temporary loss of good reservoir. (5) Limited transgressive systems tract development is associated with limited transgressive-time accommodation space, and creates better reservoir-seal relationships. (6) Interactively, integrating data sets provides the best chance for discerning: sequence relationships across the basin, local versus basinwide chronologic events, sediment bypass versus aggradation zones, reservoir trends and TRUE age of the section. (7) Interpreting the rock record in terms of accommodation space and sediment supply provides a much more practical methodology in tectonically active areas than traditional sequence stratigraphic techniques using the classic eustatic-driven model.

  6. From Tethys to Eastern Paratethys: Oligocene depositional environments, paleoecology and paleobiogeography of the Thrace Basin (NW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamoğlu, Yeşim; Harzhauser, Mathias; Gross, Martin; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Coric, Stjepan; Kroh, Andreas; Rögl, Fred; van der Made, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Oligocene depositional history of the Thrace Basin documents a unique paleogeographic position at a junction between the Western Tethys and the Eastern Paratethys. As part of the Tethys, shallow marine carbonate platforms prevailed during the Eocene. Subsequently, a three-staged process of isolation started with the Oligocene. During the Early Rupelian, the Thrace Basin was still part of the Western Tethys, indicated by typical Western Tethyan marine assemblages. The isolation from the Tethys during the Early Oligocene is reflected by oolite formation and endemic Eastern Paratethyan faunas of the Solenovian stage. The third phase reflects an increasing continentalisation of the Thrace Basin with widespread coastal swamps during the Late Solenovian. The mollusc assemblages are predominated by mangrove dwelling taxa and the mangrove plant Avicennia is recorded in the pollen spectra. The final continentalisation is indicated by the replacement of the coastal swamps by pure freshwater swamps and fluvial plains during the Late Oligocene (mammal zone MP 26). This paleogeographic affiliation of the Thrace Basin with the Eastern Paratethys after ~32 Ma contrasts all currently used reconstructions which treat the basin as embayment of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.

  7. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan

    2017-12-01

    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  8. Understanding the recent trend of haze pollution in eastern China: roles of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the variation and trend of haze pollution in eastern China for winter of 1960–2012 were analyzed. With the overall increasing number of winter haze days in this period, the 5 decades were divided into three sub-periods based on the changes of winter haze days (WHD in central North China (30–40° N and eastern South China (south of 30° N for east of 109° E mainland China. Results show that WHD kept gradually increasing during 1960–1979, remained stable overall during 1980–1999, and increased fast during 2000–2012. The author identified the major climate forcing factors besides total energy consumption. Among all the possible climate factors, variability of the autumn Arctic sea ice extent, local precipitation and surface wind during winter is most influential to the haze pollution change. The joint effect of fast increase of total energy consumption, rapid decline of Arctic sea ice extent and reduced precipitation and surface winds intensified the haze pollution in central North China after 2000. There is a similar conclusion for haze pollution in eastern South China after 2000, with the precipitation effect being smaller and spatially inconsistent.

  9. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice

  10. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Precipitation Concentration in the Upper Reaches of the Hongshui River Basin, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical characteristics of precipitation play important roles not only in flood and drought risk assessments but also in water resource management. This paper implements a statistical analysis to study the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the upper reaches of the Hongshui River basin (UHRB, southwestern China, by analysing time series of daily precipitation from 18 weather stations during the period of 1959 to 2015. To detect precipitation concentrations and the associated patterns, three indices, the precipitation concentration index (PCI, precipitation concentration degree (PCD, and precipitation concentration period (PCP, were used. The relationships between the precipitation concentration indices (PCI, PCD, and PCP and geographic variables (latitude, longitude, and elevation, large-scale atmospheric circulation indices, and summer monsoon indices were investigated to identify specific dependencies and spatial patterns in the precipitation distribution and concentration. The results show that high PCI values were mainly observed in the northeastern portion of the basin, whereas low PCI values were mainly detected in the southwest. The Mann-Kendall test results demonstrate that the majority of the UHRB is characterized by nonsignificant trends in the PCI, PCD, and PCP from 1959 to 2015. The PCP results reveal that rainfall in the UHRB mainly occurs in summer months, and the rainy season arrives earlier in the eastern UHRB than in the western UHRB. Additionally, the PCD results indicate that the rainfall in the western UHRB is more dispersed throughout the year than that in the eastern UHRB. Compared with other geographical factors, longitude is the most important variable that governs the spatial distribution and variations in annual precipitation and the precipitation concentration indices. Due to a combination of topography, the Indian subtropical high, and monsoon weakening, precipitation may be more concentrated

  12. New discovery on geopressured geothermal resources in China - case history from Ying-Qiong Basins, S. China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ji-yang; Xiong Liang-ping [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Geopressured geothermal resources are regarded as a new type of {open_quotes}high-energy-level{close_quotes} geothermal resources. In recent years, this kind of resources has been discovered in Ying-Qiong Basins at the northern margin of South China Sea. The geological environment and tectonic settings, geotemperature and heat flow pattern, high (over) pressure distribution and sedimentation rates of the basins as well as the perspectives of development and utilization of these resources were discussed briefly by the authors.

  13. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  14. Transformation to a Market Economy and Changing Social Values in China, Russia, and Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swader, Christopher Scott

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms driving changes in social values, or those values emphasizing relationships, intimate bonds, and families, in the new market economies of Russia, China, and Eastern Germany. It is hypothesized that tensions between social values and individualism, materialism, and calculative rationality have arisen as a…

  15. Paleogene strata of the Eastern Los Angeles basin, California: Paleogeography and constraints on neogene structural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, T.H.; Beyer, L.A.; Enrico, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Post-Paleogene dextral slip of 8-9 km is demonstrated for the southeastern part of the Whittier fault zone in the eastern Los Angeles basin area of southern California. A linear axis of greatest thickness for the combined upper Paleocene and lower to lower-middle Eocene clastic formations intersects the fault zone and is offset by it to give the new measure. Fragmentary evidence hints that the Whittier structural zone may have exerted control on bathymetric-topographic relief and sedimentation even in latest Paleocene (ca. 54 Ma). A clear topographic influence was exerted by 20-17 Ma. Strike-slip and present deformational style is younger than ca. 8 Ma. Our Paleogene isopach map extends as far west as long 117??58'W and is a foundation for companion zonal maps of predominant lithology and depositional environments. Integration of new palynological data with published biostratigraphic results and both new and published lithologic and sedimentological interpretations support the zonal maps. Reconstruction of marine-nonmarine facies and fragmented basin margins yields a model for the northeastern corner of a Paleogene coastal basin. Palinspastic adjustment for the Neogene-Quaternary Whittier fault offset and a reasoned westerly extension of the northern edge of the basin model yield a reconstruction of Paleogene paleogeography-paleoceanography. Our reconstruction is based partly on the absence of both Paleocene and Eocene deposits beneath the unconformable base of the middle Miocene Topanga Group in a region nowhere less than 15 km wide between the Raymond-Sierra Madre-Cucamonga fault zone and the northern edge of the Paleocene basin. Thus, Paleogene strata of the Santa Monica Mountains could not have been offset from the northern extension of the Santa Ana Mountains by sinistral slip on those boundary faults. Structural rearrangements needed to accommodate the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges from the early Miocene starting position are thereby

  16. Integrated stratigraphy and chronology of Messinian evaporites from the Levant basin in the deep eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilijson, Aaron; Steinberg, Josh; Hilgen, Frits; Bialik, Or; Ilner, Peter; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq

    2017-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) is perceived as an environmental crisis governed by climatic and tectonic controls, affecting global oceans salinity and shaping the Mediterranean's bio-chemical composition. The elaborate and ongoing study of the Mediterranean MSC is mainly focused on marginal and intermediate sections from which material was previously available. This relatively proximal data is also coupled with offshore seismic data and several wells which have penetrated the deep-basin Messinian salt in its uppermost parts, for producing stratigraphic models and hypotheses related to the distal occurrence of the MSC. These offshore assumptions could only be tested by drilling in the deep Mediterranean Sea. In this work we investigate these fascinating deposits from previously inaccessible domains in the deepest realms of the Mediterranean, and correlate this data with the much more abundant and elaborate findings reported from the marginal and intermediate depositional environments. Here we provide for the first time high resolution sedimentological, faunal and geochemical data from the entire massive Messinian evaporite section of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basin. We have analyzed an extensive set of well cuttings while correlating results to well logs and seismic data, and constructed a chronostratigraphic model based on biostratigraphy and astrochronology. We present a detailed account of the pre- and evaporitic Messinian as it occurred in the deep Levant basin, identifying paleo life in the form of diatoms, foraminifera and ostracods within different parts of the section. Our results indicate that salt was deposited during the complete 640 kyr-long MSC, rather than limited to the 50 kyr (stage 2) MSC acme. Moreover, the deep-basin was barren of eukaryotic life throughout most of this duration, at least in the Levant. Thus brine formation, salt precipitation and faunal extinction took place in a non-desiccated basin, having a restricted but often open

  17. Characteristics and Distribution of Phosphorus in Surface Sediments of Limnetic Ecosystem in Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient for aquatic organisms; however, excessive P inflow to limnetic ecosystems can induce eutrophication. P concentrations in the rivers, wetlands and lakes of Eastern China have been amplified by fertilizer and sewage inputs associated with the development of industry and agriculture. Yet, knowledge of the distribution and speciation of P is lacking at the regional scale. We determined the distribution and speciation of P in limnetic ecosystems in Eastern China using Standards, Measurements and Testing (SMT and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR. The results indicate that P pollution in surface sediments was serious. Inorganic P (Pi was the primary drive of variation in total P (TP among different river systems, and Pi accounted for 71% to 90% of TP in surface sediment in Eastern China. Also, the concentrations of TP and Pi varied among watersheds and Pi primarily drove the variation in TP in different watersheds. Sediments less than 10-cm deep served as the main P reservoir. Environmental factors affect the speciation and origin of P. NaOH-Pi, HCl-Pi and organic P (Po were related to pH accordingly at the regional scale. The physicochemical properties of sediments from different limnetic ecosystems affect the P speciation. HCl-Pi was higher in wetland sediments than in riverine and lake sediments in Eastern China. Conversely, NaOH-Pi was lowest in wetland sediments. Total Po concentration was lower in riverine sediments than in other sediments, but Mono-P was higher, with an average concentration of 48 mg kg-1. Diesters-P was highest in lake sediments. By revealing the regional distribution of TP, Pi and Po, this study will support eutrophication management in Eastern China.

  18. Carbonate replacement of lacustrine gypsum deposits in two Neogene continental basins, eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, P.; Rosell, L.; Talbot, M. R.

    1992-07-01

    Bedded nonmarine gypsum deposits in the Miocene Teruel and Cabriel basins, eastern Spain, are partly replaced by carbonate. The Libros gypsum (Teruel Graben) is associated with fossiliferous carbonate wackestones and finely laminated, organic matter-rich mudstones which accumulated under anoxic conditions in a meromictic, permanent lake. The gypsum is locally pseudomorphed by aragonite or, less commonly, replaced by calcite. Low δ 13C values indicate that sulphate replacement resulted from bacterial sulphate reduction processes that were favoured by anacrobic conditions and abundant labile organic matter in the sediments. Petrographic evidence and oxygen isotopic composition suggest that gypsum replacement by aragonite occurred soon after deposition. A subsequent return to oxidising conditions caused some aragonite to be replaced by diagenetic gypsum. Native sulphur is associated with some of these secondary gypsum occurrences. The Los Ruices sulphate deposits (Cabriel Basin) contain beds of clastic and selenitic gypsum which are associated with limestones and red beds indicating accumulation in a shallow lake. Calcite is the principal replacement mineral. Bacterial sulphate reduction was insignificant in this basin because of a scarcity of organic matter. Stable isotope composition of diagenetic carbonate indicates that gypsum replacement occurred at shallow burial depths due to contact with dilute groundwaters of meteoric origin. Depositional environment evidently has a major influence upon the diagenetic history of primary sulphate deposits. The quantity of preserved organic matter degradable by sulphate-reducing bacteria is of particular importance and, along with groundwater composition, is the main factor controlling the mechanism of gypsum replacement by carbonate.

  19. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  20. Numerical air quality forecasting over eastern China: An operational application of WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangqiang; Xu, Jianming; Xie, Ying; Chang, Luyu; Gao, Wei; Gu, Yixuan; Zhou, Ji

    2017-03-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Environmental Modeling System for eastern China (RAEMS) is an operational numerical system to forecast near surface atmospheric pollutants such as PM2.5 and O3 over the eastern China region. This system was based on the fully online coupled weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Anthropogenic emissions were based on the multi-resolution emission inventory for China (MEIC), and biogenic emissions were online calculated using model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN2). Authorized by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), this system started to provide operational forecast in 2013. With a large domain covering eastern China, the system produces daily 72-hr forecast. In this work, a comprehensive evaluation was carried out against measurements for two full years (2014-2015). Evaluation results show that the RAEMS is skillful in forecasting temporal variation and spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the eastern China region. The performance is consistent in different forecast length of 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. About half of cities have correlation coefficients greater than 0.6 for PM2.5 and 0.7 for daily maximum 8-h averaged (DM8H) ozone. The forecasted PM2.5 is generally in good agreement with observed concentrations, with most cities having normalized mean biases (NMB) within ±25%. Forecasted ozone diurnal variation is very similar to that of observed, and makes small peak time error for DM8H ozone. It also shows good capability in capturing ozone pollution as indicated by high critical success indexes (CSI). The modeling system also exhibits acceptable performance for PM10, NO2, SO2, and CO. Meanwhile, degraded performance for PM2.5 is found under heavy polluted conditions, and there is a general over estimation in ozone concentrations.

  1. Cenozoic basin thermal history reconstruction and petroleum systems in the eastern Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mauricio; Mora, Andres; Ketcham, Richard A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Almendral, Ariel

    2017-04-01

    Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic retro-arc foreland basins along the eastern margin of the Andes in South America host the world's best detrital record for the study of subduction orogenesis. There, the world's most prolific petroleum system occur in the northernmost of these foreland basin systems, in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, yet over 90% of the discovered hydrocarbons there occur in one single province in norteastern Venezuela. A successful industry-academy collaboration applied a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the north Andes with the aim of investigating both, the driving mechanisms of orogenesis, and its impact on hydrocarbon accumulation in eastern Colombia. The Eastern Cordillera is an inversion orogen located at the leading edge of the northern Andes. Syn-rift subsidence favored the accumulation of km-thick organic matter rich shales in a back-arc basin in the early Cretaceous. Subsequent late Cretaceous thermal subsidence prompted the accumulation of shallow marine sandstones and shales, the latter including the Turonian-Cenomanian main hydrocarbon source-rock. Early Andean uplift since the Paleocene led to development of a flexural basin, filled with mainly non-marine strata. We have studied the Meso-Cenozoic thermal evolution of these basins through modeling of a large thermochronometric database including hundreds of apatite and zircon fission-track and (U-Th)/He data, as well as paleothermometric information based on vitrinite reflectance and present-day temperatures measured in boreholes. The detrital record of Andean construction was also investigated through detrital zircon U-Pb geochronometry in outcrop and borehole samples. A comprehensive burial/exhumation history has been accomplished through three main modeling strategies. First, one-dimensional subsidence was used to invert the pre-extensional lithospheric thicknesses, the magnitude of stretching, and the resulting heat flow associated to extension. The amount of eroded section and

  2. The Early Cambrian Mianyang-Changning Intracratonic Sag and Its Control on Petroleum Accumulation in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The older and deeper hydrocarbon accumulations receive increasing attention across the world, providing more technical and commercial challenges to hydrocarbon exploration. We present a study of an asymmetrical, N-S striking intracratonic sag which developed across the Sichuan basin, south China, from Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian times. The Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag is ~50 km wide, with its steepest part in the basin center. In particular the eastern margin shows its greatest steepness. Five episodes in the evolutions of the sag can be recognized. It begins in the Late Ediacaran with an uplift and erosion correlated to Tongwan movement. Initial extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Maidiping period, when more strata of the Maidiping Formation were deposited across the sag. Subsequently, maximum extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Qiongzhusi period that resulted in 450–1700 m thick Maidiping-Canglangpu Formations being deposited in the sag. Then, the sag disappeared at the Longwangmiao period, as it was infilled by the sediments. The intracratonic sag has significant influence on the development of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying and Longwangmiao Formations and source-rock of the Niutitang Formation. It thus indicates that a high probability for oil/gas accumulation exists along the intracratonic sag, across the central Sichuan basin.

  3. The role of Mesozoic sedimentary basin tapers on the formation of Cenozoic crustal shortening structures and foredeep in the western Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The foreland basin records important clues of tectonic and sedimentary process of mountain-building, thus to explore its dynamic mechanism on the formation is an important issue of the mountain-basin interaction. The Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt and its adjacent Sichuan basin located in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, are one of the most-concerned regions of studying modern mountain-building and seismic process, and are also a natural laboratory of studying the dynamics of the formation and development of foreland basin. However, it still need further explore on the mechanics of the development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust-belts in the western Sichuan Basin. The Longmen Shan thrust belt has experienced multi-stages of tectonics evolution, foreland basin formation and topography growth since Late Triassic, and whether the early formed basin architecture and large Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper can influence the formation and development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust belts? To solve these issues, this project aim to focus on the Cenozoic foreland basin and internal crustal shortening structures in the western Sichuan basin, on the basis of growth critical wedge taper theory. We will reconstruct the shape of multi-phases of sedimentary basin tapers, the temporal-spatial distribution of crustal shortening and thrusting sequences, and analyze the control mechanism of Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper on the formation of Cenozoic foreland basins, and final explore the interaction between the tectonics geomorphology, stress field and dynamic propagation of foreland basin.

  4. Systematic impact assessment on inter-basin water transfer projects of the Hanjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-10-01

    China's inter-basin water transfer projects have gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes an intelligent water allocation methodology for establishing optimal inter-basin water allocation schemes and assessing the impacts of water transfer projects on water-demanding sectors in the Hanjiang River Basin of China. We first analyze water demands for water allocation purpose, and then search optimal water allocation strategies for maximizing the water supply to water-demanding sectors and mitigating the negative impacts by using the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA), respectively. Lastly, the performance indexes of the water supply system are evaluated under different scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects. The results indicate that: the AGA with adaptive crossover and mutation operators could increase the average annual water transfer from the Hanjiang River by 0.79 billion m3 (8.8%), the average annual water transfer from the Changjiang River by 0.18 billion m3 (6.5%), and the average annual hydropower generation by 0.49 billion kW h (5.4%) as well as reduce the average annual unmet water demand by 0.40 billion m3 (9.7%), as compared with the those of the SGA. We demonstrate that the proposed intelligent water allocation schemes can significantly mitigate the negative impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects on the reliability, vulnerability and resilience of water supply to the demanding sectors in water-supplying basins. This study has a direct bearing on more intelligent and effectual water allocation management under various scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects.

  5. The Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group of the eastern Congo Basin: An example of perennial lacustrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Alexis; Blanpied, Christian; Delvaux, Damien

    2017-08-01

    The intracratonic Congo Basin, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is the largest sedimentary basin of Africa. The Jurassic strata outcrop along its eastern margin, south of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville). In the last century, the Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group was described as a lacustrine series containing a thin basal marine limestone designed as the ;Lime Fine; beds. Since the proposal of this early model, the depositional environment of the Stanleyville Group, and especially the possible marine incursion, has been debated, but without re-examining the existing cores, outcrop samples and historical fossils from the type location near Kisangani that are available at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (MRAC/KMMA, Tervuren, Belgium). In order to refine the former sedimentology, a series of nine exploration cores drilled in the Kisangani sub-basin have been described. This study aims at integrating sedimentary facies in existing sedimentary models and to discuss the hypothesis of the presence of Kimmeridgian marine deposits along the Congo River near Kisangani, a region which lies in the middle of the African continent. Eight facies have been identified, which permit a reinterpretation of the depositional environment and paleogeography of the Stanleyville Group. The base of the Stanleyville Group is interpreted to represent a conglomeratic fluvial succession, which filled an inherited Triassic paleotopography. Above these conglomerates, a transition to a typically lacustrine system is interpreted, which includes: (1) a basal profundal, sublittoral (brown to dark fine-grained siltstones with microbial carbonates, i.e., the ;Lime Fine; beds) and littoral lacustrine series; covered by (2) a sublittoral to profundal interval (brown to dark organic-rich, fine-grained siltstones), which corresponds to the maximum extent of the paleo-lake; and, finally (3) a shallow lacustrine series (greenish calcareous siltstones and sandstones with red siltstones

  6. Identifying the predictable and unpredictable patterns of spring-to-autumn precipitation over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kairan; Zheng, Xiaogu; Zhao, Tianbao; Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Quan, Xiao-Wei

    2017-05-01

    The patterns of interannual variability that arise from the slow (potentially predictable) and fast or intraseasonal (unpredictable) components of seasonal mean precipitation over eastern China are examined, based on observations from a network of 106 stations for the period 1951-2004. The analysis is done by using a variance decomposition method that allows identification of the sources of the predictability and the prediction uncertainty, from March-April-May (MAM) to September-October-November (SON). The average potential predictability (ratio of slow-to-total variance) of eastern China precipitation is generally moderate, with the highest value of 0.18 in June-July-August (JJA) and lowest value of 0.12 in April-May-June (AMJ). The leading predictable precipitation mode is significantly related to one-season-lead SST anomalies in the area of the Kuroshio Current during AMJ-to-JJA, the Indian-western Pacific SST in July-August-September (JAS), and the eastern tropical Pacific SST in MAM and SON. The prolonged linear trends, which are seen in the principal component time series associated with the second or third predictable precipitation modes in MJJ-to-ASO, also serve as a source of predictability for seasonal precipitation over eastern China. The predictive characteristics of the atmospheric circulation-precipitation relationship indicate that the western Pacific subtropical high plays a key role in eastern China precipitation. In addition, teleconnection patterns that are significantly related to the predictable precipitation component are also identified. The leading/second unpredictable precipitation modes from MAM to SON all show a monopole/dipole structure, which are accompanied by wavy circulation patterns that are related to intraseasonal events.

  7. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  8. Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends of Extreme Precipitation in the Huaihe River Basin, a Climatic Transitional Zone in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwe Ye

    2017-01-01

    Summer Monsoon in eastern China. The output of this paper could provide references for the practical decision making and integrated basin management of Huaihe River basin.

  9. Reemergence and Autochthonous Transmission of Dengue Virus, Eastern China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yu, Bin; Lin, Xian-Dan; Kong, De-Guang; Wang, Jian; Tian, Jun-Hua; Li, Ming-Hui; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    In 2014, 20 dengue cases were reported in the cities of Wenzhou (5 cases) and Wuhan (15 cases), China, where dengue has rarely been reported. Dengue virus 1 was detected in 4 patients. Although most of these cases were likely imported, epidemiologic analysis provided evidence for autochthonous transmission.

  10. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  11. Geomorphologic and geologic overview for water resources development: Kharit basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Sayed

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic assessment as an efficient approach for water resources development in the Kharit watershed. Kharit is one of largest watersheds in the Eastern Desert that lacks water for agricultural and drinking purposes, for the nomadic communities. This study aims to identify and evaluate the geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in the Kharit watershed relative to water resource development using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results reveal that the watershed contains 15 sub-basins and morphometric analyses show high probability for flash floods. These hazards can be managed by constructing earth dikes and masonry dams to minimize damage from flash floods and allow recharge of water to shallow groundwater aquifers. The Quaternary deposits and the Nubian sandstone have moderate to high infiltration rates and are relatively well drained, facilitating surface runoff and deep percolation into the underlying units. The sediments cover 54% of the watershed area and have high potential for groundwater extraction.

  12. Particle fluxes in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins: the role of ocean vertical velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Patara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between deep sedimentary fluxes and ocean current vertical velocities in an offshore area of the Ionian Sea, the deepest basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sediment trap data are collected at 500 m and 2800 m depth in two successive moorings covering the period September 1999–May 2001. A tight coupling is observed between the upper and deep traps and the estimated particle sinking rates are more than 200 m day−1. The current vertical velocity field is computed from a 1/16°×1/16° Ocean General Circulation Model simulation and from the wind stress curl. Current vertical velocities are larger and more variable than Ekman vertical velocities, yet the general patterns are alike. Current vertical velocities are generally smaller than 1 m day−1: we therefore exclude a direct effect of downward velocities in determining high sedimentation rates. However we find that upward velocities in the subsurface layers of the water column are positively correlated with deep particle fluxes. We thus hypothesize that upwelling would produce an increase in upper ocean nutrient levels – thus stimulating primary production and grazing – a few weeks before an enhanced vertical flux is found in the sediment traps. High particle sedimentation rates may be attained by means of rapidly sinking fecal pellets produced by gelatinous macro-zooplankton. Other sedimentation mechanisms, such as dust deposition, are also considered in explaining large pulses of deep particle fluxes. The fast sinking rates estimated in this study might be an evidence of the efficiency of the biological pump in sequestering organic carbon from the surface layers of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins.

  13. The Winter Cooling Trend in Eastern China during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus Period and Its Possible Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Li, S.; Luo, F.; Han, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The authors analyzed the observed winter surface air temperature in eastern mainland China during the recent global warming hiatus period through 1998-2013. The results suggest a substantial cooling trend of about -1.0°/decade in Eastern China, Northeast China and Southeast China. Mechanism exploration indicates that the displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet and the associated Rossby wave may have contributed to the cooling trend. A southward shift of the East Asian polar together with a northward shift of the subtropical jet caused the enhancement of the northern East Asian trough and Siberian High. A diagnostic analysis suggests that the Arctic sea ice loss, ENSO and North Atlantic SST all play a role. With the three factors removed, the air temperature trend is -0.35, -0.08 and -0.44°/decade over East China, Northeast China and Southeast China, respectively.

  14. Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jesse A; Fung, Inez; Liu, Weihan

    2018-02-27

    The topography and continental configuration of East Asia favor the year-round existence of storm tracks that extend thousands of kilometers from China into the northwestern Pacific Ocean, producing zonally elongated patterns of rainfall that we call "frontal rain events." In spring and early summer (known as "Meiyu Season"), frontal rainfall intensifies and shifts northward during a series of stages collectively known as the East Asian summer monsoon. Using a technique called the Frontal Rain Event Detection Algorithm, we create a daily catalog of all frontal rain events in east China during 1951-2007, quantify their attributes, and classify all rainfall on each day as either frontal, resulting from large-scale convergence, or nonfrontal, produced by local buoyancy, topography, or typhoons. Our climatology shows that the East Asian summer monsoon consists of a series of coupled changes in frontal rain event frequency, latitude, and daily accumulation. Furthermore, decadal changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall in east China are overwhelmingly due to changes in frontal rainfall. We attribute the "South Flood-North Drought" pattern observed beginning in the 1980s to changes in the frequency of frontal rain events, while the years 1994-2007 witnessed an uptick in event daily accumulation relative to the rest of the study years. This particular signature may reflect the relative impacts of global warming, aerosol loading, and natural variability on regional rainfall, potentially via shifting the East Asian jet stream.

  15. Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jesse A.; Fung, Inez; Liu, Weihan

    2018-03-01

    The topography and continental configuration of East Asia favor the year-round existence of storm tracks that extend thousands of kilometers from China into the northwestern Pacific Ocean, producing zonally elongated patterns of rainfall that we call “frontal rain events.” In spring and early summer (known as “Meiyu Season”), frontal rainfall intensifies and shifts northward during a series of stages collectively known as the East Asian summer monsoon. Using a technique called the Frontal Rain Event Detection Algorithm, we create a daily catalog of all frontal rain events in east China during 1951–2007, quantify their attributes, and classify all rainfall on each day as either frontal, resulting from large-scale convergence, or nonfrontal, produced by local buoyancy, topography, or typhoons. Our climatology shows that the East Asian summer monsoon consists of a series of coupled changes in frontal rain event frequency, latitude, and daily accumulation. Furthermore, decadal changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall in east China are overwhelmingly due to changes in frontal rainfall. We attribute the “South Flood–North Drought” pattern observed beginning in the 1980s to changes in the frequency of frontal rain events, while the years 1994–2007 witnessed an uptick in event daily accumulation relative to the rest of the study years. This particular signature may reflect the relative impacts of global warming, aerosol loading, and natural variability on regional rainfall, potentially via shifting the East Asian jet stream.

  16. Discovery of the Earliest Synthetic Carborundum (SiC in Neolithic Jade Artifacts in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy we have successfully identified, for the first time, synthetic silicon carbide (carborundum particles in 15 unearthed relics and assorted remains from five out of six Neolithic sites (~4000 - 7000 years b.p. in Eastern China. Because of its extreme hardness, silicon carbide was apparently employed in the manufacture of ancient jade artifacts presumably as an abrasive for polishing. We show that Neolithic people may have already used this synthetic material to carve and polish both jade and quartz artifacts, contributing to the blooming development of the jade culture throughout ancient China.

  17. How Do Aerosol Properties Affect the Temporal Variation of MODIS AOD Bias in Eastern China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid changes of aerosol sources in eastern China during recent decades could bring considerable uncertainties for satellite retrieval algorithms that assume little spatiotemporal variation in aerosol single scattering properties (such as single scattering albedo (SSA and the size distribution for fine-mode and coarse mode aerosols in East Asia. Here, using ground-based observations in six AERONET sites, we characterize typical aerosol optical properties (including their spatiotemporal variation in eastern China, and evaluate their impacts on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 6 aerosol retrieval bias. Both the SSA and fine-mode particle sizes increase from northern to southern China in winter, reflecting the effect of relative humidity on particle size. The SSA is ~0.95 in summer regardless of the AEROENT stations in eastern China, but decreases to 0.85 in polluted winter in northern China. The dominance of larger and highly scattering fine-mode particles in summer also leads to the weakest phase function in the backscattering direction. By focusing on the analysis of high aerosol optical depth (AOD (>0.4 conditions, we find that the overestimation of the AOD in Dark Target (DT retrieval is prevalent throughout the whole year, with the bias decreasing from northern China, characterized by a mixture of fine and coarse (dust particles, to southern China, which is dominated by fine particles. In contrast, Deep Blue (DB retrieval tends to overestimate the AOD only in fall and winter, and underestimates it in spring and summer. While the retrievals from both the DT and DB algorithms show a reasonable estimation of the fine-mode fraction of AOD, the retrieval bias cannot be attributed to the bias in the prescribed SSA alone, and is more due to the bias in the prescribed scattering phase function (or aerosol size distribution in both algorithms. In addition, a large yearly change in aerosol single scattering properties

  18. Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Z

    2003-10-01

    The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM.

  19. [Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Precipitation and Its Water Vapor Sources in Eastern Qaidam Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-jia; Chen, Hui; Gong, Guo-li

    2015-08-01

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used as a tracer to analyze water vapor sources of atmospheric precipitation. We choose Golmud and Delingha as our study areas, Golmud locates in the south of Qaidam basin, and Delingha locates in the northeast. Based on the analysis of monthly change of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of precipitation during June to September of 2010, and the relationship between deltaD and delta18O in precipitation, we investigated the water vapor sources of precipitation in eastern Qaidam basin. The results show that: (1) meteoric water line between June to September in Golmud is: deltaD = 7.840 delta18O - 4.566 (R2 = 0.918, P isotopes. However, the delta18O content of precipitation becomes lower from late July to early September, especially for the late September. The 8180 content of precipitation in Delingha is higher in June to August than that in late September. (3) the water vapor sources of precipitation in Golmud and Delingha are different, Golmud area is the northern border of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where the southwest monsoon can reach, and the southwest monsoon brings water vapors of precipitation, but the water vapors of precipitation in Delingha are mainly from local evaporation.

  20. Sequence stratigraphy, basin dynamics, and petroleum geology of the Miocene from eastern Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedir, M. [Campus Universitaire, Tunis (Tunisia)]|[Unite des Ressources Naturelles et Environnement, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Tlig, S. [Campus Universitaire, Tunis (Tunisia); Bobier, C. [Universite Bordeaux, Talence (France)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    On the eastern margin of Tunisia, Miocene limestones, marl, and siliciclastic deposits crop out poorly and are lacking in age-diagnostic faunal content. The biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic subdivisions of these series are not clearly defined. A regional study of subsurface sequences of this margin (Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet, and Sahel) by means of sequence stratigraphy and subsurface structural analyses permits the identification of seven third-order sedimentary sequences of inferred Langhian to Messinian age, the boundaries of which are characterized by downlap and onlap/toplap relationships. These sequences include turbidites, sands, and sandstones deposited in connection with eustatic sea level changes and tectonic movements of east-west and south-north deep-seated faults due to the Alpine and Atlassic paroxysm. Stratal sequences are organized around Miocene syndepositional grabens, half-grabens, platforms, and folds occurring inside and outside of regional tectonic corridors. The geodynamic evolution of Miocene basins has led to the deposition of turbiditic black argillaceous source rocks, and sandstone and carbonate reservoirs that present new Miocene petroleum targets. The basin subsidence in response to the Alpine/Atlassic orogeny has permitted the maturation of Miocene source rocks, oil generation, and the formation of oil traps, stratigraphic pinch-outs, and structural enclosures on the flanks of folds and on the borders of grabens.

  1. Thermal-Mechanical Regime beneath Tarim Basin, Northwestern China and its Implications for Cenozoic Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Wang, L.

    2005-12-01

    As one of the super-large scale sedimentary basins in China, the Tarim basin is also the strategic basement for Chinese `Natural gas transportation from west to east' project. To know its thermal regime is vital for understanding the deformation and oil gas resource in Tarim basin. Integrated the abundant data of geotemperature and rock thermophysical parameters collected and measured in the basin with corresponding geothermal modeling, here we present the characteristics of geotemperature field, thermal evolution and lithospheric thermo-rheological structure of the Tarim basin, along with the implications for formation and deformation of basin and hydrocarbon reservoir. Our results show that the average present-day heat flow of the basin is about 45 mW/m2 and 18-20°/km for geotemperature gradient, respectively. The basin is characterized by lower temperature in a whole. Lateral heterogeneities exist for the distribution of geotemperature field in the basin. The structural units of basin differ much in the geothermal features; generally, the depression areas are of relatively low geotemperature while high for those uplifts and highs in the basin. Thermal evolution modeling of the basin indicated that it has experienced four different phases since basin formation as follows: high heat flow phase from Sinian to Ordovician, thermal attenuation phase during Silurian to late Paleozoic, then stable thermal evolution phase in Mesozoic, and flexural deformation of lithosphere in Cenozoic. The thickness of the thermal lithosphere of basin is 168-192 km, and 25-28km for the crustal brittle-ductile transition depth; the total lithospheric strength is 1.6-7.8*10**13 N/m. The lithosphere beneath basin is characterized by the rigid block with low temperature but large strength, and deform in a whole. Responded to the far field effect of the Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision, the lithosphere beneath Tarim basin is characterized by flexure deformation, resulting in the intensive

  2. Late Devonian glacigenic and associated facies from the central Appalachian Basin, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.

    2010-01-01

    Late Devonian strata in the eastern United States are generally considered as having been deposited under warm tropical conditions. However, a stratigraphically restricted Late Devonian succession of diamictite- mudstonesandstone within the Spechty Kopf and Rockwell Formations that extends for more than 400 km along depositional strike within the central Appalachian Basin may indicate other wise. This lithologic association unconformably overlies the Catskill Formation, where a 3- to 5-m-thick interval of deformed strata occurs immediately below the diamictite strata. The diamictite facies consists of several subfacies that are interpreted to be subglacial, englacial, supraglacial meltout, and resedimented deposits. The mudstone facies that overlies the diamictite consists of subfacies of chaotically bedded, clast-poor mudstone, and laminated mudstone sub facies that represent subaqueous proximal debris flows and distal glaciolacustrine rhythmites or varvites, respectively. The pebbly sandstone facies is interpreted as proglacial braided outwash deposits that both preceded glacial advance and followed glacial retreat. Both the tectonic and depositional frameworks suggest that the facies were deposited in a terrestrial setting within the Appalachian foreland basin during a single glacial advance and retreat. Regionally, areas that were not covered by ice were subject to increased rainfall as indicated by wet-climate paleosols. River systems eroded deeper channels in response to sea-level drop during glacial advance. Marine facies to the west contain iceborne dropstone boulders preserved within contemporaneous units of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale.The stratigraphic interval correlative with sea-level drop, climate change, and glacigenic succession represents one of the Appalachian Basin's most prolific oil-and gas-producing intervals and is contemporaneous with a global episode of sea-level drop responsible for the deposition of the Hangenberg Shale

  3. Attribution of Anthropogenic Influence on Atmospheric Patterns Conducive to Recent Most Severe Haze Over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Cai, Wenju; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Severe haze pollution in eastern China has caused substantial health impacts and economic loss. Conducive atmospheric conditions are important to affect occurrence of severe haze events, and circulation changes induced by future global climate warming are projected to increase the frequency of such events. However, a potential contribution of an anthropogenic influence to recent most severe haze (December 2015 and January 2013) over eastern China remains unclear. Here we show that the anthropogenic influence, which is estimated by using large ensemble runs with a climate model forced with and without anthropogenic forcings, has already increased the probability of the atmospheric patterns conducive to severe haze by at least 45% in January 2013 and 27% in December 2015, respectively. We further confirm that simulated atmospheric circulation pattern changes induced by anthropogenic influence are driven mainly by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Our results suggest that more strict reductions in pollutant emissions are needed under future anthropogenic warming.

  4. Sensitivity of SWAT simulated streamflow to climatic changes within the Eastern Nile River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, D. T.; Sorteberg, A.

    2012-02-01

    The hydrological model SWAT was run with daily station based precipitation and temperature data for the whole Eastern Nile basin including the three subbasins: the Abbay (Blue Nile), BaroAkobo and Tekeze. The daily and monthly streamflows were calibrated and validated at six outlets with station-based streamflow data in the three different subbasins. The model performed very well in simulating the monthly variability while the validation against daily data revealed a more diverse performance. The simulations indicated that around 60% of the average annual rainfalls of the subbasins were lost through evaporation while the estimated runoff coefficients were 0.24, 0.30 and 0.18 for Abbay, BaroAkobo and Tekeze subbasins, respectively. About half to two-thirds of the runoff could be attributed to surface runoff while the other contributions came from groundwater. Twenty hypothetical climate change scenarios (perturbed temperatures and precipitation) were conducted to test the sensitivity of SWAT simulated annual streamflow. The result revealed that the annual streamflow sensitivity to changes in precipitation and temperature differed among the basins and the dependence of the response on the strength of the changes was not linear. On average the annual streamflow responses to a change in precipitation with no temperature change were 19%, 17%, and 26% per 10% change in precipitation while the average annual streamflow responses to a change in temperature and no precipitation change were -4.4% K-1, -6.4% K-1, and -1.3% K-1 for Abbay, BaroAkobo and Tekeze river basins, respectively. 47 temperature and precipitation scenarios from 19 AOGCMs participating inCMIP3 were used to estimate future changes in streamflow due to climate changes. The climate models disagreed on both the strength and the direction of future precipitation changes. Thus, no clear conclusions could be made about future changes in the Eastern Nile streamflow. However, such types of assessment are important

  5. Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA and component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA, were applied to explore the surface water quality datasets including 14 parameters at 28 sites of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China, from January 2012 to April 2015, characterize spatiotemporal variation in pollution and identify potential pollution sources. The 28 sampling stations were divided into two periods (wet season and dry season and two regions (low pollution and high pollution, respectively, using hierarchical CA method. Four parameters (temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N, and total nitrogen (TN were identified using DA to distinguish temporal groups with close to 97.86% correct assignations. Again using DA, five parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, TN, Fluoride (F, and Sulphide (S led to 93.75% correct assignations for distinguishing spatial groups. Five potential pollution sources including nutrients pollution, oxygen consuming organic pollution, fluorine chemical pollution, heavy metals pollution and natural pollution, were identified using PCA/FA techniques for both the low pollution region and the high pollution region. Heavy metals (Cuprum (Cu, chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn, fluoride and sulfide are of particular concern in the study region because of many open-pit copper mines such as Dexing Copper Mine. Results obtained from this study offer a reasonable classification scheme for low-cost monitoring networks. The results also inform understanding of spatio-temporal variation in water quality as these topics relate to water resources management.

  6. The Mesozoic Tectonic Dynamics and Chronology in the Eastern North China Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlin Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesozoic tectonic events in different areas of the eastern North China Block (NCB show consistency in tectonic time and genesis. The Triassic collision between NCB and Yangtze results in the nearly S-N strong compression in the Dabie, Jiaodong, and west Shandong areas in Middle Triassic-Middle Jurassic. Compression in the Yanshan area in the north part of NCB was mainly affected by the collision between Mongolia Block and NCB, as well as Siberia Block and North China-Mongolia Block in Late Triassic-Late Jurassic. However, in the eastern NCB, compressive tectonic system in Early Mesozoic was inversed into extensional tectonic system in Late Mesozoic. The extension in Late Mesozoic at upper crust mainly exhibits as extensional detachment faults and metamorphic core complex (MCC. The deformation age of extensional detachment faults is peaking at 120–110 Ma in Yanshan area and at 130–110 Ma in the Dabie area. In the Jiaodong area eastern to the Tan-Lu faults, the compression thrust had been continuing to Late Mesozoic at least in upper crust related to the sinistral strike slipping of the Tan-Lu fault zone.The extensional detachments in the eastern NCB would be caused by strong crust-mantle action with upwelling mantle in Late Mesozoic.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.

    2015-11-10

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, water samples were collected from 4 production wells and 4 domestic wells in the Chemung River Basin, 8 production wells and 7 domestic wells in the Eastern Lake Ontario Basin, and 12 production wells and 13 domestic wells in the Lower Hudson River Basin (south of the Federal Lock and Dam at Troy) in New York. All samples were collected in June, July, and August 2013 to characterize groundwater quality in these basins. The samples were collected and processed using standard USGS procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  8. Cretaceous sedimentation in the outer Eastern Carpathians: Implications for the facies model reconstruction of the Moldavide Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roban, R. D.; Krézsek, C.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The mid Cretaceous is characterized by high eustatic sea-levels with widespread oxic conditions that made possible the occurrence of globally correlated Oceanic Red Beds. However, very often, these eustatic signals have been overprinted by local tectonics, which in turn resulted in Lower Cretaceous closed and anoxic basins, as in the Eastern Carpathians. There, the black shale to red bed transition occurs in the latest Albian up to the early Cenomanian. Although earlier studies discussed the large-scale basin configuration, no detailed petrography and sedimentology study has been performed in the Eastern Carpathians. This paper describes the Hauterivian to Turonian lithofacies and interprets the depositional settings based on their sedimentological features. The studied sections crop out only in tectonic half windows of the Eastern Carpathians, part of the Vrancea Nappe. The lithofacies comprises black shales interbedded with siderites and sandstones, calcarenites, marls, radiolarites and red shales. The siliciclastic muddy lithofacies in general reflects accumulation by suspension settling of pelagites and hemipelagites in anoxic (black shale) to dysoxic (dark gray and gray to green shales) and oxic (red shales) conditions. The radiolarites alternate with siliceous shales and are considered as evidence of climate changes. The sandstones represent mostly low and high-density turbidite currents in deep-marine lobes, as well as channel/levee systems. The source area is an eastern one, e.g., the Eastern Carpathians Foreland, given the abundance of low grade metamorphic clasts. The Hauterivian - lower Albian sediments are interpreted as deep-marine, linear and multiple sourced mud dominated systems deposited in a mainly anoxic to dysoxic basin. The anoxic conditions existed in the early to late Albian, but sedimentation changed to a higher energy mud/sand-dominated submarine channels and levees. This coarsening upwards tendency is interpreted as the effect of the

  9. Multifractal filtering methods to investigate tectono-magmatic framework in the Eastern Tianshan mineral district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiuming; Wang, Wenlei

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Tianshan district is a critical Cu-polymetallic mineralization zone in China. Influenced by the northward plate subduction, geological framework generally extends along the EW direction, dominated by which spatial distributions of volcanic activities, volcanic sediments and granitic intrusions are EW oriented as well. Gravity data sensitive to mass variations of earth crust are often employed to detect and recognize buried geological bodies (e.g., ore bodies, buried intrusions, faults, etc.). Fault traces as products of complex and cascade geological processes possess self-similarity, anisotropy and other fractal/multifractal characters. Multifractal theories and methods are, therefore, appropriate to analyze faults and investigate their causative geological processes. In addition, mineral exploration in this area is frequently impeded by Gobi-desert coverage, since geo-information of interests will become weak, missing and/or inadequate. Many of former studies had demonstrated that fractal/multifractal approaches are efficient tools to explore complicated geological events. Especially in shallow covered areas, weak geo-information can be enhanced significantly. This study applies a multifractal filtering method to gravity and geochemical data, which is objective to identify Fe-Cu-Au mineralization related faulted structures. The multifractal filter, spectrum-area (S-A) model is currently employed to characterize anisotropic properties of geological framework in the study area. According to the filtered anomaly and background patterns, mineralized districts can mostly be targeted along the faulted zones and around the intermediate-felsic intrusive rocks in the Aqishan-Yamansu volcanic basin. Nevertheless, the jointly used upward continuation and vertical derivation cannot achieve patterns as the S-A filter due to the scale variance of the model. The S-A model defined based on the self-similarity and scale invariance of their corresponding sections on

  10. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  11. The role of social capital for farmers’ climate change adaptation in Lancang River basin in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Li, Hao; Parks, Moon; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between bridging and bonding social capital to assess their roles for individual farmers’ adaptation strategies taken through technology adoption. Based on primary data collected in Langcang River (LCR) basin area in southwestern China, the paper finds: (1) adaptation

  12. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  13. Technical status and challenges of shale gas development in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli Liu

    2015-03-01

    This paper begins with the introduction of shale gas reserve distribution in China and the identified shale gas formation in Sichuan Basin. The following paper reviews the methodology employed in the geophysical prospecting, drilling and completion, and hydraulic fracturing process. Since China is in the early stage of shale gas development, there is a great technical gap between China and North America. Based on literature review, the major challenges faced in the exploration and production process are identified. What presented in this paper should be of particular interest to the personnels involved in shale gas production in China and countries that are about to set foot in shale gas business. It will also be of interest to researchers who are dedicated to developing these technologies to unlock unconventional gas resources in China.

  14. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  15. The surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, N.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.

    2003-04-01

    The POEM-schema of the Atlantic Water (AW, http://ciesm.org/events/RT5-WaterMassAcronyms.pdf) circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea widely referred to nowadays (Robinson et al., 1991, completed by Robinson and Golnaraghi, 1993, and by Malanotte-Rizzoli et al., 1997) represents, in particular, a jet meandering offshore across the whole basin. No information is given on the southern part of the basin and no mention is made of a possible overall alongslope anticlockwise flow there, as suggested by a contemporaneous analysis of infrared satellite images (Le Vourch et al., 1992; Millot, 1992). A roughly similar controversy was elucidated in the western basin where such imagery was proven reliable. This has motivated the detailed analysis of daily and weekly composite images (about 1000) during the period 1996-2000, and of monthly composites available since 1985. Our analysis shows that AW circulates alongslope and anticlockwise around the whole basin, as indicated by Nielsen (1912) who considered the Coriolis effect as dominant. This circulation, which is permanent from Tunisia to Turkey, exists more or less temporarily in the Aegean, in the Ionian around Greece and in the Adriatic, due to the Etesians. However, a branch having spread for years (up to early 1998) from the channel of Sicily towards the northern Ionian before vanishing represents marked interannual (not seasonal) variability. Being unstable during most of its circuit, the AW flow generates mesoscale eddies which had not been correctly described before and which represent a relatively large amount of AW. Other eddies are known to be generated by orographic effects on the wind field, especially the Etesians. Both kinds of eddies play a fundamental role in spreading AW from alongslope towards the open basin. Although these eddies have characteristics almost specific to each subbasin and/or generation mechanism, the largest ones are anticyclonic, both kinds reach diameters of a few 100s km

  16. Examining how land surface effects modulate rainfall in the eastern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, D.; Cohen, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Amazon, it is important to apportion rainfall by storm type. In the eastern Amazon (approximately from Belém to Santarém) rainfall associated with large instability lines produces nearly half of the total, and this is complemented by that produced by rainfall from local convective systems. Our recent observational studies in the indicate that the relative importance of the nocturnal squall lines is exaggerated if one relies solely on data from the climate stations along the Amazon River channel. River breezes inhibit convective rainfall near the main channel, but in some areas river proximity effects lead to enhanced nocturnal rainfall of squall origin. Moreover, enhanced rainfall to the north of the Amazon main channel could be the result of orographic uplift. In this study we complement a limited climatological study of instability lines with two mesoscale model (Brazilian version of RAMS, B-RAMS) case studies to examine the effects of topography and river proximity on rain producing mechanisms in the eastern Amazon Basin. Two numerical experiments were done to examine the relative importance of these two rain-producing mechanisms in the region. In each, three nested grids were used. Results from the prototype simulation for the propagating squall line were compared with GOES images, NCEP reanalyses, and data from the LBA-ECO surface station network near Santarém (approximately 55°W). In this case we also examined the role of topography on squall line development by performing a sensitivity test of the case study squall development with and without topography. The locally-dominated convection study was based on a case of slack easterlies during cold frontal penetration into the western Amazon region.

  17. Regional frequency analysis of observed sub-daily rainfall maxima over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hemin; Wang, Guojie; Li, Xiucang; Chen, Jing; Su, Buda; Jiang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Based on hourly rainfall observational data from 442 stations during 1960-2014, a regional frequency analysis of the annual maxima (AM) sub-daily rainfall series (1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h rainfall, using a moving window approach) for eastern China was conducted. Eastern China was divided into 13 homogeneous regions: Northeast (NE1, NE2), Central (C), Central North (CN1, CN2), Central East (CE1, CE2, CE3), Southeast (SE1, SE2, SE3, SE4), and Southwest (SW). The generalized extreme value performed best for the AM series in regions NE, C, CN2, CE1, CE2, SE2, and SW, and the generalized logistic distribution was appropriate in the other regions. Maximum return levels were in the SE4 region, with value ranges of 80-270 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) and 108-390 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) for 20- and 100 yr, respectively. Minimum return levels were in the CN1 and NE1 regions, with values of 37-104 mm and 53-140 mm for 20 and 100 yr, respectively. Comparing return levels using the optimal and commonly used Pearson-III distribution, the mean return-level differences in eastern China for 1-24-h rainfall varied from -3-4 mm to -23-11 mm (-10%-10%) for 20-yr events, reaching -6-26 mm (-10%-30%) and -10-133 mm (-10%-90%) for 100-yr events. In view of the large differences in estimated return levels, more attention should be given to frequency analysis of sub-daily rainfall over China, for improved water management and disaster reduction.

  18. Household catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China: determinants and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Jay J; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2013-12-05

    Much of research on household catastrophic medical expenses in China has focused on less developed areas and little is known about this problem in more developed areas. This study aimed to analyse the incidence and determinants of catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China. Data were obtained from a health care utilization and expense survey of 11,577 households conducted in eastern China in 2008. The incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses was calculated using the method introduced by the World Health Organization. A multi-level logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants. The incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China ranged from 9.24% to 24.79%. Incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses was lower if the head of household had a higher level of education, labor insurance coverage, while the incidence was higher if they lived in rural areas, had a family member with chronic diseases, had a child younger than 5 years old, had a person at home who was at least 65 years old, and had a household member who was hospitalized. Moreover, the impact of the economic level on catastrophic medical expenses was non-linear. The poorest group had a lower incidence than that of the second lowest income group and the group with the highest income had a higher incidence than that of the second highest income group. In addition, region was a significant determinant. Reducing the incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses should be one of the priorities of health policy. It can be achieved by improving residents' health status to reduce avoidable health services such as hospitalization. It is also important to design more targeted health insurance in order to increase financial support for such vulnerable groups as the poor, chronically ill, children, and senior populations.

  19. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean- New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Chaubey, A.K.; Mishra, A.; Kumar, S.; Rajawat, A.S.

    sediments. We use high-resolution satellite-generated gravity and seismic reflection data to map boundaries of pseudofaults and transferred crust related to the Paleocene spreading ridge propagation in the Arabian and its conjugate Eastern Somali basins...

  20. Annual distributions and variations of dust weather occurrence over the Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Minzhong; Huo, Wen; Huang, Anning; Yang, Xinhua; Yang, Fan

    2018-04-01

    The annual distribution and variations in dust weather occurrence (DWO) have been analyzed using monthly DWO data from 26 stations over the Tarim Basin during the period of 1961 to 2010. The results show that the DWO presents a significant decreasing trend for different parts of the Tarim Basin in recent decades. The monthly DWO has two peaks in the east and west. In the first half of the year, the peak is in April, but in the second half of the year, the peak is in September. According to the concentration period and concentration degree (CD) of DWO, we can find that the maximum DWO occurs in April in the eastern, western, and northern parts of the basin, but it occurs in May in the southern part. The dust weather season is shorter for the northern and eastern parts of the basin than those of the remaining parts. On average, the dust weather season initiates in April in the northeast and in May for the rest of the region. As an indicator for the length of dust weather season, the CD is significantly related to DWO, with a correlation coefficient of -0.51, revealing an interesting feature of regional climate change with declining DWO and declining dust weather season over the Tarim Basin. The correlation analysis exhibits that all the Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, and North Atlantic Oscillation have a negative relation with the DWO but a positive relation with the length of dust weather season.

  1. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    2015-04-01

    Besides, during the Late Mesozoic, a huge terrestrial biota, mainly dinosaur fauna, dominated in North China. The Yanliao biota of the Middle–Late Jurassic and the Jehol biota of the Early Cretaceous are characterized by feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, mammals, pterosaur, insects and plants (angiosperms. In northeastern Asia, this Late Mesozoic tectonic background , palaeogeoraphy and palaeoecology were shared by East China, Korean Peninsula, Japan and the Far East of Russia.

  2. Detecting Changes in Precipitation Extremes in China and Their Connections With the Sea Surface Temperature of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, P.; Xie, Z.

    2016-12-01

    To detect the frequency and intensity of precipitation extremes in China for the middle 21st century, simulations were conducted with the regional climate model RegCM4 forced by the global climate model GFDL_ESM2M under the middle emission scenario (RCP4.5). Compared with observed precipitation extremes for the reference period from 1982 to 2001, RegCM4 generally performed better in most river basins of China relative to GFDL. In the future period 2032-2051, more wet extremes will occur relative to the present period in most study areas, especially in southeast China while significantly less dry extremes will occur in arid and semiarid areas in northwest China. In contrast, areas in northwest China showed an increase in the trend of dry extremes (CDD) and a decrease in the trend of wet extremes (R95p and Rx5day), which might result in more drought in the future. Finally, we discuss in detail the possible reason of these processes, such as zonal wind, vertical wind, and water vapor. In the Huaihe river basin (HU), reduced south winds in summer (June-August) and a decrease of the upward vertical p velocity cause less future precipitation and might lead to changes of extreme events. We also completed correlation analysis between the precipitation extreme indices and the climate factors and found that the precipitation extremes were more sensitive to the annual and seasonal mean precipitation, total water vapor, and upward vertical wind relative to the geopotential height and 2 m temperature over most river basins in China. At the end, We investigated the connections between the present precipitation extremes in the dry and wet regions of China and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP; including EI Nio-Southern Oscillation 1.2, 3, and 3.4 regions) based on two sets of observations, 18 CMIP5 models, and nine regional climate models (RCMs), where the results were downscaled by RCM RegCM4.

  3. Characteristics of air pollution in different zones of Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guicai; Wang, Shigong; Ma, Minjin; Ni, Changjian; Shang, Ziwei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Jingxin

    2018-01-15

    Sichuan Basin, located in southwest China, has been ranked as the fourth of heavily air polluted regions in China partly due to its deep mountain-basin topography. However, spatial-temporal distribution of air pollution over the basin is still unclear due to the lack of monitoring data and poor knowledge. Since January 2015, six criteria air pollutants began to be monitored in 20 cities across the basin. The measured data enable us to analyze the basin-wide spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of these air pollutants. Results revealed heavy air pollution in the bottom zone, medium in the slope zone, and light pollution in the edge zone of the Basin in terms of the altitudes of air quality monitoring stations across the Basin. The average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 55.87μg/m 3 and 86.49μg/m 3 in the bottom, 33.76μg/m 3 and 63.33μg/m 3 in the slope, and 19.71μg/m 3 and 35.06μg/m 3 in the edge, respectively. In the bottom and slope of the basin, high PM 2.5 concentration events occurred most frequently in winter . While in summer, ozone became primary pollutant. Among the six air pollutants, concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 decrease dramatically with increasing altitude which was fitted by a nonlinear relationship between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and altitude. This relationship was validated by extinction coefficient profiles from CALIPSO observations and EV-lidar data, and hence used to reflect vertical distribution of air PM concentrations. It has been found that the thickness of higher PM concentrations is less than 500m in the basin. In the bottom of the basin, PM concentrations exhibited stronger horizontal homogeneities as compared with those in the North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta. However, gaseous pollutants seemed not to show clear relationships between their concentrations and altitudes in the basin. Their horizontal homogeneities were less significant compared to PM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. The development of a Triassic fold-thrust belt in a synclinal depositional system, Bowen Basin (eastern Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Sliwa, Renate; Esterle, Joan; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    A synclinal depositional system in eastern Australia (Taroom Trough, Bowen Basin) was affected by folds and thrusts, but the structural style associated with this deformation is not fully understood. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and 2-D seismic reflection data, we conducted a structural analysis that unravels the geometry and kinematics of major thrust faults in the eastern-central part of the Taroom Trough. Major structures are the east dipping Cockatoo, Miles, and Taroom faults and west dipping Burunga and Glebe faults. Our results show that west dipping thrusts have a listric geometry that produced gentle hanging-wall anticlines. A north striking gentle symmetric syncline and anticline pair is also observed to the west of the Burunga Fault. These observations indicate that the deformation in the central Taroom Trough was controlled by décollements in the basement rocks. The décollements and resultant structures were likely developed in response to mild contraction of the synclinal depositional system during the last phase of the Permian-Triassic Hunter-Bowen Orogeny (HBO). The last phase of the HBO also resulted in the reactivation of preexisting east dipping Cockatoo and Miles faults. The bulk longitudinal strain, however, in the eastern-central Bowen Basin was low ( 2.8% shortening), with the deformation restricted to a relatively narrow zone. In contrast, deformation in the northern Bowen Basin was distributed in a wider fold-thrust belt that accommodated a higher amount of strain. This change in the pattern of deformation along the eastern part of the Bowen Basin could possibly be explained by along-strike variations in the rates of trench advance.

  5. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

    2014-05-01

    The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon

  6. Adaptive Fusion of Information for Seeing into Ordos Basin, China: A China-Germany-US Joint Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Yin, L.; Sauter, M.; Hu, R.; Ptak, T.; Hou, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive fusion of information for seeing into geological basins is the theme of this joint venture. The objective of this venture is to initiate possible collaborations between scientists from China, Germany, and US to develop innovative technologies, which can be utilized to characterize geological and hydrological structures and processes as well as other natural resources in regional scale geological basins of hundreds of thousands of kilometers (i.e., the Ordos Basin, China). This adaptive fusion of information aims to assimilate active (manmade) and passive (natural) hydrologic and geophysical tomography surveys to enhance our ability of seeing into hydrogeological basins at the resolutions of our interests. The active hydrogeophysical tomography refers to recently developed hydraulic tomgoraphic surveys by Chinese and German scientists, as well as well-established geophysical tomography surveys (such as electrical resistivity tomography, cross-borehole radars, electrical magnetic surveys). These active hydrogeophysical tomgoraphic surveys have been proven to be useful high-resolution surveys for geological media of tens and hundreds of meters wide and deep. For basin-scale (i.e., tens and hundreds of kilometers) problems, their applicabilities are however rather limited. The passive hydrogeophysical tomography refers to unexplored technologies that exploit natural stimuli as energy sources for tomographic surveys, which include direct lightning strikes, groundwater level fluctuations due to earthquakes, river stage fluctuations, precipitation storms, barometric pressure variations, and long term climate changes. These natural stimuli are spatially varying, recurrent, and powerful, influencing geological media over great distances and depths (e.g., tens and hundreds of kilometers). Monitoring hydrological and geophysical responses of geological media to these stimuli at different locations is tantamount to collecting data of naturally occurring tomographic

  7. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  8. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  9. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jingjing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  10. An appraisal of the Permian palaeobiodiversity and geology of the Ib-River Basin, eastern coastal area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Saxena, Anju; Singh, Kamal Jeet; Chandra, Shaila; Cleal, Christopher J.

    2018-05-01

    The Ib-River Basin situated in the east coastal area of India, in Odisha State is a south-eastern part of the Mahanadi Master Basin. A large number of plant macrofossils belonging to the Glossopteris flora were described and documented between 2006 and 2010 from various localities of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations of this basin. The floral components representing leaves, roots and fructifications in these assemblages belong to the Lycopodiales, Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Cordaitales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Glossopteridales. In the present study, all the available data pertaining to the biological remains, petrological analyses as well as the geology of this basin are reviewed and analyzed to deduce and reconstruct the biostratigraphy, palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironment and the landscape of this basin during Permian time in general and during the deposition of Barakar (Artinskian - Kungurian) and Lower Kamthi (Lopingian) formations in particular. The floral composition suggests the prevalence of a temperate climate with a slight change from warm moist to warm dry conditions during the deposition of the Barakar Formation and warm and humid during the deposition of Lower Kamthi sediments. Distribution of various plant groups in the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations have been shown to depict the biodiversity trends. Vegetational reconstructions during the deposition of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations around the Ib-River Basin have also been attempted based on all the fossil records from this area. The status of unclassified Barakar and Kamthi formations has been redefined. Apart from megafloristics, the palynology of the basin is also discussed. Possible marine incursions and marine marginal environment in the Ib-Basin during Permian are overtly summarized on the basis of records of acritarchs, typical marine ichnofossils and evidences of wave activity in Lower Gondwana sediments of this Basin.

  11. Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lynne S.

    2008-09-01

    As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian conditions. The study area was stratified by ecoregion and stream physical characteristics to partition regional variability. Three primary data sources—General Land Office survey notes, historical photographs, and written accounts—provided descriptive records, which were grouped by topic to develop common riparian attributes. The number of records for each attribute was tallied by stratum to compare and contrast riparian structure and composition across strata and ecoregions. Detailed descriptions of historical riparian conditions using the original documentary records further illustrated the unique riparian conditions in each stratum. Similarities and differences in historical riparian structure and composition at the stratum and ecoregion levels were evident based on the distributional pattern and numbers of records of attributes across strata. A high number of repeated observations within and among primary data sources helped to corroborate descriptive data. Although these reference data cannot provide the detail needed for rigorous quantitative assessments, they do describe a range of conditions approaching a minimally disturbed condition and provide an important perspective for conducting riparian assessments in highly disturbed regions where least-disturbed reference sites are often poor examples of a desired condition.

  12. The Callovo-Oxfordian argilites from the eastern Paris Basin: Magnetic data and petro-fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, L.; Bouchez, J.L.; Esteban, L.; Trouiller, A.

    2006-01-01

    A set of regularly spaced specimens, made up of dark-coloured calcareous argilites, were collected from borehole-cores from the Early Callovian up to the Middle Oxfordian, in the eastern Paris Basin. These specimens have been studied for their magnetic susceptibility, natural and artificial remanence, and for their anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. Compared with sulfate, carbonate and iron contents, these magnetic properties provide information on both the nature and the relative amounts of the constitutive minerals. To a first approximation, these data outline the main end-members of these argilites, namely (i) carbonate-enriched and less susceptible, (ii) clay-enriched and more susceptible, and (iii) more remanent and partly due to the silt fraction. The middle of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, called the maximum clay zone, is marked by the highest recorded susceptibility, mainly due to the paramagnetic iron-bearing clay minerals, and by a rather low remanence. The anisotropy of susceptibility provides information on the petro-fabric of mostly the clay fraction. The fabric is highly planar, in agreement with the sub-horizontal preferred orientation of the clay platelets, but the always present linear anisotropy of the argilites, although modest in strength, points to ∼ north-south trending directions throughout most of the formation. These directions agree with the detrital fractions coming from the northern Rhineland, Bohemian and London-Brabant massifs. (authors)

  13. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  14. GIS-based hazard and risk maps of the Douro river basin (north-eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gomes Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Douro river basin, in north-eastern Portugal, is a very complex region in terms of its geomorphological structure and morphodynamics. More specifically, the region – the Port Wine-growing region, a UNESCO heritage site – is a landslide-prone area resulting from several factors intrinsic to the bedrock and its detritic cover, combined with factors capable of triggering slope instability mechanisms, such as intense rainfall and human activities. Recently, due to intense rainfall and human activities, frequent rock and mud slides occurred, some of them catastrophic, killing people and damaging property. In the last decade (2000–2010, an accurate inventory of these catastrophic events was made, showing that these events occurred near local small towns, Peso da Régua (2001, Armamar (2003 and Carrazeda de Ansiães (2007. In this paper, we present a case study using field data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools to evaluate landslide hazard and risk assessment following multicriteria evaluation techniques.

  15. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  16. Investigating the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Human's innovative abilities do not only enable rapid expansion of civilization, but also lead to enormous modifications on the natural environment. Technology, while a key factor embedded in socioeconomic developments, its impacts have been rarely appropriately considered in river basin management. This research aims to examine the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China, and how its characteristics interacted with the river basin environment. It adopts a content analysis approach to collect and summarize quantitative technological information in the Heihe River Basin across a time span of more than 2000 years from the Han Dynasty (206 BC) to 2015. Two Chinese academic research databases: Wan Fang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were chosen as data sources. The results show that irrigated agricultural technologies in Heihe River Basin have shifted from focusing on developing new farming tools and cultivation methods to adapting modernized, water-saving irrigation methods and water diversion infrastructures. In additions, the center of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe river basin has moved from downstream to middle stream since the Ming Dynasty (1368AD) as a result of degraded natural environment. The developing trend of technology in the Heihe River Basin thus coincides with the change of societal focus from agricultural production efficiency to the human-water balance and environmental remediation. This research demonstrates that irrigated agricultural technologies had a twisted evolutionary history in the Heihe River Basin, influenced by a diverse range of environmental and socioeconomic factors. It provides insights into the fact that technology exhibits a co-evolutionary characteristic with the social development history in the region, pointing towards the urgent need to maintain the balance between human and environment.

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of drought on extreme temperature in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Ouyang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Hot extremes may lead to disastrous impacts on human health and agricultural production. Previous studies have revealed the feedback between drought and hot extremes in large regions of eastern China, while quantifying the impact of antecedent drought on hot extremes has been limited. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the risk of extreme temperature conditioned on the antecedent drought condition represented by Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) during summer time in eastern China. A copula-based model is proposed to construct the joint probability distribution of extreme temperature and drought based on 6 month SPI (SPI6). Accordingly, the conditional probability distribution is employed to quantify impacts of antecedent dry (and wet) conditions on the exceedance probability of extreme temperature. Results show that the likelihood of extreme temperature exceeding high quantiles is higher given antecedent dry conditions than that given antecedent wet conditions in large regions from southwestern to northeastern China. Specifically, the conditional probability difference of temperature exceeding 80th percentile given SPI6 lower than or equal to -0.5 and SPI6 higher than 0.5 is around 0.2-0.3. The case study of the 2006 summer hot extremes and drought in Sichuan and Chongqing region shows that the conditional return period of extreme temperature conditioned on antecedent drought is around 5-50 years shorter than univariate return period. These results quantify the impact of antecedent drought on subsequent extreme temperature and highlight the important role of antecedent drought in intensifying hot extremes in these regions.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in arthritis patients in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ai-Ling; Gu, Yuan-Lin; Zhou, Na; Cong, Wei; Li, Guang-Xing; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-10-25

    There is accumulating evidence for an increased susceptibility to infection in patients with arthritis. We sought to understand the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in arthritis patients in eastern China, given the paucity of data on the magnitude of T. gondii infection in these patients. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a crude antigen of the parasite in 820 arthritic patients, and an equal number of healthy controls, from Qingdao and Weihai cities, eastern China. Sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle information on the study participants were also obtained. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG was significantly higher in arthritic patients (18.8%) compared with 12% in healthy controls (P arthritis had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies - comparable with 10 control patients (1.5% vs 1.2%). Demographic factors did not significantly influence these seroprevalence frequencies. The highest T. gondii infection seropositivity rate was detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (24.8%), followed by reactive arthritis (23.8%), osteoarthritis (19%), infectious arthritis (18.4%) and gouty arthritis (14.8%). Seroprevalence rates of rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis were significantly higher when compared with controls (P arthritis patients in China. Implications for better prevention and control of T. gondii infection in arthritis patients are discussed. This is an epidemiological survey, therefore trial registration was not required.

  19. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub-basin

  20. Record of Carcharocles megalodon in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Miocene, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reolid, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortonian diatomites of the San Felix Quarry (Porcuna, in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin, have given isolated marine vertebrate remains that include a large shark tooth (123.96 mm from apex to the baseline of the root. The large size of the crown height (92.2 mm, the triangular shape, the broad serrated crown, the convex lingual face and flat labial face, and the robust, thick angled root determine that this specimen corresponds to Carcharocles megalodon. The symmetry with low slant shows it to be an upper anterior tooth. The total length estimated from the tooth crown height is calculated by means of different methods, and comparison is made with Carcharodon carcharias. The final inferred total length of around 11 m classifies this specimen in the upper size range of the known C. megalodon specimens. The palaeogeography of the Guadalquivir Basin close to the North Betic Strait, which connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, favoured the interaction of the cold nutrient-rich Atlantic waters with warmer Mediterranean waters. The presence of diatomites indicates potential upwelling currents in this context, as well as high productivity favouring the presence of large vertebrates such as mysticetid whales, pinnipeds and small sharks (Isurus. These large vertebrates recorded in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin were potential prey of C. megalodon.Las diatomitas tortonienses de la antigua Cantera de San Félix (Porcuna, Jaén, en el sector oriental de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir, han proporcionado restos aislados de vertebrados marinos entre los que destaca un gran diente de tiburón (123.96 mm desde el ápice hasta la línea basal de la raiz. La altura de la corona (92.2 mm, su forma triangular con bordes aserrados, la presencia de una cara lingual convexa y una labial plana, conjuntamente con la raíz angulosa y robusta, permiten determinar que este diente perteneció a un ejemplar de Carcharocles megalodon. La alta simetría de la pieza

  1. Water risk assessment for river basins in China based on WWF water risk assessment tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water resource problems, one of the most important environmental and socio-economic issues, have been a common concern worldwide in recent years. Water resource risks are attracting more and more attention from the international community and national governments. Given the current situations of water resources and the water environment, and the characteristics of water resources management and information statistics of China, this paper establishes an index system for water risk assessment in river basins of China based on the index system of water risk assessment proposed by the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF and German Investment and Development Co., Ltd (DEG. The new system is more suitable for Chinese national conditions and endorses the international assessment index. A variety of factors are considered to determine the critical values of classification for each index, and the indexes are graded by means of 5-grade and 5-score scales; the weights and calculation methods of some indexes are adjusted, with the remaining indexes adopting the method of WWF. The Weighted Comprehensive Index Summation Process is adopted to calculate the integrated assessment score of the river basin. The method is applied to the Haihe River basin in China. The assessment shows that the method can accurately reflect the water risk level of different river basins. Finally, the paper discusses the continuing problems in water risk assessment and points out the research required to provide a reference for further study in this field.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.-P.; Craddock, W.H.; Lease, R.O.; Wang, W.-T.; Yuan, D.-Y.; Zhang, P.-Z.; Molnar, P.; Zheng, D.-W.; Zheng, W.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary rock deposited in the Chaka basin (north-eastern Tibetan Plateau) indicates a late Miocene onset of basin formation and subsequent development of the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan. Sedimentation in the basin initiated at ~11Ma. In the lower part of the basin fill, a coarsening-upward sequence starting at ~9Ma, as well as rapid sedimentation rates, and northward paleocurrents, are consistent with continued growth of the Ela Shan to the south. In the upper section, several lines of evidence suggest that thrust faulting and topographic development of the Qinghai Nan Shan began at ~6.1Ma. Paleocurrent indicators, preserved in the basin in the proximal footwall of the Qinghai Nan Shan, show a change from northward to southward flow between 6.5 and 3.8Ma. At the same location, sediment derived from the Qinghai Nan Shan appears at 6.1Ma. Finally, the initiation of progressively shallowing dips observed in deformed basin strata and a change to pebbly, fluvial deposits at 6.1Ma provide a minimum age for the onset of slip on the thrust fault that dips north-east beneath the Qinghai Nan Shan. We interpret a decrease in sediment accumulation rates since ~6Ma to indicate a reduction in Chaka basin accommodation space due to active faulting and folding along the Qinghai Nan Shan and incorporation of the basin into the wedge-top depozone. Declination anomalies indicate the beginning of counter-clockwise rotation since 6.1Ma, which we associate with local deformation, not regional block rotation. The emergence of the Qinghai Nan Shan near the end of the Miocene Epoch partitioned the once contiguous Chaka-Gonghe and Qinghai basin complex. In a regional framework, our study adds to a growing body of evidence that points to widespread initiation and/or reactivation of fault networks during the late Miocene across the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. ?? 2011 The Authors. Basin Research ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists

  3. Earth fissures in Qinglong Graben in Yuncheng Basin, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    72

    factors in the development and expansion of the earth fissures in Qinglong Graben. 20. The earth fissures forming ... Keywords: Earth fissure, Qinglong Graben, Yuncheng Basin, syn-sedimentary. 26 fault, forming process. 27. 1. ...... double spring flat earthquake, West-Central Nevada. Seismol Soc Am Bull 93(6):. 367.

  4. Simulation of daily streamflow for nine river basins in eastern Iowa using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Adel E.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.

    2015-10-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, constructed Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System models to estimate daily streamflow for nine river basins in eastern Iowa that drain into the Mississippi River. The models are part of a suite of methods for estimating daily streamflow at ungaged sites. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed- parameter, physical-process-based modeling system developed to evaluate the response of streamflow and general drainage basin hydrology to various combinations of climate and land use. Calibration and validation periods used in each basin mostly were October 1, 2002, through September 30, 2012, but differed depending on the period of record available for daily mean streamflow measurements at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations.

  5. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  6. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zeng

    Full Text Available The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  7. Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin'geng; Han, Zhiwei; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Renjian

    2008-05-20

    This study is intended to understand and quantify the impacts of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) on the formation of tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China. The model system consists of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a tropospheric chemical and transport model (TCTM) with the updated carbon-bond chemical reaction mechanism (CBM-IV). The spatial resolution of the system domain is 30 km x 30 km. The impacts of biogenic emissions are investigated by performing simulations (36 h) with and without biogenic emissions, while anthropogenic emissions are constant. The results indicate that biogenic emissions have remarkable impacts on surface ozone in eastern China. In big cities and their surrounding areas, surface ozone formation tends to be VOC-limited. The increase in ozone concentration by biogenic VOC is generally 5 ppbv or less, but could be more than 10 ppbv or even 30 ppbv in some local places. The impacts of biogenic NO(x) are different or even contrary in different regions, depending on the relative availability of NO(x) and VOC. The surface ozone concentrations reduced or increased by the biogenic NO(x) could be as much as 10 ppbv or 20 ppbv, respectively. The impacts of biogenic emissions on ozone aloft are generally restricted to the boundary layer and generally more obvious during the daytime than during the nighttime. This study is useful for understanding the role of biogenic emissions and for planning strategies for surface ozone abatement in eastern China. Due to limitations of the emission inventories used and the highly non-linear nature of zone formation, however, some uncertainties remain in the results.

  8. Important meteorological variables for statistical long-term air quality prediction in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Liu, Yongqiang; Zhao, Fengjun

    2017-09-01

    Weather is an important factor for air quality. While there have been increasing attentions to long-term (monthly and seasonal) air pollution such as regional hazes from land-clearing fires during El Niño, the weather-air quality relationships are much less understood at long-term than short-term (daily and weekly) scales. This study is aimed to fill this gap through analyzing correlations between meteorological variables and air quality at various timescales. A regional correlation scale was defined to measure the longest time with significant correlations at a substantial large number of sites. The air quality index (API) and five meteorological variables during 2001-2012 at 40 eastern China sites were used. The results indicate that the API is correlated to precipitation negatively and air temperature positively across eastern China, and to wind, relative humidity and air pressure with spatially varied signs. The major areas with significant correlations vary with meteorological variables. The correlations are significant not only at short-term but also at long-term scales, and the important variables are different between the two types of scales. The concurrent regional correlation scales reach seasonal at p Precipitation, which was found to be the most important variable for short-term air quality conditions, and air pressure are not important for long-term air quality. The lagged correlations are much smaller in magnitude than the concurrent correlations and their regional correction scales are at long term only for wind speed and relative humidity. It is concluded that wind speed should be considered as a primary predictor for statistical prediction of long-term air quality in a large region over eastern China. Relative humidity and temperature are also useful predictors but at less significant levels.

  9. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  11. Multisource Data-Based Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring in the Huai River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Qingzhi; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-10-01

    Drought monitoring is critical for early warning of drought hazard. This study attempted to develop an integrated remote sensing drought monitoring index (IRSDI), based on meteorological data for 2003-2013 from 40 meteorological stations and soil moisture data from 16 observatory stations, as well as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data using a linear trend detection method, and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. The objective was to investigate drought conditions across the Huai River basin in both space and time. Results indicate that (1) the proposed IRSDI monitors and describes drought conditions across the Huai River basin reasonably well in both space and time; (2) frequency of drought and severe drought are observed during April-May and July-September. The northeastern and eastern parts of Huai River basin are dominated by frequent droughts and intensified drought events. These regions are dominated by dry croplands, grasslands, and highly dense population and are hence more sensitive to drought hazards; (3) intensified droughts are detected during almost all months except January, August, October, and December. Besides, significant intensification of droughts is discerned mainly in eastern and western Huai River basin. The duration and regions dominated by intensified drought events would be a challenge for water resources management in view of agricultural and other activities in these regions in a changing climate.

  12. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  13. Geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Ginsbach, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is studying the fate and transport of waste solutes in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This effort requires an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic geochemistry of groundwater at the INL and of the important physical and chemical processes controlling the geochemistry. In this study, the USGS applied geochemical modeling to investigate the geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, which provide groundwater recharge to the ESRP aquifer underlying the northeastern part of the INL. Data used in this study include petrology and mineralogy from 2 sediment and 3 rock samples, and water-quality analyses from 4 surface-water and 18 groundwater samples. The mineralogy of the sediment and rock samples was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, and the mineralogy and petrology of the rock samples were examined in thin sections. The water samples were analyzed for field parameters, major ions, silica, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, tritium, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Groundwater geochemistry was influenced by reactions with rocks of the geologic terranes—carbonate rocks, rhyolite, basalt, evaporite deposits, and sediment comprised of all of these rocks. Agricultural practices near and south of Dubois and application of road anti-icing liquids on U.S. Interstate Highway 15 were likely sources of nitrate, chloride, calcium, and magnesium to groundwater. Groundwater geochemistry was successfully modeled in the alluvial aquifer in Camas Meadows and the ESRP fractured basalt aquifer using the geochemical modeling code PHREEQC. The primary geochemical processes appear to be precipitation or dissolution of calcite and dissolution of silicate minerals. Dissolution of evaporite minerals, associated with Pleistocene Lake

  14. Recent ground fissures in the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Long, Jianyu; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Kuan; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-10-01

    Ground fissures are a geological hazard with complex formation mechanisms. Increasing amounts of human activity have created more ground fissures, which can destroy buildings and threaten human security. Some ground fissures indicate potentially devastating earthquakes, so we must pay attention to these hazards. This paper documents recently discovered ground fissures in the Hetao basin. These ground fissures are located along the frontal margins of the terraces of the Sertengshan piedmont fault. These fissures are 600-1600 m long, 5-50 cm wide, and at most 1 m deep. These ground fissures emerged after 2010 and ruptured newly constructed roads and field ridges. The deep geodynamic mechanisms within this extensional environment, which is dominated by NE-SW principal compressive shear, involve N-S tensile stress, which has produced continuous subsidence in the Hetao basin and continuous activity along the Sertengshan piedmont fault since the late Quaternary. Trenches across the ground fissures reveal that the fissures are the latest manifestation of the activity of preexisting faults and are the result of creep-slip movement along the faults. The groundwater level in the Hetao basin has been dropping since the 1960s because of overexploitation, resulting in subsidence. When the tensile stress exceeds the ultimate tensile strength of the strata, the strata rupture along preexisting faults, producing ground fissures. Thus, the Sertengshan piedmont fault planes are the structural foundation of the ground fissures, and groundwater extraction induces the development of ground fissures.

  15. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose basin, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamei, H; Potts, R; Baoyin, Y; Zhengtang, G; Deino, A; Wei, W; Clark, J; Guangmao, X; Weiwen, H

    2000-03-03

    Stone artifacts from the Bose basin, South China, are associated with tektites dated to 803,000 +/- 3000 years ago and represent the oldest known large cutting tools (LCTs) in East Asia. Bose toolmaking is compatible with Mode 2 (Acheulean) technologies in Africa in its targeted manufacture and biased spatial distribution of LCTs, large-scale flaking, and high flake scar counts. Acheulean-like tools in the mid-Pleistocene of South China imply that Mode 2 technical advances were manifested in East Asia contemporaneously with handaxe technology in Africa and western Eurasia. Bose lithic technology is associated with a tektite airfall and forest burning.

  16. Verification of structural control on landforms in the transition zone between Pannonian Basin and Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Fodor, László; Kövér, Szilvia; Molnár, Gábor; Székely, Balázs; Timár, Gábor; Telbisz, Tamás

    2013-04-01

    partly follow this line of combined methodology, but use different subsurface and surface data sets. The success of the study of Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger et al. (2009) mainly depended on the availability of industrial seismic profiles. However, this is not the case in the presented study area. Instead of seismic data, we used other types of geophysical methods, namely 2D geoelectric tomography, 1D vertical electric sounding. Relatively dense network of shallow boreholes permitted the construction of cross sections and could be compared to geophysical data. Finally, surface fault-slip data was important for characterisation of fault geometry and fault kinematics. All these data permitted to build a 3D model for a particular drainage anomaly located in the western Pannonian Basin, its transition to the Eastern Alps. The combined data set suggest that en echelon normal or oblique-normal faults controlled linear ENE trending segments of the Arany creek, which is almost perpendicular to the general flow direction. The en echelon faults could be part of a sinistral shear zone, which occur between the Rechnitz and Eisenberg windows of the Penninicum. If this fault was kinematically connected to others at the window's margin, their tectonic exhumation might have continued after the main early to mid-Miocene phase. The fault zone could be initiated in the late Miocene (Pannonian) around 9 Ma, and was active afterword. Exact timing of this deformation was not determined neither neotectonic activity proved. However, our study shows that the Late Miocene basin fill of the Pannonian Basin was deformed considerably. The other issue of our work is that the combination of diverse methods is useful, sometimes inevitable for checking the potential structural control and landform and landscape evolution. Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Z.; Fodor, L. & Horváth, E. 2007: Neotectonic and landscape evolution of the Gödöllő Hills, Central Pannonian Basin. - Global and Planetary Change, 58, 181

  17. Ultraphytoplankton basin-scale distribution in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in winter: link to hydrodynamism and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The basin-scale distribution of ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm was determined in the upper 200 m of the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the winter season. Four clusters were resolved by flow cytometry on the basis of their optical properties and identified as Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, pico- (<3 μm and nanoeukaryotes (3–10 μm. Synechococcus was the most abundant population (maximum abundance of about 37 000 cells cm−3 and contributed up to 67.7% to the overall ultraphytoplanktonic carbon biomass, whereas the contribution of Prochlorococcus never exceeded 6.5%. The maximum integrated carbon biomass was 1763, 453, 58 and 571 mg C m−2 for nanoeukaryotes, picoeukaryotes, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus respectively. Water mass properties were analyzed on the basis of temperature and salinity distributions in order to account for the general circulation and locate the main hydrodynamic structures (fronts, gyres, transition between western and eastern basins. The effect of the main hydrodynamic structures and nutrients on the ultraphytoplankton distribution was investigated. No positive correlation between nutrients and phytoplankton could be established when considering large scales. However, below 50 m depth, nutrient ratios between particular stations were correlated to corresponding density ratios. In contrast, significant relationships were found between Synechococcus abundance and density, resulting from the impact of a gyre in southern Adriatic basin and a thermohaline front in the Ionian basin. A significant relationship was also found between picoeukaryotes and salinity in the comparison of western and eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Regional frequency analysis and spatio-temporal pattern characterization of rainfall extremes in the Pearl River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Shao, Quanxi; Hao, Zhen-Chun; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zengxin; Xu, Chong-Yu; Sun, Limin

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a method for regional frequency analysis and spatio-temporal pattern characterization of rainfall-extreme regimes (i.e. extremes, durations and timings) in the Pearl River Basin (PRB) using the well-known L-moments approach together with advanced statistical tests including stationarity test and serial correlation check, which are crucial to the valid use of L-moments for frequency analysis. Results indicate that: (1) the entire Pearl River Basin (40 sites) can be categorized into six regions by cluster analysis together with consideration of the topography and spatial patterns of mean precipitation in the basin. The results of goodness-of-fit measures indicate that the GNO, GLO, GEV, and PE3 distributions fit well for most of the basin for different HOM regions, but their performances are slightly different in term of curve fitting; (2) the estimated quantiles and their biases approximated by Monte Carlo simulation demonstrate that the results are reliable enough for the return periods of less than 100 years; (3) excessive precipitation magnitude records are observed at Guilin region of Guangxi Province and Fogang region of Guangdong Province, which have sufficient climate conditions (e.g. precipitation and humidity) responsible for the frequently occurred flood disasters in the regions. In addition, the spatial variations of precipitation in different return periods (Return period = 1, 10, 50 years to 100 years) increase from the upstream to downstream at the regional scale; (4) the seasonal patterns of precipitation extremes for different topographical regions are different. The major precipitation events of AM1R, AM3R, AM5R and AM7R in regions of low-elevation in lower (south-eastern) part of the basin occur mainly in May, June, July and August, while the main precipitation periods for the mountainous region upstream are June, July and August. Further analysis of the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data indicates that the eastern Asian summer

  19. Analysis of the evolution of precipitation in the Haihe river basin of China under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangyi; Liu, Jiahong; Gong, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation is one of the important factors of water cycle and main sources of regional water resources. It is of great significance to analyze the evolution of precipitation under changing environment for identifying the evolution law of water resources, thus can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the formulation of related policies and measures. Generally, analysis of the evolution of precipitation consists of three levels: analysis the observed precipitation change based on measured data, explore the possible factors responsible for the precipitation change, and estimate the change trend of precipitation under changing environment. As the political and cultural centre of China, the climatic conditions in the Haihe river basin have greatly changed in recent decades. This study analyses the evolution of precipitation in the basin under changing environment based on observed meteorological data, GCMs and statistical methods. Firstly, based on the observed precipitation data during 1961-2000 at 26 meteorological stations in the basin, the actual precipitation change in the basin is analyzed. Secondly, the observed precipitation change in the basin is attributed using the fingerprint-based attribution method, and the causes of the observed precipitation change is identified. Finally, the change trend of precipitation in the basin under climate change in the future is predicted based on GCMs and a statistical downscaling model. The results indicate that: 1) during 1961-2000, the precipitation in the basin showed a decreasing trend, and the possible mutation time was 1965; 2) natural variability may be the factor responsible for the observed precipitation change in the basin; 3) under climate change in the future, precipitation in the basin will slightly increase by 4.8% comparing with the average, and the extremes will not vary significantly.

  20. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain over the North China Plain – during 2003–2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr−1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr−1 for the July–August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3 with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980–2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs. An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  1. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing of natural resources while Chinese ones - in products with high share of added value. The study reveals that among 104 scheduled key Russian projects (at the cost of 47,9 billion USD only 24 projects are under implementation (11,77 billion USD, 8 of which are carried out with the help of Chinese investments (1,77 billion USD. Joint ventures are connected with mining operations, primary processing of wood, construction of houses, manufacturing of building materials, assembly production and trade. Among 111 scheduled Program Chinese projects (at the cost of 9,87 billion USD only 42 projects are under implementation (6,1 billion USD; they are associated with engineering products. There is only one Russian-Chinese joint venture on the territory of China (at the cost of 0,63 billion USD. The author suggests that in the near future 20 additional Program projects can be implemented in Russia (at the cost of more than 20 billion USD and 6 projects (about 0,5 billion USD - in China

  2. Application of morphometry in neotectonic studies at the eastern edge of the Paraná Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Patricia D.; Salvador, Elizete D.; Machado, Rômulo; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Nummer, Alexis R.

    2014-05-01

    The neotectonic evolution of the eastern edge of the Paraná Basin in the Santa Catarina State, Brazil was investigated using field data and detailed morphometric analysis along an east-west section. Analysis included generation of maps of isobase, hydraulic gradients, hypsometry, incision of drainage basins, drainage asymmetry and anomalous morphological features. All these maps generated results that agreed with field data and helped define recent faults in directions close to N-S and E-W, both probably reactivated faults of the Paraná Basin and the basement. Geomorphological features identified in topographic maps, possibly related to neotectonism, have a close agreement with our observations in the field. The asymmetry of basins as analysed by the T-Index method proved to be compatible with the influence of a E-W compressive tectonic regime and showed a movement from W to E. Application of the hypsometric integral technique helped establish a correlation between the younger basins with structures trending N-S (± 30°). The N-S faults were related to a compressional stress field (SHmax) close to E-W and SHmin (stress minimum) around N-S, thereby establishing a tectonic context of structures developed in a transpressive regime. The compressional field was caused by the subduction of the Nazca tectonic plate below the South American plate, whereas the transcurrent component exploited pre-existent E-W structures when the Atlantic Ocean was opening.

  3. The Role of Trust-building in Fostering Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin: A Case of Experimental Game Application

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    Mahsa Motlagh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating tension and a sense of mistrust currently prevail between downstream and upstream countries in the Nile Basin over Ethiopia's construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD. Striving for self-sufficiency in hydropower generation, Ethiopia has initiated a new series of upstream reservoir construction projects, with the GERD being the largest, and this may affect the water availability in downstream countries of Egypt and Sudan. This paper examines a set of compensation options to induce cooperation through trust-building, possibly minimizing uncertainties in water allocation decision-making and simplifying complex inter-relationships in the basin using laboratory game experiments. The game was developed and conducted using hydro-economic modeling of the basin with GAMS software, an expert survey with the SPSS program and Z-tree software to design and analyze the laboratory experiment. This paper presents the results of the laboratory game experiment where the Eastern Nile Basin scenario was modeled as a multi-round, adjusted trust game with non-binding deals among players. The results suggest that the "win for all" situation may be reached through a stable integrative, cooperative framework. Building the enabling environment, in particular, transparency, knowledge, trust, and confidence among riparian states is the first step in developing transboundary cooperation. Basin-wide cooperation requires a transparent environment including a variety of compensation options, institutional changes, and incentive-compatible considerations.

  4. Establishment of a Riparian Buffer Strip for Alleviating Lake Eutrophication in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M.; Naka, K.; Wu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian buffer strips are a growing conservation practice to control and mitigate non-point source pollution in Asia. China has seen rapid population growth and economic development in the last fifty years, coupled with a rapid increase in environmental pollution. Freshwater ecosystems have been particularly affected. Lake Tai, China's 3rd largest freshwater lake by volume, has seen a severe reduction in water quality since economic reforms began in the 1970s. Thus, significant interest for establishing riparian buffer strips in agricultural watersheds and freshwater systems within China is warranted. Eight 50 m x 20 m plots adjacent to a rice-phragmites farm were cleared within the Lake Tai basin region in Jiangsu Province, China. Seven plots were planted with either a Poplar hybrid, Cypress hybrid or a combination of both at varying densities, while the control and final plot allowed only for local vegetation to grow naturally. Soil, tree and groundwater samples were collected from all plots and analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. At this time in the study, results have been analyzed only for nitrogen concentrations using the ANOVA procedure. Results for both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are currently being analyzed.

  5. Customized framework of the WRF model for regional climate simulation over the Eastern NILE basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwares, Mohamed; Haggag, Mohammed; Wagdy, Ahmad; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-11-01

    Different configurations of the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW) regional climate model, centered over the Eastern Nile Basin, have been investigated. Extensive sensitivity analyses were carried out to test the model performance in simulating precipitation and surface air temperature, focusing on the horizontal extent of the simulation domain, the mesh size and the parameterizations of the boundary layer, radiation, cloud microphysics, and convection. A simulation period of 2 years (1998-1999) was used to assess the model performance during the rainy season (June-September) and the dry season (December-March). Three sets of numerical experiments were conducted. The first tested the effects of changing the horizontal extent of the simulation domain; three domains have been examined to investigate, e.g., the effect of including a larger part of the Indian Ocean, for which no significant impact was found. The second set of experiments tested the sensitivity of WRF to the horizontal mesh size (about 16, 12, and 10 km). It was found that increased resolution results in a more accurate simulation of precipitation and surface temperature. The third set of experiments was designed to select the optimal combination of physics parameterizations. All simulations were forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis data to provide initial and boundary conditions, including sea surface temperature, and the Noah land surface model (NPAH) was used to simulate land surface processes. To rate the model performance, we used a range of statistical metrics, summarized with a scoring technique to obtain a single index that ranks different alternatives. The simulated precipitation was found to be much more sensitive to the choice of physics parameterization compared to the surface air temperature. Precipitation was most sensitive to changing the cumulus and the planetary boundary layer schemes, and least sensitive to changing the microphysics scheme. Modifying the long-wave radiation scheme

  6. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.M.; Wang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow

  7. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zheming; Liao, Fu; Wang, Guangcai; Xu, Qingyu; Mu, Wenqing; Sun, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern T...

  8. Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Cai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

  9. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

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    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  10. Evaluation of ecological instream flow considering hydrological alterations in the Yellow River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiao; Shi, Peijun; Singh, Vijay P.; Gu, Xihui

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and is the important source for water supply in the northwestern and northern China. It is often regarded as the mother river of China. Owing to climatic change and intensifying human activities, such as increasing withdrawal of water for meeting growing agricultural irrigation needs since 1986, the flow of Yellow River has decreased, with serious impacts on the ecological environment. Using multiple hydrological indicators and Flow Duration Curve (DFC)-based ecodeficit and ecosurplus, this study investigates the impact of hydrological alterations, such as the impact of water reservoirs or dams, on downstream ecological instream flow. Results indicate that: (1) due to the impoundment and hydrological regulations of water reservoirs, occurrence rates and magnitudes of high flow regimes have decreased and the decrease is also found in the magnitudes of low flow events. These changes tend to be more evident from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin; (2) human activities tend to enhance the instream flow variability, particularly after the 1980s;(3) the ecological environment in different parts of the Yellow River basin is under different degrees of ecological risk. In general, lower to higher ecological risk can be detected due to hydrological alterations from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin. This shows that conservation of ecological environment and river health is facing a serious challenge in the lower Yellow River basin; (4) ecological instream flow indices, such as ecodeficit and ecosurplus, and IHA32 hydrological indicators are in strong relationships, suggesting that ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be regarded as appropriate ecological indicators for developing measures for mitigating the adverse impact of human activities on the conservation of ecological environment in the Yellow River basin.

  11. Strategic development plan for integrated water resources management in Lake Manyara sub-basin, North-Eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngana, J. O.; Mwalyosi, R. B. B.; Yanda, P.; Madulu, N. F.

    This paper reports that the core problem in the water resources management of the Lake Manyara sub-basin in north-eastern Tanzania is unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources. The subsequent effects observed in the sub-basin are natural resource use conflicts, poverty, low productivity, overcrowding, high siltation in rivers and lakes, degraded environment, decreased river flows, polluted water sources, etc. In order to establish strategies to arrest this situation, a strategic planning process has been used as a tool involving key stakeholders in the basin at various levels. Policy making officials at the district level i.e. planning officers, agricultural officers, water engineers and natural resources officers and grass root level experiences of respective wards in the basin were established through involving Ward executive officers. Water users of the key sectors in the basin were equally involved which included hotels, tented camps, irrigators and livestock keepers. Institutions working in natural resources management in the areas also participated including NGOs. The main causes leading to unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources were established as poverty, environment degradation, poor governance, weak enforcement of conservation laws, conflicting policies, inadequate experts at all levels, inadequate information on natural resources, high natural population growth rate, high immigration rates, high livestock population in comparison to land carrying capacity, political interference in implementation, limited water resources and lack of basin wide institution managing the natural resources in the basin. Various strategic objectives were identified by stakeholders and respective strategies, activities and verifiable indicators mapped for implementation. Stakeholders having owned the process and articulated the strategies themselves showed commitment and readiness to cooperate in the implementation of the plan.

  12. Overcoming challenges in nonmarine stratigraphy using a multidisciplinary approach: an example from Mesozoic basins of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainman, Carmine; McCabe, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Continental sedimentary strata are particularly challenging to correlate within and between basins. In fluvio-lacustrine facies significant lateral variations over short distances limit the application of classical correlation techniques on a regional scale. This is particularly the case in the extensive continental successions of eastern Australian Mesozoic basins. Strata in these basins were deposited at high latitudes (>75°S) at a time when relatively temperate conditions prevailed as indicated by major coal accumulations and a rich diversity of palynofloras. These successions are characterized by thin (palynology, sedimentology, and radiometric dating of zircon-bearing air-fall tuffs and volcaniclastic sandstones provides new insights on the stratigraphic framework of the Eromanga, Surat and Clarence-Moreton Basins. U-Pb ages were acquired from zircons in 30 tuff beds using the "CA (Chemical Abrasion)-TIMS" methodology. This technique gives dates for individual tuff beds to within +/- 40,000 years. Thirty U-Pb CA-TIMS zircon ages (168-149Ma) were calculated from 13 wells from the three basins. From this data set, several chronostratigraphic datums were defined for correlation across the basins. These datums are each defined within time intervals of less than 420kyr. For the first time, it is now possible to correlate these Jurassic strata with high precision over thousands of kilometers and across multiple basins. The newly constructed chronostratigraphic framework reveals inconsistencies in previous correlation of lithostratigraphic units and identification of regional unconformities. It also demonstrates the diachronous nature of the coal-bearing lithofacies across the basins. Palynological studies reveal the presence of marginal marine dinoflagellate cysts (most notably Moorodinium) and acritarchs at two other intervals. Tidal indicators, including double mud drapes and lenticular bedding, are also present at these levels. These subtle indicators of marine

  13. Candidal infection in oral leukoplakia: a clinicopathologic study of 396 patients from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Feng, Jinqiu; Shi, Linjun; Shen, Xuemin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zengtong

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between the presence of Candida invasion and oral premalignant lesion. The objective of the current study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of candidal infection in biopsies of a large retrospective cohort of patients with premalignant oral leukoplakia (n = 396) from eastern China and assess the clinical implications. Candidal hyphae were detected with periodic acid-Schiff staining of the biopsy samples. The results showed that 59 patients (15.9%) with oral leukoplakia were infected by Candida. The average age of the patients with candidal leukoplakia was 60.7 years with equal sex ratio. The tongue was the predominant site (66.1%). Epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia were involved in 44.1% and 55.9% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that patient older than 60 years (odd ratio [OR], 2.28; P = .005), lesion located at the tongue (OR, 1.89; P = .038), and presence of dysplasia (OR, 2.02; P = .018) were significant risk factors of candidal infection in oral leukoplakia. Collectively, clinicopathologic features of candidal leukoplakia in eastern China were elucidated. A point to highlight was that we identified a subpopulation that was more liable to candidal infection. Elderly patients with oral tongue leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia had much higher risk of candidal infection. Antifungal therapy was further recommended to be routine treatment of this subpopulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

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    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  15. The influence of large-scale climate phenomena on precipitation in the Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu; Lei, Liyuan; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong; Zou, Chris; Zhan, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale atmospheric circulations significantly affect regional precipitation patterns. However, it is not well known whether and how these phenomena affect regional precipitation distribution in northern China. This paper reported the individual and coupled effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian summer monsoon (ISM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on annual precipitation for the Ordos Basin, an arid and semi-arid basin, currently with major industries of coal, fossil oil, natural gas, and halite in north central China. Our results showed that ENSO and ISM exerted substantial impact on annual precipitation while the impact of PDO and AMO was relatively limited. There were 24 and 15 out of 33 stations showing significant differences ( p e., Hobq Desert and Mu Us Sandy Land) in the center of the basin were less affected by these large-scale climatic phenomena. An improved understanding of such relationships would be helpful in water resource planning and disaster management for the Ordos Basin.

  16. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

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    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities

  17. Spatial distribution and occurrence probability of regional new particle formation events in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojing; Sun, Junying; Kivekäs, Niku; Kristensson, Adam; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhang, Lu; Fan, Ruxia; Qi, Xuefei; Ma, Qianli; Zhou, Huaigang

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the spatial extent of new particle formation (NPF) events and the relative probability of observing particles originating from different spatial origins around three rural sites in eastern China were investigated using the NanoMap method, using particle number size distribution (PNSD) data and air mass back trajectories. The length of the datasets used were 7, 1.5, and 3 years at rural sites Shangdianzi (SDZ) in the North China Plain (NCP), Mt. Tai (TS) in central eastern China, and Lin'an (LAN) in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China, respectively. Regional NPF events were observed to occur with the horizontal extent larger than 500 km at SDZ and TS, favoured by the fast transport of northwesterly air masses. At LAN, however, the spatial footprint of NPF events was mostly observed around the site within 100-200 km. Difference in the horizontal spatial distribution of new particle source areas at different sites was connected to typical meteorological conditions at the sites. Consecutive large-scale regional NPF events were observed at SDZ and TS simultaneously and were associated with a high surface pressure system dominating over this area. Simultaneous NPF events at SDZ and LAN were seldom observed. At SDZ the polluted air masses arriving over the NCP were associated with higher particle growth rate (GR) and new particle formation rate (J) than air masses from Inner Mongolia (IM). At TS the same phenomenon was observed for J, but GR was somewhat lower in air masses arriving over the NCP compared to those arriving from IM. The capability of NanoMap to capture the NPF occurrence probability depends on the length of the dataset of PNSD measurement but also on topography around the measurement site and typical air mass advection speed during NPF events. Thus the long-term measurements of PNSD in the planetary boundary layer are necessary in the further study of spatial extent and the probability of NPF events. The spatial extent, relative

  18. Spatial distribution and occurrence probability of regional new particle formation events in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the spatial extent of new particle formation (NPF events and the relative probability of observing particles originating from different spatial origins around three rural sites in eastern China were investigated using the NanoMap method, using particle number size distribution (PNSD data and air mass back trajectories. The length of the datasets used were 7, 1.5, and 3 years at rural sites Shangdianzi (SDZ in the North China Plain (NCP, Mt. Tai (TS in central eastern China, and Lin'an (LAN in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China, respectively. Regional NPF events were observed to occur with the horizontal extent larger than 500 km at SDZ and TS, favoured by the fast transport of northwesterly air masses. At LAN, however, the spatial footprint of NPF events was mostly observed around the site within 100–200 km. Difference in the horizontal spatial distribution of new particle source areas at different sites was connected to typical meteorological conditions at the sites. Consecutive large-scale regional NPF events were observed at SDZ and TS simultaneously and were associated with a high surface pressure system dominating over this area. Simultaneous NPF events at SDZ and LAN were seldom observed. At SDZ the polluted air masses arriving over the NCP were associated with higher particle growth rate (GR and new particle formation rate (J than air masses from Inner Mongolia (IM. At TS the same phenomenon was observed for J, but GR was somewhat lower in air masses arriving over the NCP compared to those arriving from IM. The capability of NanoMap to capture the NPF occurrence probability depends on the length of the dataset of PNSD measurement but also on topography around the measurement site and typical air mass advection speed during NPF events. Thus the long-term measurements of PNSD in the planetary boundary layer are necessary in the further study of spatial extent and the probability of NPF events. The spatial

  19. Investigation of avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry and humans in Eastern Dongting Lake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Shi

    Full Text Available We investigated avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry, and humans at Eastern Dongting Lake, China. We analyzed 6,621 environmental samples, including fresh fecal and water samples, from wild birds and domestic ducks that were collected from the Eastern Dongting Lake area from November 2011 to April 2012. We also conducted two cross-sectional serological studies in November 2011 and April 2012, with 1,050 serum samples collected from people exposed to wild birds and/or domestic ducks. Environmental samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV using quantitative PCR assays and virus isolation techniques. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were used to detect antibodies against AIV H5N1, and microneutralization assays were used to confirm these results. Among the environmental samples from wild birds and domestic ducks, AIV prevalence was 5.19 and 5.32%, respectively. We isolated 39 and 5 AIVs from the fecal samples of wild birds and domestic ducks, respectively. Our analysis indicated 12 subtypes of AIV were present, suggesting that wild birds in the Eastern Dongting Lake area carried a diverse array of AIVs with low pathogenicity. We were unable to detect any antibodies against AIV H5N1 in humans, suggesting that human infection with H5N1 was rare in this region.

  20. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean - New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, K. M.; Chaubey, A. K.; Mishra, Akhil; Kumar, Shravan; Rajawat, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Marine gravity data derived from satellite altimeters are effective tools in mapping fine-scale tectonic features of the ocean basins such as pseudofaults, fracture zones and seamounts, particularly when the ocean basins are carpeted with thick sediments. We use high-resolution satellite-generated gravity and seismic reflection data to map boundaries of pseudofaults and transferred crust related to the Paleocene spreading ridge propagation in the Arabian and its conjugate Eastern Somali basins. The study has provided refinement in the position of previously reported pseudofaults and their spatial extensions in the conjugate basins. It is observed that the transferred crustal block bounded by inner pseudofault and failed spreading ridge is characterized by a gravity low and rugged basement. The refined satellite gravity image of the Arabian Basin also revealed three seamounts in close proximity to the pseudofaults, which were not reported earlier. In the Eastern Somali Basin, seamounts are aligned along NE-SW direction forming ∼300 km long seamount chain. Admittance analysis and Flexural model studies indicated that the seamount chain is isostatically compensated locally with Effective Elastic Thickness (Te) of 3-4 km. Based on the present results and published plate tectonic models, we interpret that the seamounts in the Arabian Basin are formed by spreading ridge propagation and are associated with pseudofaults, whereas the seamount chain in the Eastern Somali Basin might have probably originated due to melting and upwelling of upper mantle heterogeneities in advance of migrating/propagating paleo Carlsberg Ridge.

  1. Sequence stratigraphy and tectonosedimentary history of the Upper Jurassic of the Eastern Paris Basin (Lower and Middle Oxfordian, Northeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Lathuilière, Bernard; Ferry, Serge; Sausse, Judith

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, the difficulty which lies in the identification of sea-level fall discontinuities in deep depositional environments led the authors to use the transgressive surfaces (i.e. the most noticeable surfaces in the present case) to determine depositional cycles. Four (3rd order?) Lower and Middle Oxfordian cycles were identified (S1, S2, S3, and S4) in the Eastern Paris Basin. These four cycles can be organised into two lower frequency cycles (So I and So II) which comprise the S1, S2 and the S3, S4 cycles respectively. During the time intervals of the S1, S2, and S3 cycles, sedimentation occurred along a southward dipping carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, prograding from the northern Ardennes area. The S4 cycle shows the development of a reefal distally steepened ramp which subsequently evolved into a flat-topped platform as a result of the compensation infill of the available accommodation space by the carbonate production during a climatic warming, in this case reef growth. Isopach and facies maps suggest synsedimentary activities of hercynian faults coevals with the floodings of the So I and So II cycles. One of these events generated a diachronism of the maximum flooding (Plicatilis Zone) during the So II cycle between the northwestern and southeastern parts of the studied area. The depositional patterns found in the Eastern Paris Basin and the Swiss Jura show great similarities for the Early-Middle Oxfordian. Both regions were probably connected and recorded the same tectonosedimentary evolution. In contrast a tectonic control certainly generated differences between the sequence-stratigraphic framework of the Eastern Paris Basin and the eustatic chart.

  2. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.; Gu, H.

    1995-01-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožič, Boštjan; Jurkovšek, Tea Kolar; Rožič, Petra Žvab; Gale, Luka

    2017-08-01

    In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia), the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic) Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides). These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh) section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections) the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen) area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  4. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožič Boštjan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia, the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides. These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  5. Controlling factors of volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs are developed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in Bohai Bay Basin in China. There is more than one hundred million tons of proven oil reserves in the said reservoir. They performed different actors for oil and gas accumulation in the basin. Faults controlled the distribution and accumulation of oil and gas related to volcanic rocks in Bohai Bay Basin. Not to mention, the zone near the faults is favorable for the development of good reservoirs. Volcanic rocks and volcanism can serve several roles during the course of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation. Volcanism can promote hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. Simultaneously, volcanic activity can damage petroleum reservoirs. Volcanic rocks can be both the reservoirs and the cap-rocks or obscured layer in the basin. The occurrence of volcanic rocks in source rocks can form fractures more easily compared to that in sandstones. Finally, volcanic rocks also control the distribution of mantle-derived CO2 gas reservoirs in the basin.

  6. Geophysical prospecting for the deep geothermal structure of the Zhangzhou basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaofeng; Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Guiling; Lin, Wenjing

    2017-04-01

    Zhangzhou basin located at the Southeast margins of Asian plate is one of the largest geothermal fields in Fujian province, Southeast China. High-temperature natural springs and granite rocks are widely distributed in this region and the causes of geothermal are speculated to be involved the large number of magmatic activities from Jurassic to Cretaceous periods. To investigate the deep structure of Zhangzhou basin, magnetotelluric and gravity measurements were carried out and the joint inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data delineated the faults and the granites distributions. The inversion results also indicated the backgrounds of heat reservoirs, heat fluid paths and whole geothermal system of the Zhangzhou basin. Combining with the surface geological investigation, the geophysical inversion results revealed that the faults activities and magma intrusions are the main reasons for the formation of geothermal resources of the Zhangzhou basin. Upwelling mantle provides enormous heats to the lower crust leading to metamorphic rocks to be partially melt generating voluminous magmas. Then the magmas migration and thermal convection along the faults warm up the upper crust. So finally, the cap rocks, basements and major faults are the three favorable conditions for the formation of geothermal fields of the Zhangzhou basin.

  7. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  8. Impacts of local circulations on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Zhao, Linna; Xiao, Bo; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian

    2017-08-15

    Urbanization and industrialization in the recent 30years have caused frequent heavy haze pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China during wintertime. Based on the categorized large-scale synoptic situations, the local circulation and its impact on the air pollution in the basin have been investigated using observational data analyses and model simulations with the WRF-CHEM model. The simulated mountain-valley breeze circulations are well established under most of the large-scale synoptic situations in the south-north direction. The downward mountain-breeze not only causes the convergence zone in the basin but also tends to bring the pollutants back from the mountain areas to the basin and enhance pollutants concentrations in the evening. The intensity of the mountain-valley breeze circulations may be different under different synoptic situations, but in general, aside emissions, every pollution event is the synthetic result of the synoptic situation at the large scale and the local circulation at the small scale in the Guanzhong basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seismically-generated hydroplastic deformation structures in the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits of the Malatya Basin, eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç Taşgın, Calibe

    2011-04-01

    The Late Miocene succession of continental deposits in the Malatya Basin, eastern Anatolia, comprises alluvial-fan, lacustrine and fluvial facies associations. This fault-bounded basin formed in a tectonically active region, notorious for strong earthquakes still today. The lacustrine deposits in the northern part of the basin show several isolated horizons of soft-sediment deformation, including such structures as slump folds, load and flame features, sand dikes and small-scale synsedimentary reverse faults with associated folds. There is no direct evidence supporting instabilities due to unequal loading or overloading, wave-induced cyclical and/or impulsive stresses, sudden changes in groundwater level or bioturbation capable of producing these deformation structures. The soft-sediment deformation structures described in the lacustrine deposits are interpreted as having developed as a result of seismic activity taking place along the Malatya fault zone, based on the tectonic setting of the basin, the lateral extent of the soft-sediment deformation structures over hundreds of metres, their confinement by undeformed layers, the presence of complex structures, and similarities with structures interpreted as being seismically induced in other areas and those obtained experimentally.

  10. Analyzing the spatial patterns and drivers of ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Taihu Lake Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Feng, Lan; Li, Yangfan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying and mapping the distribution patterns of ecosystem services can help to ascertain which services should be protected and where investments should be directed to improve synergies and reduce tradeoffs. Moreover, the indicators of urbanization that affect the provision of ecosystem services must be identified to determine which approach to adopt in formulating policies related to these services. This paper presents a case study that maps the distribution of multiple ecosystem services and analyzes the ways in which they interact. The relationship between the supply of ecosystem services and the socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin of eastern China is also revealed. Results show a significant negative relationship between crop production and tourism income ( pregulating services are also identified through a comparison of the ecosystem services in large and small cities. Regression analysis was used to compare and elucidate the relative significance of the selected urbanization factors to ecosystem services. The results indicate that urbanization level is the most substantial factor inversely correlated with crop production ( R 2 = 0.414) and nutrient retention services ( R 2 = 0.572). Population density is the most important factor that negatively affects carbon sequestration ( R 2 = 0.447). The findings of this study suggest the potential relevance of ecosystem service dynamics to urbanization management and decision making.

  11. Biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental implications of an Early Cretaceous miospore assemblage from the Muling Formation, Jixi Basin, northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.J.; Li, W.B.; Batten, D.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2007-04-15

    In the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang Province, China, the lower part of the Lower Cretaceous succession consists of coal-bearing strata including the Muling Formation, which, in addition to plant megafossils, yields abundant spores and pollen grains and a few dinoflagellate cysts. The spore-pollen assemblage consists of more than 42 species belonging to 34 genera. Most of these are derived from pteridophytes and gymnosperms. The association of Aequitriradites echinatus, Cicatricosisporites australiensis, C. imbricatus, C. mediostriatus, C. undosus, Contignisporites glebulentus, Crybelosporites punctatus, Foranminisporis asymmetricus, Gleicheniidites laetus, Impardecispora purverulenta, Kuylisporites lunaris, Pilosisporites trichopapillosus and Triporoletes singularis suggests that the formation is unlikely to be older than late Hauterivian and younger than Aptian, with emphasis placed on the Barremian-early Aptian. The composition of the dinoflagellate cyst and plant megafossil assemblages is consistent with this determination. Based on palynofloral content, a comparison between the miospores recovered and the spores and pollen produced by extant plant taxa, the associated plant megafossils, and the sedimentary facies that characterize the Muling Formation, it is concluded that the source vegetation was dominated by ferns and that the climate was wet subtropical but seasonally dry.

  12. The spatiotemporal distribution of dissolved carbon in the main stems and their tributaries along the lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Song, Changchun; Guo, Yuedong

    2016-01-01

    The Heilongjiang River Basin in the eastern Siberia, one of the largest river basins draining to the North Pacific Ocean, is a border river between China, Mongolia, and Russia. In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved total carbon (DTC) concentrations along lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, China. Water samples were collected monthly along the mouths of main rivers (Heilongjiang River, Wusuli River, and Songhua River) and their ten tributary waters for 2 years. The DOC concentrations of waters ranged from 1.74 to 16.64 mg/L, with a mean value of 8.90 ± 0.27 mg/L (n = 165). Notably, mean DIC concentrations were 9.08 ± 0.31 mg/L, accounting for 13.26∼83.27% of DTC. DIC concentrations increased significantly after the Heilongjiang River passed through Northeast China, while DOC concentrations decreased. Over 50% of DIC concentrations were decreased during exports from groundwater to rice fields and from rice fields to ditches. Water dissolved carbon showed large spatial and temporal variations during the 2-year measurement, suggesting that more frequently samplings were required. Carbon (DIC + DOC) loads from the Heilongjiang River to the Sea of Okhotsk were estimated to be 3.26 Tg C/year in this study, accounting for 0.64% of the global water dissolved carbon flux. DIC export contributed an average of 51.84% of the estimated carbon load in the Heilongjiang River, acting as an important carbon component during riverine transport. Our study could provide some guides on agricultural water management and contribute to more accurately estimate global carbon budgets.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Eastern Lake Ontario Basin of New York, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, Amy J.; Reddy, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected from nine production wells and nine private residential wells in the Eastern Lake Ontario Basin of New York from August through October 2008 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of groundwater. The wells were selected to provide adequate spatial coverage of the 3,225-square-mile study area; areas of greatest groundwater use were emphasized. Eight of the 18 wells sampled, were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 10 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 223 physical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: color (2 samples), pH (1 sample), sodium (5 samples), chloride (1 sample), aluminum (2 samples), iron (5 unfiltered samples), manganese (3 samples), radon-222 (13 samples), and bacteria (4 samples). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in samples from wells finished in sand and gravel [median 3.8 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] were greater than those from wells finished in bedrock (median less than 0.7 mg/L). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.4); the median water temperature was 11.3 degrees Celsius. The ions with the highest concentrations were bicarbonate (median 174 mg/L) and calcium (median 24.1 mg/L). Groundwater in the basin ranges from soft to moderately hard [less than or equal to 120 mg/L as CaCO3] and median hardness was 90 mg/L as CaCO3. Concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite in samples from sand and gravel wells (median concentration 0.42 mg/L as nitrogen) were generally higher than those in samples from bedrock wells (median Radon-222 activities were generally high [median

  14. Aerosol physical and optical properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Crete, from Aerosol Robotic Network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fotiadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the aerosol optical properties, namely aerosol extinction optical thickness (AOT, Angström parameter and size distribution over the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, using spectral measurements from the recently established FORTH (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas AERONET station in Crete, for the two-year period 2003–2004. The location of the FORTH-AERONET station offers a unique opportunity to monitor aerosols from different sources. Maximum values of AOT are found primarily in spring, which together with small values of the Angström parameter indicate dust transported from African deserts, whereas the minimum values of AOT occur in winter. In autumn, large AOT values observed at near-infrared wavelengths arise also from dust transport. In summer, large AOT values at ultraviolet (340 nm and visible wavelengths (500 nm, together with large values of the Angström parameter, are associated with transport of fine aerosols of urban/industrial and biomass burning origin. The Angström parameter values vary on a daily basis within the range 0.05–2.20, and on a monthly basis within the range 0.68–1.9. This behaviour, together with broad frequency distributions and back-trajectory analyses, indicates a great variety of aerosol types over the study region including dust, urban-industrial and biomass-burning pollution, and maritime, as well as mixed aerosol types. Large temporal variability is observed in AOT, Angström parameter, aerosol content and size. The fine and coarse aerosol modes persist throughout the year, with the coarse mode dominant except in summer. The highest values of AOT are related primarily to southeasterly winds, associated with coarse aerosols, and to a less extent to northwesterly winds associated with fine aerosols. The results of this study show that the FORTH AERONET station in Crete is well suited for studying the transport and mixing of different types of aerosols from a variety

  15. Reef fish dynamic response to climatic variability in a warm eastern Mediterranean semi-enclosed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, K.; Koskeridou, E.; Giamali, Ch.; Karakitsios, V.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the effects of global warming on fish populations reveal that the resulting hypoxia-based habitat compression due to the expansion of the oxygen minimum zone may lead to the restriction of fish depth distributions to the oxygenated near-surface layer1. Here we postulate that similar phenomena may have affected the fish distribution in the early Pliocene Heraklion semi-enclosed sea (Crete, eastern Mediterranean). Fish otoliths from Voutes section are systematically identified and the data is examined from a palaeoecologic perspective in response to the Pliocene climatic variability. Bregmaceros and Diaphus taaningi otoliths' relative abundances are used as reliable palaeoclimatic indicators2. The Voutes section sediments contain a very rich fish fauna. Diaphus spp., Bregmaceros sp., Sardinella maderensis, Phosichthyidae and Sternoptychyidae form the pelagic component. Mesopelagic taxa belong mostly to Myctophids. The benthopelagic and benthic component of the fish fauna is very well diversified and is comprised of Gobiids, such as Gobius cf. niger, Callogobius sp., Lesueurigobius aff. sanzoi, and Aphya sp., as well as Gadiculus labiatus, Laemonema sp., Oblada melanura, Parascombrus mutinensis, Barbourisia rufa, Blennius sp., Ammodytes sp., Solea aff. solea. The presence of Oligopus sp., Spratelloides sp., and Brotula cf. mutlibarbata in the middle part of the section indicate the development of a reef in the study area. The palaeoecologic analysis of the surface, intermediate and deep water faunal groups indicate that the pelagic fish populations in the semi-enclosed early Pliocene Heraklion basin directly reflect the climatic variability. However, the intermediate and deep water fish did not respond to climate change in the same manner. Indeed, two dysoxic events are recorded in this section, where the pelagic component of the fauna is almost exclusively comprised of Bregmaceros sp., few Myctophids are present, and the benthic and benthopelagic

  16. Neoarchean ductile deformation in the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong area, eastern Heibei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-04-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern NCC, one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups were sheared, but some Archean granitic gneisses were also involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400 to 550°C.LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone was

  17. Neoarchean ductile deformation of the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-05-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups, and some Archean granitic gneisses were involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400-550 °C. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone

  18. On the Urban-Rural Differences in Classroom Environment in Compulsory Education in the Eastern Coastal Developed Areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Furong; Xie, Limin

    2008-01-01

    Totally 789 students from 18 schools (9 primary schools and 9 junior high schools) at a medium managed level from Shanghai, Wenzhou, and Aojiang, which are located in the Eastern coastal developed areas of China were investigated with the questionnaire of Hong Kong Classroom Environment Scale in this study. The result indicates that the actual…

  19. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogan, Coskun; Galip, Ozbek; Ali, Demirer

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  20. Geological evolution of Eocene Aǧrı Basin (Eastern Anatolia-Turkey): Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat Demirkaya, Demirkan; Aksoy, Necmettin; Üner, Serkan

    2017-04-01

    Continental collision zones are sites of intense crustal deformation resulting in different geological processes such as crustal thickening, regional contraction, and volcanic activity. The East Anatolian Plateau emerges from the compression and following collision between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Numerous basins were formed by this compressional tectonism, including the Pasinler, Muş, and Lake Van basins. The E-W trending Aǧrı Basin is located at north of the collision zone formed by compressional tectonism in Eocene and shaped by the volcanism that was active since Miocene. The basins fill initiates with Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene shallow marine deposits composing of reefal limestones, mudstones, and sandstones. Ongoing compressional regime and related regional uplift caused regression and latter transition from shallow marine to terrestrial environments in Middle Miocene took place. Marine units are unconformably overlain by Upper Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits. The Quaternary sedimentation is represented by alluvial fan deposits derived from the northern margin of the basin and young fluvial sediments. Volcanic and volcanoclastic products are frequently observed in Miocene to Recent basin deposits. Currently, E-W trending thrust faults, forming the Aǧrı Basin, continue to control the shape and depositional processes of the basin. Deformation of alluvial fans and channel shifting of the Murat and Seryan rivers which longitudinally passing the basin are the prominent geomorphological indicators of this tectonic activity.

  1. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  2. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui

    2016-01-01

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  3. Widespread and persistent ozone pollution in eastern China during the non-winter season of 2015: observations and source attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Cao, Junji; Wu, Jiarui; Long, Xin; Feng, Tian; Dai, Wenting; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    Rapid growth of industrialization, transportation, and urbanization has caused increasing emissions of ozone (O3) precursors recently, enhancing the O3 formation in eastern China. We show here that eastern China has experienced widespread and persistent O3 pollution from April to September 2015 based on the O3 observations in 223 cities. The observed maximum 1 h O3 concentrations exceed 200 µg m-3 in almost all the cities, 400 µg m-3 in more than 25 % of the cities, and even 800 µg m-3 in six cities in eastern China. The average daily maximum 1 h O3 concentrations are more than 160 µg m-3 in 45 % of the cities, and the 1 h O3 concentrations of 200 µg m-3 have been exceeded on over 10 % of days from April to September in 129 cities. Analyses of pollutant observations from 2013 to 2015 have shown that the concentrations of CO, SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 from April to September in eastern China have considerably decreased, but the O3 concentrations have increased by 9.9 %. A widespread and severe O3 pollution episode from 22 to 28 May 2015 in eastern China has been simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to evaluate the O3 contribution of biogenic and various anthropogenic sources. The model generally performs reasonably well in simulating the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface O3 concentrations. Using the factor separation approach, sensitivity studies have indicated that the industry source plays the most important role in the O3 formation and constitutes the culprit of the severe O3 pollution in eastern China. The transportation source contributes considerably to the O3 formation, and the O3 contribution of the residential source is not significant generally. The biogenic source provides a background O3 source, and also plays an important role in the south of eastern China. Further model studies are needed to comprehensively investigate O3 formation for supporting the design and

  4. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  5. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  6. Temporal-spatial evolution of the hydrologic drought characteristics of the karst drainage basins in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghua; Liang, Hong; Yang, Chaohui; Huang, Fasu; Zeng, Xinbo

    2018-02-01

    Hydrologic drought, as a typical natural phenomenon in the context of global climate change, is the extension and development of meteorological and agricultural droughts, and it is an eventual and extreme drought. This study selects 55 hydrological control basins in Southern China as research areas. The study analyzes features, such as intensity and occurrence frequency of hydrologic droughts, and explores the spatial-temporal evolution patterns in the karst drainage basins in Southern China by virtue of Streamflow Drought Index. Results show that (1) the general hydrologic droughts from 1970s to 2010s exhibited ;an upward trend after having experienced a previous decline; in the karst drainage basins in Southern China; the trend was mainly represented by the gradual alleviation of hydrologic droughts from 1970s to 1990s and the gradual aggravation from 2000s to 2010s. (2) The spatial-temporal evolution pattern of occurrence frequency in the karst drainage basins in Southern China was consistent with the intensity of hydrologic droughts. The periods of 1970s and 2010s exhibited the highest occurrence frequency. (3) The karst drainage basins in Southern China experienced extremely complex variability of hydrologic droughts from 1970s to 2010s. Drought intensity and occurrence frequency significantly vary for different types of hydrology.

  7. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  8. Characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic mink influenza viruses in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Suchun; Zhang, Chuanmei; Li, Jinping; Hou, Guangyu; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Jiming; Shan, Hu

    2017-03-01

    Members of the H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a great threat to both poultry and humans with severe consequences for both industry and public health sectors. Here, we isolated and characterized two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in deceased mink from eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G15 and XB15 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1e, respectively. Both of these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. They were also shown to exhibit moderate to high pathogenicity in mice without pre-adaptation. Further, the mink influenza viruses had severe antigenic drift with corresponding Re-6 vaccine and current vaccines may fail to confer protection against these H5N1 viruses in poultry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Exploration for tight oil in the frontier Santanghu Basin of northwest China has resulted in recent commercial discoveries sourced from the lacustrine Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation, already considered a “world class source rock” in the Junggar Basin to the west. Here we apply an integrated analytical program to carbonate-dominated mudrocks from the Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin to document the nature of organic matter (OM) in the context of an evolving lake system. The organic-rich samples (TOC 2.8–11.4 wt%; n = 10) were widely spaced from an ~ 200 m cored section, interpreted from textural and mineralogical evidence to document transition from a lower under-filled to an overlying balanced-filled lake. Organic matter is dominated by moderate to strongly fluorescent amorphous material with Type I geochemical signature (HI values 510–755; n = 10) occurring in a continuum from lamellar stringers, 10–20 μm thick, some ≥ 1 mm in length (possible microbial mat; preserved only in lower under-filled section) to finely-disseminated amorphous groundmass intimately intermixed with mineral matrix. Biomarkers for methanotrophs and photosynthetic cyanobacteria indicate a complex microbial consortium. A unicellular prasinophyte green alga(?), similar to Tasmanites in marine rocks, is present as discrete flattened discs 50–100 μm in diameter. Type III OM including vitrinite (some fluorescent) and inertinite also is abundant. Solid bitumen, indicating local kerogen conversion, fills voids and occurs throughout the cored section. Vitrinite reflectance values are 0.47–0.58%, consistent with strong OM fluorescence but may be “suppressed”. Other proxies, e.g., biomarker parameters, indicate the Lucaogou Formation is in the early oil window at this location. On average, slightly more amorphous OM and telalginite are present in the lower section, consistent with a shallow, stratified, saline environment with low sediment dilution. More

  10. A refraction study of deep crustal structure in the Basin and Range:Colorado Plateau of eastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Dan M.; Keller, G. R.; Sbar, Marc L.

    1981-07-01

    A reversed seismic refraction profile extending 260 km between Globe, Arizona and Tyrone, New Mexico has been recorded using quarry blasts from open pit copper mines as energy sources. Interpretation of these data suggest a 28-km-thick crust for the Basin and Range in east-central Arizona and a 32-km-thick crust for the Transition Zone in eastern Arizona and western New Mexico. Delays in Pn arrivals have been interpreted as evidence for approximately 4 km of abrupt crustal thickening near Morenci, Arizona. The area of abrupt Moho offset corresponds to rapid changes in tectonic style, late Quaternary faulting, Quaternary and late Tertiary volcanism, high heat flow and evidence for partial melting of the lower crust. Uniformity of layer thicknesses along the profile can be interpreted as upward displacement of the Basin and Range relative to the Transition Zone. The above evidence suggests that the Transition Zone of eastern Arizona and western New Mexico may be experiencing active tectonic readjustment.

  11. Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments from the north -eastern edge of the Fucino basin (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Galadini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments cropping out at the north-eastern edge of the Fucino extensionaI basin (Italy, Central Apennines was investigated. The area is characterized by strong neo-tectonic activity and the original purpose was to investigate possibIe verticaI axis rotations in Plio-Pleisto- cene sediments, in order to improve the understanding of the recent geodynamic processes. Scarcity of suit- able outcrops limited sampling at 8 sites (83 specimens from the north-eastern edge of the basin, in clay-rich intervals beIonging to two different sedimentary cycIes. The paleomagnetic resuIts pointed out a peculiar mag- netic behaviour common to the whole set of studied samples. The Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM is dominated by a vigcous normal component acquired under the influence of the present geomagnetic field, stable only below 200°C. Another (reverse very weak component, stable at higher temperatures (up to 400°C, is present in most of the samples. This component can be precisely isolated for only 7 specimens from 3 different sites and therefore the information gained is not statistically sufficient for any tectonic reconstruction. Rock magnetism analyses showed a variable magnetic mineralogy j but the NRM carriers are not well represented in the artificial remanences produced in the laboratory. Results suggest that the natural viscous remanence is most likeIy carried by coarse multi-domain magnetite.

  12. Have human activities changed the frequencies of absolute extreme temperatures in eastern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tett, Simon F. B.; Yan, Zhongwei; Feng, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures affect populous regions, like eastern China, causing substantial socio-economic losses. It is beneficial to explore whether the frequencies of absolute or threshold-based extreme temperatures have been changed by human activities, such as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, we compared observed and multi-model-simulated changes in the frequencies of summer days, tropical nights, icy days and frosty nights in eastern China for the years 1960-2012 by using an optimal fingerprinting method. The observed long-term trends in the regional mean frequencies of these four indices were +2.36, +1.62, -0.94, -3.02 days decade-1. The models performed better in simulating the observed frequency change in daytime extreme temperatures than nighttime ones. Anthropogenic influences are detectable in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices. The influence of natural forcings could not be detected robustly in any indices. Further analysis found that the effects of GHGs changed the frequencies of summer days (tropical nights, icy days, frosty nights) by +3.48 ± 1.45 (+2.99 ± 1.35, -2.52 ± 1.28, -4.11 ± 1.48) days decade-1. Other anthropogenic forcing agents (dominated by anthropogenic aerosols) offset the GHG effect and changed the frequencies of these four indices by -1.53 ± 0.78, -1.49 ± 0.94, +1.84 ± 1.07, +1.45 ± 1.26 days decade-1, respectively. Little influence of natural forcings was found in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  14. The Jiuxi basin, Hexi Corridor, NW China: foreland structural features and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M. (JAPEX Geoscience Inst. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Coward, M.P. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Jiuxi (Western Jiuquan) Basin, located in the west of the Hexi Corridor, NW China, is a foreland basin which has been active since the Early Jurassic. It was formed as a consequence of the progressive northwards migration of the North Qilian thrusts in response to sinistral shearing along the 2,000-km long Aerjin (Altun) Fault. Sedimentary deposits in the basin are controlled not only by foreland loading and thrusting, but also by the development of listric normal faults at high angles to the thrust belt. At the junctions of these two sets of faults, thick organic-rich sediments and reservoirs have accumulated. During the Tertiary and Quaternary, thrusts propagated along the foot-wall of the North Qilian Fault, truncating earlier-formed oil pools and source-rock layers and thereby causing great difficulties for petroleum exploration. A basin development model is proposed in this paper from an integrated study of sedimentary facies, drilling and seismic data, structural analyses and cross-section reconstructions. The average northwards movement in the frontal zone of the North Qilian Mountains since the Pliocene is estimated at about 8 mm/yr. Therefore, about one-half of the Jurassic-Cretaceous oil-bearing basin could be buried beneath the Laojunmiao and North Qilian Marginal Faults and is virtually untouched by drilling. Source rocks in the basin are black, lacustrine shales of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous ages, with a maximum thickness of up to 1.2 km in the Qingxi Depression. The generation of liquid hydrocarbons began in the Late Cretaceous or mid-Oligocene: seven stratigraphical reservoirs, ranging in age from Silurian to Miocene, are described - anticlinal, fault- and ''buriedhill'' structures are the most important traps. The petroleum potential of individual depressions is discussed, and suggestions for potential regional oil prospects are made. (author)

  15. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  16. Accumulation conditions of Lower Paleozoic shale gas from the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the raw data of the organic-rich shale in the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation and Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation which were collected from the drilling core, we investigated the accumulation conditions of the Lower Paleozoic marine shale gas in the southern Sichuan Basin, China. The results indicate that the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations' black shales in this region are mainly deposited in the deep water shelf sedimentary environment. Both the Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations in the southern Sichuan Basin have great organic-rich shale thickness (mainly 50–300 m. The marine shales of the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are characterized by high total organic carbon contents (average TOC>2%, I–II1 kerogen types, highthermal maturity level (equivalent RO>1.9%, abundant rich brittle mineral (average > 50%, micro- and nanometer pore development, as well as high gas content of shale (average > 1.8 m3/t. All these features are favorable for marine shale gas generation and enrichment in the southern Sichuan Basin. Compared to the Barnett shale in North America, in which shale gas has been explored and developed successfully, it is suggested that the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin would possess good conditions for shale gas accumulation. Therefore, the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are considered as potential targets for marine shale gas exploration, and favorable areas for shale gas enrichment are also purposed. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Qiongzhusi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Zhigong-Yibin, Changning-Gongxian, Jianwei-Muchuan, and Weiyuan areas. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Longmaxi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Longchang-Rongchang, Yibin-Luzhou-Changning, and Weiyuan areas.

  17. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including “north-low”, “southwest-trough”, “southeast-high”, “transition”, “southeast-trough”, and “inland-high”. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for “southwest-trough” and “southeast-high” (defined as favorable synoptic situations, the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008–2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution

  18. [Ecosystem's soil conservation function and its spatial distribution in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xie, Gao-Di; Pei, Sha; Zhang, Chang-Shun; Fan, Na; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Li, Shi-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Based on the RUSLE model, this paper analyzed the ecosystem's soil conservation function and its spatial distribution in Lancang River Basin. This Basin could be one of the regions having the highest ecosystem' s soil conservation capability in China, with an annual ecosystem's soil conservation amount being 2.36 x 10(10) t x a(-1) and the soil conservation amount per unit area being 1453.72 t x a(-1) per hectare. The total amounts of the N, P, and K conserved in soils were 5.74 x 10(7), 3.07 x 10(7), and 3.75 x 10(8) t x a(-1), respectively, and presented an increasing trend from upstream to downstream. Among the ecosystems in the Basin, forest ecosystem had the highest soil conservation capability, followed by grassland and farmland, while desert ecosystem had the lowest one. The soil conservation capability of the ecosystems was linearly increased with the increase of vegetation coverage. Averagely, a 10% increment in the vegetation coverage could result in a 35.3% increment in soil conservation capability. To rationally increase the vegetation coverage by reliable ecosystem management based on local conditions would make good effect in preventing soil erosion and maintaining soil nutrients in the Basin.

  19. Heat flow, deep formation temperature and thermal structure of the Tarim Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Li, Xianglan

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal regime of a sedimentary basin not only provides constraint on understanding the basin formation and evolution, but also offers fundamental parameters for hydrocarbon resources assessment. As one of three Precambrian blocks in China, the Tarim craton is also a current hydrocarbon exploration target where the largest sedimentary basin (Tarim Basin) develops with great potential. Although considerable advancement of geothermal regime of this basin has been made during the past decades, nearly all the temperature data in previous studies are from the exploration borehole formation testing temperatures. Recently, we have conducted the steady-state temperature logging in the Tarim basin, and measured abundant rock thermal properties, enabling us to re-visit the thermal regime of this area with more confidence. Our results show that the present-day geothermal gradients for the Tarim Basin vary from 23 K/km to 27 K/km, with a mean of 22 K/km; the values of heat flow range from 40 mW/m2 to 49 mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. These new data confirmed that the Tarim Basin has relatively low heat flow and shares similar geothermal regime with other Precambrian cratons in the world. In addition, the new temperatures from the steady-state logs are larger than the bottom hole temperatures (BHT) as 22 degree Celsius, indicating the thermal non-equilibrium for the BHTs used in previous studies. Spatial distribution of the estimated formation temperatures-at-depth of 1~5km within the basin is similar and mainly controlled by crystalline basement pattern. Generally, the temperatures at the depth of 1km range from 29 to 41 degree Celsius, with a mean of 35 degree Celsius; while the temperatures at 3km vary from 63 to 100 degree Celsius, and the mean is 82 degree Celsius; at 5km below the surface, the temperatures fall into a range between 90 and 160 degree Celsius, with a mean of 129 degree Celsius. We further proposed the long-term low geothermal background and large burial

  20. The Tarim Basin, NW China: formation and aspects of petroleum geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M.; Coward, M.P. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology); Nishidai, T. (Japex Geoscience Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The formation and evolution since the Sinian of the Tarim Basin, in Northwest China, are introduced in this paper, on the basis of a study of stratigraphical and sedimentary facies, and an analysis of structural features. Mechanisms of basin formation have varied throughout this time, caused by frequent tectonic movements along the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate. As regards petroleum geology, six structural units have been classified from a consideration of the distribution of major source-rock sequences. An overall evaluation is made concerning hydrocarbon exploration in the individual structural units. Moreover, a general review is presented regarding source rocks, hydrocarbon reservoirs, trap structures, sealing layers and hydrocarbon generation, as well as possible recent exploration successes. (author)

  1. Detecting Variation Trends of Temperature and Precipitation for the Dadu River Basin, China

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    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the variation trends of temperature and precipitation in the Dadu River Basin of China based on observed records from fourteen meteorological stations. The magnitude of trends was estimated using Sen’s linear method while its statistical significance was evaluated using Mann-Kendall’s test. The results of analysis depict increase change from northwest to southeast of annual temperature and precipitation in space. In temporal scale, the annual temperature showed significant increase trend and the annual precipitation showed increase trend. For extreme indices, the trends for temperature are more consistent in the region compared to precipitation. This paper has practical meanings for an effective management of climate risk and provides a foundation for further study of hydrological situation in this river basin.

  2. The Implication of Climate Signal for Precipitation in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

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    Fei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the stochastic dynamic variability of precipitation, for the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Heihe River basin in Northwest China, by employing Mann-Kendall statistic, Pettitt test, and wavelet transform methods. The possible associations with three prominent climatic patterns, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Artic Oscillation (AO, and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, are examined by using multiscale wavelet coherence method. No significant trend is identified for the interannual precipitation variability. However, about 2-year significant variability is detected for the lower reach of the Heihe River basin, and this dominating precipitation variability is essentially depicted by AO. The possible influences of ENSO are exerted on long-term timescale, 8–16 years. The obtained knowledge is helpful for the predications of extreme hydroclimatological events and better reservoir operations for regional water resources.

  3. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs: Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-09-05

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the amount of dumped waste and temperature exerted the most significant effects on bimonthly fluctuations of ARG levels in landfill sites. As a middle-sized cosmopolitan city in China, millions of college students and workers migrate during holidays, contributing to the dramatic increases in waste production and fluctuation in ARG abundances. In line with this, mass migration explained most of the variation in waste dumping. The waste dumping also affected the bioaccessibility of mixed-compound pollutants that further positively impacted the level of ARGs. The influence of various bioaccessible compounds on ARG abundance followed the order: antibiotics>nutrients>metals>organic pollutants. Concentrations of bioaccessible compounds were more strongly correlated with ARG levels compared to total compound concentrations. Improved waste classification and management strategies could thus help to decrease the amount of bioaccessible pollutants leading to more effective control for urban ARG dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear effects of anthropogenic aerosol and urban land surface forcing on spring climate in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Zhang, Leying

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols and urban land cover change induce opposite thermal effects on the atmosphere near surface as well as in the troposphere. One can think of these anthropogenic effects as composed of two parts: the individual effect due to an individual anthropogenic forcing and the nonlinear effects resulting from the coexistence of two forcing factors. In this study, we explored the role of such nonlinear effects in affecting East Asian climate, as well as individual forcing effects, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with the Community Land Model version 4. Atmospheric responses were simulated by including anthropogenic aerosol emission only, urban cover only, or the combination of the two, over eastern China. Results showed that nonlinear responses were different from any effects by an individual forcing or the linear combination of individual responses. The nonlinear interaction could generate cold horizontal temperature advection to cool the troposphere, which induced anomalous subsidence along the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). This anomalous vertical motion, together with a weakened low-level southwesterly, favored below-normal (above-normal) rainfall over the YRV (southern China), shifting the spring rain belt southward. The resultant diabatic cooling, in turn, amplified the anomalous descent and further decreased tropospheric temperature over the YRV, forming a positive feedback loop to maintain the nonlinear effects. Consequently, the nonlinear effects acted to reduce the climate anomalies from a simple linear combination of two individual effects and played an important role in regional responses to one anthropogenic forcing when the other is prescribed.

  5. Determining of the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria by means of geographic information system (GIS

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    Nikolova Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria - the catchment area of the largest Bulgarian river which flows into the Black Sea. These types are determined on the base of information about the relief and lithological substrate. The rocks in the investigated area are divided into groups accord­ing to their physical-mechanical and chemical composition, and the relief types are determined in regards to the morphographic features of the catchment area. The research is done on the base of geological and topographic maps in scale 1:200 000 and also terrain observations are taken into account. As a result of the research a map of morpholithological types (1:200 000 is made. The map shows a considerable variety of the morpholithological types in the Kamchia River basin. This variety determines the appearance of the territory and also influences on the landscape differentiation. The analyses and composition of the morpholithology map are done in GIS envi­ronment. For that purpose a GIS database of lithology and relief (topography of the Kamchia River basin is built as spatial 'overlay' analysis is done.

  6. Neogene Basin Evolution Along the Northern Flank of the Papuan Peninsula, Goodenough Bay, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Gillis, R. J.; Mann, P.

    2009-12-01

    Although large-magnitude extension in the Woodlark Rift of eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the D’Entrecasteaux Islands has been addressed through previous research on the late Cenozoic structure and cooling history of metamorphic domes, few studies have evaluated the exhumational record contained within adjacent sedimentary basins. Onshore exposures of Neogene basin fill in PNG along the northern flank of the Papuan peninsula (east of the Dayman metamorphic dome and west-southwest of the domes of the D’Entrecasteaux Islands) provide a record of basin evolution prior to and during growth of the active spreading center that defines the boundary between the Australian plate and Woodlark microplate. Along the northern margin of the Papuan peninsula, a collection of lithofacies associations consisting of sandstone and subordinate conglomerate and mudstone represent deposition in bottomset, foreset, and topset subenvironments in a series of marine Gilbert-type deltas. Internal angular unconformities within the basin-fill succession indicate slope instability likely related to syndepositional deformation. This deformation is attributed to principally down-to-the north motion along extensional and strike-slip structures bordering the northern margin of Papuan peninsula, notably the ESE-striking Goodenough fault zone. Small-scale folding is interpreted as the product of late Miocene to Quaternary fault-related folding in an extensional setting, although we cannot rule out possible contraction coeval with significant collision-related shortening on the southern flank of the Papuan peninsula within the south-directed Papuan fold-thrust belt. Differences in sandstone petrographic results for the northern margin of the Papuan peninsula and the smaller Vogel peninsula suggest a multiphase history of basin evolution, with early Neogene subsidence of uncertain origin and late Neogene subsidence linked to regional extension. The timing of basin evolution will be assessed

  7. OMI measurements of SO2 pollution over Eastern China in 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N.; Pickering, K.; Witte, J.; Carn, S.; Yang, K.; Carmichael, G.; Streets, D.; Zhang, Q.; Wei, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. OMI seasonal to multi-year average images clearly show the world-highest consistent SO2 pollution in northeast China. China is the world's largest SO2 emitter, mostly due to the burning of high-sulfur coal in its many coal-fired power plants, which lack the technology used in many other countries to remove sulfur from smoke stack emissions. China's government has instituted nationwide measures to control SO2 emissions through the adoption of flue-gas desulfurization technology on new power plants; and even greater measures were adopted in the Beijing area in anticipation of the Olympic Games. To study the environmental effects of the emission controls we compared OMI SO2 time series over eastern China for 2005 through 2008. The time series have been done as 7-day running means of the cloud-free daily observations. By mid-March we started to see substantial periods of lower SO2 values in 2008 compared to 2007, and by mid June the 2008 values were consistently lower than 2007 and prior years. The decline is widespread with highest SO2 typically located to the south and southwest of Beijing in regions with large clusters of power plants and also around Shanghai. The decline also lasted beyond the Olympic season. We do not yet know to what extent the economic downturn in China (and reduced industrial production) contributed to lower SO2 levels in the fall of 2008. We have also compared the observed and modeled fields using University of Iowa STEM model for the period June - September 2008. The model provided SO2 vertical distributions as well as aerosol vertical profiles that were used to correct OMI operational SO2 retrievals and improve the comparisons. The OMI SO2 changes in 2008 have also been compared with the estimated changes in SO2 emissions

  8. Seroprevalence of Bartonella in Eastern China and analysis of risk factors

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    Lu Liang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention. Methods Blood samples were collected from industrial rabies clinic attendees and blood donors living in eight areas of the Zhejiang Province of China, between December 2005 and November 2006. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to determine the presence of Bartonella in these samples. Risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of epidemiological data relating to the study's participants. Results Bartonella antibodies were detected in 19.60% (109/556 of blood samples. Seroprevalence varied among the eight areas surveys, ranging from over 32% in Hangzhou to only 2% in Jiangshan (X2 = 28.22, P Bartonella antibodies in people who had been bitten by dogs than in blood donors (X2 = 13.86, P Bartonella was similar among males (18.61%, n = 317 and females (20.92%, n = 239. Conclusions Bartonella antibodies were encountered in people living across Zhejiang Province and the seropositivity rate among those exposed to dog bites was significantly higher than that among blood donors, indicating that dog bites may be a risk factor for Bartonella infection.

  9. Quantitative tolerance values for common stream benthic macroinvertebrates in the Yangtze River Delta, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Jin; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Hughes, Robert M; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic organisms' tolerance to water pollution is widely used to monitor and assess freshwater ecosystem health. Tolerance values (TVs) estimated based on statistical analyses of species-environment relationships are more objective than those assigned by expert opinion. Region-specific TVs are the basis for developing accurate bioassessment metrics particularly in developing countries, where both aquatic biota and their responses to human disturbances have been poorly documented. We used principal component analysis to derive a synthetic gradient for four stressor variables (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, and % silt) based on 286 sampling sites in the Taihu Lake and Qiantang River basins (Yangtze River Delta), China. We used the scores of taxa on the first principal component (PC1), which explained 49.8% of the variance, to estimate the tolerance values (TV(r)) of 163 macroinvertebrates taxa that were collected from at least 20 sites, 81 of which were not included in the Hilsenhoff TV lists (TV(h)) of 1987. All estimates were scaled into the range of 1-10 as in TV(h). Of all the taxa with different TVs, 46.3% of TV(r) were lower and 52.4% were higher than TV(h). TV(r) were significantly (p macroinvertebrate-based bioassessment and to facilitate assessment of streams in China, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta.

  10. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  12. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  14. Lower crustal seismic activity in the Adana Basin (Eastern Mediterranean): Possible connection to gravitational flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Mehmet; Aktar, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    High quality broadband data, together with the application of the double difference relocation technique, has been used to study the characteristics of the lower crustal seismicity in the Adana Basin, in southwestern Turkey. Deep events are clearly seen to be restricted only to the Adana Basin and never extend outside its boundaries. Furthermore, the seismogenic zone is observed to align roughly with the main axis of the basin and plunges steadily in the SSW-direction, following the basement trend of the Adana Basin. Similarities between geometries of the basin evolution and the deep seismic production suggest that both processes are closely related. A flexure process is proposed related to the subsidence of the Adana Basin. The seismogenic zone, originally at a shallow depth, is assumed to have been displaced vertically into the lower crust, by flexure. The temperature evolution of the crust during the flexure has been studied in detail using finite difference modeling, with amplitude and duration parameters taken from earlier studies. It has been concluded that the physical conditions for brittle fracturing remained unchanged for an extended period of time after the flexure. The brittle layers originally at shallow depths, preserved their original thermal properties after the subsidence and will continue to produce earthquakes at considerable depths. Numerical tests using inferred parameters imply a total vertical shift of 7-8 km for the seismogenic zone. Discussions for additional processes, which may further contribute to the cooling of the crust, are also included.

  15. Multimedia fate modeling and risk assessment of a commonly used azole fungicide climbazole at the river basin scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2015-07-01

    Climbazole is an antidandruff active ingredient commonly used in personal care products, but little is known about its environmental fate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of climbazole in water, sediment, soil and air compartments of the whole China by using a level III multimedia fugacity model. The usage of climbazole was calculated to be 345 t in the whole China according to the market research data, and after wastewater treatment a total emission of 245 t was discharged into the receiving environment with approximately 93% into the water compartment and 7% into the soil compartment. The developed fugacity model was successfully applied to estimate the contamination levels and mass inventories of climbazole in various environmental compartments of the river basins in China. The predicted environmental concentration ranges of climbazole were: 0.20-367 ng/L in water, and 0.009-25.2 ng/g dry weight in sediment. The highest concentration was mainly found in Haihe River basin and the lowest was in basins of Tibet and Xinjiang regions. The mass inventory of climbazole in the whole China was estimated to be 294 t, with 6.79% in water, 83.7% in sediment, 9.49% in soil, and 0.002% in air. Preliminary risk assessment showed high risks in sediment posed by climbazole in 2 out of 58 basins in China. The medium risks in water and sediment were mostly concentrated in north China. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of climbazole in the river basins of the whole China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Tertiary Basins of SE Asia from the South China Sea to the Andaman Sea region ; a comparative view on structure and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Sautter, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Basins of SE Asia have developed since the end of Cretaceous times to the detriment of a Mesozoic andean arc which surrounded Sundaland. The arc was broader in the Eastern part along the Pacific Subduction Zone including theSouth China Sea (SCS), than in the Western part along the Sumatra Subduction Zone (Myanmar, Andaman Sea (AS), Malay Peninsula). By the end of the Upper Cretaceous, this arc died out and a widespread rifting with astonishing resemblances started in the whole Sundaland. We compare and discuss the basins similarities and differences in structure and timing between the two sides. A relaxation stage is evidenced in Western Sunda, represented by poorly exposed Late Cretaceous red beds filling the pre-existing morphostructures without clear fault-controlled basins. These deposits are also observed on seismic data offshore in the Gulf of Thailand and AS). On the opposite side along the Chinese margin, thick molasse-type deposits of Late Cretaceous age are on the contrary well expressed offshore and restricted to narrow valleys, indicating that stretching had already begun. There, the Paleogene is marked by strong extension with large crustal blocks rotated by often counter-regional normal faults creating half grabens. Crust was extended and extremely thinned particularly around the SCS. Basins reached the spreading stage in the Celebes Sea, the North Makassar basin and the SCS. On the western side, this period corresponds to narrow deep grabens (e.g. Mergui basins and part of western Malacca) with continental deposits, meaning that the stretching was localized. There, thinning of the crust took place during the Oligocene up to the Middle Miocene where large basins develop mostly to the outer edges of the Yenshanian Arc. Extension resumed in the Pliocene with the opening of the Andaman basin in an even more external position. To the eastern side the uppermost Miocene and the Pliocene were marked mostly by a deepening of the margins and the SCS ocean

  17. Stationarity of annual flood peaks during 1951-2010 in the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The assumption of stationarity of annual peak flood (APF) records at 28 hydrological stations across the Pearl River basin, China, is tested. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are tested using the Pettitt technique and the Loess method. Trends of APFs are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall method and the Spearman technique. And then the stationarity of the APF series is further investigated by GAMLSS models and long-term persistence. Results indicate that: (1) abrupt changes in mean and variance have similar influences on the changing properties of APFs, such as stationarity. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are only field significant in the East River basin; (2) the change points have a considerable impact on the detection of trends, and these may be attributed to the fact that a abrupt increase or decrease in mean values will affect the trend variations. Besides, for the APF series being free of change points and trend, the GAMLSS models also corroborate stationarity of the APF series; (3) the nonstationarity in the Pearl River basin is mainly due to the existence of the change point. However, the APF series with change points in mean and/or variance are also characterized by long-term persistence, and thus it is infeasible to assert that the abrupt behaviors and/or trends of the APF series are the result of human activities or long-term persistence, especially in the East River basin. Results of this study will provide information for management of water resources and design of hydraulic facilities in the Pearl River basin in a changing environment.

  18. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (COD Mn ), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH 4 -N), nitrite, nitrate (NO 3 -N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQI min ), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH 4 -N, COD Mn , NO 3 -N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQI min method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Organic geochemistry and petroleum geology, tectonics and basin analysis of southern Tarim and northern Qaidam basins, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew Dean

    Organic geochemistry of oils from the Tarim basin, NW China, distinguish at least seven genetic groups of oils. The largest group are derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician anoxic slope-facies marls coincident with the margins of structural uplifts. Other groups include non-marine derived oils in the Luntai uplift, from southwest Tarim, in the Kuqa depression, and west of the Bachu uplift. A seep sample from west of Kashi clusters with Luntai oils. These results suggest that numerous source-rock horizons occur, but they are really restricted. Organic geochemistry of oils from northern Qaidam defines a family of hypersaline, anoxic lacustrine derived oils. Cenozoic outcrop samples from northern Qaidam are too organic lean to be of source quality, but dark laminated upper Oligocene mudstones from the Shi 28 well are of fair to good quality. Biomarkers provide a good correlation between the oils and the core samples. Organic matter is from algae and bacteria and lacks terrestrial material. Hydrocarbons are contained in upper Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene reservoirs. Eight oils are from NW Qaidam, but one sample comes from NE Qaidam, an area previously believed to only produce oils derived from Jurassic source rocks. Thus an unidentified Cenozoic source rock occurs in NE Qaidam. Thermal modeling indicates generation occurred in northwestern Qaidam within the last 3 million years, agreeing with observed low maturity biomarker parameters. Cenozoic stratigraphy in northern Qaidam and southern Tarim basins record the tectonic history of the surrounding structural/topographic elements. Paleocurrents record flow away from adjacent ranges from the Miocene to the present. Provenance data tie sediments to adjacent structural elements. Petrography indicates increasingly immature sandstones in Miocene and younger sediments relative to pre-Miocene samples. Apatite fission-track results from southeastern Tarim yield a cooling age of 17 +/- 1 Ma indicative of unroofing since at

  20. Examination of flood characteristics at selected streamgages in the Meramec River Basin, eastern Missouri, December 2015–January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Koenig, Todd A.; Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-09-13

    OverviewHeavy rainfall resulted in major flooding in the Meramec River Basin in eastern Missouri during late December 2015 through early January 2016. Cumulative rainfall from December 14 to 29, 2015, ranged from 7.6 to 12.3 inches at selected precipitation stations in the basin with flooding driven by the heaviest precipitation (3.9–9.7 inches) between December 27 and 29, 2015. Financial losses from flooding included damage to homes and other structures, damage to roads, and debris removal. Eight of 11 counties in the basin were declared a Federal Disaster Area.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and St. Louis Metropolitan Sewer District, operates multiple streamgages along the Meramec River and its primary tributaries including the Bourbeuse River and Big River. The period of record for streamflow at streamgages in the basin included in this report ranges from 24 to 102 years. Instrumentation in a streamgage shelter automatically makes observations of stage using a variety of methods (submersible pressure transducer, non-submersible pressure transducer, or non-contact radar). These observations are recorded autonomously at a predetermined programmed frequency (typically either 15 or 30 minutes) dependent on drainage-area size and concomitant flashiness of the stream. Although stage data are important, streamflow data are equally or more important for streamflow forecasting, water-quality constituent loads computation, flood-frequency analysis, and flood mitigation planning. Streamflows are computed from recorded stage data using an empirically determined relation between stage and streamflow termed a “rating.” Development and verification of the rating requires periodic onsite discrete measurements of streamflow throughout time and over the range of stages to define local hydraulic conditions.The purpose of this report is to examine characteristics of flooding that occurred in the Meramec River Basin in

  1. The structural elements and tectonics of the Lake Van basin (Eastern Anatolia) from multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Mustafa; Sengor, A. M. Celal; Demirel Schluter, Filiz; Demirbag, Emin; Cukur, Deniz; Imren, Caner; Niessen, Frank; PaleoVan-Working Group

    2017-05-01

    This study analyzed multi-channel seismic reflection data from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, to provide key information on the structural elements, deformational patterns and overall tectonic structure of the Lake Van basin. The seismic data reveal three subbasins (the Tatvan, northern and Ahlat subbasins) separated by structural ridges (the northern and Ahlat ridges). The Tatvan basin is a tilted wedge-block in the west, it is a relatively undeformed and flat-lying deep basin, forming a typical example of strike-slip sedimentation. Seismic sections reveal that the deeper sedimentary sections of the Tatvan basin are locally folded, gently in the south and more intensely further north, suggesting a probable gravitational "wedge-block" instability, oblique to the northern margin. The northern subbasin, bounded by normal oblique faults, forms a basin-margin graben structure that is elongated in a northeast-southwest direction. The east-west trending Ahlat ridge forms a fault-wedged sedimentary ridge and appears to offset by reverse oblique faults forming as a push-up rhomb horst structure. The Ahlat subbasin is a fault-wedged trough fill that is elongated in the west-east direction and appears as a horst-foot graben formed by the normal oblique faults. The northeast-southwest directed northern ridge is a faulted crestal terrace of a sublacustrine basement block. Its step-like morphology, in response to the downfaulting of the Tatvan basin, as well as its backthrusted appearance, indicates the normal oblique nature of the bounding faults. The lacustrine shelf and slope show distinctive stratigraphic features; progradational deltas, submerged fluvial channels, distorted and collapsed beddings and soft sediment deformation structures, characterizing a highly unstable nature of shelf caused by strong oblique faulting and related earthquakes. The faulting caused uplift of the Çarpanak spur zone, together with the northeastern Erek delta, deformation of deltaic structures

  2. On fault evidence for a large earthquake in the late fifteenth century, Eastern Kunlun fault, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlong, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    The EW-trending Kunlun Fault System (KFS) is one of the major left-lateral strike-slip faults on the Tibetan Plateau. It forms the northern boundary of the Bayan Har block. Heretofore, no evidence has been provided for the most recent event (MRE) of the 70-km-long eastern section of the KFS. The studied area is located in the north of the Zoige Basin (northwest Sichuan province) and was recognized by field mapping. Several trenches were excavated and revealed evidence of repeated events in late Holocene. The fault zone is characterized by a distinct 30-60-cm-thick clay fault gouge layer juxtaposing the hanging wall bedrock over unconsolidated late Holocene footwall colluvium and alluvium. The fault zone, hanging wall, and footwall were conformably overlain by undeformed post-MRE deposits. Samples of charred organic material were obtained from the top of the faulted sediments and the base of the unfaulted sediments. Modeling of the age of samples, earthquake yielded a calibrated 2σ radiocarbon age of A.D. 1489 ± 82. Combined with the historical earthquake record, the MRE is dated at A.D. 1488. Based on the over 50 km-long surface rupture, the magnitude of this event is nearly M w 7.0. Our data suggests that a 200-km-long seismic gap could be further divided into the Luocha and Maqu sections. For the last 1000 years, the Maqu section has been inactive, and hence, it is likely that the end of its seismic cycle is approaching, and that there is a potentially significant seismic hazard in eastern Tibet.

  3. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  5. Hydrogeological framework and geometry modeling via joint gravity and borehole parameters, the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin (central-eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souei, Ali; Atawa, Mohamed; Zouaghi, Taher

    2018-03-01

    The Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin, in the central-eastern part of Tunisia, is characterized by the scarcity of surface and subsurface water resources. Although the aquifer systems of this basin are not well understood, the scarce water resources are subject to a high rate of exploitation leading to a significant drop in the level of the water table. This work presents correlation of gravity data with hydrogeological data in order to improve the knowledge of the deep structures and aquifer systems. Various geophysical filtering techniques (e.g., residual anomaly, upward continuation, horizontal gradient, and Euler deconvolution) applied to the complete Bouguer anomaly, deduce the deep structures and geometry of the basin and highlight gravity lineaments that correspond to the tectonic features. The structural framework of the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem hydrogeological basin shows N-S to NNE-SSW and E-W oriented structures that should be related to tectonic deformations. In addition to the faults, previously recognized, new lineaments are highlighted by the present work. They correspond to NE-, NW-, E- and N- trending faults that have controlled structuring and geometry of the basin. 2D gravity forward modeling, based on the interpretation of geophysical, geological and hydrogeological data, led to a better understanding of the basin geometry and spatial distribution of the Campanian-Maastrichtian and Cenozoic potential aquifers. Three hydrogeological sub-basins identified include the Nadhour sub-basin in the north, the El Alem sub-Basin in the South and the Etrabelsia sub-Basin in the East. These sub-basins are marked by a thickening of deposits, are separated by the Sisseb-Fadeloun raised structure of Neogene and Quaternary thinned series. The results allow the determination of limit conditions for the basin hydrodynamic evolution and explain some anomalies on the quantity and quality of the groundwater. They provide a management guide for water resources prospection in

  6. Emissions Inventory for the Uinta Basin of Eastern Utah, Winter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D.; Hall, C. F.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of an emissions inventory for the Uinta Basin, Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah, focusing on emissions categories that are poorly represented by existing inventories. We have also focused on wintertime emissions in general and on the winter season of 2012, in particular, in order to have an inventory that is relevant to winter ozone events in the basin. The inventory includes categories such as major and minor point sources, produced water evaporation ponds, wood stoves, mobile emissions, biogenic and agricultural emissions, land fills, etc.

  7. Geostationary Satellite Observation of Precipitable Water Vapor Using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF based Reconstruction Technique over Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor, as one of the most important greenhouse gases, is crucial for both climate and atmospheric studies. Considering the high spatial and temporal variations of water vapor, a timely and accurate retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV is urgently needed, but has long been constrained by data availability. Our study derived the vertically integrated precipitable water vapor over eastern China using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT data, which is in geostationary orbit with high temporal resolution. The missing pixels caused by cloud contamination were reconstructed using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF decomposition method over both spatial and temporal dimensions. GPS meteorology data were used to validate the retrieval and the reconstructed results. The diurnal variation of PWV over eastern China was analyzed using harmonic analysis, which indicates that the reconstructed PWV data can depict the diurnal cycle of PWV caused by evapotranspiration and local thermal circulation.

  8. Hydrogeochemistry of high-fluoride groundwater at Yuncheng Basin, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengcheng [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Xubo, E-mail: xubo.gao.cug@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78705 (United States); Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope methods were integrated to delineate the spatial distribution and enrichment of fluoride in groundwater at Yuncheng Basin in northern China. One hundred groundwater samples and 10 Quaternary sediment samples were collected from the Basin. Over 69% of the shallow groundwater (with a F{sup −} concentration of up to 14.1 mg/L), 44% of groundwater samples from the intermediate and 31% from the deep aquifers had F{sup −} concentrations above the WHO provisional drinking water guideline of 1.5 mg/L. Groundwater with high F{sup −} concentrations displayed a distinctive major ion chemistry: Na-rich and Ca-poor with a high pH value and high HCO{sub 3}{sup −} content. Hydrochemical diagrams and profiles and hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions indicate that variations in the major ion chemistry and pH are controlled by mineral dissolution, cation exchange and evaporation in the aquifer systems, which are important for F{sup −} mobilization as well. Leakage of shallow groundwater and/or evaporite (gypsum and mirabilite) dissolution may be the major sources for F{sup −} in groundwater of the intermediate and deep aquifers. - Highlights: • High-F{sup −} groundwater widely occurs in Yuncheng Basin of northern China. • High-F{sup −} groundwater is Na and HCO{sub 3}-rich and Ca-poor, with high pH. • Major hydrogeochemical processes are mineral dissolution, ion exchange and evaporation. • Shallow groundwater leakage/evaporite dissolution may cause F enrichment in lower aquifers.

  9. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is related to eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Tang

    Full Text Available The Hai River Basin (HRB is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A, filamentous algae with diatoms (type B, and filamentous algae (type C varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB.

  11. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  12. Multiphase timing of hominin occupations and the paleoenvironment in Luonan Basin, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Shejiang; Cosgrove, Richard; Sun, Xuefeng; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Donghuai; Zhao, Cunfa; Shen, Chen; Wei, Ming

    Thousands of Paleolithic artifacts have been recovered from Paleolithic sites in the Luonan Basin, in the upper South Luohe River of central China. Their discovery suggests that the basin was an important area for hominin settlement during the Pleistocene. However, the initial timing of this occupation and the environmental conditions for this period are still largely unknown. In addition, the sediments are not well dated and most of the artifacts lie on the surface. In an attempt to resolve these issues, a new systemic paleomagnetic analysis was carried out on the loess deposits that contain in situ stone tools. Our detailed loess-paleosol analyses of the stratigraphy of different sites in the basin and Chinese Loess Plateau shows the accumulation of the loess since at least 1.1 million years (Ma) ago. Moreover, recently discovered in situ cores, flakes and retouched stone tools in these deposits show that hominins used this region repeatedly from 0.8-0.7 Ma to 0.4-0.3 and 0.2-0.1 Ma. Pedostratigraphic analyses, magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope analyses also indicate that these hominins lived in a subtropical to warm-temperate climate with broad-needle-leaf forest vegetation mixed with grasses.

  13. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Evolution of Isolated Rainstorm Events in Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the impacts of extreme climate, the severity, areal extent, and frequency of rainstorm events are rapidly increasing, especially in the Huai River Basin of China. This article is based on hourly precipitation data of 229 meteorological stations from 1951 through 2012, combined with statistical and meteorological theory. We used the Mann-Kendall mutation test, moving t-test, and inverse distance weighting spatial interpolation to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of precipitation, duration, intensity, and frequency of isolated rainstorm events under climate change. The main results are as follows: (1 isolated rainstorm events were obviously bimodal and their occurrence moved backward in time. Their average duration and time of maximum intensities changed dramatically, without a significant increasing trend. The period since the 2000s has seen an increase of rainstorms and their temporal regression across the entire basin. (2 The intensity of isolated rainstorm events in the study area decreased, but precipitation, its duration, areal extent, and frequency had increasing trends basin-wide. (3 Four rainstorm event indices were examined for the period of 1990–2000. Relative to the years before 2003, the average precipitation increased by 2.1%, the average total duration by 8.1%, and the average frequency of occurrence by 25.5%. All indices show smaller minimum and larger maximum values. Overall, the isolated rainstorm events tended to increase.

  14. Assessment of gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soils along a subtropical river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dekun; Yu, Tao [Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China). Lab. of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment

    2017-07-01

    The activities of natural radionuclides in the environment can be used to assess radiological effects. Monitoring the radiation level in soils is important for public health. It also has important geochemical implications as most of the sediment eroded from river basins is from soil. Therefore, we carried out a soil sampling campaign along a subtropical river basin in southeastern China (Jiulong River). Surface and depth profile soils were collected, and the natural radionuclide activities were measured. The activities of the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the surface soils varied from 31.6 to 132.1 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 37.8 to 174.0 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 52.3 to 596.2 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, with average values of 56.7±30.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 86.7±41.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 352.8±190.6 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, respectively. The absorbed gamma dose in air and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) in surface soils along the river basin were both higher than the world average. In the depth profiles, excess {sup 210}Pb ({sup 210}Pbex) decreased with depth and significant correlation between {sup 210}Pbex and TOC was observed, suggesting that they are affected by similar processes (leaching and sorption).

  15. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations during springtime in the Guanzhong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Bei, Naifang; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yichen; Huang, Ru-jin; Tie, Xuexi; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-08-01

    The organic aerosol (OA) concentration is simulated in the Guanzhong Basin, China from 23 to 25 April 2013 utilizing the WRF-CHEM model. Two approaches are used to predict OA concentrations: (1) a traditional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module; (2) a non-traditional SOA module including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic aerosol (POA) is assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive. Generally, the spatial patterns and temporal variations of the calculated hourly near-surface ozone and fine particle matters agree well with the observations in Xi'an and surrounding areas. The model also yields reasonable distributions of daily PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC) compared to the filter measurements at 29 sites in the basin. Filter-measured organic carbon (OC) and EC are used to evaluate OA, POA, and SOA using the OC / EC ratio approach. Compared with the traditional SOA module, the non-traditional module significantly improves SOA simulations and explains about 88 % of the observed SOA concentration. Oxidation and partitioning of POA treated as semivolatile constitute the most important pathway for the SOA formation, contributing more than 75 % of the SOA concentrations in the basin. Residential emissions are the dominant anthropogenic OA source, constituting about 50 % of OA concentrations in urban and rural areas and 30 % in the background area. The OA contribution from transportation emissions decreases from 25 % in urban areas to 20 % in the background area, and the industry emission OA contribution is less than 6 %.

  16. How to allocate water resources under climate change in the arid endorheic river basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Feng, D.; Tian, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Water resource is of fundamental importance to the society and ecosystem in arid endorheic river basins, and water-use conflicts between upstream and downstream are usually significant. Heihe river basin (HRB) is the second largest endorheic river basin in china, which is featured with dry climate, intensively irrigated farmlands in oases and significant surface water-groundwater interaction. The irrigation districts in the middle HRB consume a large portion of the river flow, and the low HRB, mainly Gobi Desert, has an extremely vulnerable ecological environment. The water resources management has significantly altered the hydrological processes in HRB, and is now facing multiple challenges, including decline of groundwater table in the middle HRB, insufficient environmental flow for the lower HRB. Furthermore, future climate change adds substantial uncertainty to the water system. Thus, it is imperative to have a sustainable water resources management in HRB in order to tackle the existing challenges and future uncertainty. Climate projection form a dynamical downscaled climate change scenario shows precipitation will increase at a rate of approximately 3 millimeter per ten years and temperature will increase at a rate of approximately 0.2 centigrade degree per ten years in the following 50 years in the HRB. Based on an integrated ecohydrological model, we evaluated how the climate change and agricultural development would collaboratively impact the water resources and ecological health in the middle and lower HRB, and investigated how the water management should cope with the complex impact.

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterization of abnormal hemoglobin in eastern Guangdong of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M; Wang, Q; Zheng, L; Huang, Y; Lin, F; Lin, C P; Yang, L Y

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) are the most commonly inherited disorders in humans. Their frequency and types change considerably with geographic location and ethnic group. To investigate the molecular epidemiological characterization of abnormal Hbs in eastern Guangdong of southern China, a total of 11,450 'healthy' subjects were subjected to hemoglobin electrophoresis screening. Samples of EDTA-K(2) blood with abnormal Hbs were analyzed by CELL-DYN1700 blood analyzer; thalassemia genotypes and Hb E variant were identified by gap-PCR and/or reverse dot blot (RDB). The genotypes of Hb variants were detected by PCR and sequencing. The incidence of abnormal Hbs was 0.358%(41/11,450) in Chaozhou, including 12.2% (5/41) Hb J, 4.9% (2/41) Hb K, 9.7% (4/41) Hb Q, 31.7% (13/41) Hb G/D and 41.5% (17/41) Hb E. Eight types of Hb variants were found, including 3 cases of Hb J-Bangkok, 2 cases of Hb J-Wenchang-Wuming, 2 cases of Hb New York, 4 cases of Hb Q-Thailand, 5 cases of Hb G-Waimanalo, 4 cases of Hb Ottawa, 4 cases of Hb G-Chinese and 17 cases of Hb E. In comparison with other areas of Guangdong, Chaozhou had a different pattern of abnormal Hbs with a high prevalence of Hb G/D. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characterization of abnormal Hbs in eastern Guangdong. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  19. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz

    2013-04-01

    ., 2009). This paper concludes that the soil erosion on road and railways are not sustainable and they are the highest soil losses measured in the study area. Road embankments are triggering land degradation and Desertification processes as less water is available for the soil processes and more soil is lost. Keywords: Road, Railway, Embankments, Erosion, Runoff. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bakr, N., Weindorf, D.C., Zhu, Y., Arceneaux, A.E., & Selim, H.M. 2012. Evaluation of compost/mulch as highway embankment erosion control in Louisiana at the plot-scale Journal of Hydrology, 468-469, 257-267. Bel, G. 2011. Infrastructure and nation building: The regulation and financing of network transportation infrastructures in Spain (1720-2010), Business History, 53:5, 688-705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2011.599591 Cerdà, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road enbankments in eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 378, 151-155. Cerdà, A., Hooke, J. Romero-Diaz, A., Montanarella, L., & Lavee, H. 2010. Soil erosion on Mediterranean Type-Ecosystems Land Degradation and Development. Editors. DOI 10.1002/ldr.968. De Oña, J., Osorio, F., & Garcia, P. A. 2009. Assessing the effects of using compost-sludge mixtures to reduce erosion in road embankments. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2-3), 1257-1265. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Jordán, A., & Martínez-Zavala, L. 2008. Soil loss and runoff rates on unpaved forest roads in southern Spain after simulated rainfall. Forest Ecology and Management, 255 (3-4), 913-919. Persyn, R. A., Glanville, T. D., Richard, T. L., Laflen, J. M., & Dixon, P. M. 2004. Environmental effects of applying

  20. RESEARCH INTO THE HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE SAVA RIVER BASIN IN EASTERN SLAVONIA AND ITS KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Capar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological explorations, especially hydrogeology of quaternary waterbearing deposits of Eastern Slavonia are presented. Hydro-geological and hydrochemical parameters are discussed and evaluation of groundwater reserves is done. Critical approach to the results of exploration is provided by some suggestions for future quaternary deposits exploration in the area (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Population Spatial Dynamics of Larix potaninii in Alpine Treeline Ecotone in the Eastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia’nan Cui; Jihong Qin; Hui Sun

    2017-01-01

    The high-altitude treeline is known to be sensitive to climate variability, and is thus considered as a bio-monitoring indicator of climate change. However, our understanding of the population dynamics and the cumulative climate-change effects on the alpine treeline ecotone in recent decades is limited. Here, we investigated the population dynamics of Larix potainii on the south- and north-facing slopes in the alpine treeline ecotone in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China, includ...

  2. The lithosphere structure and deep processes of the Mesozoic metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from passive and active seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Jiang, G.; Yan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe-03 has conducted a Transect exploration across middle and lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMT) in Eastern China. Broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey were carried out along the Transect. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, deep processes and deformation history of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and financial support by National Natural

  3. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen

    2014-05-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  4. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  5. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  7. Effects of mulch on plant and soil recovery after wildfire in the eastern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw mulch is often applied after wildfire to reduce soil erosion and potentially increase soil moisture and thus plant recruitment. However, the efficacy of mulch treatments is poorly known, particularly in Great Basin ecosystems. We examined the effects of straw mulch application on the Black fir...

  8. Weekday AOD smaller than weekend AOD in eastern China on the basis of the MODIS AOD product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Xia, Xiangao; Zhang, Xiaoling; Che, Huizheng; Li, Xiaojing

    2018-05-01

    A weekly cycle of surface particulate matter (PM) characterized by smaller values during weekends and larger values during weekdays was reported in eastern China. Whether column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed similar weekly cycling as that of PM was debated. The weekly variation of AOD in eastern China was further studied by using the latest MODIS aerosol product (collection 6) with a fine spatial resolution (0.1°) from 2002 to 2015. We used three statistical methods to determine whether the weekly cycle of AOD was significant. AOD during weekdays (Wednesday to Friday) was lower than that during weekends. The maximum and minimum AOD was generally observed on Monday and Wednesday, respectively. This weekly pattern of AOD was in good agreement with previous results based on satellite aerosol products with a coarse spatial resolution, but it was in contrast to that of PM. Further analysis of the AOD weekly variability in 19 provincial cities suggested that AOD during weekdays was smaller than that during weekends in urban regions. Potential causes for the different weekly cycle of PM and AOD in eastern China were discussed.

  9. Early Cretaceous Tertiary magmatism in Eastern Paraguay (western Paraná basin): geological, geophysical and geochemical relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P.; Cundari, A.; DeGraff, J. M.; Gomes, C. B.; Piccirillo, E. M.

    1999-11-01

    Structural characteristics of Eastern Paraguay, at the westernmost side of the Paraná basin, show that the tectonics in the region is extensional. This tectonics controlled the emplacement of the alkaline rocks in Early Cretaceous-Tertiary times. Major structures are NW-trending zones of tectonic subsidence, i.e. the 'Asunción-Sapucai-Villarrica' and 'Amambay' grabens of the central and northeastern regions of Eastern Paraguay, respectively. Early Cretaceous potassic magmatism is widespread in the 'gravity lows', and predates the tholeiitic Early Cretaceous magmatism in the northern areas, whereas in central Paraguay it postdates the tholeiitic flood basalts. Sodic alkaline rocks (late Early Cretaceous-Tertiary) are widespread in cratonized areas of the La Plata Craton. The Early Cretaceous uncontaminated potassic rocks (and tholeiites) have geochemical features of 'subduction type' (e.g. Ta-Nb negative anomaly), while the contrary occurs for the closely associated younger sodic magmatism. This implies different mantle sources consistently with Sr-Nd isotopes which are Rb-Nd enriched and depleted for the potassic and sodic rocks, respectively. T DM(Nd) model ages point to two notional distinct metasomatic events occurred in Middle and Late Proterozoic times. A contribution of asthenospheric melts from Tristan da Cunha Plume is not appreciable. We suggest that the source(s) of the recurrent potassic magmatism and interposed tholeiitic event may not be easily accounted for by the Tristan da Cunha plume hypothesis.

  10. The phytogeography and ecotourism potential of the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü river" basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Akis, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Köprü River Basin is located in the western Taurus mountains in south-western Turkey. The area is in the Mediterranean phytogeographical region. The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean: mild and rainy in winter, hot and dry in summer. Xerophytic plants can easily grow in this climate. Pinus brutia forests are common in the study area. Maquis and garique elements with sclerophyll character also occur in the region. The study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation in the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü River" Basin. The factors which affect the distribution of vegetation are climate, landforms and soils. In order to determine the plant growth and climate relationship, the climatic data were analyzed. As well as the geological and geomorphological conditions, the soils were investigated and the effects of these factors on vegetation cover were analyzed. The region also has various attributes for the development of ecotourism, including canyons, forests and historical places. The region has a great potential for many different social, cultural, and scientific activities related to ecotourism. These are highland tourism, rafting, botanic tourism, trekking, and climbing. In order to make ecotourism available for local people to benefit, ecotourism should be developed and introduced to the world. Moreover, plans for the sustainability of the resources should be made. The study highlights the ecotourism potential of the area which is of social, economic, and ecological importance for the region.

  11. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.

    2016-07-01

    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  12. Stratigraphic and structural revision of the Upper Mesozoic succession of the Dadès valley, eastern Ouarzazate Basin (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Moratti, Giovanna; Algouti, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a stratigraphic and structural revision of the Late Mesozoic succession exposed in the Dadès River valley (eastern Ouarzazate Basin), at the southern front of the Central High Atlas. Facies analysis, recognition of different rank erosional, angular and progressive unconformities and new paleontological data, allowed a subdivision into five units of four formations formerly ascribed to the Late Cretaceous. The local stratigraphy is tentatively correlated with the Middle Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous successions exposed in different sectors of the Central High Atlas. Integrated structural and stratigraphic data led to infer a predominant tectonically-driven development of these units. The local tectono-depositional scenario suggests since the Middle-Late Jurassic the occurrence of southward-directed fluvial systems sourced from an uplifting basement high in the axial portion of the Central High Atlas and paired to an incipient foreland basin confined by the Anti-Atlasic ranges. Crustal shortening may have caused an early tectonic inversion of the basement high progressively propagated to the south with subsequent deformation of the sedimentary cover.

  13. Hydrological effects of cropland and climatic changes in arid and semi-arid river basins: A case study from the Yellow River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huazhen; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Sun, Peng

    2017-06-01

    The Yellow River basin is a typical semi-arid river basin in northern China. Serious water shortages have negative impacts on regional socioeconomic development. Recent years have witnessed changes in streamflow processes due to increasing human activities, such as agricultural activities and construction of dams and water reservoirs, and climatic changes, e.g. precipitation and temperature. This study attempts to investigate factors potentially driving changes in different streamflow components defined by different quantiles. The data used were daily streamflow data for the 1959-2005 period from 5 hydrological stations, daily precipitation and temperature data from 77 meteorological stations and data pertaining to cropland and large reservoirs. Results indicate a general decrease in streamflow across the Yellow River basin. Moreover significant decreasing streamflow has been observed in the middle and lower Yellow River basin with change points during the mid-1980s till the mid-1990s. The changes of cropland affect the streamflow components and also the cumulative effects on streamflow variations. Recent years have witnessed moderate cropland variations which result in moderate streamflow changes. Further, precipitation also plays a critical role in changes of streamflow components and human activities, i.e. cropland changes, temperature changes and building of water reservoirs, tend to have increasing impacts on hydrological processes across the Yellow River basin. This study provides a theoretical framework for the study of the hydrological effects of human activities and climatic changes on basins over the globe.

  14. Organic walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Tarim Basin, western China: Implications for the retreat of the Paratethys Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothe, A.; Houben, A.J.P.; Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    Paleogene sediments of the Tarim basin in western China hold the easternmost extent of the Paratethys Sea, an epicontinental sea that covered a large part of Eurasia and probably extended to the Mediterranean Tethys in the west. The late Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary record of the

  15. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the

  16. Annual runoff and evapotranspiration of forestlands and non-forestlands in selected basins of the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhui Wang; Pengtao Yu; Karl-Heinz Feger; Xiaohua Wei; Ge Sun; et al

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale forestation has been undertaken over decades principally to control the serious soil erosion in the Loess Plateau of China. A quantitative assessment of the hydrological effects of forestation, especially on basin water yield, is critical for the sustainable forestry development within this dry region. In this study, we constructed the multi-annual water...

  17. Investigation for Strong Ground Shaking across the Taipei Basin during the MW 7.0 Eastern Taiwan Offshore Earthquake of 31 March 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to reconstructed ground motion snapshots of the northern Taiwan area during the MW 7.0 eastern Taiwan offshore earthquake of 31 March 2002, the composite effects indicated complicated wave propagation behavior in the ground motion of the Taipei basin. A major low frequency pulse arose after the S-wave with the duration of about 20 seconds was observed in northern Taiwan and dominated the radial direction. Observed waveforms of a low frequency pulse show amplification during the seismic wave across the Taipei basin from its eastern edge to western portion. This effect has been considered to be generated by an unusual source radiation, deep Moho reflection or basin bottom surface. In this study, recorded ground motions from a dense seismic network were analyzed using a frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis for seismic wave propagation properties. We investigated temporal and spatial variations in strong shaking in different frequency bands. Results show that a simple pulse incident seismic wave strongly interacts with inside soft sediments and the surrounding topography of the Taipei basin which in turn extends its shaking duration. Evidence showed that seismic waves have been reflected back from its western boundary of basin with a dominant frequency near one Hz. Findings in this study have been rarely reported and may provide useful information to further constrain a three-dimensional numerical simulation for the basin response and velocity structure, and to predict ground motions of further large earthquakes.

  18. Postglacial development of the eastern Gulf of Finland: from Pleistocene glacial lake basins to Holocene lagoon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Grigoriev, Andrey; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Anisimov, Mikhail; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Budanov, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Despite significant amount of data, there are still lots of debatable questions and unsolved problems concerning postglacial geological history of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Among these problems are: 1) locations of the end moraine and glacio-fluvial deposits; 2) time and genesis of the large accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes); 3) basinwide correlations of trangression/regression culminations with the other parts of the Baltic Sea basin; 4) study of salinity, timing, frequency and intensity of Holocene saline water inflows and their links of sedimentation processes associated with climate change. Aiming to receive new data about regional postglacial development, the GIS analyses of bottom relief and available geological and geophysical data was undertaken, the maps of preQuaternary relief, moraine and Late Pleistocene surfaces, glacial moraine and Holocene sediments thicknesses were compiled. High-resolution sediment proxy study of several cores, taken from eastern Gulf of Finland bottom, allows to study grain-size distribution and geochemical features of glacial lake and Holocene sediments, to reveal sedimentation rates and paleoenvironment features of postglacial basins. Interdisciplinary geoarcheological approaches offer new opportunities for studying the region's geological history and paleogeography. Based on proxy marine geological and coastal geoarcheological studies (e.g. off-shore acoustic survey, side-scan profiling and sediment sampling, on-shore ground-penetrating radar (GPR SIR 2000), leveling, drilling, grain-size analyses and radiocarbon dating and archeological research) detailed paleogeographical reconstruction for three micro-regions - Sestroretsky and Lahta Lowlands, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and Southern Ladoga - were compiled. As a result, new high resolution models of Holocene geological development of the Eastern Gulf of Finland were received. Model calibration and verification used results from proxy geoarcheological research

  19. A study on land surface phenology in eastern China based on SPOT/VGT datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Guifeng; Xie, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation phenology provides a relevant indicator of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. In this study, vegetation phenology measurements were extracted and the spatial distributions were investigated using time series SPOT/VGT NDVI datasets for eastern China. Four phenology measurements were analyzed: the start of the growing season (SOS), the end of the growing season (EOS), the length of the growing season (GSL) and the time of the peak NDVI. The SOS in the northern part of the study area occurred earlier than in the rest of the study area due to larger amounts of cropland. The EOS showed a strong latitudinal pattern, especially in the southern portion of the study area. The GSL also showed a clear spatial pattern along the latitudinal gradient from north to south. The time of peak NDVI did not show a spatial pattern along the latitudinal gradient, which is likely due to the influence of vegetation types and the types of farming systems. In addition, there were no significant correlations between longitude and the four phenology measurements. SOS does not correlate with latitude, longitude or altitude, but EOS, GSL and the time of peak NDVI all correlated with latitude and altitude

  20. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  1. Petrologic characteristic and Geological Model of Igneous Reservoir: An example in Zhanhua Seg, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Shao, S.; Kang, R.; Liu, K.

    2003-12-01

    The diabase is a typical igneous rock, which intrude the oil-bearing mudstone and form potential reservoir. As an example of Luo151 igneous rock in Zhanhua Seg, Eastern China, we studied the diabase reservoir in detail, including petrologic analysis, reservoir anisotropy and geological modeling. Four lithofacies zones are divided according to analyzing petrology, texture and structureϻwhich comprise carbonaceous slate, hornfels containing cordierite and grammite, border subfacies and central subfacies, and the petrologic types include carbonaceous slate, hornfels, and diabases. The diabase construction is divided into grammite hornfels micropore and diabase porous-fracture type reservoirs. The mudstone layers in Third Member of Shahejie Formation (Es3) provide favorable hydrocarbon source rock and cap formation, diabase and hornfels belts serve as reservoirs, faults and microcracks in the wall rocks as the pathways for oil and gas migration. The invasive time was about in the later deposition period of Dongying Formation and the middle of that of Guantao Formation, the oil generated from oil source rock of Es3 in the period of the Minghuazhen formation and is earlier more than the period of diabase oil trap and porous space forming.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in sediment and fish tissues from Lake Chaohu, central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Suwen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs levels in environmental media have increased over the last 20-25 years in the world. In aquatic environments PBDEs were found to be accumulated along food chain and Endocrine disruptors toxicity. In this study PBDEs were investigated in sediment and fish tissues from Lake Chaohu in central eastern China. There were 10 PBDEs congeners detected out of all 41 PBDEs. BDE-47 was of the highest with 5.17 ng/g in sediment and 58.47 ng/g in fish. PBDEs were evenly distributed across the surface sediment in the whole lake. It implied that the main source of PBDEs may not be an inflow river like Nanfei. Tissue distribution patterns of PBDEs in four fish species were in the order of BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-100 > BDE-66 > BDE-138 > BDE-183 > BDE-154 > BDE-153. Octa- and deca-BDEs were below the detection limit. The concentrations of all PBDE congeners were higher in gills, livers, and kidneys than those in muscles and adipose tissue. Furthermore, PBDEs in different tissues had some different distribution patterns with fish size. Those discrepancies appeared to be correlated with the PBDEs pollution fluxes varying with the change of the year and their metabolism divergences in fish tissues.

  3. Distribution of heavy metals and environmental assessment of surface sediment of typical estuaries in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shipu; Yang, Yuan; Xu, Chengfen; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xianrong

    2017-08-15

    Estuary sediment is a major pollutant enrichment medium and is an important biological habitat. This sediment has attracted the attention of the marine environmental scientists because it is a more stable and effective medium than water for monitoring regional environmental quality conditions and trends. Based on a large amount of measurement data, we analyzed the concentrations, distribution, and sources of seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in the surface sediment of typical estuaries that empty into the sea in eastern China: the Liaohe River Estuary, Yellow River Estuary, Yangtze River Estuary, Minjiang River Estuary, and Pearl River Estuary. The heavy metal concentrations in the sediments vary considerably from one estuary to the next. The Liaohe River Estuary sediment contains elevated levels of Cd, Hg, and Zn. The Yellow River Estuary sediment contains elevated levels of As. The sediments in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River estuaries contain elevated levels of Cd and Cu and of Pb and Zn, respectively. The sediment in the Pearl River Estuary contains elevated levels of all seven heavy metals. We used the Nemerow index method to assess the environment quality. The heavy metal pollution in the Liaohe River and Pearl River estuaries is more severe than that in the other estuaries. Additional work indicates that the heavy metal pollution in the Liaohe River and Pearl River estuaries is caused mainly by human activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Trends and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Sustainability in Eastern Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and evaluates the status and long-term trend of regional economic sustainability in eastern Anhui Province, China. Based on the triangle model and the definition of economic sustainable development, this study evaluates the interrelationship among regional economic development, resource-energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological performance. The sustainable and comprehensive utilization situation in the study region from 1975–2012 is examined. The results show that in 2012, the comprehensive development in the study region had a general status in terms of sustainability. The sustainable development trend of the seven administrative subunits inside the region had a weak and general status in terms of sustainability, while the status of sustainability in the southeastern part of the region was better than that in the northwest. During the period from 1975–1998, the study region’s comprehensive development presented a trend of general sustainability. In the period from 1998–2012, the region experienced a trend of very strong sustainability in its development. These statuses and trends have a certain relationship with the study region’s strong economic development and environmental protection over the past 37 years. The triangle method, as an intuitive platform for illustrating sustainability status and trends in economic development, seems to hold promise as an analytical management tool given its simplicity, ease of use, and flexibility.

  5. Gastrointestinal nematodes infections and anthelmintic resistance in grazing sheep in the Eastern Inner Mongolia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianlong; Wang, Min; Zhang, Guanghe; Han, Dongsheng; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhe

    2017-12-20

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a crucial restraint to grazing sheep production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the infections and anthelmintic resistance (AR) of GIN in pasture-based sheep in the Eastern Inner Mongolia, China. GIN eggs were tested from 600 grazing sheep feces of 10 farms using saturated saline flotation method and McMaster's method. The egg hatch test (EHT) and the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used to evaluate resistance of GIN to anthelmintics. We found that the average infection rate was 79.2% (range: 45%-100%). The grand mean faecal egg count (FEC) was 1813.2 eggs per gram (EPG) (range: 0-32400 EPG). There were significant differences in GIN infection among different breeds of sheep. The sequence of infection intensity and infection rate were Small fat tail > Ujimqin > Ju Ud (pgrazing sheep were very common. AR, especially in Haemonchus, was a serious problem in these sheep flocks. Thus, actions are urgently required to taken to mitigate the worsening situation.

  6. Mutation rates at 42 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats in Chinese Han population in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Ren, Wenyan; Hao, Honglei; Nan, Hailun; He, Xin; Liu, Qiuling; Lu, Dejian

    2018-01-31

    Mutation analysis of 42 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) loci was performed using a sample of 1160 father-son pairs from the Chinese Han population in Eastern China. The results showed that the average mutation rate across the 42 Y-STR loci was 0.0041 (95% CI 0.0036-0.0047) per locus per generation. The locus-specific mutation rates varied from 0.000 to 0.0190. No mutation was found at DYS388, DYS437, DYS448, DYS531, and GATA_H4. DYS627, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS449 could be classified as rapidly mutating Y-STRs, with mutation rates higher than 1.0 × 10 -2 . DYS458, DYS630, and DYS518 were moderately mutating Y-STRs, with mutation rates ranging from 8 × 10 -3 to 1 × 10 -2 . Although the characteristics of the Y-STR mutations were consistent with those in previous studies, mutation rate differences between our data and previous published data were found at some rapidly mutating Y-STRs. The single-copy loci located on the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp) showed relatively higher mutation rates more frequently than the multi-copy loci. These results will not only extend the data for Y-STR mutations but also be important for kinship analysis, paternal lineage identification, and family relationship reconstruction in forensic Y-STR analysis.

  7. Perfluorinated compounds in soil, surface water, and groundwater from rural areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Jiao, Xing-Chun; Gai, Nan; Li, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Guo-Hui; Piao, Hai-Tao; Rao, Zhu; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Little research on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been conducted in rural areas, although rural PFC sources are less complicated than in urban and industrial areas. To determine the levels and geographical distribution of 17 PFC compounds, samples of soil, surface water, and groundwater were collected from eight rural areas in eastern China. The total PFC concentrations (∑PFCs) in soils ranged from 0.34 to 65.8 ng/g ∑PFCs in surface waters ranged from 7.0 to 489 ng/L and ∑PFCs in groundwater ranged from 5.3 to 615 ng/L. Ratios of perfluorononanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFNA/PFOA), perfluoro-n-butyric acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA/PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFHpA/PFOA) in rainwater increased due to the fluorine chemical plants in the surrounding rural and urban areas, suggesting that atmospheric precipitation may carry PFCs and their precursors from the fluorochemical industrial area to the adjacent rural areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  9. [Invertebrate biodiversity in litter layers of natural forest and Eucalyptus plantation in eastern Guangdong, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liao, Qing-sheng; Ding, Wei-min; Tong, Xiao-li

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the community structure of invertebrates and the species diversity of thrips in the litter layers of natural forest and Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in eastern Guangdong of China. The results showed that in natural forest, Acarina, Collembola, Dipteran larvae, Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera, and Coleoptera were the most abundant invertebrates, accounting for 96.5% of the total individuals collected; while in Eucalyptus plantation, Acarina, Collembola, Dipteran larvae, and Lepidopteran larvae were the dominant invertebrate groups, which accounted for 96.3% of the total. The diversity of invertebrate assemblages was much higher in natural forest than in Eucalyptus plantation, based on the comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Pielou eveness index (J), Density-group index (DG), and Simpson dominance index (D). The individuals and species of fungus-feeding thrips were also more abundant in natural forest than in Eucalyptus plantation. However, there was no significant difference in the average density of invertebrates between natural forest and Eucalyptus plantation, because the individuals of Acarina were predominant, constituting 77.6% of the total. All of the results suggested that it is important to remain the understory and litter to improve the litter invertebrate diversity in fast-growing Eucalyptus plantation.

  10. Population genetic structure of Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae), an endangered endemic species of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Wen; Wang, De-Lian; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2005-04-01

    Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae) standing for the monotypic genus is endemic to eastern China. Its conservation status is vulnerable as most populations are small and isolated. Monimopetalum chinense is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. The aim of this study was to understand the genetic structure of M. chinense and to suggest conservation strategies. One hundred and ninety individuals from ten populations sampled from the entire distribution area of M. chinense were investigated by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). A total of 110 different ISSR bands were generated using ten primers. Low levels of genetic variation were revealed both at the species level (Isp=0.183) and at the population level (Ipop=0.083). High clonal diversity (D = 0.997) was found, and strong genetic differentiation among populations was detected (49.06 %). Small population size, possible inbreeding, limited gene flow due to short distances of seed dispersal, fragmentation of the once continuous range and subsequent genetic drift, may have contributed to shaping the population genetic structure of the species.

  11. Sediment enzyme activities and microbial community diversity in an oligotrophic drinking water reservoir, eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihan Zhang

    Full Text Available Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH₃-N/(g·24 h. The highest average well color development (AWCD was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir.

  12. Sorption of polar and nonpolar aromatic compounds to four surface soils of eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Zhu Dongqiang; Zhang Hua; Shi Xin; Sun Huiyu; Dang Fei

    2008-01-01

    Improved predictions on the fate of organic pollutants in surface environments require a better understanding of the underlying sorption mechanisms that control their uptake by soils. In this study, we monitored sorption of nine aromatic compounds with varying physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, electron-donor/acceptor ability and polarity), including two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, two chlorobenzenes, two nitroaromatic compounds, dichlobenil, carbaryl and 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous suspension of four surface soils of eastern China. The tested soils were characterized with respect to organic carbon (OC) content, black carbon content, mineralogy, morphology and size fraction to assess the role of the diverse soil characteristics in sorption. The results of this study show that not only the solute hydrophobicity and the OC content of soil are important to the retention of organic pollutants, but also the solute molecular structure and the soil nature. - In addition to the hydrophobicity of solute and the organic carbon content of soil, the solute molecular structure and the soil nature also determine the retention of organic pollutants by soils

  13. Wave Energy Potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An Integrated 10-year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Renew Energy 2013;52:218e21. [13] Chu PC, Qi Y, Chen YC, Shi P, Mao QW. South China sea wave characteristics. Part-1: validation of wavewatch-III using...and time scales in ambient ozone data. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 1997;78(10):2153e 66. [61] Ratsimandresy AW, Sotillo MG, Carretero Albiach JC, Álvarez

  14. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northeastern and Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Bin; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Ma, Jian-Gang; Wang, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important intracellular parasite, which can infect endothermic vertebrate animals, including minks (Neovison vison). However, information on T. gondii infection in minks in China is limited. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in minks in northeastern and eastern China. A total of 1499 mink blood samples were randomly collected from eight cities between March 2014 and January 2015 in northeastern and eastern China, and antibodies to T. gondii were examined using the modified agglutination test. Overall, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 8.14% in the examined minks. The T. gondii seroprevalence was different among cities (ranging from 1.85% in Changchun to 15.75% in Dalian), genders (4.31% in male and 6.22% in female), seasons (spring: 11.64%; summer: 7.34%; autumn: 7.37%; and winter: 7.32%), and ages (young: 5.79%; subadult: 5.03%; and adult: 11.08%). Region and age were considered as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results provided baseline data for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in minks in China.

  15. Aerosol Indirect Effect on Warm Clouds over Eastern China Using Combined CALIOP and MODIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Wang, Fu; Huang, Jingfeng; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol, one of key components of the climate system, is highly variable, both temporally and spatially. It often exerts great influences on the cloud-precipitation chain processes by serving as CCN/IN, altering cloud microphysics and its life cycle. Yet, the aerosol indirect effect on clouds remains largely unknown, because the initial changes in clouds due to aerosols may be enhanced or dampened by such feedback processes as modified cloud dynamics, or evaporation of the smaller droplets due to the competition for water vapor. In this study, we attempted to quantify the aerosol effects on warm cloud over eastern China, based on near-simultaneous retrievals from MODIS/AQUA, CALIOP/CALIPSO and CPR/CLOUDSAT during the period 2006 to 2010. The seasonality of aerosol from ground-based PM10 is quite different from that estimated from MODIS AOD. This result is corroborated by lower level profile of aerosol occurrence frequency from CALIOP, indicating the significant role CALIOP could play in aerosol-cloud interaction. The combined use of CALIOP and CPR facilitate the process to exactly determine the (vertical) position of warm cloud relative to aerosol, out of six scenarios in terms of aerosol-cloud mixing status in terms of aerosol-cloud mixing status, which shows as follows: AO (Aerosol only), CO (Cloud only), SASC (Single aerosol-single cloud), SADC (single aerosol-double cloud), DASC (double aerosol-single cloud), and others. Results shows that about 54% of all the cases belong to mixed status, among all the collocated aerosol-cloud cases. Under mixed condition, a boomerang shape is observed, i.e., reduced cloud droplet radius (CDR) is associated with increasing aerosol at moderate aerosol pollution (AODthe boomerang shape varies with season. For moderate aerosol loading (AODthe effect on the droplet size for the "Mixed" cases is greater during cold season (denoted by a large slope), as compared with that during warm season. It is likely associated with an increase

  16. Evidence of a modern deep water magmatic hydrothermal system in the Canary Basin (eastern central Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medialdea, T.; Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Vázquez, J. T.; de Ignacio, C.; Sumino, H.; Sánchez-Guillamón, O.; Orihashi, Y.; León, R.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    New seismic profiles, bathymetric data, and sediment-rock sampling document for the first time the discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes and volcanic cones at 4800-5200 m depth related to recent volcanic and intrusive activity in an unexplored area of the Canary Basin (Eastern Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west of the Canary Islands). A complex of sill intrusions is imaged on seismic profiles showing saucer-shaped, parallel, or inclined geometries. Three main types of structures are related to these intrusions. Type I consists of cone-shaped depressions developed above inclined sills interpreted as hydrothermal vents. Type II is the most abundant and is represented by isolated or clustered hydrothermal domes bounded by faults rooted at the tips of saucer-shaped sills. Domes are interpreted as seabed expressions of reservoirs of CH4 and CO2-rich fluids formed by degassing and contact metamorphism of organic-rich sediments around sill intrusions. Type III are hydrothermal-volcanic complexes originated above stratified or branched inclined sills connected by a chimney to the seabed volcanic edifice. Parallel sills sourced from the magmatic chimney formed also domes surrounding the volcanic cones. Core and dredges revealed that these volcanoes, which must be among the deepest in the world, are constituted by OIB-type, basanites with an outer ring of blue-green hydrothermal Al-rich smectite muds. Magmatic activity is dated, based on lava samples, at 0.78 ± 0.05 and 1.61 ± 0.09 Ma (K/Ar methods) and on tephra layers within cores at 25-237 ky. The Subvent hydrothermal-volcanic complex constitutes the first modern system reported in deep water oceanic basins related to intraplate hotspot activity.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummarySubmarine volcanism and associated hydrothermal systems are relevant processes for the evolution of the ocean basins, due their impact on the geochemistry of the oceans, their potential to form significant ore deposits, and their

  17. Physical properties, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of coal, Taiyuan Formation, Qinshui Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Chen, Jie; He, Jian-Jun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we experimentally established the relationship between physical properties, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of coal, Taiyuan Formation, Qinshui Basin, China using representative coal samples collected from three different mines via the rock mechanics testing system (MTS). We analyzed the organic macerals, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of 11 coal samples using petrography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results suggest that (1) the elastic parameters can be described by linear equations, (2) both P-and S-wave velocities display anisotropy, (3) the anisotropy negatively correlates with vitrinite reflectance, and (4) the acoustic velocities and Young's modulus are negatively correlated with the volume of micropores. The derived empirical equations can be used in the forward modeling and seismic inversion of physical properties of coal for improving the coal-bed methane (CBM) reservoir characterization.

  18. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  19. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  20. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, PToxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential morbidity associated with Toxocara infection. PMID:25101756

  1. Simulation of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and its impacts on the climate over eastern China during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Youbing; Shen, Caiming; Cheng, Hai; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and its impacts on precipitation over eastern China during the last millennium are investigated through analyzing two 1000 year global climate model simulations. Results show that the model does not simulate a prolonged period of negative IPO before A.D. 1300 suggested by the proxy reconstruction, although it does simulate centennial periods of negative and positive IPO. The simulated IPO exhibits several low-frequency oscillations, including 10-23, 30-33, 35-70, and 85-110 years. However, it remains an open question whether simulated IPO oscillations longer than bidecadal mode can be or not be considered as essentially internal modes of variability. The simulations indicate that precipitation over eastern China is associated with the IPO. When the strongest IPO signal of 53-77 year oscillation occurs, the summer precipitation goes of opposite sign over North China (NC) and the middle and lower Yangtze River Vally (MLYRV), i.e., dipole mode such as the "flood-in-south and drought-in-north" pattern that occurs during the positive IPO episodes and vice versa. While coherent mode is dominant when the relatively weak IPO signal occurs, and warm phases of the IPO coincide with coherent drought and vice versa. The association between 53-77 year oscillation of the IPO and precipitation in NC is more marked than that in the MLYRV. Our results suggest that the internal variability of climate system like the IPO may play an important role in precipitation over eastern China, at least on the 53-77 year oscillation.

  2. Evolution of the Sedimentary Basin Within the Eastern Eez Polygon at the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Escobar-Briones, E. G.; Perez, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study shows the seafloor structures and magnetic anomalies inside the eastern EEZ polygon at the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study is to examine the previous hypothesis of the Gulf of Mexico opening, based on the seafloor magnetic character. Researchers from the "Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología" at UNAM, collected , multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic reflection and magnetic profiles along 37 E-W transects during two campaigns on board the UNAM vessel, BO JUSTO SIERRA, SIGSBEE-11 in 2008 and SIGSBEE-13 in 2010. Results of the bathymetry data gathered with the EM300 multibeam echo sounder (Kongsberg) and processed with the software Caraibes from IFREMER has generated a bathymetry chart of seafloor at the Eastern Polygon, and a mosaic of back-scattering images. The high-resolution seismic profiles gathered with the subbottom profiler TOPAS PS-18 (Kongsberg) provide information on the stratigraphy sediment packages across this polygon and across the deep Mississippi Canyon. The magnetic anomalies are reduced from the data gathered with a proton-precession magnetometer, G877 (GEOMETRICS). The anomalies are modeled, based on a N_S rift at the Gulf central sector. The bathymetric chart and reflectivity mosaics of SIGSBEE-11 and SIGSBEE-13 documented the smooth relief of the seabed slope toward the Gulf central sector and abrupt morphological features associated to the meanders of the Mississippi Canyon that trend to the East. The multibeam bathymetry chart shows a relief depth that goes from 2,900 to 3,400 m from north to south. Meanders are observed in the seabed within the Eastern Polygon which is related to turbidity currents from the Mississippi River, and having a trend from west to east. The relief of the canyon shows channels with widths between 400 and 1800 m, and canyon depths up to 80 m. The high-resolution seismic sections, show well defined stratigraphy packages, where clear sediment strata are interrupted by

  3. Sedimentary and Paleoceanographic Responses to the South China Sea Basin Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Z.; Liu, Z.; Jin, H.; Larsen, H. C.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Stock, J. M.; Sun, Z.; Klaus, A.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific, the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced a complete Wilson cycle, which had inevitably exerted a profound impact on the sedimentary environment and ocean circulation. Based on the results of four ODP/IODP expeditions to the SCS since 1999, together with other research data in this region, this study aims to explore the sedimentary and paleoceanographic responses to the tectonic events and basin evolution in the SCS. The early history of the SCS from land to deep sea was revealed by foraminiferal fauna: (1) The SCS evolved from continental shelf to an upper bathyal environment around the Oligocene/Eocene boundary, and significantly deepened at the turn of Oligocene/Miocene; (2) The early Oligocene SCS was deep but its shelf was narrow, evidenced by the Para-Tethys type deep-sea agglutinated benthic foraminifers and abundant transported shallow-water species at ODP Site 1148. Along with the SCS basin formation and the development of this semi-closed basin, the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal δ13C decreased when the Antarctic ice sheet began to reestablish at 14 Ma, the Indonesian Seaway and the southern SCS deep-water channel were closed at 10 Ma, the Luzon arc collided with Taiwan at 6.5 Ma, and the Bashi Strait was restricted at 1.2 Ma. Nd isotopes of shark teeth at ODP Site 1148 also support these inferences. An early to middle Miocene succession of red clay was found at all sites deeper than 3500 m water depth, which may be correlated to a basin-wide event related to deep circulation of oxygenated water from the western Pacific. After the earliest late Miocene carbonate crash, the red clay disappeared while the large carbonate platforms were drowned and remarkably shrank in the SCS. Late Miocene sediments display a succession of hemi-pelagic and turbidite deposits, indicating that the deep basin entered its modern state below the CCD. Frequent turbidites ended when Pliocene growth of deep-sea manganese

  4. Oxygenation of a Cryogenian ocean (Nanhua Basin, South China) revealed by pyrite Fe isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Zhu, Xiangkun; Yan, Bin; Kendall, Brian; Peng, Xi; Li, Jin; Algeo, Thomas J.; Romaniello, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The nature of ocean redox chemistry between the Cryogenian Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations (ca. 663-654 Ma) is important for understanding the relationship between environmental conditions and the subsequent emergence and expansion of early animals. The Cryogenian-to-Ediacaran stratigraphic succession of the Nanhua Basin in South China provides a nearly complete sedimentary record of the Cryogenian, including a continuous record of interglacial sedimentation. Here, we present a high-resolution pyrite Fe isotope record for a ∼120-m-long drill-core (ZK105) through Sturtian glacial diamictites and the overlying interglacial sediments in the Nanhua Basin to explore changes in marine chemistry during the late Cryogenian. Our pyrite Fe isotope profile exhibits significant stratigraphic variation: Interval I, comprising middle to upper Tiesi'ao diamictites (correlative with the Sturtian glaciation), is characterized by light, modern seawater-like Fe isotope compositions; Interval II, comprising uppermost Tiesi'ao diamictites and the basal organic-rich Datangpo Formation, is characterized by an abrupt shift to heavier Fe isotope compositions; and Interval III, comprising organic-poor grey shales in the middle Datangpo Formation, is characterized by the return of lighter, seawater-like Fe isotope compositions. We infer that Interval I pyrite was deposited in a predominantly anoxic glacial Nanhua Basin through reaction of dissolved Fe2+ and H2S mediated by microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). The shift to heavier pyrite Fe isotope values in Interval II is interpreted as partial oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron and subsequent near-quantitative reduction and transformation of Fe-oxyhydroxides to pyrite through coupling with oxidation of organic matter in the local diagenetic environment. In Interval III, near-quantitative oxidation of ferrous iron to Fe-oxyhydroxides followed by near-quantitative reduction and conversion to pyrite in the local diagenetic environment

  5. Groundwater recharge history and hydrogeochemical evolution in the Minqin Basin, North West China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, W.M. [Oxford Centre for Water Research, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: wme@btopenworld.com; Ma, Jinzhu [CAEP, Key Laboratory of West China' s Environmental System (Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Aeschbach-Hertig, W. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kipfer, R. [Isotope Geology, ETH, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Darbyshire, D.P.F. [NERC Isotope Geoscience Laboratory, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    concentrations of around 2 mg L{sup -1} but there is little evidence of impact of high NO{sub 3} from irrigation returns. Strontium isotope and major ion ratios suggest that silicate reactions predominate in the aquifer. The results have important implications for groundwater management in the Minqin and other water-stressed basins in NW China - a region so far destined for rapid development. The large proportion of the water being used at present is in effect being mined and significant changes are urgently needed in water use strategy.

  6. Occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation of antibiotics in the Liao River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yangwei; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Changsheng

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 19 antibiotics including ten sulfonamides, four quinolones, three tetracyclines and two macrolides in water, sediment, and biota samples from the Liao River Basin, China were investigated in the present study. The samples were collected in May 2012, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the Liao River Basin. Macrolides made up the majority of antibiotics in the water ranging from not detected (ND) to 3162.22 ng L(-1), while tetracyclines and macrolides were the predominant antibiotics in the sediments, ranging from ND to 404.82 μg kg(-1) (mean 32.11 μg kg(-1) dw) and ND to 375.13 (mean 32.77 μg kg(-1) dw), with detection frequencies of 37.3% and 38.1%, respectively. In biological samples, quinolones were the most frequently detected antibiotics (57.1-100%), with concentrations ranging from 286.6-1655.3 μg kg(-1). The highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 45407 L kg(-1) was found for enrofloxacin. The phase distribution calculation showed that tetracyclines were the most strongly adsorbed antibiotics in the sediment, with the highest pseudo-partitioning coefficient values, ranging from 1299 to 1499 L kg(-1). The geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were largely due to anthropogenic activities and the sewage discharges from the local cities along the rivers.

  7. Low Flow Regimes of the Tarim River Basin, China: Probabilistic Behavior, Causes and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a frequent occurrence in Xinjiang, China, and therefore fundamental to determining their hydrologic characteristics is low flow analysis. To that end, 11 probability distribution functions and 26 copulas functions were employed to analyze the changing characteristics of low flow regime (defined as seven-day low flow of the Tarim River Basin. Results indicated that: (1 The Wakeby distribution satisfactorily described the probabilistic behavior of the low flow regime. According to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Bayesian Information Criterions (BIC, maximum likelihood, and other residual-based metrics, Tawn copula, Farlie–Gumbel–Morgenstern copula and Frank copula were the best choice and used in this current study. (2 After 1987, hydrological droughts of longer return periods were prone to higher occurrence frequency. (3 The low flow volume has been increasing in recent years due to the temperature-induced increase of snowmelt and increasing precipitation. However, hydrological droughts can be expected to occur due to the massive increase in water demand from the development of irrigated agriculture, increasing arable land and livestock farming. As a result, the water shortage in the lower Tarim River Basin will be increasingly severe under the influence of climate change and human activities. To alleviate the shortage would call for the development of water-saving agricultural irrigation, water-saving technology, conservation of eco-environment and sustainable development of local socio-economy.

  8. Seismic shaking in the North China Basin expected from ruptures of a possible seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Benchun; Liu, Dunyu; Yin, An

    2017-05-01

    A 160 km long seismic gap, which has not been ruptured over 8000 years, was identified recently in North China. In this study, we use a dynamic source model and a newly available high-resolution 3-D velocity structure to simulate long-period ground motion (up to 0.5 Hz) from possibly worst case rupture scenarios of the seismic gap. We find that the characteristics of the earthquake source and the local geologic structure play a critical role in controlling the amplitude and distribution of the simulated strong ground shaking. Rupture directivity and slip asperities can result in large-amplitude (i.e., >1 m/s) ground shaking near the fault, whereas long-duration shaking may occur within sedimentary basins. In particular, a deep and closed Quaternary basin between Beijing and Tianjin can lead to ground shaking of several tens of cm/s for more than 1 min. These results may provide a sound basis for seismic mitigation in one of the most populated regions in the world.

  9. Microseepage of methane to the atmosphere from the Dawanqi oil-gas field, Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhong; Xu, Yue; Wang, Guojian; Etiope, Giuseppe; Han, Wei; Yao, Zhitong; Huang, Jingang

    2017-04-01

    The microseepage of natural gas from subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs is a widespread process in petroleum basins. On a global scale, microseepage represents an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). To date, microseepage CH4 flux data have been obtained from 20 petroleum systems in North America, Europe, and Asia. While the seasonal variations of gas flux due to soil methanotrophic activity are known, the role of geological factors in controlling gas fluxes has been poorly investigated. Here we present new microseepage data from the Dawanqi oil-gas field located within the Tarim Basin (China), a petroleum system characterized by intense faulting and shallow (thermogenic, like that occurring within the Dawanqi reservoirs, as demonstrated by 13C enrichment (δ13C from -46.3‰ to -30.7‰) in the chamber. Mean and range microseepage values (17 mg m-2d-1; from -1.4 to 330 mg m-2d-1) are similar to those reported for other petroleum fields with active tectonics. Our results confirm that dry soil over petroleum fields can be a net source of atmospheric CH4 and its flux is primarily controlled by faulting, and reservoir depth and pressure. These factors shall be considered in global bottom-up seepage emission estimates.

  10. Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original, we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.

  11. Probability Modeling of Precipitation Extremes over Two River Basins in Northwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the probability modeling with a range of distribution models over two inland river basins in China, together with the estimations of return levels on various return periods. Both annual and seasonal maximum precipitations (MP are investigated based on daily precipitation data at 13 stations from 1960 to 2010 in Heihe River and Shiyang River basins. Results show that GEV, Burr, and Weibull distributions provide the best fit to both annual and seasonal MP. Exponential and Pareto 2 distributions show the worst fit. The estimated return levels for spring MP show decreasing trends from the upper to the middle and then to the lower reaches totally speaking. Summer MP approximates to annual MP both in the quantity and in the spatial distributions. Autumn MP shows a little higher value in the estimated return levels than Spring MP, while keeping consistent with spring MP in the spatial distribution. It is also found that the estimated return levels for annual MP derived from various distributions differ by 22%, 36%, and 53% on average at 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year return periods, respectively.

  12. Luminescence dating of the Zeketai loess section in the Ili Basin, northwestern China: Methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jintang; Zhou, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits in Xinjiang, northwestern China are ideal archives for past environmental changes in the Westerlies-dominated central Asia. Among previous luminescence dating studies of loess in Xinjiang, few have attempted to systematically investigate the methodological aspects. In this study, we report results of a multiple-procedure luminescence dating of the Zeketai loess section in the Ili Basin, central Xinjiang. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) signals were used for quartz and polymineral grains of different sizes. The pIRIR ages obtained with two protocols agree well with each other and constrain the loess deposition between 50 ka and 88 ka. The OSL ages of fine-grained quartz are in stratigraphic order and range from 37 ka to 61 ka, but are ∼30% younger than the pIRIR295 ages of both fine and medium grained polyminerals. Although the causes of the discrepancy between the ages derived from different luminescence dating protocols are still to be understood, we stress that the quartz OSL ages of loess in this region are likely to be underestimated, especially for samples older than 40 ka. The polymineral or potassium feldspar pIRIR signal is recommended for dating loess in the Ili Basin, at least as an internal check.

  13. REPTILE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE MIDDLE GURGUÉIA AND COMPARISON WITH INVENTORIES IN THE EASTERN PARNAÍBA RIVER BASIN, STATE OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

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    CLÁUDIA RENATA MADELLA-AURICCHIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reptile diversity of the Middle Gurguéia River Basin in southern Piauí, Brazil, is little known. The rapid expansion of agriculture in the region is converting the Cerrado and Caatinga into large farming areas, which threatens biodiversity and hastens its loss. In this study, 68 specimens of reptiles from a university collection were examined, comprising 29 species: ten lizards, one amphisbaenian, 15 snakes, two turtles and one crocodilian. They were collected from five locations in the Middle Gurguéia Basin, a region not previously evaluated for reptiles. The most abundant species is a member of Tropidurus. Comparison with eight other areas in the eastern Parnaíba Basin indicated that the diversity of reptiles in the Middle Gurguéia is similar to that in other Caatinga-Cerrado ecotone areas. The reptile assemblage in the eastern Parnaíba Basin comprises 100 species of reptiles: 39 lizards, five amphisbaenians, 50 snakes, four chelonians and two crocodilians. This study expanded the known distributions of some reptiles and recorded the first occurrence of Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1837 for Piauí. A cluster analysis showed that the reptile composition concords with the habitat where species were found, i.e. Cerrado, Caatinga or ecotone. Studies that associate habitat structure with each species are essential to propose efficient strategies for reptile management and conservation for the entire Parnaíba River Basin, mostly in areas that are not yet protected.

  14. Bootstrapping data envelopment analysis of efficiency and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county

  15. Controls on upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk deposition in the eastern Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2017-01-01

    Detailed facies analysis of a 350 m long core of upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk at Stevns Peninsula, eastern Denmark, shows that four mudstone and wackestone chalk facies account for close to 95% of the succession, and that bioturbated mudstone chalk alone accounts for nearly 55% of the sedi......Detailed facies analysis of a 350 m long core of upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk at Stevns Peninsula, eastern Denmark, shows that four mudstone and wackestone chalk facies account for close to 95% of the succession, and that bioturbated mudstone chalk alone accounts for nearly 55......-surface temperature and accumulation rates suggests that sea-surface temperature is the most important parameter in controlling stratification of the water column and thereby, indirectly, the observed variations in depositional facies. However, bioturbated mudstone chalk occurs in all stratigraphic levels independent...... of accumulation rates and sea temperatures and is interpreted to represent a very broad set of deep water environmental conditions with an ample supply of calcareous nannofossil debris and intense bioturbation. Longer term shifts in deposition are best expressed by distribution of clay, flint and bioturbated...

  16. Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncel, G.; Tuncel, S.

    1994-01-01

    A permanent stations has been established in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey for continuous monitoring of aerosols and precipitation. The station is part of the MED-POL programme which includes all countries that have coasts in the Mediterranean Sea and attempts to determine the role of the atmospheric fluxes of pollutants on the pollution of the Mediterranea Sea. Aerosol and deposition samples have been collected since early 1992. Concentrations of SO 4 , NO 3 , Cl, Li, Pb, K, Ca, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and Na were determined by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily samples will be screened to select the ones which correspond to transport from Europe and will be analyzed for a larger number of parameters using INAA. Method development took most of the time in 1992, and analysis are still in progress. Available data have shown that concentrations of anthropogenic elements are smaller in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere compared to other rural sites in the Europe. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Deltaic Depositional Systems, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao

    2015-04-01

    Deltaic depositional systems are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta system:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic system; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface systems. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.

  18. The distribution of antibiotics in water of a river basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, T.; Cheng, W.; Wang, M.; Wan, T.; Cheng, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Jia, Z. Y.

    2017-08-01

    In water environment field, one of the most attractive research topics is the determination of contamination characteristics of antibiotics in water. In order to investigate the distribution of antibiotics in surface water and drinking water of a certain river basin in southern China, we determined the types and concentrations of antibiotics that contaminated the river by performing HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Thus, we detected 17 antibiotics in four surface water samples (B1, B2, B3, and B4). In sampling points B3 and B4, we detected 16 antibiotics separately. The detection rates of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and erythromycin-H2O were 100%, and the antibiotic erythromycin-H2O had the maximum concentration. In six drinking water samples (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6), we detected 13 antibiotics. In A5 water samples, we detected all the 13 antibiotics. The detection rate of ofloxacin and erythromycin-H2O was 100%, and erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration. We also found that from the upstream to the downstream of the river basin, the types of antibiotics in river increased gradually. In the upstream water samples (B1), we detected three antibiotics. Erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration of 6.61 ng/L, and sulfapyridine had the lowest concentration of 2.82 ng/L. In the downstream water samples (B4), we detected 16 antibiotics. Erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration of 277.58 ng/L, and the Sulfamonomethoxine was the antibiotic with the second-highest concentration of 242.1 ng/L. In addition, different membrane treatment processes could remove different amounts of antibiotics from the water samples. The study is an important reference for providing environmental protection to river water basin.

  19. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations during springtime in the Guanzhong Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The organic aerosol (OA concentration is simulated in the Guanzhong Basin, China from 23 to 25 April 2013 utilizing the WRF-CHEM model. Two approaches are used to predict OA concentrations: (1 a traditional secondary organic aerosol (SOA module; (2 a non-traditional SOA module including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic aerosol (POA is assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive. Generally, the spatial patterns and temporal variations of the calculated hourly near-surface ozone and fine particle matters agree well with the observations in Xi'an and surrounding areas. The model also yields reasonable distributions of daily PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC compared to the filter measurements at 29 sites in the basin. Filter-measured organic carbon (OC and EC are used to evaluate OA, POA, and SOA using the OC ∕ EC ratio approach. Compared with the traditional SOA module, the non-traditional module significantly improves SOA simulations and explains about 88 % of the observed SOA concentration. Oxidation and partitioning of POA treated as semivolatile constitute the most important pathway for the SOA formation, contributing more than 75 % of the SOA concentrations in the basin. Residential emissions are the dominant anthropogenic OA source, constituting about 50 % of OA concentrations in urban and rural areas and 30 % in the background area. The OA contribution from transportation emissions decreases from 25 % in urban areas to 20 % in the background area, and the industry emission OA contribution is less than 6 %.

  20. Changes in Remotely Sensed Vegetation Growth Trend in the Heihe Basin of Arid Northwestern China.

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    Wenchao Sun

    Full Text Available The Heihe River Basin (HRB is the second largest inland river basin in China, characterized by high diversity in geomorphology and irrigated agriculture in middle reaches. To improve the knowledge about the relationship between biotic and hydrological processes, this study used Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data (1982-2006 to analyze spatiotemporal variations in vegetation growth by using the Mann-Kendall test together with Sen's slope estimator. The results indicate that 10.1% and 1.6% of basin area exhibit statistically significant (p < 0.05 upward and downward trends, and maximum magnitude is 0.066/10a and 0.026/10a, respectively. More specifically, an increasing trend was observed in the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor and a decreasing trend detected in the transitional region between them. Increases in precipitation and temperature may be one possible reason for the changes of vegetation growth in the Qilian Mountains. And decreasing trend in transitional region may be driven by the changes in precipitation. Increases of irrigation contribute to the upward trend of NDVI for cropland in the Hexi Corridor, reflecting that agricultural development becomes more intensive. Our study demonstrates the complexity of the response of vegetation growth in the HRB to climate change and anthropogenic activities and correspondingly adopting mechanistic ecological models capable of describing both factors is favorable for reasonable predictions of future vegetation growth. It is also indicated that improving irrigation water use efficiency is one practical strategy to balance water demand between human and natural ecosystems in the HRB.

  1. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  2. Intersatellite comparisons and evaluations of three ocean color products along the Zhejiang coast, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiyuan; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou; Wang, Tianyu; Zhu, Qiankun

    2017-10-01

    With its broad spatial coverage and fine temporal resolution, ocean color remote sensing data represents an effective tool for monitoring large areas of ocean, and has the potential to provide crucial information in coastal waters where routine monitoring is either lacking or unsatisfactory. The semi-analytical or empirical algorithms that work well in Case 1 waters encounter many problems in offshore areas where the water is often optically complex and presents difficulties for atmospheric correction. Zhejiang is one of the most developed provinces in eastern China, and its adjacent seas have been greatly affected by recent rapid economic development. Various islands and semi-closed bays along the Zhejiang coast promote the formation of muddy tidal flats. Moreover, large quantities of terrestrial substances coming down with the Yangtze River and other local rivers also have a great impact on the coastal waters of the province. MODIS, VIIRS and GOCI are three commonly used ocean color sensors covering the East China Sea. Several ocean color products such as remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and total suspended matter (TSM) of the above three sensors on the Zhejiang coast have been evaluated. Cloud-free satellite images with synchronous field measurements taken between 2012 and 2015 were used for comparison. It is shown that there is a good correlation between the MODIS and GOCI spectral data, while some outliers were found in the VIIRS images. The low signal-to-noise ratio at short wavelengths in highly turbid waters also reduced the correlation between different sensors. In addition, it was possible to obtain more valid data with GOCI in shallow waters because of the use of an appropriate atmospheric correction algorithm. The standard Chl-a and TSM products of the three satellites were also evaluated, and it was found that the Chl-a and TSM concentrations calculated by the OC3G and Case 2 algorithms, respectively

  3. Molecular Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    carbapenems treatment course (p = 0.002 showed better outcome.Conclusion: This study showed the severity of CRKP infection in eastern China. Sputum suction was an independent risk factor for CRKP infection. Prolonged duration of treatment with carbapenems benefited the patients infected with CRKP.

  4. Aerosol microphysical effects on warm cloud in Eastern China: impacts of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Wang, F.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles can alter the droplet size and number concentration of clouds, thereby changing the Earth's climate system. The aerosol indirect effect has been proved climatically significant after decades of research, albeit uncertain. This is partially due to the frustrating difficulty in decoupling the aerosol effect from meteorology influences on cloud properties. This study attempts to probe into the aerosol indirect effect on the warm clouds of summertime the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of eastern China and East China Sea (ECS), respectively. It is based on simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud properties from MODIS/Aqua Level 3 datasets, along with meteorological properties from NCEP Final Analyses Operational Global Analysis datasets. Statistic analysis is employed to analyze the aerosol cloud interaction, constrained by multiple meteorological conditions, such as cloud top pressure (CTP), relative humidity (RH), pressure vertical velocity (PVV) and lower tropospheric stability (LTS), expected to minimize meteorological impact. The reduction of cloud droplet radius (CDR) with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) is revealed over ECS. In contrast, anti-Twomey effect is detected over YRD. The aerosol effects on cloud fraction (CF) are further investigated, taking CTP and RH into account. CF is found to increase more sharply over YRD than over ECS in response to aerosol enhancement, regardless of RH conditions. In addition, the horizontal extension of cloud is prone to be driven by aerosol rather than RH in the summertime over YRD. Meanwhile, CTP effect on AOD-CF is eliminated, indicating CTP make little contribution to the observed AOD-CF relationship. Also, CDR variation in response to AOD, constrained by LTS and PVV (750hPa) is analyzed. In general, aerosol tends to observe the law of Twomey's effect except for the unstable condition over land. Regarding dynamic effect, the rising atmospheric environment is subject to larger CDR than the

  5. Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.

  6. Evaluating Impacts of Industrial Transformation on Water Consumption in the Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity is one of the central challenges for sustainability in China, given its burgeoning industry and huge population, especially in the arid and semi-arid inland river basin where precipitation is very limited. Industrial transformation is an important engine of economic growth, which is required to be implemented by governments at all levels in China. Economic models have generally been applied to evaluate the effects of economic policy change (e.g., industrial transformation or adjustment of price on the allocation of production factors. The computable general equilibrium (CGE model is an effective tool to reallocate the primary factors across sectors for different industrial transformation scenarios. In this research, we first briefly introduced the principles and structure of the CGE model, which embeds water resources as a primary factor of production. Then we chose Zhangye as an example to evaluate the impacts of industrial transformation on water consumption under three designed scenarios with the water-embedded CGE model. Simulation results showed that there will be considerable water saving benefit from industrial transformation when the output value of secondary industry and tertiary industry increases and the contribution of the planting sector to the total output value decreases. Finally, we put forward a scheme that can improve water utilization efficiency in policy options.

  7. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  8. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  9. Influence of magmatic volatiles on boron isotope compositions in vent fluids from the Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, F. K.; Kasemann, S.; Bach, W.; Reeves, E. P.; Meixner, A.; Seewald, J.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we present boron (B), lithium (Li) and strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic composition of submarine hydrothermal fluids collected in 2006 and 2011 from PACMANUS, DESMOS and SuSu Knolls vent fields located in the Eastern Manus Basin [1,2]. Hydrothermal vent fluids within the Eastern Manus Basin range from high-temperature black smoker fluids to low-temperature diffuse fluids and acid-sulfate fluids. In general, the different fluid types show variable water-rock ratios during water-rock interaction and different inputs of magmatic volatiles. End-member black smoker fluids, which have in general high temperatures (mostly higher than 280°C) and pH values higher than 2 (measured at 25°C) are characterized by low δ7Li values (3.9 to 5.9‰) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704 to 0.705) similar to the values for island arc basalts. These results suggest low water-rock ratios during hydrothermal circulation. B concentrations and isotopic compositions in these fluids range from 1.0 to 2.6μM and 13 to 20‰, respectively. These data match with other vent fluids from island arc settings in the Western Pacific and plot in a B versus δ11B diagram on a two-component mixing line between seawater and island arc basalts [3]. Sr and Li isotopic composition of white smoker and acid-sulfate fluids overlap generally with the isotopic ratios for the black smoker fluids. However, in some fluids Sr isotope ratios are up to 0.709 near seawater composition suggesting higher water-rock ratios during water-rock interaction. B concentrations and isotope ratios in the white smoker and acid-sulfate fluids range from 0.6 to 2.2μM and 9 to 16‰, respectively which are lower compared with the values of black smoker fluids. In addition, these fluids do not fit on the mixing line between seawater and island arc basalt, and define another mixing trend in a B versus δ11B diagram. To explain this contradictory trend, a third mixing endmember is required that shifts B concentrations

  10. Thermal and tectonic history of the Ordos Basin, China: Evidence from apatite fission track analysis, vitrinite reflectance, and K-Ar dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Meng-Wei; Behr, H.J.; Ahrendt, H.; Wemmer, K. [Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zhan-Li Ren; Zhong-Yuan Zhao [Northwest Univ., Xi`an (China)

    1996-07-01

    Apatite fission track analysis, vitrinite reflectance data, and K-Ar dating of Permian-Carboniferous and Mesozoic core samples have been successfully integrated to reconstruct the thermal and tectonic history of the Ordos basin, China. Apatite fission track ages of Carboniferous-Jurassic sedimentary rocks range between 3 and 137 Ma, and are significantly younger than the stratigraphic ages. Confined fission track lengths demonstrate exclusively mixed length distribution, indicating complex thermal history. The data suggest that the samples must have all experienced higher paleotemperatures in the past. Mean virtinite reflectance values (R{sub o}) of the Triassic rocks range from 0.61 to 1.06%, giving a high coalification gradient of 0.36%/km and suggesting a high paleothermal gradient of 57{degrees}C/km. Permian-Carboniferous rocks have R{sub o} values on the order of 1.0-3.0%, and locally up to 4.0-6.0%. Some high R{sub o} values coincide with positive gravity and magnetic anomalies. K-Ar dating on Permian-Triassic samples reveals distinct illitization at 170-160 Ma, during which a thermal event occurred due to subsurface magmatic intrusion related to the early Yanshanian movement. The petroleum source rocks of the Upper Triassic experienced peak temperatures ranging form 90 to 160{degrees}C, corresponding to the oil window, and Permian-Carboniferous source rocks were heated to more than 150{degrees}C, passing through and out of the gas window. Due to rapid uplift and erosion in response to the rise of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau associated with the Asia-India collision and the Himalyan orogeny, cooling has taken place at least since approximately 23 Ma. The difference in the rate and amount of uplift between the eastern and western parts of the basin resulted in differential uplift and the present-day structural pattern of the basin.

  11. Ozone Enhancement in the Lower Troposphere over Central and Eastern China as Observed from the space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ono, A.; Kayaba, S.; Kajino, M.; Deushi, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Yamaji, K.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The recent roducts of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) retrieved by Liu et al. (2010) revealed spatial and temporal variations in ozone distributions in multiple tropospheric layers. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with the airborne measurements conducted by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The reliability of the OMI ozone retrievals was verified at the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions (Hayashida et al. 2015). Ozone enhancement was clearly observed over Central and Eastern China (CEC), with Shandong Province as its center and most notably in June in any given year. The seasonality of the ozone enhancement was similar throughout the nine-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. As introduced by Hayashida et al. (2015), we have defined ΔO3 as the difference between the retrieved ozone and a priori value. To identify the area of significant ozone enhancement in further detail, the areas whose ΔO3 show similar seasonal variation were grouped into a cluster using the statistical tool R. As a result, the area covering the provinces of Shandong, Hebei, and Shanxi presents a clear seasonal variation, with the maximum in June. The time series of ΔO3 at around 115-125°E along 36°N indicate clear seasonal variation with significant enhancement in June or July every year. At the western locations (Japan as far as emissions due to industrial activities and automobile exhaust are concerned, although there are still a few differences in the ozone mixing ratios and their distribution. We have also carried out a comparison among the model simulations, including the emission inventory data developed by Yamaji et al. (2010) and other anthropogenic emissions, in order to investigate the effect of Open Crop Residue Burning (OCRB) as pointed out by Kanaya et al. (2013).

  12. Microphysical processes of a stratiform precipitation event over eastern China: analysis using micro rain radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lei, Hengchi; Yang, Jiefan

    2017-12-01

    Data collected using the micro rain radar (MRR) situated in Jinan city, eastern China, were used to explore the altitudinal and temporal evolution of rainfall microphysical characteristics, and to analyze the bright band (BB) characteristics and hydrometeor classification. Specifically, a low-intensity and stable stratiform precipitation event that occurred from 0000 to 0550 UTC 15 February 2015 and featured a BB was studied. During this event, the rainfall intensity was less than 2 mm h-1 at a height of 300 m, which was above the radar site level, so the errors caused by the vertical air motion could be ignored. The freezing height from the radiosonde matched well with the top of the BB observed by the MRR. It was also found that the number of 0.5-1 mm diameter drops showed no noticeable variation below the BB. The maximum fall velocity and the maximum gradient fall velocity (GFV) of the raindrops appeared at the bottom of the BB. Meanwhile, a method that uses the GFV and reflectivity to identify the altitude and the thickness of the BB was established, with which the MRR can provide a reliable and real-time estimation of the 0°C isotherm. The droplet fall velocity was used to classify the types of snow crystals above the BB. In the first 20 min of the selected precipitation event, graupel prevailed above the BB; and at an altitude of 2000 m, graupel also dominated in the first 250 min. After 150 min, the existence of graupel and dendritic crystals with water droplets above the BB was inferred.

  13. Methane distribution and transportation in Lake Chaohu: a shallow eutrophic lake in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shen, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming and eutrophication are two world widely concerned environmental problems. Methane is the second important greenhouse gas, and lake has been proven as a quite important natural source of methane emission. More methane may emit from eutrophic lake due to the higher organic matter deposition in the lake sediment. Lake Chaohu is a large and shallow eutrophic lake in eastern China (N31°25' 31°43', E117°16' 117°05'), with an area of 770 km2 and a mean depth of 2.7 m. To examine methane distribution and transportation in this eutrophic lake, field study across different seasons was carried out with 20 study sites in the lake. Samples from the different water and sediment depth was collected using headspace bottle, and methane content was measured by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The potential methane production in the sediment was examined by an indoor incubation experiment. Methane flux from sediment to the overlying water was calculated by Fick's law, and methane emission from surface to the air was calculated at the same time. The results indicates that more methane accumulated in the water of northwestern bay in this lake, and higher methane release rates was also found at this area. Methane increases gradually with depth in the top 10 cm in sediment cores, then it almost keeps at constant state in the deeper sediment. In the sediment from northwestern bay, more methane content and the higher potential methane production was found compared to the sediment from the east area of this lake.

  14. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xin; Lee, Harry F; Zhao, Hongqiang; Cai, Shuliang; Huang, Xianjin

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911). Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span) of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China.

  15. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  16. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911. Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China.

  17. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Lee, Harry F.; Zhao, Hongqiang; Cai, Shuliang; Huang, Xianjin

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368–1911). Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span) of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China. PMID:28792976

  18. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  19. Reservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. C. D. Melo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are particularly critical for Brazil because of impacts on water supply and because most (70 % of its electricity is derived from hydroelectric generation. The Paraná basin (PB, a major hydroelectric producing region with 32 % (60 million people of Brazil's population, recently experienced the most severe drought since the 1960s, compromising the water supply for 11 million people in São Paulo. The objective of this study is to quantify linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts based on remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data using the Paraná River basin in south-eastern Brazil as a case study. Two major meteorological droughts were identified in the early 2000s and 2014, with precipitation 20–50 % below the long-term mean. Total water storage change estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites declined by 150 km3 between April 2011 and April 2015. Simulated soil moisture storage declined during the droughts, resulting in decreased runoff into reservoirs. As a result, reservoir storage decreased by 30 % relative to the system's maximum capacity, with negative trends ranging from 17 (May 1997–April 2001 to 25 km3 yr−1 (May 2011–April 2015. Storage in upstream reservoirs is mostly controlled by natural climate forcing, whereas storage in downstream reservoirs also reflects dam operations. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data to evaluate droughts and to establish a preliminary understanding of the linkages between a meteorological and hydrological drought for future management.

  20. Archaeointensity results spanning the past 6 kiloyears from eastern China and implications for extreme behaviors of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Jin, Guiyun; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-01-01

    Variations of the Earth’s geomagnetic field during the Holocene are important for understanding centennial to millennial-scale processes of the Earth’s deep interior and have enormous potential implications for chronological correlations (e.g., comparisons between different sedimentary recording sequences, archaeomagnetic dating). Here, we present 21 robust archaeointensity data points from eastern China spanning the past ˜6 kyr. These results add significantly to the published data both regionally and globally. Taking together, we establish an archaeointensity reference curve for Eastern Asia, which can be used for archaeomagnetic dating in this region. Virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of the data range from a Holocene-wide low of ˜27 to “spike” values of ˜166 ZAm2 (Z: 1021). The results, in conjunction with our recently published data, confirm the existence of a decrease in paleointensity (DIP) in China around ˜2200 BCE. These low intensities are the lowest ever found for the Holocene and have not been reported outside of China. We also report a spike intensity of 165.8 ± 6.0 ZAm2 at ˜1300 BCE (±300 y), which is either a prelude to or the same event (within age uncertainties) as spikes first reported in the Levant.

  1. Inter-comparison of Rainfall Estimation from Radar and Satellite During 2016 June 23 Yancheng Tornado Event over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Chen, S.; Liang, Z.; Hu, B.

    2017-12-01

    ABSTRACT: On the afternoon of June 23, 2016, Yancheng city in eastern China was hit by a severe thunderstorm that produced a devastating tornado. This tornado was ranked as an EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale by China Meteorological Administration, and killed at least 99 people and injured 846 others (152 seriously). This study evaluates rainfall estimates from ground radar network and four satellite algorithms with a relatively dense rain gauge network over eastern China including Jiangsu province and its adjacent regions for the Yancheng June 23 Tornado extreme convective storm in different spatiotemporal scales (from 0.04° to 0.1° and hourly to event total accumulation). The radar network is composed of about 6 S-band Doppler weather radars. Satellite precipitation products include Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMap). Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), and Critical Success Index (CSI) are used to quantify the performance of these precipitation products.

  2. Boron isotopes reveal multiple metasomatic events in the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Zhou; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Linkages inferred between the geochemical heterogeneity of the mantle beneath eastern Eurasia and the stagnant Pacific slab documented geophysically in its mantle transition zone are as yet not clearly characterized. In this paper we report new elemental and isotopic data for boron (B) on a suite of well-characterized Cenozoic basalts (alkali basalts, basanites and nephelinites), with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like trace element signatures from western Shandong of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Correlations between major elements (e.g., FeOT versus SiO2), trace elements (e.g., CeN/PbN versus BaN/ThN) and radiogenic isotopes (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb versus 87Sr/86Sr) suggest these basalts are derived via the mixing of melts from two mantle components: a fluid mobile element (FME; such as Ba, K, Pb and Sr) enriched component, which is most evident in the alkali basalts, and a FME depleted mantle component that is more evident in the basanites and nephelinites. The alkali basalts in this study have lower B concentrations (1.4-2.2 μg/g) but higher δ11B (-4.9 to -1.4) values than the basanites and nephelinites (B = 2.1-5.0 μg/g; δ11B = -6.9 to -3.9), and all the samples have nearly constant B/Nb ratios between 0.03 and 0.07, similar to the observed range in B/Nb for intraplate lavas. Our high-SiO2 samples have higher δ11B than that of our low SiO2 samples, indicating that the B isotopic differences among our samples do not result from the addition of a continental crustal component in the mantle source, or direct crustal assimilation during the eruption process. The positive B versus Nb correlation suggests the B isotopic compositions of the western Shandong basalts primarily reflect the pre-eruptive compositions of their mantle sources. Correlations among B, Nd and Sr isotope signatures of the western Shandong basalts differ from those among basalts from plume settings (e.g., Azores and Hawaii), and are inconsistent with models suggesting single-step metasomatic

  3. Water quality variation in the highly disturbed Huai River Basin, China from 1994 to 2005 by multi-statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2014-10-15

    Water quality deterioration is a prominent issue threatening water security throughout the world. Huai River Basin, as the sixth largest basin in China, is facing the most severe water pollution and high disturbance. Statistical detection of water quality trends and identification of human interferences are significant for sustainable water quality management. Three key water quality elements (ammonium nitrogen: NH3-N, permanganate index: CODMn and dissolved oxygen: DO) at 18 monitoring stations were selected to analyze their spatio-temporal variations in the highly disturbed Huai River Basin using seasonal Mann-Kendall test and Moran's I method. Relationship between surrounding water environment and anthropogenic activities (point source emission, land use) was investigated by regression analysis. The results indicated that water environment was significantly improved on the whole from 1994 to 2005. CODMn and NH3-N concentrations decreased at half of the stations, and DO concentration increased significantly at 39% (7/18) stations. The high pollution cluster centers for both NH3-N and CODMn were in the middle stream of Shaying River and Guo River in the 2000s. Water quality of Huai River Basin was mainly influenced by point source pollution emission, flows regulated by dams, water temperature and land use variations and so on. This study was expected to provide insights into water quality evolution and foundations for water quality management in Huai River Basin, and scientific references for the implementation of water pollution prevention in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Different scale land subsidence and ground fissure monitoring with multiple InSAR techniques over Fenwei basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fenwei basin, China, composed by several sub-basins, has been suffering severe geo-hazards in last 60 years, including large scale land subsidence and small scale ground fissure, which caused serious infrastructure damages and property losses. In this paper, we apply different InSAR techniques with different SAR data to monitor these hazards. Firstly, combined small baseline subset (SBAS InSAR method and persistent scatterers (PS InSAR method is used to multi-track Envisat ASAR data to retrieve the large scale land subsidence covering entire Fenwei basin, from which different land subsidence magnitudes are analyzed of different sub-basins. Secondly, PS-InSAR method is used to monitor the small scale ground fissure deformation in Yuncheng basin, where different spatial deformation gradient can be clearly discovered. Lastly, different track SAR data are contributed to retrieve two-dimensional deformation in both land subsidence and ground fissure region, Xi'an, China, which can be benefitial to explain the occurrence of ground fissure and the correlation between land subsidence and ground fissure.

  5. An evaluation of the effect of future climate on runoff in the Dongjiang River basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of future climate change on the runoff for the Dongjiang River basin, South China, has been investigated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. First, the SWAT model was applied in the three sub-basins of the Dongjiang River basin, and calibrated for the period of 1970–1975, and validated for the period of 1976–1985. Then the hydrological response under climate change and land use scenario in the next 40 years (2011–2050 was studied. The future weather data was generated by using the weather generators of SWAT, based on the trend of the observed data series (1966–2005. The results showed that under the future climate change and LUCC scenario, the annual runoff of the three sub-basins all decreased. Its impacts on annual runoff were –6.87%, –6.54%, and –18.16% for the Shuntian, Lantang, and Yuecheng sub-basins respectively, compared with the baseline period 1966–2005. The results of this study could be a reference for regional water resources management since Dongjiang River provides crucial water supplies to Guangdong Province and the District of Hong Kong in China.

  6. Early to Middle Triassic sedimentary records in the Youjiang Basin, South China: Implications for Indosinian orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liang; Yan, Dan-Ping; Yang, Wen-Xin; Wang, Jibin; Tang, Xiangli; Ariser, Shahnawaz

    2017-06-01

    The Indosinian orogeny marks the termination of marine deposition and the accumulation of lower Permian to Late Triassic clastic sediments in the Youjiang Basin, South China Block. Major and trace element compositions of Early to Middle Triassic sedimentary clastic rocks from Youjiang Basin were analysed to constrain their provenance and tectonic setting. Argillaceous samples have low SiO2 (average 56.95 wt.%), Al2O3 (average 15.15 wt.%), and Fe2O3T + MgO (average 11.54 wt.%) contents, and high K2O/Na2O (average 15.61) and Al2O3/SiO2 (average 0.27) ratios, similar to mudstones from continental arc basins. Arenaceous samples have moderate SiO2 (average 76.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (average 8.41 wt.%), and Fe2O3T + MgO (average 5.29 wt.%) contents, and moderate Al2O3/SiO2 (average 0.11) and K2O/Na2O (average 15.26) ratios, identical to those of graywackes from continental island arcs or active continental margins. Both the argillaceous and arenaceous samples have low CIA values (57-85) and relatively high ICV values (0.69-2.11), indicating that the source rocks experienced weak chemical weathering and the sedimentary detritus was derived from an immature source. Compared with late Permian to Early Triassic South China granitoids and upper crust, the samples have lower contents of high-field-strength elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta) and large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U, and Pb). However, their relatively high Rb concentrations (>51 ppm), and low Rb/Sr (0.16-4.19) and Th/U (2.66-5.21) ratios, are indicative of an igneous source from a continental arc that underwent weak chemical weathering. Both the argillaceous and arenaceous samples are moderately enriched in light rare earth elements and show relatively flat chondrite-normalized heavy rare earth element patterns (LaN/YbN = 6.61-17.35; average 10.61) with strong negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.54-0.89; average 0.73). In tectonic discrimination diagrams, including Th-Sc-Zr/10 and La-Th-Sc plots, the

  7. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  8. Detecting changes in future precipitation extremes over eight river basins in China using RegCM4 downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peihua; Xie, Zhenghui

    2016-06-01

    To detect the frequency and intensity of precipitation extremes in China for the middle 21st century, simulations were conducted with the regional climate model RegCM4 forced by the global climate model GFDL_ESM2M under the middle emission scenario (RCP4.5). Compared with observed precipitation extremes for the reference period from 1982 to 2001, RegCM4 generally performed better in most river basins of China relative to GFDL. In the future period 2032-2051, more wet extremes will occur relative to the present period in most study areas, especially in southeast China while significantly less dry extremes will occur in arid and semiarid areas in northwest China. In contrast, areas in northwest China showed an increase in the trend of dry extremes (CDD) and a decrease in the trend of wet extremes (R95p and Rx5day), which might result in more drought in the future. Finally, we discuss in detail the possible reason of these processes, such as zonal wind, vertical wind, and water vapor. In the Huaihe river basin (HU), reduced south winds in summer (June-August) and a decrease of the upward vertical p velocity cause less future precipitation and might lead to changes of extreme events. We also completed correlation analysis between the precipitation extreme indices and the climate factors and found that the precipitation extremes were more sensitive to the annual and seasonal mean precipitation, total water vapor, and upward vertical wind relative to the geopotential height and 2 m temperature over most river basins in China. Perhaps the changes of some wet extremes could be verified partly through changes of annual precipitation due to their high consistence.

  9. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants and trace metals in surface waters in the Seversky Donets River basin (Eastern Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diadin, Dmytro; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Steinmann, Marc; Loup, Christophe; Crini, Nadia; Vystavna, Yuliya; Vergeles, Yuri; Huneau, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    The paper is focused on surface water of the Seversky Donets River Basin in Eastern Ukraine which undergoes significant anthropogenic pressure due to municipal and industrial wastewater discharge, polluted runoff from both urban and agricultural areas, leakages at oil-gas extraction sites located in the region. In these conditions the Seversky Donets River is used for drinking water supply of the city of Kharkiv with 1.5 million inhabitants as well as other smaller settlements in the basin. The diversity of water pollution sources makes it reasonable to use complex indicators and assessment approaches such as combination of organic and inorganic pollutants. We have studied the distribution of major ions, metals and persistent organic compounds (PAHs and PCBs) in water of the Seversky Donets River and its tributaries. In total 20 sites have been sampled on the river catchment area as of 4.5 thousands km2. PAHs and PCBs were measured in surface water for the first time in the region. The most distinctive transformations of water composition have been found downstream wastewater treatment plants in the city of Kharkiv where treated mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater is discharged to the river. Such metals as Ni, Zn, Cr in combination with phosphates and nitrates has shown significant positive correlation indicating the common source of their input. Ten of sixteen total PAHs were detected in measurable concentrations in at least one sample of river water. Sum of PAHs ranged from 15.3 to 117.2 ng/L with mean of 43.8 ng/L. The ratios of PAHs have indicated rather pyrogenic than petrogenic inputs on all the studied sites. Elevated concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs in water were found close to a coal-burning power station and a coke chemical plant also confirming their origin from coal combustion and subsequent atmospheric deposition. PCBs distribution has appeared to be relatively uniform on the territory despite the vast area of the basin researched

  10. Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf sequences of the Eastern Great Basin: Barn Hills and Lakeside Mountains, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Sheehan, P.M. (Milwaukee Public Museum, WI (United States). Dept of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed stratigraphic sections through Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf strata of the Eastern Great Basin were measured in two Utah localities, Barn Hills (Confusion Range) and Lakeside Mountains. Six major subfacies occur in these strata: mud-cracked and crinkly laminated subfacies, Laminated mudstone subfacies, cross-bedded grainstone subfacies, cross-laminated packstone subfacies, grainy bioturbated subfacies, muddy bioturbated subfacies, and thalassinoides burrowed subfacies. These occur in 1--10 m thick cycles in three facies: muddy cyclic laminite facies (tidal flats), cross-bedded facies (subtidal shoals), and bioturbated facies (moderate to low-energy shelf). The vertical facies succession, stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles, and exposure surfaces define correlatable sequences. The authors recognize four Upper Ordovician sequences (Mayvillian to Richmondian). An uppermost Ordovician (Hirnantian) sequence is missing in these sections but occurs basinward. Lower Silurian sequences are of early Llandoverian (A), middle Llandoverian (B), early late Llandoverian (C1--C3), late late Llandoverian (C4--C5), latest Llandoverian (C6) to early Wenlock age. In general, Upper Ordovician and latest Llandoverian-Wenlockian facies are muddier than intervening Llandoverian facies. The shift to muddier shelf facies in latest Llandoverian probably corresponds to the development of a rimmed shelf. The sequence framework improves correlation of these strata by combining sedimentologic patterns with the biostratigraphic data. For example, in the Lakesides, the Ordovician-Silurian boundary is shifted 37 m downward from recent suggestions. In addition, the sequence approach highlights intervals for which additional biostratigraphic information is needed.

  11. Sedimentology and geochemistry of carbonates diagenesis. Application to the Malm of the eastern edge of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, B.

    2001-12-01

    The important heterogeneity of neritic carbonates reflects: 1 - the facies characteristics of the initial sediments, linked with the diversity of sedimentation environments, and 2 - the post-sedimentation diagenesis characteristics. The aim of this work is to explore this heterogeneity using the δ 18 O isotopic signal. A three step pluri-disciplinary approach with different observation scales is established: 1 - a sedimentology study (facies inventory, paleo-environment variations, stratigraphic cycles), 2 - an inventory and chronology of the diagenesis phases and products which have modified he initial sediments, and 3 - a geochemical approach based on the δ 18 O signal. This last step combines ionic microprobe measurements performed on separated phases and measurements performed on the whole rock carbonated phase. The carbonate formations under study correspond to the HTM102 borehole made by the ANDRA in the Malm of the eastern edge of the Paris basin. For the stratigraphic approach, some field analogues have been studied (Pagny-sur-Meuse and Gudmont-Villiers sections). (J.S.)

  12. Origin of the volcanic rocks erupted in the eastern Manus Basin: Basaltic andesite-andesite-dacite associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yao; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Shuai; Yin, Xuebo; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-06-01

    There has been much recent interest in the origin of intermediate lava and several hypotheses are: 1) direct melting of the mantle under water-saturated conditions, 2) partial melting of altered crust, 3) fractional crystallization of parent magma, and 4) magma mixing of mafic magmas with dacitic/rhyolitic magmas. Volcanic rocks series ranging from basaltic andesite to dacite (SiO2 ranges from 53.8 to 63.0 wt.%) from the eastern Manus Basin were detected for major and trace element compositions to understand their origin. Low H2O contents, positive correlations of La-SiO2 and Yb-SiO2, oxygen isotope data and the indistinct change of trace element concentrations in oscillatory zoning of plagioclase phenocrysts rule out the models in which silicic lava results from direct melting of hydrous mantle, partial melting of altered oceanic crust or gabbros, and magma mixing, respectively. Besides, the geochemical data of whole rock and melt inclusions indicate that fractional crystallization plays a dominant role in generating the intermediate lava with subduction features.

  13. The 2015 Fillmore earthquake swarm and possible crustal deformation mechanisms near the bottom of the eastern Ventura Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Egill; Andrews, Jennifer; Plesch, Andreas; Shaw, John H.; Shelly, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Fillmore swarm occurred about 6 km west of the city of Fillmore in Ventura, California, and was located beneath the eastern part of the actively subsiding Ventura basin at depths from 11.8 to 13.8 km, similar to two previous swarms in the area. Template‐matching event detection showed that it started on 5 July 2015 at 2:21 UTC with an M∼1.0 earthquake. The swarm exhibited unusual episodic spatial and temporal migrations and unusual diversity in the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms as compared to the simple hypocenter‐defined plane. It was also noteworthy because it consisted of >1400 events of M≥0.0, with M 2.8 being the largest event. We suggest that fluids released by metamorphic dehydration processes, migration of fluids along a detachment zone, and cascading asperity failures caused this prolific earthquake swarm, but other mechanisms (such as simple mainshock–aftershock stress triggering or a regional aseismic creep event) are less likely. Dilatant strengthening may be a mechanism that causes the temporal decay of the swarm as pore‐pressure drop increased the effective normal stress, and counteracted the instability driving the swarm.

  14. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  15. Model study of the impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios over eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    The impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and emission control scenarios has been numerically studied through a series of sensitivity model simulations. A typical episode with elevated ozone over eastern China from 12 to 16 August 2001 was investigated by using a tropospheric chemistry and transport model (TCTM), driven by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5. The meteorological conditions during this period were characterized by high-pressure systems associated with low wind speeds, high temperatures and clear skies. Afternoon ozone concentrations exceeding 80 parts per billion (ppb) occurred over broad areas of eastern China. There is a generally good agreement between simulation and observation, indicating that the TCTM is able to represent major physical and chemical processes of tropospheric ozone and well reproduce the diurnal and day-to-day variability associated with synoptic conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals a significant influence of biogenic hydrocarbons on regional ozone. Ozone levels are apparently enhanced by biogenic emission over large areas of eastern China. The largest increase up to 30 ppb in daytime average concentration is found in portions of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Yangtze Delta and northeast China. However, the response of ozone to biogenic emission varies spatially, showing more sensitivity in polluted areas than that in clean rural areas. The regimes limited by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in eastern China are further investigated with respect to biogenic emission. Ozone shows a clear tendency to shift from VOC limitation to NO x limitation as it moves from urban and industrial areas to rural areas. Most of the rural areas in southern China tend to be NO x limited, whereas most of the northern parts of China appear to be VOC limited. By considering biogenic emission, ozone tends to become more NO x limited and less VOC limited, both in extent and intensity, over eastern

  16. Permian arc evolution associated with Panthalassa subduction along the eastern margin of the South China block, based on sandstone provenance and U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Hirano, Miho; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Toshiro; Ueda, Hayato

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the petrography, geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sandstones from shallow-marine forearc sediments, accretionary complexes (ACs), and metamorphosed accretionary complexes (Meta-ACs) within the Kurosegawa belt of Southwest Japan. Those rocks formed in a forearc region of a Permian island arc associated with subduction of the Panthalassa oceanic crust along the eastern margin of the South China block (Yangtze block). The provenance of the shallow-marine sediments was dominated by basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks and minor granitic rocks during the late Middle to Late Permian. The ACs were derived from felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks during the Late Permian. The provenance of Meta-ACs was dominated by andesitic volcanic rocks in the Middle Permian. The provenance, source rock compositions, and zircon age distribution for the forearc sediments, ACs and Meta-ACs have allowed us to reconstruct the geological history of the Permian arc system of the Kurosegawa belt. During the Middle Permian, the ACs were accreted along the eastern margin of the South China block. The Middle Permian arc was an immature oceanic island arc consisting of andesitic volcanic rocks. During the Late Permian, the ACs formed in a mature arc, producing voluminous felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks. A forearc basin developed during the late Middle to Late Permian. Subsequently, the Middle Permian ACs and part of the Late Permian AC underwent low-grade metamorphism in the Late to Early Jurassic, presenting the Meta-ACs.

  17. Lacustrine fan delta deposition alongside intrabasinal structural highs in rift basins: an example from the Early Cretaceous Jiuquan Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Muirhead, James D.; Wang, Hua; Chen, Si; Liao, Yuantao; Lu, Zongsheng; Wei, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Development of fan deltas alongside intrabasinal structural highs has been overlooked compared to those forming on basin margins. However, these fan deltas may provide important clues regarding the tectonic and climatic controls on deposition during rift development. This paper documents fan delta deposition alongside an intrabasinal structural high within the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of the Jiuquan Basin, China, using subsurface geological and geophysical data. Deposits observed in drill core support fan delta deposition occurring almost exclusively through subaerial and subaqueous gravity flows. Subsurface mapping reveals a consistent decrease in the areal extent of fan deltas from lowstand to highstand system tracts, suggesting that deposition alongside the structural high is sensitive to lake-level changes. The temporal and spatial distribution of the fan deltas display retrogradational stacking patterns, where fan deltas exhibit a decreasing lateral extent up-sequence until fan delta deposition terminated and was replaced by deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits. The retrogradational stacking patterns observed alongside the intrabasinal structural high are not observed in fan deltas along the basin margin in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation. Subsidence profiles also show differential subsidence across the basin during the earliest stages of this formation, likely resulting from border fault movements. These data suggest that non-uniform stacking patterns in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation reflect basin-scale tectonic movements as the dominant control on synrift deposition patterns. However, later stages of Xiagou Formation deposition were characterized by uniform subsidence across the basin, and uniform retrogradational stacking patterns for fan deltas alongside the intrabasinal structural high and border fault. These observations suggest that basin-scale tectonic movements played a relatively limited role in controlling

  18. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination in alluvial fan of Eastern Kofu basin, JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture has significant effects on the rate and composition of groundwater recharge. The chemical loading into groundwater have been dominated by the constituents derived directly or indirectly from agricultural practices and additives. The contamination of groundwater with nitrate is a major public health and environmental concern around the world. The inorganic constituents like, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl- and variety of other minor elements of groundwater are often used as agricultural additives; and the natural occurrence of these elements are dominated by the agricultural sources. A recent study has reported that Kofu basin groundwater aquifer is contaminated by nitrate from agricultural areas because of the fertilizer application for the orchard (Kazama and Yoneyama, 2002; Sakamoto et al., 1997, Nakamura et al., 2007). The water-oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope (δ18O and δD) and nitrate-nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples were investigated to identify the source of groundwater and nitrate nitrogen contamination in groundwater in the Fuefukigawa and Hikawa_Kanegawa alluvial fans in Kofu basin. The plot of δD versus δ18O values of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples suggest that the groundwater is a mixture of precipitation and river water. And nitrate-nitrogen isotope values have suggested the nitrate contamination of groundwater is from agricultural area. The study revealed positive correlation between groundwater δ18O values and NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ concentration, which shows the agricultural contamination is carried by the recharge of groundwater from precipitation in alluvial fan. Whereas, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ are diluted by the river water recharges. This study showed the quality of groundwater is resulted from the mixing of water from the different source during the groundwater recharge in the study area. References Kazama F, Yoneyama M (2002) Nitrogen generation

  19. Basin-scale changes of total organic carbon profiles in the eastern South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. A. Alvarez-Salgado

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Total organic carbon (TOC samples were collected at 6 stations spaced ~800 km apart in the eastern South Atlantic, from the Equator to 45°S along 9°W. Analyses were performed by high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO in the base laboratory. Despite the complex advection and mixing patterns of North Atlantic and Antarctic waters with extremely different degrees of ventilation, TOC levels below 500 m are quasi-constant at 55±3 µmol C l-1, pointing to the refractory nature of deep-water TOC. On the other hand, a TOC excess from 25 to 38 g C m-2 is observed in the upper 100 m of the permanently stratified nutrient-depleted Equatorial, Subequatorial and Subtropical upper ocean, where vertical turbulent diffusion is largely prevented. Conversely, TOC levels in the nutrient-rich upper layer of the Subantarctic Front only exceeds 9 g C m-2 the deep-water baseline. As much as 70% of the TOC variability in the upper 500 m is due to simple mixing of reactive TOC formed in the surface layer and refractory TOC in deep ocean waters, with a minor contribution (13% to oxygen consumption in the prominent subsurface AOU maximum at 200-400 m depth.

  20. Distribution and transfer of trace metals in the Aegean Seawater (Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. VOUTSINOU-TALIADOURI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements of dissolved Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in 324 water samples of the Aegean Sea fill the gap of missing knowledge in this part of the Eastern Mediterranean and try to identify their main input sources and spreading pathways. The analyses indicate that trace metal concentrations in the North and South Aegean Sea are generally in good agreement with those reported for the Western Mediterranean Sea. In the North Aegean Sea the trace metal distribution patterns differentiate mainly according to the existing water masses. Hence, a strong influence of the Black Sea Water, enriched in trace metals, is clearly recorded for Mn. Concentrations of this metal are one order of magnitude higher in the surface layer than those of the deeper waters. This feature is followed to a lesser degree also by Cd, Cu and Ni. Trace metal concentrations in the South Aegean Sea reveal almost constant values throughout the watercolumn similar to those observed in the North Aegean Sea below the depth of 100 m. Manganese values in the South Aegean Sea are considerably lower comparing with the North Aegean ones, showing relatively enhanced surface values which decrease with depth.

  1. Rock Paintings and Engravings in Suba Region along the Eastern Shores of Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick A. Odede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of rock art elicits a lot of interests. Although the Trust for African Rock (TARA Project has conducted research in this field across some parts of the country, not much of has been conducted about rock paintings and engravings on the Eastern Shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Previous research involved a general survey of the region but less emphasis was put on mapping of rock art in the study area. This article gives an indepth analysis of their origin and meaning of these cultural heritage resources that are potential ecotourism destinations in Western Kenya. The aims of this study include interrogating various site feature paintings, classifying the rock art and provision of critical ethnographic accounts related to the cultural heritage based on oral reconstruction. Phenomenological and ethnographic modes of data collection alongside visual inspection was employed during the study. Content Analysis was used to develop meanings and values of the rock art paintings. Value Theory was significant in the interpretation of the data collected. Finally, the study contextualizes the rock paintings and engravings within the East African context.

  2. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  3. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  4. Do fine-grained components of loess indicate westerlies: Insights from observations of dust storm deposits at Lenghu (Qaidam Basin, China)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Qiang; L. Lang; Z. Wang;  

    2010-01-01

    The hyper-arid Qaidam Basin is a major dust source area in China. Mineral materials that settled during 11 dust storms from November 2003 to April 2005 in the northern Qaidam Basin were comprised of an amount of fine particles. The particles

  5. A detrital record of continent-continent collision in the Early-Middle Jurassic foreland sequence in the northern Yangtze foreland basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Liu, Shaofeng; Wang, Zongxiu; Li, Wangpeng; Chen, Xinlu

    2016-12-01

    The Mesozoic northern Yangtze foreland basin system was formed by continental collision between the North China and South China plates along the Mianlue suture. Synorogenic stratigraphic sequences of Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic age were developed in the northern Yangtze foreland basin. The upper Middle Jurassic Shaximiao Formation consists mainly of thick-bedded terrestrial successions that serve as the main body of the basin-filling sequences, suggesting intense tectonism in the peripheral orogeny of the foreland basin. Laser-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of 254 detrital zircon grains from sandstone samples and several published Lower-Middle Jurassic samples, detrital compositions, petrofacies, and paleocurrent reconstructions in the northern Yangtze foreland basin indicate that discrete source areas included the Qinling-Dabieshan ranges and the Mianlue suture zone to the north, and the South China plate to the south. The stratigraphic succession and sediment provenance of the foreland basin imply that the early Mianlue oceanic basin, magmatic arc, and nonmarine molasse foreland basin during the period of deposition were modified or buried by the subsequent continent-continent collision between the North China-Qinling-Dabieshan plate and the Yangtze plate during the Jurassic, which followed the oblique amalgamation between these plates during the Middle-Late Triassic.

  6. Attempt at quantifying human-induced land-cover change during the Holocene in central eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Gaillard, Marie-José; Mazier, Florence; Sugita, Shinya; Xu, Qinghai; Li, Yuecong; Zhou, Zhongze

    2016-04-01

    China is one of the key regions of the world where agricultural civilizations already flourished several millennia ago. However, the role of human activity in vegetation change is not yet fully understood. As a contribution to the PAGES LandCover6k initiative, this study aims to achieve a first attempt at Holocene land-cover reconstructions in the temperate zone of China using the REVEALS model (Sugita, 2007). Pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) are key parameters required for the model and were lacking so far for major taxa characteristic of ancient cultural landscapes in that part of the world. Remains of traditional agricultural structures and practices are still found in the low mountain ranges of the Shandong province located in central-eastern China. The area was chosen for a study of pollen-vegetation relationships and calculation of pollen productivity estimates. Pollen counts and vegetation data from 37 random sites within an area of 200 x 100 km are used for calculation. The vegetation inventory within 100 meters from the pollen sampling site follows the standard methods of Bunting et al. (2013). Vegetation data beyond 100 meters up to 1.5 km from the pollen sampling site is extracted from satellite images. The PPEs are calculated using the three sub-models of the Extended R-value model and compared with existing PPEs from northern China's biomes and temperate Europe. The PPEs' relevance for reconstruction of past human-induced land-cover change in temperate China are evaluated. Key words China, traditional agricultural landscape, ERV model, pollen productivity estimates References Bunting, M. J., et al. (2013). "Palynological perspectives on vegetation survey: a critical step for model-based reconstruction of Quaternary land cover." Quaternary Science Reviews 82: 41-55. Sugita, S. (2007). "Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation I: pollen from large sites REVEALS regional vegetation composition." The Holocene 17(2): 229-241.

  7. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Xuewen Shi; Jia Liu; Du Li; Jun Xie; Shengxian Zhao; Chunhai Ji; Ying Hu; Yanbo Guo

    2017-01-01

    Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences in...

  8. Phylogeography of Beck's Desert Scorpion, Paruroctonus becki, reveals Pliocene diversification in the Eastern California Shear Zone and postglacial expansion in the Great Basin Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew R; Jaeger, Jef R; Prendini, Lorenzo; Riddle, Brett R

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of Beck's Desert Scorpion, Paruroctonus becki (Gertsch and Allred, 1965), spans the 'warm' Mojave Desert and the western portion of the 'cold' Great Basin Desert. We used genetic analyses and species distribution modeling to test whether P. becki persisted in the Great Basin Desert during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), or colonized the area as glacial conditions retreated and the climate warmed. Phylogenetic and network analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1), 16S rDNA, and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) DNA sequences uncovered five geographically-structured groups in P. becki with varying degrees of statistical support. Molecular clock estimates and the geographical arrangement of three of the groups suggested that Pliocene geological events in the tectonically dynamic Eastern California Shear Zone may have driven diversification by vicariance. Diversification was estimated to have continued through the Pleistocene, during which a group endemic to the western Great Basin diverged from a related group in the eastern Mojave Desert and western Colorado Plateau. Demographic and network analyses suggested that P. becki underwent a recent expansion in the Great Basin. According to a landscape interpolation of genetic distances, this expansion appears to have occurred from the northwest, implying that P. becki may have persisted in part of the Great Basin during the LGM. This prediction is supported by species distribution models which suggest that climate was unsuitable throughout most of the Great Basin during the LGM, but that small patches of suitable climate may have remained in areas of the Lahontan Trough. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Variation of total organic carbon content along the stream Harsit, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Adem; Önsoy, Hizir; Akinci, Görkem; Bulut, Volkan Numan

    2011-11-01

    The TOC in surface waters and wastewater is an important analytical parameter describing the total content of all organic substances containing carbon. In practice, the TOC originated from natural and anthropogenic sources, and even if it is not directly responsible for dangers on human health, its determination is important for any kind of water that is used by public. The aim of this study was to determine variation of total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon (TC) content in the stream Harsit, which courses in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Sampling was fortnightly conducted in each of the four seasons between March 2009 and February 2010. A total of 230 water samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the main branch of the stream Harsit with 143 km of length. Obtained TOC values were evaluated and used to classify the water quality of stream Harsit, according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation (TWPCR). The annual average TOC content values for the stations were found between 2.33 and 6.97 mg/L. It was seen that the TOC content have increased along the streamcourse of Harsit until the fourth station, where reaches its maximum value. The TOC content, then, has decreased and the minimum value was observed in the eighth station. The results showed that, except in winter season, maximum TOC content observed in many of the water samples were above Class I water standard indicated in TWPCR, which classifies the water resources according to the different area of uses. It was also found that TOC has a small contribution to TC and the highest TOC content in stream waters were measured in Gumushane station where direct discharge of city wastewaters and solid waste dumping to the stream were observed.

  10. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  11. Mid-Neolithic Exploitation of Mollusks in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjiang; Wu, Naiqin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Weilin; Ma, Mingzhi; Zhang, Xiaohu; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Mollusk remains are abundant in archaeological sites in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China, providing good opportunities for investigations into the use of mollusks by prehistoric humans. Here we report on freshwater gastropod and bivalve mollusks covering the time interval from about 5600 to 4500 cal. yrs BP from sites of Mid-Late Neolithic age. They are identified as Cipangopaludina chinensis and Unio douglasiae, both of which are currently food for humans. The shells are well preserved and have no signs of abrasion. They are all freshwater gastropods and bivalves found in pits without water-reworked deposits and have modern representatives which can be observed in rivers, reservoirs, and paddy fields in the studied region. Mollusk shells were frequently recovered in association with mammal bones, lithic artifacts, and pottery. These lines of evidence indicate that the mollusks are the remains of prehistoric meals. The mollusk shells were likely discarded into the pits by prehistoric humans after the flesh was eaten. However, these mollusk remains may not have been staple food since they are not found in large quantities. Mollusk shell tools and ornaments are also observed. Shell tools include shell knives, shell reaphooks and arrowheads, whereas shell ornaments are composed of pendants and loops. All the shell tools and ornaments are made of bivalve mollusks and do not occur in large numbers. The finding of these freshwater mollusk remains supports the view that the middle Holocene climate in the Guanzhong Basin may have been warm and moist, which was probably favorable to freshwater mollusks growing and developing in the region. PMID:23544050

  12. Evaluation on uncertainty sources in projecting hydrological changes over the Xijiang River basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fei; Zhao, Chongxu; Jiang, Yong; Ren, Liliang; Shan, Hongcui; Zhang, Limin; Zhu, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Shanhu; Yang, Xiaoli; Shen, Hongren

    2017-11-01

    Projections of hydrological changes are associated with large uncertainties from different sources, which should be quantified for an effective implementation of water management policies adaptive to future climate change. In this study, a modeling chain framework to project future hydrological changes and the associated uncertainties in the Xijiang River basin, South China, was established. The framework consists of three emission scenarios (ESs), four climate models (CMs), four statistical downscaling (SD) methods, four hydrological modeling (HM) schemes, and four probability distributions (PDs) for extreme flow frequency analyses. Direct variance method was adopted to analyze the manner by which uncertainty sources such as ES, CM, SD, and HM affect the estimates of future evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow, and to quantify the uncertainties of PDs in future flood and drought risk assessment. Results show that ES is one of the least important uncertainty sources in most situations. CM, in general, is the dominant uncertainty source for the projections of monthly ET and monthly streamflow during most of the annual cycle, daily streamflow below the 99.6% quantile level, and extreme low flow. SD is the most predominant uncertainty source in the projections of extreme high flow, and has a considerable percentage of uncertainty contribution in monthly streamflow projections in July-September. The effects of SD in other cases are negligible. HM is a non-ignorable uncertainty source that has the potential to produce much larger uncertainties for the projections of low flow and ET in warm and wet seasons than for the projections of high flow. PD contributes a larger percentage of uncertainty in extreme flood projections than it does in extreme low flow estimates. Despite the large uncertainties in hydrological projections, this work found that future extreme low flow would undergo a considerable reduction, and a noticeable increase in drought risk in the Xijiang

  13. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  14. Provenance evolution of the Jurassic northern Qaidam Basin (West China) and its geological implications: evidence from detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Xiao, Ancheng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yuntao; Rittner, Martin; Lou, Qianqian; Pan, Xiaotian

    2017-03-01

    The Jurassic system is the major hydrocarbon source rock and of crucial importance for understanding the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in West China. This paper presents systematic detrital zircon geochronology of the Jurassic outcropping at the Dameigou locality in the northern Qaidam Basin, and reports 1000 single-grain U-Pb zircon ages that have implications for the provenance, the corresponding basin property as well as the tectonic setting of West China during Jurassic. Zircon ages exhibit two major clusters at 250 and 2400 Ma whereas two minor clusters at 450 and 850 Ma, suggesting primary sources from the East Kunlun Shan and Oulongbuluke Block, secondary sources from the North Qaidam UHP belt and South Qilian Shan. Combined with observation of lithology and sedimentary facies, two rifting periods were inferred in the earliest Jurassic and the early stage of the Middle Jurassic, respectively, accompanied by further extension throughout the Jurassic. Our results do not support a foreland basin related to the Jurassic southward thrusting of the South Qilian Shan, but favor that the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in West China were characterised by pulsed responses to specific collisions rather than a persisting contractional setting during Jurassic period.

  15. Identifying Water Insecurity Hotspots in the Lake Victoria Basin of Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Shukla, S.; Linard, C.; Gaughan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), one of Africa's most populated transboundary watersheds and home to more than 30 million inhabitants, is increasingly challenged by both water quality problems and water quantity shortages against a backdrop of climate variability and change; and other environmental challenges. As a result of pollution, droughts, more erratic rainfall, heightened demand for water for both consumption and agricultural needs as well as differences in water allocation among the riverine countries of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, many parts of this region are already experiencing water scarcity on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, given projected annual population growth rates of 2.5 to 3.5% for the next 20 years, water shortages are likely to be exacerbated in the future. Analyzing historical changes in the water resources of this region is hence important to identify "hot spots" that might be most sensitive to future changes in climate and demography. In this presentation, we report the findings of a comprehensive analysis performed to (i) examine changes in water resources of LVB in recent decades and (ii) identify overlap between regions of significant changes in water resources with land cover changes and high population centers that are also projected to grow the fastest over the coming decades. We first utilize several satellite, stations and model(s) based climatic and hydrologic datasets to assess changes in water resources in this region. We then use a quality-controlled Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to identify areas of significant land cover changes. Simultaneously we use projections of gridded population density based on differential growth rates for rural and urban population to estimate fastest projected human population growth for 2030 and 2050 relative to 2010 data. Using the outcomes of these change analysis we identify water insecurity hotspots in the LVB.

  16. Olivine and melt inclusion chemical constraints on the source of intracontinental basalts from the eastern North China Craton: Discrimination of contributions from the subducted Pacific slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Huang, Xiao-Long; Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Hua; Ning, Zhen-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Contributions from fluid and melt inputs from the subducting Pacific slab to the chemical makeup of intraplate basalts erupted on the eastern Eurasian continent have long been suggested but have not thus far been geochemically constrained. To attempt to address this question, we have investigated Cenozoic basaltic rocks from the western Shandong and Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton (NCC), which preserve coherent relationships among the chemistries of their melt inclusions, their hosting olivines and their bulk rock compositions. Three groups of samples are distinguished: (1) high-Si and (2) moderate-Si basalts (tholeiites, alkali basalts and basanites) which were erupted at ∼23-20 Ma, and (3) low-Si basalts (nephelinites) which were erupted at <9 Ma. The high-Si basalts have lower alkalies, CaO and FeOT contents, lower trace element concentrations, lower La/Yb, Sm/Yb and Ce/Pb but higher Ba/Th ratios, and lower εNd and εHf values than the low-Si basalts. The olivines in the high-Si basalts have higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca at a given Fo value than those crystallizing from peridotite melts, and their corresponding melt inclusions have lower CaO contents than peridotite melts, suggesting a garnet pyroxenitic source. The magmatic olivines from low-Si basalts have lower Ni but higher Mn at a given Fo value than that of the high-Si basalts, suggesting more olivine in its source. The olivine-hosted melt inclusions of the low-Si basalts have major elemental signatures different from melts of normal peridotitic or garnet pyroxenitic mantle sources, pointing to their derivation from a carbonated mantle source consisting of peridotite and garnet pyroxenite. We propose a model involving the differential melting of a subduction-modified mantle source to account for the generation of these three suites of basalts. Asthenospheric mantle beneath the eastern NCC, which entrains garnet pyroxenite with an EM1 isotopic signature, was metasomatized by carbonatitic

  17. Human dietary intake of organohalogen contaminants at e-waste recycling sites in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunska, Iryna; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Tao, Fang; Wang, Mengjiao; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study reports concentrations and human dietary intake of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as selected "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organochlorine pesticides, in ten staple food categories. Samples were sourced from areas in Taizhou City, eastern China, where rudimentary recycling and disposal of e-waste is commonplace, as well as from nearby non-e-waste impacted control areas. In most instances, concentrations in foods from e-waste recycling areas exceeded those from control locations. Concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TBP) in samples from e-waste sites were 3.09-62.2ng/g and 0.81-16.3ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively; exceeding consistently those in foods acquired from control sites by an order of magnitude in many cases. In contrast, while concentrations of HBCD in some foods from e-waste impacted areas exceed those from control locations; concentrations in pork, shrimp, and duck liver are higher in control samples. This highlights the potential significance of non-e-waste sources of HBCD (e.g. building insulation foam) in our study areas. While concentrations of DDT in all foods examined except pork were higher in e-waste impacted samples than controls; our exposure estimates were well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 0.01mg/kgbw/day derived by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Concentrations of ΣPCBs resulted in exposures (650 and 2340ng/kgbw/day for adults and children respectively) that exceed substantially the Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for ΣPCBs of 20ng/kgbw/day derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Moreover, when expressed in terms of dioxin-like toxicity equivalency based on the four dioxin-like PCBs monitored in this study (DL-PCBs) (PCB-105, 118, 156, and 167); concentrations in e-waste impacted foods exceed limits set by the European Union in

  18. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Groundwater Ages and Implications for Sustainable Groundwater Management in the Ordos Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.; Cao, G.; Yao, Y.; Hu, F.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Ordos Basin is located in the arid northwest of China. The basin encompasses parts of Shaanxi, Gansu, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia provinces with a total area of 360,000 km2. The region has an abundant reserve of coal and natural gas, hence it is a key energy base for China. However, economic development in the region is hampered by severe water scarcity. Sustainable management of limited groundwater resources is of major concern. In this study, we applied a version of the MT3DMS solute transport model to simulate the three-dimensional distribution of mean groundwater ages in the confined Cretaceous sandstone aquifer in the Ordos Basin. The groundwater age model was constrained by comparing the simulated mean ages with carbon-14 age data collected at over 100 observation wells. Spatial distribution of groundwater ages in a large basin simulated by a solute transport model and calibrated by field-measured isotopic age data provides a unique opportunity to analyze and quantify the sustainability of groundwater resources. Younger groundwater represents a more dynamic system with a higher capability for recharge and renewal. On the other hand, older groundwater indicates a more stagnant system with a lower capability for recharge and renewal. Thus, numerical simulation of groundwater ages can be used as a valuable management tool to evaluate and ensure sustainability of groundwater resources.

  19. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  20. Slide Activity along the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (offshore Sicily): First results from expedition MSM-15/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, K.; Strasser, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Foglini, F.; Trincardi, F.; Minisini, D.; Msm15/3 Working Group

    2010-12-01

    as well as to test a number of hypothesis regarding the trigger mechanisms, such as the weakness of clayey deposits, the liquefaction potential of the interbedded non-cohesive sand and/or ash layers, and the building up of high pore pressures due to high accumulation rates. References Camerlenghi, A., Urgeles, R., Fantoni, L., 2009. A database on submarine landslides of the Mediterranean Sea. In: Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences IV, edited by Mosher, DC. Et al., 4th International Symposium on Submarine mass movements and their consequences, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research. Masson, D.G., Harbitz, C.B., Wynn, R.B., Pedersen, G., Løvholt, F., 2006. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 2009-2039. Minisini, D., Trincardi, F., Asioli, A., Canu, M., Foglini, F., (2007). Morphologic variability of exposed mass-transport deposits on the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (Sicily channel). Basin Research, 19, 217-240 Minisini, D., Trincardi, F., (2009). Frequent failure of the continental slope: The Gela Basin (Sicily Channel), Journal of Geophysical Research, Earth Surfac, 114, F03014, 17 PP

  1. Precipitation variability and response to the changing Indian summer monsoon in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Y. F.; Singh, V. P.; Gong, T.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the last four decades in the Yarlung Tsangpo River (YTR) basin, China, and the impact thereon of the changing Indian summer monsoon at inter-annual and decadal temporal scales. Results reflect the spatial variability in the seasonal distribution of precipitation in the YTR basin. From downstream to upstream, the rainy season is delayed and becomes shorter, and the ratio of rainy season precipitation to annual precipitation increases, but the absolute amounts of both the rainy season precipitation and annual precipitation decrease. All the precipitation series have similar scaling characteristics, reflecting similar climatic condition in the basin. However, the effect of the Indian summer monsoon strengthens from downstream to upstream, and on this basis the YTR basin is roughly divided into three regions: east, mid and west. The decadal variations of precipitation in the three regions are similar. Overall, the annual precipitation has been exhibiting a downward trend since 1998, which is mainly caused by the decrease in the rainy season precipitation. Both the occurrence times and magnitudes of precipitation extremes have been exhibiting a downward trend over the last four decades, which bodes well for the water disaster control in the basin. The Indian summer monsoon index (ISMI), as an intensity indicator for the Indian summer monsoon, shows a positive relationship with the summer precipitation in the YTR basin. Periodic variability of the Indian summer monsoon determines the inter-annual fluctuations of precipitation in the YTR basin. Especially, the weakening effect of the Indian monsoonhas caused an obvious decrease in rainy season precipitation after 1998. If the Indian summer monsoon keeps the present weakening effect, precipitation decrease and water shortage would become more severe in the YTR basin. Effective adaptation strategies should therefore be developed proactively and

  2. Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Characteristics ofYersinia pestisat an Emerging Natural Plague Focus, Junggar Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Luo, Tao; Yang, Chao; Yue, Xihong; Guo, Rong; Wang, Xinhui; Buren, Mingde; Song, Yuqin; Yang, Ruifu; Cao, Hanli; Cui, Yujun; Dai, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    The 15th natural plague focus in China, the Junggar Basin plague focus, is located near an important communication route connecting China and Central Asia and was discovered after 2005. To characterize the phenotypic and genetic diversity of the Yersinia pestis population in this newly established focus, we collected 25 Y. pestis strains from six counties across Junggar Basin in 2005-2006, and determined their biochemical features and genotypes based on multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats analysis. We inferred the phylogenetic positions and possible sources of the Junggar strains by comparing their genotypes with the genetic diversity for known representative Y. pestis strains. Our results indicate that the major genotype of Junggar strains belongs to 2.MED1, a lineage of biovar Medievalis with identical biochemical characters and high virulence in mice. Although share a similar ecology, the 2.MED1 in Junggar Basin are not descended from known strains in the neighboring Central Asian Desert plague foci. Therefore, the emergence of the Junggar Basin plague focus is not attributable to the recent clonal spread of Y. pestis from Central Asia. We also identified two distinct minor genotypes in Junggar Basin, one of which clusters genetically with the 0.ANT1 strains of the Tianshan Mountain natural plague focus and another belongs to a 1.IN lineage not previously reported. Our study clarifies the phenotypic and genetic characters of Junggar Y. pestis strains. These findings extend our knowledge of the population diversity of Y. pestis and will facilitate future plague surveillance and prevention in Junggar Basin and adjacent regions.

  3. Prediction of hydrological responds to climate changes in the Upper Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Ren, L.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, S.; Yuan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Climate changes have direct effects on hydrological cycle, with the increasing temperature and seasonal shift of precipitation. Therefore, understanding of how climate change may affect the population and water resources and economic development is critical to the water and food security for China. This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of future climate changes on water resources of the upper basin of Yangtze River (the area controlled by the Yichang hydrological station) using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model driven by composite observations (1961-2005) and projections of eight CMIP5 models under scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 from 2006 to 2099. The raw eight CMIP5 models have been downscaled by the equidistant cumulative distribution functions (EDCDF) statistical downscaling approach from 1961 to 2099. The assessment of the performance of model simulated precipitation and temperature were calculated by comparing to the observations during the historical period (1961-2005). For the same variables, eight CMIP5 models for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 downscaled by EDCDF method were generated during the future period (2006-2099). Overall, the VIC model performed well in monthly streamflow simulation, with the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE) 0.92 and 0.97 for calibration and validation, respectively. The annual precipitation is projected to increase by 6.3mm and 8.6mm per decade and the annual temperature will increase by 0.22 °C and 0.53°C per decade (2006-2099) for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. In the future period, The total runoff of the study basins would either remain stable or moderately increase by 2.7% and 22.4% per decade, the evapotranspiration increase by 2mm and 13mm per decade, and the soil moisture will reduce by -0.1% and -7.4% per decade under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The changes of model-simulated soil moisture, runoff, and evapotranspiration suggest that there probably be an increasing risk of drought in

  4. New archaeomagnetic direction results from China and their constraints on palaeosecular variation of the geomagnetic field in Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Jin, Guiyun; Chen, Xuexiang; Chen, Wei; Xie, Fei; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-11-01

    We carried out an archaeomagnetic directional study on 38 oriented samples (bricks and baked clays) collected from four archaeological locations at three provinces in China. The ages of our samples, spanning from ˜3000 BCE to ˜1300 CE, were constrained using a combination of archaeological context, radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic information. Rock magnetic results demonstrate that the main magnetic minerals of the studied samples are magnetite and/or hematite in single domain and superparamagnetic states. A total of 20 new reliable archaeodirectional data from 12 independent sites are obtained after thermal demagnetization experiments. These are the first set of archaeodirectional data in China produced since the 1990s. The published data are largely from the past 2 kyr and data from older time periods are rare. Our new data, especially those from period older than 3 ka, fill many gaps of the presently published dataset and will provide strong constraints on palaeosecular variation of the geomagnetic field in Eastern Asia and on the improvement of global models. Quite a few inflection points in the direction of the geomagnetic field are recorded in Eastern Asia over the past 10 kyr and some of them synchronize with the maximums or minimums of the palaeointensity. The palaeosecular variation rates are very low (based on present data distribution) before 2000 BCE and then start to increase and fluctuate afterward, which is generally consistent with the pattern of palaeointensity variations in this area.

  5. Heavy metal pollution characteristics of surface sediments in different aquatic ecosystems in eastern China: a comprehensive understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Tang

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems in eastern China are suffering threats from heavy metal pollution because of rapid economic development and urbanization. Heavy metals in surface sediments were determined in five different aquatic ecosystems (river, reservoir, estuary, lake, and wetland ecosystems. The average Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.716, 118, 37.3, 32.7, 56.6, and 204 mg/kg, respectively, and the higher concentrations were mainly found in sediment samples from river ecosystems. Cd was the most anthropogenically enriched pollutant, followed by Zn and Pb, indicated by enrichment factors >1.5. According to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, potential ecological risk indices, and risk assessment codes, all five types of aquatic ecosystems were found to be polluted with heavy metals, and the most polluted ecosystems were mainly rivers. Cd was the most serious pollutant in all five aquatic ecosystems, and it was mainly found in the exchangeable fraction (about 30% of the total Cd concentration, on average. The results indicate that heavy metal contamination, especially of Cd, in aquatic ecosystems in eastern China should be taken into account in the development of management strategies for protecting the aquatic environment.

  6. The Miocene to Recent evolution of an active transform fault at the junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, eastern Mediterranean: the linkage between the western Antalya Basin and Finike Basin and Anaximander Seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, E.; King, H.; Aksu, A.; Hall, J.; Gurcay, S.; Çifçi, G.

    2011-12-01

    A 100 km-wide transform ('STEP') fault zone separates the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs at the convergent plate boundary of the eastern Mediterranean, where the African plate to the south is being subducted below the Aegean-Anatolian microplate to the north. The eastern edge of the transform fault zone is a N-S transtensional lineament which occurs at the shelf edge between the onland Bey Daglari mountains and the offshore Antalya Basin. The lineament runs northwards to the Isparta Angle in southern Turkey; and continues southwards to veer to the southwest through the Anaximander Seamounts to connect with the Strabo Trough. The Finike Basin lies immediately west of the transtensional fault zone, and south of the Turkish shelf. Its Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary fill is trapped between the shelf and the Anaximander Seamounts, which appear to override it in a shallow-dipping north-verging thrust which carries the Sirri Erinç Plateau. Recent acquisition of around 1500 km of multi-channel seismic reflection profiles has enabled us to discern the relationships of the Finike Basin with the fault systems which bound it. Miocene thrusts verging to the south characterise the area, and many are reactivated in Pliocene-Quaternary time, accompanied by back thrusts (verging to the north) indicative of transpression. A north-verging thrust carries the Sirri Erinç Plateau over the southern margin of the Finike Basin, and similarly-verging thrusts occur within the Basin. These, like the back-thrusts, are indicative of the (?)sinistral transpression that characterizes the STEP fault zone in Pliocene-Quaternary time. The Kas 1 well illustrates south-verging thrusting on land, probably as a continuation of the contraction in the Taurides to the north. We suggest that the normal faulting along the coast is superficial and gravitational, formed on the back of the deep thrusts carrying Tauride Mountains. The Finike Basin has similarities with the adjacent Rhodes Basin. It is a deep

  7. Seismic fracture detection of shale gas reservoir in Longmaxi formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujia; Cao, Junxing; Jiang, Xudong

    2017-11-01

    In the shale reservoirs, fractures play an important role, which not only provide space for the oil and gas, but also offer favorable petroleum migration channel. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the fractures characteristics in shale reservoirs for the exploration and development of shale gas. In this paper, four analysis technologies involving coherence, curvature attribute, structural stress field simulation and pre-stack P-wave azimuthal anisotropy have been applied to predict the fractures distribution in the Longmaxi formation, Silurian, southeast of Sichuan Basin, China. By using the coherence and curvature attribute, we got the spatial distribution characteristics of fractures in the study area. Structural stress field simulation can help us obtain distribution characteristics of structural fractures. And using the azimuth P-wave fracture detection technology, we got the characteristics about the fracture orientation and density of this region. Application results show that there are NW and NE fractures in the study block, which is basically consistent with the result of log interpretation. The results also provide reliable geological basis for shale gas sweet spots prediction.

  8. Petroleum geology of the Puguang sour gas field in the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongsheng; Guo, Tonglou; Zhu, Guangyou; Cai, Xunyu [SINOPEC Southern Exploration and Development Company, Kunming, Yunnan 650200 (China); Zhang, Shuichang [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Maowen [Geological Survey of (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The Puguang sour gas field in northeastern Sichuan Basin is the largest gas discovery in the Paleozoic marine strata in China, with at least 9 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of proven gas reserves. It is one of the many anticlinal structures formed during the Indo-Sinian orogeny, with gas being trapped in a composite structure-lithology pool. The presence of the Upper Permian coal measures, Lower Silurian and Lower Cambrian marine shales provided excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. The Lower Triassic and Upper Permian oolitic dolomites serve as high quality reservoir rocks, with 10-25% porosity and 1-1000 mD permeability, largely due to diagenetically produced secondary porosity. The Lower and Middle Triassic evaporate beds have acted as the direct top seal for the large Lower Triassic-Upper Permian gas accumulation. The thick Upper Triassic and Jurassic mudstone beds regionally cap the underlying marine carbonate strata. The deep-seated basement faults acted as vertical hydrocarbon migration conduits during faulting, and became effective flow barriers when the faulting ceased. The deep burial of a paleo-oil accumulation in reservoirs rich in sulfate resulted in extensive thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This, together with the new gas injection and structural reconfiguration, transformed a paleo-oil pool to a large sour gas pool. (author)

  9. Antibiotics in Crab Ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China: Occurrence, Temporal Variations, and Ecological Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture, however, this often results in undesirable ecological effects. To evaluate the occurrence, temporal variations, and ecological risk of antibiotics in five crab ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China, 44 antibiotics from nine classes were analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Twelve antibiotics belonging to six classes were detected in the aqueous phase of five crab ponds, among which sulfonamides and macrolides were the predominant classes, and six compounds (sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, monensin, and florfenicol were frequently detected at high concentrations. In general, the antibiotic levels varied between different crab ponds, with the average concentrations ranging from 122 to 1440 ng/L. The antibiotic concentrations in crab ponds exhibited obvious seasonal variations, with the highest concentration and detection frequency detected in summer. Multivariate analysis showed that antibiotic concentrations were significantly correlated with environmental variables, such as total organic carbon, phosphate, ammonia nitrogen, and pH. Sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, erythromycin-H2O, and ciprofloxacin posed a high risk to algae, while the mixture of antibiotics could pose a high risk to aquatic organisms in the crab ponds. Overall, the usage of antibiotics in farming ponds should be comprehensively investigated and controlled to preserve a healthy aquaculture ecosystem.

  10. Estimation of potassium and magnesium flows in animal production in Dianchi Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachika, Yuta; Anzai, Hiroki; Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Irbis, Chagan; Li, Kunzhi; Kumagai, Hajime; Inamura, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate and evaluate potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) budgets and flows of animal production in the basin of Dianchi Lake, China. Feed sampling and farmer interviews were conducted in field surveys. The supplies of K and Mg from local and external feeds and the retention, production and excretion of animals were calculated individually for dairy cows, fattening pigs, breeding sows, and broilers and laying hens. The K and Mg flows on a regional level were estimated using the individual budgets. At the individual level, in dairy cattle, the K and Mg supplied from local feeds accounted for large parts of the total nutrient intakes, whereas in the other animal categories most of the K and Mg in the feeds depended on external resources. Our findings also suggested that excessive Mg intake resulted in high Mg excretion and low use efficiency in dairy cattle and fattening pigs. At the regional level, the K and Mg amounts of manure produced and applied in the area (K: 339 and Mg: 143 t/year) exceeded those used as local feeds. Our results imply the animal production potentially increased the K and Mg loads in the regional agriculture system. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Ecosystem Services Value Assessment and Uneven Development of the Qingjiang River Basin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengsong Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important ecological barrier in Southwest China, the Qingjiang river basin plays a vital role in shaping the mountainous terrain. This paper analyzes the Ecosystem Services Value (ESV using a series of methods based on the data of changes in land use from 2000 to 2015 and the statistical yearbook. The changes in land use between 2000 and 2015 were dominated by forest land, which accounted for 60.63% of the total area, followed by arable landwhich accounted for about 22.26%, while grassland and other land use contribution rates were the lowest, accounting for only about 17.11%. Environmental changes and economic development were uneven. The regional comprehensive strength of En’shi City, Changyang County, and Yidu City were among the highest, while Badong County, Hefeng County, and Wufeng County were among the lowest in the area under study. In addition, the ESV in 2035 was estimated to be 1.56 billion dollars, a decrease of 27.64% when compared with the year 2000. The ESV of Yidu City, Lichuan City, Jianshi County, and Hefeng County grew faster, at the rates of 94.76%, 65.12%, 96.96%, and 92.38%, respectively. However, the ESV of En’shi City, Badong County, Wufeng County and Xuan’en County showed a downward trend, at the rates of −32.53%, −487.80%, −368.07%, and −181.52%, respectively.

  12. Groundwater Microbial Communities Along a Generalized Flowpath in Nomhon Area, Qaidam Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yizhi; Wang, Guangcai; Zhao, Dan; Hao, Chunbo; Liu, Chenglong; Cui, Linfeng; Zhang, Ge

    2017-11-09

    Spatial distribution (horizonal and vertical) of groundwater microbial communities and the hydrogeochemistry in confined aquifers were studied approximately along the groundwater flow path from coteau to plain in the Nomhon area, Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. The confined groundwater samples at different depths and locations were collected in three boreholes through a hydrogeological section in this arid and semi-arid area. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes and multivariate statistical analysis were used to elucidate similarities and differences between groundwater microbial communities and hydrogeochemical properties. The integrated isotopic geochemical measurements were applied to estimate the source and recharge characteristics of groundwater. The results showed that groundwater varied from fresh to saline water, and modern water to ancient water following the flowpath. The recharge characteristics of the saline water was distinct with that of fresh water. Cell abundance did not vary greatly along the hydrogeochemical zonality; however, dissimilarities in habitat-based microbial community structures were evident, changing from Betaproteobacteria in the apex of alluvial fan to Gammaproteobacteria and then to Epsilonproteobacteria in the core of the basin (alluvial-lacustrine plain). Rhodoferax, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudomonas, and bacterium isolated from similar habitats unevenly thrived in the spatially distinct fresh water environments, while Sulfurimonas dominanted in the saline water environment. The microbial communities presented likely reflected to the hydrogeochemical similarities and zonalities along groundwater flowpath. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.

  14. Architecture and quantitative assessment of channeled clastic deposits, Shihezi sandstone (Lower Permian, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengye Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lower Permian Shihezi sandstone in Ordos Basin is the largest gas reservoir in China. Architecture elements of channel, overbank and floodplain facies of braided channel deposits were identified through an outcrops survey, and their proportion of channel facies have been quantitatively estimated from well logging. Characteristics of architecture elements, such as sand thickness, bounding surfaces and lithofacies were investigated through outcrops and core. Petrology of Shihezi sandstone has also been studied in detail. Analysis on sandstone components shows that monocrystalline quartz with approximately 76% bulk volume, and lithic up to 5%–45% bulk volume, are the two main components. Litharenite and lithic quartz sandstone are the main rock types. Compaction is concluded by former researchers as the control factor of low permeability. Examination through thin section reveals that secondary pores developed well in coarse sand. Inter-granular dissolution is included as the positive effect to increasing porosity, and is concluded as the control factor to the generation of net pay. Scale of coarse grained channel fills and channel bar sandstone bodies are quantitatively estimated. Strike-oriented, dip-oriented, and vertical distribution of channel fills and channel bar sandstone bodies have been investigated. The geometry of sand bodies can be depicted as an elongated lens. Subsurface mapping reveals that channel sandstone bodies distribute widely from both lateral and longitudinal cross section profiles, and are poorly connected.

  15. Regional Frequency Analysis of Extreme Dry Spells during Rainy Season in the Wei River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunxian She

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research analyzes the regional changes of extreme dry spell, represented by the annual maximum dry spell length (noted as AMDSL during the rainy season in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China for 1960–2014 using the L-moments method. The mean AMDSL values increase from the west to the east of the WRB, suggesting a high dry risk in the east compared to the west in the WRB. To investigate the regional frequency more reasonably, the WRB is clustered into four homogenous subregions via the K-means method and some subjective adjustments. The goodness-of-fit test shows that the GEV, PE3, and GLO distribution can be accepted as the “best-fit” model for subregions 1 and 4, subregion 2, and subregion 3, respectively. The quantiles of AMDSL under various return levels figure out a similar spatial distribution with mean AMDSL. We also find that the dry risk in subregion 2 and subregion 4 might be higher than that in subregion 1. The relationship between ENSO events and extreme dry spell events in the rainy season with cross wavelet analysis method proves that ENSO events play a critical role in triggering extreme dry events during rainy season in the WRB.

  16. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water requirement in Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Yan, Denghua; Xu, Xinyi; Gao, Yu<