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Sample records for basin deactivation waste

  1. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  2. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  3. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2006-01-01

    that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...

  4. Waste storage potential of Triassic basins in southeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1976-07-01

    Triassic basins, elongated deep basins filled with sediments, extend from Nova Scotia to Florida. The geology of the basins is discussed for each state. Their potential for liquid waste storage is assessed. Seismic risk is among the factors evaluated. It is recommended that the shallow Triassic Florence basin in northeast South Carolina be studied. 10 fig. (DLC)

  5. Development of a Waste Treatment Process to Deactivate Reactive Uranium Metal and Produce a Stable Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates-Anderson, D D; Laue, C A; Fitch, T E

    2002-01-17

    This paper highlights the results of initial investigations conducted to support the development of an integrated treatment process to convert pyrophoric metallic uranium wastes to a non-pyrophoric waste that is acceptable for land disposal. Several dissolution systems were evaluated to determine their suitability to dissolve uranium metal and that yield a final waste form containing uranium specie(s) amenable to precipitation, stabilization, adsorption, or ion exchange. During initial studies, one gram aliquots of uranium metal or the uranium alloy U-2%Mo were treated with 5 to 60 mL of selected reagents. Treatment systems screened included acids, acid mixtures, and bases with and without addition of oxidants. Reagents used included hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. Complete dissolution of the uranium turnings was achieved with the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HCI system at room temperature within minutes. The sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite systems achieved complete dissolution but required elevated temperatures and longer reaction times. A ranking system based on criteria, such as corrosiveness, temperature, dissolution time, off-gas type and amount, and liquid to solid ratio, was designed to determine the treatment systems that should be developed further for a full-scale process. The highest-ranking systems, nitric acid/sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid/phosphoric acid, were given priority in our follow-on investigations.

  6. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  8. Deactivation of REY zeolite during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from the pyrolysis of waste plastics; REY zeolite shokubai ni yoru hai plastic netsu bunkaiyu no sesshoku bunkai hanno no kassei rekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T.; Mukai, S.; Akiyama, T.; Fujikata, Y.; Hashimoto, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1995-12-10

    A model has been developed to represent the deactivation of REY zeolite caused by coke deposition during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste plastics. Coke deposition not only leads to coverage of the acid sites, which contribute to the reaction, but also leads to a decrease in the intracrystalline diffusivity of the zeolite due to the reduction in effective pore opening, resulting in deactivation of the catalyst. In this work, firstly the amount of strong acid sites and the diffusivity of catalysts with different amounts of coke loading were measured, and empirical equations, which represent the relationships between the amount of coke loading and these two values, were obtained. Finally, a model was developed to calculate the transient change of the catalyst activity and the concentration distributions of the components within the reactor by employing the obtained empirical equations. The calculated results agreed well with experimental results. Using this model, it was found that the deactivation rate of the catalyst was reduced under diffusion control conditions, and large catalyst particles could maintain their activity longer than small catalyst particles. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mission analysis report - deactivation facilities at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, D.P.

    1996-09-27

    This document examines the portion of the Hanford Site Cleanup Mission that deals with facility deactivation. How facilities get identified for deactivation, how they enter EM-60 for deactivation, programmatic alternatives to perform facility deactivation, the deactivation process itself, key requirements and objectives associated with the deactivation process, and deactivation planning are discussed.

  10. Deactivation of Oxidation Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Levenspiel (Reference 10) have proposed an equivalent general expression of the form dS _KST (4) dtk to account for deactivation due to catalyst pore...Voorhies, A., IEC, 1954, vol. 37, p. 318. 10. Szepe, S., and 0. Levenspiel , Proc. 4th Europ. Symp. Chem. React. Eng., Pergamon Press, p. 265. 11. U.S

  11. PFP deactivation project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, D.M.

    1997-07-28

    This document identifies the overall approach for deactivation of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex, excluding the vaults, and includes a draft set of End Point Criteria for all buildings being deactivated.

  12. Deactivations during the numerical processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG HongBo; ZHANG Ye; TANG YiYuan; JIN Jing; DONG Feng; FENG ShiGang; ZHANG WuTian

    2007-01-01

    Deactivation has been encountered frequently in functional brain imaging researches. However,the deactivations during the numerical processing have not been reported yet. In this study,the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to investigate the pattern of the deactivation in the brain of 15 healthy subjects during the numerical addition task. Analyses revealed significant deactivations in several brain regions,including the posterior cingulate,precuneus,anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex. Especially,we found notable deactivation in bilateral insula. Accounting for the cognitive functions of these regions participating in a combinated way,we discuss their contributions in sustaining the brain activity during conscious resting state,and indicate that the insula is an important area of gathering auditory information from the external world.

  13. The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

  14. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  15. Solid waste disposal site selection with GIS and AHP methodology: a case study in Senirkent-Uluborlu (Isparta) Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Karagüzel, Remzi

    2011-02-01

    The appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Also, many environmental, economical, and political considerations must be adhered to. In this study, landfill site selection is performed using the Geographic Information System (GIS), the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and the remote sensing methods for the Senirkent-Uluborlu Basin. The basin is located in the Eğirdir Lake catchment area, which is one of the most important fresh water in Turkey. So, waste management must be regulated in the basin. For this aim, ten different criteria (lithology, surface water, aquifer, groundwater depth, land use, lineaments, aspect, elevation, slope, and distance to roads) are examined in relation to landfill site selection. Each criterion was identified and weighted using AHP. Then, each criterion is mapped using the GIS technique, and a suitability map is prepared by overlay analyses. The results indicate that 96.3% of the area in the basin is unsuitable; 1.6%, moderately suitable; and 2.1%, most suitable. Finally, suitable regions in the basin are determined for solid waste landfill disposal and checked in the field. The selected and investigated regions are considered to be suitable for the landfill.

  16. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  17. Controlled-deactivation cannabinergic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Nikas, Spyros P; Paronis, Carol A; Wood, Jodianne T; Halikhedkar, Aneetha; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Thakur, Ganesh A; Kulkarni, Shashank; Benchama, Othman; Raghav, Jimit Girish; Gifford, Roger S; Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Bergman, Jack; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-12-27

    We report an approach for obtaining novel cannabinoid analogues with controllable deactivation and improved druggability. Our design involves the incorporation of a metabolically labile ester group at the 2'-position on a series of (-)-Δ(8)-THC analogues. We have sought to introduce benzylic substituents α to the ester group which affect the half-lives of deactivation through enzymatic activity while enhancing the affinities and efficacies of individual ligands for the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The 1'-(S)-methyl, 1'-gem-dimethyl, and 1'-cyclobutyl analogues exhibit remarkably high affinities for both CB receptors. The novel ligands are susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by plasma esterases in a controllable manner, while their metabolites are inactive at the CB receptors. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments key analogues were shown to be potent CB1 receptor agonists and to exhibit CB1-mediated hypothermic and analgesic effects.

  18. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris D. Argyle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing. The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.

  19. Waste-water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K; Hoque, M A; Ghosal, U

    2012-10-15

    Across West Bengal and Bangladesh, concentrations of Cl in much groundwater exceed the natural, upper limit of 10 mg/L. The Cl/Br mass ratios in groundwaters range up to 2500 and scatter along mixing lines between waste-water and dilute groundwater, with many falling near the mean end-member value for waste-water of 1561 at 126 mg/L Cl. Values of Cl/Br exceed the seawater ratio of 288 in uncommon NO(3)-bearing groundwaters, and in those containing measurable amounts of salt-corrected SO(4) (SO(4) corrected for marine salt). The data show that shallow groundwater tapped by tube-wells in the Bengal Basin has been widely contaminated by waste-water derived from pit latrines, septic tanks, and other methods of sanitary disposal, although reducing conditions in the aquifers have removed most evidence of NO(3) additions from these sources, and much evidence of their additions of SO(4). In groundwaters from wells in palaeo-channel settings, end-member modelling shows that >25% of wells yield water that comprises ≥10% of waste-water. In palaeo-interfluvial settings, only wells at the margins of the palaeo-interfluvial sequence contain detectable waste water. Settings are identifiable by well-colour survey, owner information, water composition, and drilling. Values of Cl/Br and faecal coliform counts are both inversely related to concentrations of pollutant As in groundwater, suggesting that waste-water contributions to groundwater in the near-field of septic-tanks and pit-latrines (within 30 m) suppress the mechanism of As-pollution and lessen the prevalence and severity of As pollution. In the far-field of such sources, organic matter in waste-water may increase groundwater pollution by As.

  20. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Activities for Cleanout of the 105 F Fuel Storage Basin at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, M. R.; Rodovsky, T. J.; Day, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Clean-out of the F Reactor fuel storage basin (FSB) by the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is an element of the FSB decontamination and decommissioning and is required to complete interim safe storage (ISS) of the F Reactor. Following reactor shutdown and in preparation for a deactivation layaway action in 1970, the water level in the F Reactor FSB was reduced to approximately 0.6 m (2 ft) over the floor. Basin components and other miscellaneous items were left or placed in the FSB. The item placement was performed with a sense of finality, and no attempt was made to place the items in an orderly manner. The F Reactor FSB was then filled to grade level with 6 m (20 ft) of local surface material (essentially a fine sand). The reactor FSB backfill cleanout involves the potential removal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that may have been left in the basin unintentionally. Based on previous cleanout of four water-filled FSBs with similar designs (i.e., the B, C, D, and DR FSBs in the 1980s), it was estimated that up to five SNF elements could be discovered in the F Reactor FSB (1). In reality, a total of 10 SNF elements have been found in the first 25% of the F Reactor FSB excavation. This paper discusses the technical and programmatic challenges of performing this decommissioning effort with some of the controls needed for SNF management. The paper also highlights how many various technologies were married into a complete package to address the issue at hand and show how no one tool could be used to complete the job; but by combining the use of multiple tools, progress is being made.

  1. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  2. Kinetic Analysis of Char Thermal Deactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolin, Alfredo; Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The thermal deactivation of several fuels was investigated by measuring the reactivity, of chars prepared in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) apparatus at well-defined conditions in the temperature range 973-1673 K. Four coals, Blair Athol from Australia, Cerrejon from Colombia. Illinois no. 6....... Leached straw deactivates significantly, but maintains at any heat-treatment temperature a higher reactivity than the other chars. The inertinite-rich coal Blair Athol is more resistant to deactivation than two vitrinite-rich coals of the same ASTM rank, Cerrejon and Illinois no. 6. Cerrejon and Illinois...

  3. PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, E.N. III

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of PUREX at the Hanford Site, and to preserve that configuration for a 10-year horizon. The 10-year horizon is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents they typical time duration expended to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. This document was prepared to increase attention to worker safety issues during the deactivation project and, as such, identifies the documentation and programs associated with PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety.

  4. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thomas

    Full Text Available We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  5. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries. PMID:25541706

  6. Collisional deactivation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A.; Barker, John R.

    1996-07-01

    The collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited pyrazine (C4N2H4) in the electronic ground state by 19 collider gases was studied using the time-resolved infrared fluorescence (IRF) technique. The pyrazine was photoexcited with a 308 nm laser and its vibrational deactivation was monitored following rapid radiationless transitions to produce vibrationally excited molecules in the electronic ground state. The IRF data were analyzed by a simple approximate inversion method, as well as with full collisional master equation simulations. The average energies transferred in deactivating collisions (d) exhibit a near-linear dependence on vibrational energy at lower energies and less dependence at higher energies. The deactivation of ground state pyrazine was found to be similar to that of ground state benzene [J. R. Barker and B. M. Toselli, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 12, 305 (1990)], but it is strikingly different from the deactivation of triplet state pyrazine [T. J. Bevilacqua and R. B. Weisman, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 6316 (1993)].

  7. Trace-metal sources and their release from mine wastes: examples from humidity cell tests of hardrock mine waste and from Warrior Basin coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Desborough, G.A.; White, W.W.; Lapakko, K.A.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Fey, David L.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential impact of metal and acid contamination from mine-waste piles, it is important to identify the mineralogic source of trace metals and their mode of occurrence. Microscopic analysis of mine-waste samples from both hard-rock and coalmine waste samples demonstrate a microstructural control, as well as mineralogic control, on the source and release of trace metals into local water systems. The samples discussed herein show multiple periods of sulfide mineralization with varying concentrations of trace metals. In the first case study, two proprietary hard-rock mine-waste samples exposed to a series of humidity cell tests (which simulate intense chemical weathering conditions) generated acid and released trace metals. Some trace elements of interest were: arsenic (45-120 ppm), copper (60-320 ppm), and zinc (30-2,500 ppm). Untested and humidity cell-exposed samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), and electron microprobe analysis. Studies of one sample set revealed arsenic-bearing pyrite in early iron- and magnesium-rich carbonate-filled microveins, and iron-, copper-, arsenic-, antimony-bearing sulfides in later crosscutting silica-filled microveins. Post humidity cell tests indicated that the carbonate minerals were removed by leaching in the humidity cells, exposing pyrite to oxidative conditions. However, sulfides in the silica-filled veins were more protected. Therefore, the trace metals contained in the sulfides within the silica-filled microveins may be released to the surface and (or) ground water system more slowly over a greater time period. In the second case study, trace metal-rich pyrite-bearing coals from the Warrior Basin, Alabama were analyzed. Arsenic-bearing pyrite was observed in a late-stage pyrite phase in microfaults and microveins that crosscut earlier arsenic.

  8. On the CCN [de]activation nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabas, Sylwester

    2016-01-01

    We take into consideration the evolution of particle size in a monodisperse aerosol population during activation and deactivation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The phase portrait of the system derived through a weakly-nonlinear analysis reveals a saddle-node bifurcation and a cusp catastrophe. An analytical estimate of the activation timescale is derived through estimation of the time spent in the saddle-node bifurcation bottleneck. Numerical integration of the system portrays two types of activation/deactivation hystereses: one associated with the kinetic limitations on droplet growth when the system is far from equilibrium, and one occurring close to equilibrium and associated with the cusp catastrophe. The hysteretic behaviour close to equilibrium imposes stringent time-resolution constraints on numerical integration, particularly during deactivation.

  9. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  10. Deactivation of platinum catalysts by oxygen 2. Nature of the catalyst deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, P.J.M.; Duisters, H.A.M.; Kuster, B.F.M.; van der Wiele, K. (Univ. of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands))

    1988-08-01

    The effect of different start-up procedures on the deactivation of a 5% Pt/C catalyst used for the oxidation of D-gluconate has been investigated. Results have been obtained both in a stirred tank reactor for batch experiments and in an apparatus for continuous oxidation processes. The deactivation of the catalyst is not explicable by formation of platinum oxides. A model is proposed for the deactivation of platinum catalysts by oxygen, based on penetration of oxygen atoms into the platinum lattice.

  11. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PLANNING AND ANALYSIS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, J; William Austin, W; Larry Koffman, L

    2007-09-17

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dispositioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dispositioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities.

  12. The Approach of Emotional Deactivation of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-Nil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…

  13. Catalyst deactivation. Is it predictable? What to do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulijn, J.A.; Van Diepen, A.E.; Kapteijn, F. [Department of Chemical Process Technology, Section of Industrial Catalysis, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-04-30

    Catalyst deactivation is usually inevitable, although the rate at which it occurs varies greatly. This article discusses the causes of deactivation and the influence on reaction rate. Methods for minimising catalyst deactivation, by tailoring catalyst properties and/or process operations, are presented, as well as reactor configurations suitable for the regeneration of deactivated catalysts. Alkane dehydrogenation is used as an example to demonstrate the variety of engineering solutions possible.

  14. PUREX/UO3 Facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-09-19

    objectives of the project in mind can guide decisions that reduce risks with minimal manipulation of physical materials, minimal waste generation, streamline regulations and safety requirements where possible, and separate the facility from ongoing entanglements with operating systems. Thus, the ``parked car`` state is achieved quickly and directly. The PUREX Deactivation Lessons Learned History was first issued in January 1995. Since then, several key changes have occurred in the project, making it advisable to revise and update the document. This document is organized with the significant lessons learned captured at the end of each section, and then recounted in Section 11.0, ``Lessons Consolidated.`` It is hoped and believed that the lessons learned on the PUREX Deactivation Project will have value to other facilities both inside and outside the DOE complex.

  15. A case study of waste fluid injection and induced seismicity in the Raton Basin, Trinidad, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, M. B.; Ge, S.

    2012-12-01

    Waste fluid injection into rock formations has been speculated to cause seismicity. This study analyzed the link between the injection of fluid waste from coal-bed methane production and recent earthquakes swarms around the town of Trinidad, Colorado, USA. The study area is in a relatively quiescent intraplate zone, located in the Mesozoic sedimentary formations of the Raton Basin. Since 1999, when waste fluid injection began in the vicinity of Trinidad, more than 175 earthquakes of greater than M2.5 have occurred, representing a more than 30-fold increase in the number of earthquakes as compared with the previous 3 decades. The vast majority of earthquake epicenters are located within 5 km of one of the 24 injection wells. Two years after waste fluid injection began, an earthquake swarm occurred on a NE-trending fault structure, but a causal relationship between the fluid injection and swarm could not be definitively made. Earthquakes and injection continued and, in 2011, another earthquake swarm occurred, possibly reactivating the same NE-trending fault structure. Due to the lack of robust spatial seismometer coverage, earthquake hypocentral depths often have significant uncertainties, but could be at depths co-located with injection depths. The link between fluid waste injection and seismicity is characterized by spatial and temporal correlations as well as pore pressure changes sufficient to induce seismicity at depth. Pore pressure calculations were performed using a two-dimensional analytical solution for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0x10^-7 m/s and storage coefficient of 5.0x10^-5. Reservoir model parameters are representative of the Dakota Sandstone, a fluvial and conglomeratic sandstone sequence, which is the dominant formation for injection. Computed pressure buildup in the aquifer was correlated spatially and temporally to earthquake epicenters. Preliminary results suggest that pore pressure changes in the

  16. Production of biochar out of organic urban waste to amend salt affected soils in the basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Garcia, Elizabeth; Siebe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, strongly related to the biomass and production conditions, is central to identify the most suitable application of biochar. On the other hand, salt affected soils reduce the value and productivity of extensive areas worldwide. One feasible option to recover them is to add organic amendments, which improve water holding capacity and increase sorption sites for cations as sodium. The former lake Texcoco in the basin of Mexico has been a key area for the control of surface run-off and air quality of Mexico City. However, the high concentrations of soluble salts in their soils do not allow the development of a vegetation cover that protects the soil from wind erosion, being the latter the main cause of poor air quality in the metropolitan area during the dry season. On the other hand, the population of the city produces daily 2000 t of organic urban wastes, which are currently composted. Thus, we tested if either compost or biochar made out of urban organic waste can improve the salt affected soils of former lake Texcoco to grow grass and avoid wind erosion. We examined the physico-chemical properties of biochar produced from urban organic waste under pyrolysis conditions. We also set up a field experiment to evaluate the addition of these amendments into the saline soils of Texcoco. Our preliminary analyses show biochar yield was ca. 40%, it was mainly alkaline (pH: 8-10), with a moderate salt content (electrical conductivity: 0.5-3 mS/cm). We show also results of the initial phase of the field experiment in which we monitor the electrical conductivity, pH, water content, water tension and soil GHG fluxes on small plots amended with either biochar or compost in three different doses.

  17. Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-15

    The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26μgL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7μgL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health.

  18. Temperature (de)activated patchy colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Daniel; da Gama, Margarida M Telo

    2016-06-22

    We present a new model of patchy particles in which the interaction sites can be activated or deactivated by varying the temperature of the system. We study the thermodynamics of the system by means of Wertheim's first order perturbation theory, and use Flory-Stockmayer theory of polymerization to analyse the percolation threshold. We find a very rich phase behaviour including lower critical points and reentrant percolation.

  19. The task dependent interaction of the deactivation regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ye; FENG ShiGang; FENG HongBo; DONG Feng; TANG YiYuan

    2008-01-01

    Although deactivation has been found frequently in former functional brain imaging researches, only recently has it become a focus of systematic study because of its not well understood physiological mechanism. However, most of the researches concentrated on the brain areas that would present de-activation, and, to our knowledge, the deactivation connectivity between these brain areas during the cognitive tasks has rarely been reported in literature. In this work, using the functional connectivity method WlCA (within-condition interregional covariance analysis), we analyzed the deactivations in two different cognitive tasks-symbol orientation and number comparison. The results revealed de-activations in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in both tasks. However, the interaction between the deactivated regions shows many differences. Our result further indicates that the potential implication of special deactivation connectivity may be related to the dif-ferent task or attention resource. Further research is needed to clarify the exact reason.

  20. Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P. N., Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H2S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a raphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700 C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e., higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the electrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss.

  1. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  2. Thermal transformation of organic matter in coal waste from Rymer Cones (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena; Fabianska, Monika [University of Silesia, Faculty of Earth Sciences, ul. Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2010-04-01

    Coal wastes produced at various stages of coal mining, washing and deposition on dumps are a source of many pollutants. In some cases, the dumped coal waste undergoes self-heating and self-combustion processes that reflect the properties of the organic matter present (maceral composition and rank) and the history of heating (rate, time and temperature of heating). In the examination of the coal wastes from the Rymer Cones dump, petrographic- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to provide different sets of complementary data. Unaltered- and variably-altered macerals (mostly vitrinite) characterise the investigated material. Vitrinite of elevated reflectance and massive coke particles indicate that the rate of heating was low and that the availability of air was very limited; heating took place under pyrolytic conditions. Irregular cracks in particles probably also resulted from slow heating. The temperature of the heating processes, dynamically changing in time and place throughout the dump, led to chemical changes in organic matter such as the formation of phenols and their derivatives, and alteration in distributions of n-alkanes, hopanes and moretanes and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurring in pyrolysates. Some of these compounds formed as a result of the thermal destruction of liptinite and vitrinite macerals at various temperatures and migrated from within the dump. The changes that occurred within the dump are also reflected in values of geochemical parameters based on the same compounds, such as CPI, Ts/(Ts + Tm), MNR, DNR, TNR-1, TNR-2. Lighter compounds were probably released into the atmosphere and others, especially phenols that are easily soluble in water and PAHs, were most probably leached into deeper parts of the dump and even into underground waters since they are absent in some samples or significantly decreased in concentration. These processes probably still continue - it is this fact that creates a

  3. Silica deactivation of bead VOC catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libanati, C.; Pereira, C.J. [Research Division, W. R. Grace and Co., Columbia, MD (United States); Ullenius, D.A. [Grace TEC Systems, De Pere, WI (United States)

    1998-01-15

    Catalytic oxidation is a key technology for controlling the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from industrial plants. The present paper examines the deactivation by silica of bead VOC catalysts in a flexographic printing application. Post mortem analyses of field-aged catalysts suggest that organosilicon compounds contained in the printing ink diffuse into the catalyst and deposit as silica particles in the micropores. Laboratory activity evaluation of aged catalysts suggests that silica deposition is non-selective and that silica masks the noble metal active site

  4. Photocatalytic acceptorless alkane dehydrogenation: scope, mechanism, and conquering deactivation with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Julis, Jennifer; Grabow, Kathleen; Hannebauer, Bernd; Bentrup, Ursula; Adam, Martin; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Alkane dehydrogenation is of special interest for basic science but also offers interesting opportunities for industry. The existing dehydrogenation methodologies make use of heterogeneous catalysts, which suffer from harsh reaction conditions and a lack of selectivity, whereas homogeneous methodologies rely mostly on unsolicited waste generation from hydrogen acceptors. Conversely, acceptorless photochemical alkane dehydrogenation in the presence of trans-Rh(PMe3 )2 (CO)Cl can be regarded as a more benign and atom efficient alternative. However, this methodology suffers from catalyst deactivation over time. Herein, we provide a detailed investigation of the trans-Rh(PMe3 )2 (CO)Cl-photocatalyzed alkane dehydrogenation using spectroscopic and theoretical investigations. These studies inspired us to utilize CO2 to prevent catalyst deactivation, which leads eventually to improved catalyst turnover numbers in the dehydrogenation of alkanes that include liquid organic hydrogen carriers.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  7. PUREX/UO{sub 3} deactivation project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    From 1955 through 1990, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) provided the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site with nuclear fuel reprocessing capability. It operated in sequence with the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant, which converted the PUREX liquid uranium nitrate product to solid UO{sub 3} powder. Final UO{sub 3} Plant operation ended in 1993. In December 1992, planning was initiated for the deactivation of PUREX and UO{sub 3} Plant. The objective of deactivation planning was to identify the activities needed to establish a passively safe, environmentally secure configuration at both plants, and ensure that the configuration could be retained during the post-deactivation period. The PUREX/UO{sub 3} Deactivation Project management plan represents completion of the planning efforts. It presents the deactivation approach to be used for the two plants, and the supporting technical, cost, and schedule baselines. Deactivation activities concentrate on removal, reduction, and stabilization of the radioactive and chemical materials remaining at the plants, and the shutdown of the utilities and effluents. When deactivation is completed, the two plants will be left unoccupied and locked, pending eventual decontamination and decommissioning. Deactivation is expected to cost $233.8 million, require 5 years to complete, and yield $36 million in annual surveillance and maintenance cost savings.

  8. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D&D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also

  9. Co-pyrolsis of polyethylene waste with the Campos basin heavy oil; Co-pirolise de residuos de polietileno com gasoleo pesado da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Debora da S.; Marques, Monica R. da C. [Laboratorio de Tecnologia Ambiental, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: monica@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2011-07-01

    In this study, four mixtures of LDPE post consumer with heavy gas from the Campos Basin, in different proportions, were subjected to pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere at 550 deg C. The pyrolytic liquids were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Pyrolysis of pure diesel supplied large amounts of waste oil and only 4% in the range of diesel. On the other hand, the pyrolysis of LDPE mixture of diesel (at the ratio 1/0,5 m/m) provided 20% of light hydrocarbons with high production of pyrolytic oil (96%). The formation of high levels of paraffins and olefins in the range of diesel oil during the co-pyrolysis suggests a promising technology for recycling of plastic waste. (author)

  10. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  11. 1997 project of the year, PUREX deactivation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.W.

    1998-02-13

    At the end of 1992, the PUREX and UO{sub 3} plants were deemed no longer necessary for the defense needs of the United States. Although no longer necessary, they were very costly to maintain in their post-operation state. The DOE embarked on a deactivation strategy for these plants to reduce the costs of providing continuous surveillance of the facilities and their hazards. Deactivation of the PUREX and UO{sub 3} plants was estimated to take 5 years and cost $222.5 million and result in an annual surveillance and maintenance cost of $2 million. Deactivation of the PUREX/UO{sub 3} plants officially began on October 1, 1993. The deactivation was 15 months ahead of the original schedule and $75 million under the original cost estimate. The annual cost of surveillance and maintenance of the plants was reduced to less than $1 million.

  12. Selective Inhibition of Deactivated Mitochondrial Complex I by Biguanides †

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Biguanides are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes treatment. Complex I is the rate limiting step of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), a major source of mitochondrial free radical production, and a known target of biguanides. Complex I has two reversible conformational states, active and de-active. The deactivated state is promoted in the absence of substrates, but is rapidly and fully reversed to the active state in the presence of NADH....

  13. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  14. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline. CONCLUSION: Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  15. Selective inhibition of deactivated mitochondrial complex I by biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2015-03-24

    Biguanides are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes treatment. Complex I is the rate-limiting step of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), a major source of mitochondrial free radical production, and a known target of biguanides. Complex I has two reversible conformational states, active and de-active. The deactivated state is promoted in the absence of substrates but is rapidly and fully reversed to the active state in the presence of NADH. The objective of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of active/de-active complex I to biguanide-mediated inhibition and resulting superoxide radical (O₂(•⁻)) production. Using isolated rat heart mitochondria, we show that deactivation of complex I sensitizes it to metformin and phenformin (4- and 3-fold, respectively), but not to other known complex I inhibitors, such as rotenone. Mitochondrial O₂(•⁻) production by deactivated complex I was measured fluorescently by NADH-dependent 2-hydroxyethidium formation at alkaline pH to impede reactivation. Superoxide production was 260.4% higher than in active complex I at pH 9.4. However, phenformin treatment of de-active complex I decreased O₂(•⁻) production by 14.9%, while rotenone increased production by 42.9%. Mitochondria isolated from rat hearts subjected to cardiac ischemia, a condition known to induce complex I deactivation, were sensitized to phenformin-mediated complex I inhibition. This supports the idea that the effects of biguanides are likely to be influenced by the complex I state in vivo. These results demonstrate that the complex I active and de-active states are a determinant in biguanide-mediated inhibition.

  16. Intention retrieval and deactivation following an acute psychosocial stressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Walser

    Full Text Available We often form intentions but have to postpone them until the appropriate situation for retrieval and execution has come, an ability also referred to as event-based prospective memory. After intention completion, our cognitive system has to deactivate no-more-relevant intention representations from memory to avoid interference with subsequent tasks. In everyday life, we frequently rely on these abilities also in stressful situations. Surprisingly, little is known about potential stress effects on these functions. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the reliability of event-based prospective memory and of intention deactivation in conditions of acute psychosocial stress. To this aim, eighty-two participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, a standardized stress protocol, or a standardized control situation. Following this treatment, participants performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task with non-salient and focal prospective memory cues in order to assess prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions. Although the stress group showed elevated levels of salivary cortisol as marker of a stress-related increase in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity throughout the cognitive testing period compared to the no-stress group, prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions did not differ between groups. Findings indicate that cognitive control processes subserving intention retrieval and deactivation after completion may be mostly preserved even under conditions of acute stress.

  17. Kinetics with deactivation of methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, G.; Marin, A.; Wyss, C.; Mueller, S.; Newson, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation step to recycle toluene and release hydrogen is being studied as part of a hydrogen energy storage project. The reaction is performed catalytically in a fixed bed reactor, and the efficiency of this step significantly determines overall system economics. The fresh catalyst kinetics and the deactivation of the catalyst by coke play an important role in the process analysis. The main reaction kinetics were determined from isothermal experiments using a parameter sensitivity analysis for model discrimination. An activation energy for the main reaction of 220{+-}11 kJ/mol was obtained from a two-parameter model. From non-isothermal deactivation in PC-controlled integral reactors, an activation energy for deactivation of 160 kJ/mol was estimated. A model for catalyst coke content of 3-17 weight% was compared with experimental data. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  18. Self-deactivation of water vapor - Role of the dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    A phenomenological multiple-relaxation theory of the deactivation rate constant for the nu-2 (1 - 0) bending mode of water vapor is presented which incorporates the role not only of the excited monomer but also of the bound molecular complex, in particular the dimer. The deactivation takes place by means of three parallel processes: (1) collisional deexcitation of the excited monomer, (2) a two-step reaction involving association and spontaneous redissociation of an H2O collision complex, and (3) spontaneous dissociation of the stably bound H2O dimer. Oxygen, but not nitrogen or argon, serves as an effective chaperon for the formation of the activated complex. This observation explains the impurity dependence of the self-deactivation rate constant of water vapor. Analysis of an ultrasonic absorption peak based on the third process yields values for the standard entropy and enthalpy of dissociation of the stably bound H2O dimer.

  19. [Gibberellins--structure, biosynthesis and deactivation in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Katarzyna; Kesy, Jacek; Tretyn, Andrzej; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA), as one of the most important phytohormones, control different aspect of plant growth and development such as seed germination, stem elongation and floral induction. Although identified more than a hundred and thirty GA, only a small number of them are biological active. Many non-bioactive GA are present in plant tissues as precursors or deactivated metabolites. Biochemical and genetic approaches have led to the recognition most of the genes that encode GA biosynthesis and deactivation enzymes, and conducted investigation has helped us to better understand GA functions in plants. Many enzymes involved in GA metabolism are multifunctional and therefore fewer enzymes than might be expected are required to created the various gibberellins structures. In this review, we summarized current knowledge on the GA biosynthesis and deactivation pathways in plants and showed precise characteristic of genes and encoding protein which are involved in gibberellins metabolism.

  20. Characterization of Deactivated Bio-oil Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-06

    Deactivation of bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts remains a significant challenge because of the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil input for hydrotreating and understanding their deactivation mode is critical to developing improved catalysts and processes. In this research, we developed an understanding of the deactivation of two-step bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided Ru/C and sulfided CoMo/C) through detailed characterization of the catalysts using various complimentary analytical techniques. Severe fouling of both catalysts by carbonaceous species was the major form of deactivation, which is consistent with the significant loss of surface area and pore volume of both deactivated catalysts and the significant increase of the bulk density. Further analysis of the carbonaceous species by thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbonaceous species was formed by condensation reaction of active species such as sugars and sugar derivatives (aldehydes and ketones) in bio-oil feedstock during bio-oil hydrotreating under the conditions and catalysts used. Microscopy results did not show metal sintering of the Ru/C catalyst. However, X-ray diffraction indicated a probable transformation of the highly-active CoMoS phase in the sulfided CoMo/C catalyst to Co8S9 and MoS2 phase with low activity. Loss of the active site by transport of inorganic elements from the bio-oil and the reactor construction material onto the catalyst surface also might be a cause of deactivation as indicated by elemental analysis of spent catalysts.

  1. PUREX/UO{sub 3} facilities deactivation lessons learned: History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1997-11-25

    In May 1997, a historic deactivation project at the PUREX (Plutonium URanium EXtraction) facility at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State concluded its activities (Figure ES-1). The project work was finished at $78 million under its original budget of $222.5 million, and 16 months ahead of schedule. Closely watched throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex and by the US Department of Defense for the value of its lessons learned, the PUREX Deactivation Project has become the national model for the safe transition of contaminated facilities to shut down status.

  2. Patterns of Default Mode Network Deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Soares, José Miguel; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Ganho-Ávila, Ana; Fernandes-Gonçalves, Ana; Pocinho, Fernando; Carracedo, Angel; Sampaio, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to research the patterns of Default Mode Network (DMN) deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the transition between a resting and a non-rest emotional condition. Twenty-seven participants, 15 diagnosed with OCD and 12 healthy controls (HC), underwent a functional neuroimaging paradigm in which DMN brain activation in a resting condition was contrasted with activity during a non-rest condition consisting in the presentation of emotionally pleasant and unpleasant images. Results showed that HC, when compared with OCD, had a significant deactivation in two anterior nodes of the DMN (medial frontal and superior frontal) in the non-rest pleasant stimuli condition. Additional analysis for the whole brain, contrasting the resting condition with all the non-rest conditions grouped together, showed that, compared with OCD, HC had a significantly deactivation of a widespread brain network (superior frontal, insula, middle and superior temporal, putamen, lingual, cuneus, and cerebellum). Concluding, the present study found that OCD patients had difficulties with the deactivation of DMN even when the non-rest condition includes the presentation of emotional provoking stimuli, particularly evident for images with pleasant content. PMID:28287615

  3. Effect of catalyst deactivation on vacuum residue hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda S. Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated deactivation tests of the pre-sulfided Mo–W/SiO2–Al2O3 commercial catalyst were performed using heavy vacuum petroleum feedstock. High reaction temperature employed in the accelerated catalyst aging resulted in large amounts of carbonaceous deposition with high aromaticity, which was found to be the principal deactivation cause. The effect of catalyst deactivation on hydrocracking of vacuum residue was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 60 bar, feed to catalyst ratio 10:1 and temperature 425 °C. The duration time for a cycle-run was 4 h. On increasing the interval duration times from 4 to 20 h (i.e. five cycles, the quality of the hydrocracked products was decreased. In each cycle-run, a fresh feedstock was used with the same sulfide catalyst. The quality of distillate products, such as hydrodesulfurization (HDS was decreased from 61.50% to 39.52%, while asphaltene contents of the total liquid product were increased from 2.7% to 5.2% and their boiling ranges were increased during these duration times due to the successive catalyst deactivation during the 5 cycle-runs, caused by successive adsorption of coke formation.

  4. Compassionate deactivation of ventricular assist devices in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Seth A; Axelrod, David M; Bernstein, Daniel; Cohen, Harvey J; Sourkes, Barbara; Reddy, Sushma; Magnus, David; Rosenthal, David N; Kaufman, Beth D

    2016-05-01

    Despite greatly improved survival in pediatric patients with end-stage heart failure through the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs), heart failure ultimately remains a life-threatening disease with a significant symptom burden. With increased demand for donor organs, liberalizing the boundaries of case complexity, and the introduction of destination therapy in children, more children can be expected to die while on mechanical support. Despite this trend, guidelines on the ethical and pragmatic issues of compassionate deactivation of VAD support in children are strikingly absent. As VAD support for pediatric patients increases in frequency, the pediatric heart failure and palliative care communities must work toward establishing guidelines to clarify the complex issues surrounding compassionate deactivation. Patient, family and clinician attitudes must be ascertained and education regarding the psychological, legal and ethical issues should be provided. Furthermore, pediatric-specific planning documents for use before VAD implantation as well as deactivation checklists should be developed to assist with decision-making at critical points during the illness trajectory. Herein we review the relevant literature regarding compassionate deactivation with a specific focus on issues related to children.

  5. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  6. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  7. Insights into the Deactivation of 5-Bromouracil after UV Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Peccati, Francesca; González, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    5-Bromouracil is a nucleobase analogue that can replace thymine in DNA strands and acts as a strong radiosensitizer, with potential applications in molecular biology and cancer therapy. Here, the deactivation of 5-bromouracil after UV irradiation is investigated in the singlet and triplet manifold by accurate quantum chemistry calculations and nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. It is found that after irradiation to the bright 1pipi* state, three main relaxation pathways are in principle possible: relaxation back to the ground state, intersystem crossing, and C-Br photodissociation. Based on accurate MS-CASPT2 optimizations, we propose that ground state relaxation should be the predominant deactivation pathway in gas phase. We then employ different electronic structure methods to assess their suitability to carry out excited-state dynamics simulations. MRCIS was used in surface hopping simulations to compute the ultrafast intersystem crossing dynamics, which mostly involves the 1nOpi* and 3pipi* states.

  8. Rank-based deactivation model for networks with age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xue-Wen; Yang Guo-Hong; Li Xiao-Lin; Xu Xin-Jian

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of age on network evolution which couples addition of new nodes and deactivation of old ones.During evolution,each node experiences two stages:active and inactive.The transition from the active state to the inactive one is based on the rank of the node.In this paper,we adopt age as a criterion of ranking,and propose two deactivation models that generalize previous research.In model A,the older active node possesses the higher rank,whereas in model B,the younger active node takes the higher rank.We make a comparative study between the two models through the node-degree distribution.

  9. Boosting functionality of synthetic DNA circuits with tailored deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Kevin; Gines, Guillaume; Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

    2016-11-15

    Molecular programming takes advantage of synthetic nucleic acid biochemistry to assemble networks of reactions, in vitro, with the double goal of better understanding cellular regulation and providing information-processing capabilities to man-made chemical systems. The function of molecular circuits is deeply related to their topological structure, but dynamical features (rate laws) also play a critical role. Here we introduce a mechanism to tune the nonlinearities associated with individual nodes of a synthetic network. This mechanism is based on programming deactivation laws using dedicated saturable pathways. We demonstrate this approach through the conversion of a single-node homoeostatic network into a bistable and reversible switch. Furthermore, we prove its generality by adding new functions to the library of reported man-made molecular devices: a system with three addressable bits of memory, and the first DNA-encoded excitable circuit. Specific saturable deactivation pathways thus greatly enrich the functional capability of a given circuit topology.

  10. Model dependences of the deactivation of phytoplankton pigment excitation energy on environmental conditions in the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Ostrowska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical, physical models have been derived of the quantum yield ofthe deactivation processes (fluorescence, photosynthesis and heat productionof excited states in phytoplankton pigment molecules. Besides some alreadyknown models (photosynthesis and fluorescence, this novel approachincorporates the dependence of the dissipation yield of the excitation energyin phytoplankton pigment molecules on heat. The quantitative dependences ofthe quantum yields of these three processes on three fundamental parameters ofthe marine environment are defined: the chlorophyll concentration in the surface water layer Ca(0 (the basin trophicity,the irradiance PAR(z and the temperature temp(z at the study site.The model is complemented with two other relevant models describing thequantum yield of photosynthesis and of natural Sun-Induced Chlorophyll a Fluorescence (SICF in the sea, derived earlier by the author or with herparticipation on the basis of statistical analyses of a vast amount ofempirical material. The model described in the present paper enables theestimation of the quantum yields of phytoplankton pigment heat production forany region and season, in waters of any trophicity at different depths fromthe surface to depths of ca 60 m. The model can therefore be used to estimatethe yields of these deactivation processes in more than half the thickness ofthe euphotic zone in oligotrophic waters and in the whole thickness (anddeeper of this zone in mesotrophic and eutrophic waters. In particular theserelationships may be useful for a component analysis of the budget of lightenergy absorbed by phytoplankton pigments, namely, its utilization influorescence, photochemical quenching and nonphotochemical radiationlessdissipation - i.e. direct heat production.

  11. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger Karl E; Eggert Thorsten; Franken Benjamin; Pohl Martina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were ...

  12. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Karl E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the

  13. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  14. Gamification of learning deactivates the Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Alexander Howard-Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesised that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN and deactivation of Default Mode Network (DMN regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer, Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards. DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  15. Default network deactivations are correlated with psychopathic personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Sheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The posteromedial cortex (PMC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are part of a network of brain regions that has been found to exhibit decreased activity during goal-oriented tasks. This network is thought to support a baseline of brain activity, and is commonly referred to as the "default network". Although recent reports suggest that the PMC and mPFC are associated with affective, social, and self-referential processes, the relationship between these default network components and personality traits, especially those pertaining to social context, is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current investigation, we assessed the relationship between PMC and mPFC deactivations and psychopathic personality traits using fMRI and a self-report measure. We found that PMC deactivations predicted traits related to egocentricity and mPFC deactivations predicted traits related to decision-making. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the PMC and mPFC are associated with processes involving self-relevancy and affective decision-making, consistent with previous reports. More generally, these findings suggest a link between default network activity and personality traits.

  16. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  17. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  18. Inhibition and deactivation effects in catalytic wet oxidation of high-strength alcohol-distillery liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, K.; Larachi, F.; Hamoudi, S.; Turcotte, G.; Sayari, A. [Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) from raw high-strength alcohol-distillery waste liquors was evaluated using three different treatments: thermolysis (T), noncatalytic wet oxidation (WO), and solid-catalyzed wet oxidation (CWO). The distillery liquors (TOC = 22,500 mg/l, sugars = 18,000 mg/l, and proteins = 13,500 mg/l) were produced by alcoholic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates from steam-exploded timothy grass. TOC-abatement studies were conducted batchwise in a stirred autoclave to evaluate the influence of the catalyst (7:3, MnO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} mixed oxide), oxygen partial pressure (0.5--2.5 MPa), and temperature (453--523 K) on T, WO, and CWO processes. Although CWO outperformed T and WO, TOC conversions did not exceed {approximately}60% at the highest temperature used. Experiments provided prima facie evidence for a gradual fouling of the catalyst and a developing inhibition in the liquors which impaired deep TOC removals. Occurrence of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proven experimentally through quantitative and qualitative experiments such as elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inhibition toward further degradation of the liquors was ascribed to the occurrence of highly stable antioxidant intermediates via the Maillard reactions between dissolved sugars and proteins. A lumping kinetic model involving both reaction inhibition by dissolved intermediates and catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proposed to account for the distribution of carbon in the liquid, solid, and the vapor phases.

  19. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  20. Routes for deactivation of different autothermal reforming catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasel, Joachim; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Kreft, Stefanie; Rotov, Mikhail; Löhken, Katrin; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming units require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. In pursuit of this, an experimental screening of catalysts utilized in the autothermal reforming of commercial diesel fuels is performed. The catalysts incorporate a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3, La-Al2O3, CeO2, Gd-CeO2, ZrO2, Y-ZrO2) and Rh as the active phase. Experiments are run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. In most cases, this provokes accelerated catalyst deactivation and permits an informative comparison of the catalysts. Fresh and aged catalysts are characterized by temperature-programmed methods, thermogravimetry and transmission electron microscopy to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability. Using this approach, routes for catalyst deactivation are identified, together with causes of different catalytic activities. Suitable reaction conditions can be derived from our results for the operation of reactors for autothermal reforming at steady-state and under transient reaction conditions, which helps improve the efficiency and the stability of fuel cell systems.

  1. Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Su-Hwa; Koch, Brendan; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

  2. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    and test new alkali resistant catalyst formulations, coatings and/or improved means of operation which can extend the life-time of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants. Plate-type V2O5-(WO3)/TiO2 SCR catalysts have been exposed to KCl and K2SO4 aerosols in a bench-scale reactor at 150, 300 or 350 °C...... for up to 600 hours. The activity of fresh and exposed catalysts was measured in the temperature range 250-400 °C in a laboratory-scale reactor. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours proved to have deactivated significantly, however, catalysts exposed at 150 °C showed higher remaining activity...... the deactivation rate, decreases if the particle size of the incoming aerosol is increased.The results obtained in this work indicate that the life-time of SCR catalysts used in biomass fired power plants can be improved by ensuring a high conversion of KCl to K2SO4 aerosols, by reducing the operating temperature...

  3. Respiration phase-locks to fast stimulus presentations: Implications for the interpretation of posterior midline "deactivations"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, W.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Beldzik, E.; Domagalik, A.; Vinck, M.A.; Hofman, W.; Cabeza, R.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior midline region (PMR)-considered a core of the default mode network-is deactivated during successful performance in different cognitive tasks. The extent of PMR-deactivations is correlated with task-demands and associated with successful performance in various cognitive domains. In the

  4. Deactivating Chemical Agents Using Enzyme-Coated Nanofibers Formed by Electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    January 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEACTIVATING CHEMICAL AGENTS USING ENZYME- COATED NANOFIBERS FORMED BY ELECTROSPINNING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 MATS COATINGS ELECTROSPINNING CHEMICAL WARFARE...This page intentionally left blank 1 Deactivating Chemical Agents Using Enzyme- Coated Nanofibers formed by Electrospinning D

  5. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sype, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  6. Synthesis of Glycopolymer Architectures by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghadban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the state of the art in the synthesis of well-defined glycopolymers by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization (RDRP from its inception in 1998 until August 2012. Glycopolymers architectures have been successfully synthesized with four major RDRP techniques: Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP, cyanoxyl-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. Over 140 publications were analyzed and their results summarized according to the technique used and the type of monomer(s and carbohydrates involved. Particular emphasis was placed on the experimental conditions used, the structure obtained (comonomer distribution, topology, the degree of control achieved and the (potential applications sought. A list of representative examples for each polymerization process can be found in tables placed at the beginning of each section covering a particular RDRP technique.

  7. Revealing Deactivation Pathways Hidden in Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is commonly employed with the intention to monitor electronic excited-state dynamics occurring in a neutral molecule. With the help of theory, we show that when excited-state processes occur on similar time scales the different relaxation pathways are completely obscured in the total photoionization signal recorded in the experiment. Using non-adiabatic molecular dynamics and Dyson norms, we calculate the photoionization signal of cytosine and disentangle the transient contributions originating from the different deactivation pathways of its tautomers. In the simulations, the total signal from the relevant keto and enol tautomers can be decomposed into contributions either from the neutral electronic state populations or from the distinct mechanistic pathways across the multiple potential surfaces. The lifetimes corresponding to these contributions cannot be extracted from the experiment, thereby illustrating that new experimental setups are necessary to unravel the intricate non-adiabatic pathways occurring in polyatomic molecules after irradiation by light.

  8. β-Arrestin-dependent deactivation of mouse melanopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan G Cameron

    Full Text Available In mammals, the expression of the unusual visual pigment, melanopsin, is restricted to a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, whose signaling regulate numerous non-visual functions including sleep, circadian photoentrainment and pupillary constriction. IpRGCs exhibit attenuated electrical responses following sequential and prolonged light exposures indicative of an adaptational response. The molecular mechanisms underlying deactivation and adaptation in ipRGCs however, have yet to be fully elucidated. The role of melanopsin phosphorylation and β-arrestin binding in this adaptive process is suggested by the phosphorylation-dependent reduction of melanopsin signaling in vitro and the ubiquitous expression of β-arrestin in the retina. These observations, along with the conspicuous absence of visual arrestin in ipRGCs, suggest that a β-arrestin terminates melanopsin signaling. Here, we describe a light- and phosphorylation- dependent reduction in melanopsin signaling mediated by both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2. Using an in vitro calcium imaging assay, we demonstrate that increasing the cellular concentration of β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2 significantly increases the rate of deactivation of light-activated melanopsin in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we show that this response is dependent on melanopsin carboxyl-tail phosphorylation. Crosslinking and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2 bind to melanopsin in a light- and phosphorylation- dependent manner. These data are further supported by proximity ligation assays (PLA, which demonstrate a melanopsin/β-arrestin interaction in HEK293 cells and ipRGCs. Together, these results suggest that melanopsin signaling is terminated in a light- and phosphorylation-dependent manner through the binding of a β-arrestin within the retina.

  9. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladek, R E J; Stoffels, E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-06-07

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of plaque and treatment of caries. We use E. coli films plated on agar dishes as a model system to optimize the conditions for bacterial destruction. Plasma power, treatment time and needle-to-sample distance are varied. Plasma treatment of E. coli films results in formation of a bacteria-free void with a size up to 12 mm. 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} colony forming units are already destroyed after 10 s of treatment. Prolongation of treatment time and usage of high powers do not significantly improve the destruction efficiency: short exposure at low plasma power is sufficient. Furthermore, we study the effects of temperature increase on the survival of E. coli and compare it with thermal effects of the plasma. The population of E. coli heated in a warm water bath starts to decrease at temperatures above 40 deg. C. Sample temperature during plasma treatment has been monitored. The temperature can reach up to 60 deg. C at high plasma powers and short needle-to-sample distances. However, thermal effects cannot account for bacterial destruction at low power conditions. For safe and efficient in vivo disinfection, the sample temperature should be kept low. Thus, plasma power and treatment time should not exceed 150 mW and 60 s, respectively.

  10. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S. P.; Finley, R. J.; Galloway, W. E.; Gustavson, T. C.; Handford, C. R.; Presley, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Early in 1977 the Bureau of Economic Geology was invited to assemble and evaluate geologic data on several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as a contribution to the national nuclear repository program. In response to this request, the Bureau, acting as a technical research unit of the University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, initiated a long-term program to assemble and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for delineation, description, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Panhandle area. The technical program can be subdivided into three broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, and a basin geohydrology group. The basin analysis group has assembled the regional stratigraphic and structural framework of the total basin fill, initiated evaluation of natural resources, and selected stratigraphic core sites for sampling the salt and associated beds. Two drilling sites have provided nearly 8000 feet (2400 m) of core material for analysis and testing of the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely-sensed data to describe surficial processes, including carbonate and evaporate solution, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The newly formed basin geohydrology group will evaluate both shallow and deep circulation of fluids within the basins. This paper, a summary report of progress, reviews principal conclusions and illustrates the methodologies used and the types of data and displays generated.

  11. Characterization of deactivated catalytic cracking catalyst and evaluation as absorbent material; Caracterizacao de catalisador de craqueamento catalitico desativado e avaliacao como material adsorvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valt, R.B.G.; Kaminari, N.M.S.; Cordeiro, B.; Ponte, M.J.J.S.; Ponte, H.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    One of the main uses of catalysts in the petroleum industry is in step catalytic cracking, which after use and regeneration cycles generates large quantities of waste material. In this research the deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process, in order to assess the change of its structure and possible adsorptive capacity. Analyses of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area measurement were performed. The analysis showed no structural change due to the process employed and that electrokinetic remediation has recovered 42% of adsorption capacity of the material, by removing about 89% of heavy metals adhered initially in the catalyst surface. (author)

  12. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, Dean [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company - CHPRC (United States); Crocker, Ben [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. (United States); Smart, Bill [IMPACT Services, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  13. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation bylipopolysaccharide: roles of the receptor complex. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14609719 Molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation bylipopolys...acol Ther. 2003 Nov;100(2):171-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Molecular mechanisms of macrophage act...ivation and deactivation bylipopolysaccharide: roles of the receptor complex. PubmedID 14609719 Title Mole...cular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation bylipopolysaccharide: ro

  14. DMPD: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12106783 Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. D...ceptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. PubmedID 12106783 Title Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activa...tion and deactivation by LPS. Authors Dobrovolskaia MA,

  15. Deactivation kinetics of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase in aerosol OT/isooctane reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.; Chen, H.; Huang, T. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-10-10

    The deactivation kinetics of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) in both aerosol OT/isooctane reverse micelles and aqueous buffer were studied. The YADH entrapped in reverse micelles could retain activity for above 24 hr although it was less stable than dissolved in aqueous buffer. Both the activity-time curves for the YADH in reverse micelles and in aqueous buffer exhibited a rather rapid exponential decay within the early 2 hr, followed by a slower exponential decay during the remaining period. A series-type enzyme deactivation model involving two first-order steps and one active intermediate was used to describe the deactivation behavior of YADH. The kinetic parameters of the deactivation rate equations were obtained by optimization method. In aqueous buffer, the deactivation rate of YADH exhibited a maximum around a Tris concentration of 0.1 mol{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The deactivation rate of YADH in reverse micelles was strongly dependent on Tris concentration and the molar ratio of water to surfactant ({omega}0). The residual activity percentage of the active intermediate increased with the increase of {omega}0 and Tris concentration, while both the rate constants for the first and second first-order deactivation steps decreased with the increase of Tris concentration. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Rytter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlate the deactivation mechanism with the actual process and catalyst design. It is well known that long term catalyst deactivation is sensitive to the conditions the actual catalyst experiences in the reactor. Therefore, great care should be taken during start-up, shutdown and upsets to monitor and control process variables such as reactant concentrations, pressure and temperature which greatly affect deactivation mechanism and rate. Nevertheless, evidence so far shows that carbon deposition is the main long-term deactivation mechanism for most LTFT operations. It is intriguing that some reports indicate a low deactivation rate for multi-channel micro-reactors. In situ rejuvenation and regeneration of Co catalysts are economically necessary for extending their life to several years. The review covers information from open sources, but with a particular focus on patent literature.

  17. Development of new deactivation method for simulation of fluid catalytic cracking equilibrium catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Chiranjeevi; D T Gokak; V Ravikumar; P S Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Selection of a good catalyst is the easiest way to increase profitability of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. During operation, these catalysts get deactivated due to operation at high temperatures, steam and deposition of metals on the catalyst. Developing a proper catalyst deactivation method is crucial for optimization of a good catalyst for FCC. Conventional laboratory deactivation procedures include direct metal impregnation method, cyclic deactivation method (CDM) and cyclic propylene steaming (CPS). Direct metal impregnation method gives higher coke and gas yields. CDM and CPS methods implementation is very difficult and time-consuming and there is a deviation in coke and gas yield. New rapid deactivation method has been developed to simulate plant equilibrium catalyst (E-Cat) by modifying metal impregnation, steaming and oxidation/reduction procedures. The E-Cat generated through a new deactivation method was characterized for physico-chemical properties using X ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and SEM-EDX and activity studies. XRD studies show that metals are dispersed well on catalyst samples. SEMEDX studies reveal that the morphology of simulated E-Cat and plant E-Cat catalyst particles appear to be same. E-Cat obtained by new deactivationmethod gives better coke and gas yields. Two E-Cats were also generated through CDM and direct metal impregnation method for comparing with the one generated through new method. New deactivation method also significantly reduces the evaluation time.

  18. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Presley, M.W.; Handford, C.R.; Finley, R.J.; Dutton, S.P.; Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.; McGillis, K.A.; Simpkins, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of The University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, is carrying out a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 79 has been subdivided into four broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, a geohydrology group, and a host-rock analysis group. The basin analysis group has delineated the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins, initiated natural resource assessment, and integrated data from 8000 ft (2400 m) of core material into salt-stratigraphy models. Salt depth and thickness have been delineated for seven salt-bearing stratigraphic units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely sensed data to describe surficial processes, including salt solution, slope retreat/erosion mechanisms, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The basin geohydrology group has begun evaluating both shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins. The newly formed host-rock analysis group has initiated study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. This paper, a summary report of progress in FY 79, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated.

  19. Helium POT System for Maintaining Sample Temperature after Cryocooler Deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, B. J.

    2006-04-01

    A system for maintaining a sample at a constant temperature below 10 K after deactivating the cooling source is demonstrated. In this system, the cooling source is a 4 K GM cryocooler that is joined with the sample through an extension that consists of a helium pot and a thermal resistance. Upon stopping the cryocooler, the power applied to a heater located on the sample side of the thermal resistance is decreased gradually to maintain an appropriate temperature rise across the thermal resistance as the helium pot warms. The sample temperature is held constant in this manner without the use of solid or liquid cryogens and without mechanically disconnecting the sample from the cooler. Shutting off the cryocooler significantly reduces sample motion that results from vibration and expansion/contraction of the cold-head housing. The reduction in motion permits certain procedures that are very sensitive to sample position stability, but are performed with limited duration. A proof-of-concept system was built and operated with the helium pot pressurized to the cryocooler's charge pressure. A sample with 200 mW of continuous heat dissipation was maintained at 7 K while the cryocooler operated intermittently with a duty cycle of 9.5 minutes off and 20 minutes on.

  20. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion.

  1. Collective Resistance in Microbial Communities by Intracellular Antibiotic Deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Robin A.; Lin, Leo; van Doorn, G. Sander; Sorg, Moritz; Olson, Joshua; Nizet, Victor; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The structure and composition of bacterial communities can compromise antibiotic efficacy. For example, the secretion of β-lactamase by individual bacteria provides passive resistance for all residents within a polymicrobial environment. Here, we uncover that collective resistance can also develop via intracellular antibiotic deactivation. Real-time luminescence measurements and single-cell analysis demonstrate that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae grows in medium supplemented with chloramphenicol (Cm) when resistant bacteria expressing Cm acetyltransferase (CAT) are present. We show that CAT processes Cm intracellularly but not extracellularly. In a mouse pneumonia model, more susceptible pneumococci survive Cm treatment when coinfected with a CAT-expressing strain. Mathematical modeling predicts that stable coexistence is only possible when antibiotic resistance comes at a fitness cost. Strikingly, CAT-expressing pneumococci in mouse lungs were outcompeted by susceptible cells even during Cm treatment. Our results highlight the importance of the microbial context during infectious disease as a potential complicating factor to antibiotic therapy. PMID:28027306

  2. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  3. Studies on Catalyst Deactivation Rate and Byproducts Yield during Conversion of Methanol to Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Dengchao; Munib Shahda; Weng Huixin

    2006-01-01

    The conversion of methanol to olefins (MTO) over the SAPO-34 catalyst in fixed-bed microreactor was studied. The effect of reaction temperatures for methanol conversion to olefins and byproducts was investigated. A temperature of 425 ℃ appeared to be the optimum one suitable for conversion of methanol to olefins. Since the presence of water could increase the olefins selectivity, the methanol conversion reactions with mixed water/methanol feed were also studied. The effect of weight hourly space velocity on conversion of methanol was also studied. The results indicated that the olefins selectivity was significantly increased as WHSV increased till approximately 7.69 h-1 then it began to level off. Different factors affecting the catalyst deactivation rate was studied, showing that the catalyst deactivation time was dependent on reaction conditions, and temperatures higher and lower than the optimal one made the catalyst deactivation faster.Adding water to methanol could slow down the catalyst deactivation rate.

  4. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane MacIver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient’s perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Aim: To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Design: Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Setting and participants: Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada. Results: The sample (n = 25 was predominately male (76% with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1 prior to implantation, (2 with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3 at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68% said they would consider deactivation, six (24% were undecided and two (8% were adamant they would never turn it off. Conclusion: The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life.

  5. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlated with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang, L.; Ernst, T.; /Fowler, J.S.

    2009-06-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  6. Dopamine transporters in striatum correlate with deactivation in the default mode network during visuospatial attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Tomasi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN. Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [(11C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7 and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32. With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference. These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  7. Regulation of GIRK channel deactivation by Galpha(q) and Galpha(i/o) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M D; Ruppersberg, J P; Herlitze, S

    2000-09-01

    G protein regulated inward rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are activated by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) via the G protein betagamma subunits. However, little is known about the effects of different GPCRs on the deactivation kinetics of transmitter-mediated GIRK currents. In the present study we investigated the influence of different GPCRs in the presence and absence of RGS proteins on the deactivation kinetics of GIRK channels by coexpressing the recombinant protein subunits in Xenopus oocytes. The stimulation of both G(i/o)- and G(q)-coupled pathways accelerated GIRK deactivation. GIRK currents deactivated faster upon stimulation of G(i/o)- and G(q)-coupled pathways by P(2)Y(2) receptors (P(2)Y(2)Rs) than upon activation of the G(i/o)-coupled pathway alone via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (M(2) mAChRs). This acceleration was found to be dependent on phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) activities and intracellular calcium. With the assumption that RGS2 has a higher affinity for Galpha(q) than Galpha(i/o), we demonstrated that the deactivation kinetics of GIRK channels can be differentially regulated by the relative amount of RGS proteins. These data indicate that transmitter-mediated deactivation of GIRK currents is modulated by crosstalk between G(i/o)- and G(q)-coupled pathways.

  8. Analytical results for 35 mine-waste tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples, and an estimate of the volume of contaminated material at Buckeye meadow on upper Basin Creek, northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, D.L.; Church, S.E.; Finney, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acidgeneration and toxic-metal solubilization. Flotation-mill tailings in the meadow below the Buckeye mine, hereafter referred to as the Buckeye mill-tailings site, have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek, Montana. Basin Creek is one of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area; bed sediments and waters draining from the Buckeye mine have also been implicated. Geochemical analysis of 35 tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb,and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms that constitute their food. A suite of one-inch cores of dispersed flotation-mill tailings and underlying premining material was taken from a large, flat area north of Basin Creek near the site of the Buckeye mine. Thirty-five core samples were taken and divided into 204 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements listed above are present at moderate to very high concentrations (arsenic to 63,000 ppm, silver to 290 ppm, cadmium to 370 ppm, copper to 4,800 ppm, lead to 93,000 ppm, and zinc to 23,000 ppm). Volume calculations indicate that an estimated 8,400 metric tons of contaminated material are present at the site. Six bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50oC) 2M HCl-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of Basin Creek are only slightly impacted by past mining above the Buckeye-Enterprise complex, moderately impacted at the upper (eastern

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-50:5 Process Sewers (183-DR Sedimentation Basin Drains), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-06

    The 100-D-50:5 subsite encompasses the southern process sewers formerly servicing the 183-DR coagulation and sedimentation basins and proximate surface runoff collection drains. The results of confirmatory sampling of pipeline sediments and underlying soils at the 100-D-50:5 subsite demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Study of rock-water-nuclear waste interactions in the Pasco Basin, Washington. Part I. Distribution and composition of secondary and primary mineral phases in basalts of the Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1979-09-01

    In Part I of this report the results of Task III are presented and discussed. The subject of Task III is the study and identification of secondary and primary mineral assemblages in basalts of the Pasco Basin of southeastern Washington. In particular, we have determined the relative amounts, crystallization sequence, and compositions of secondary minerals found lining vesicle and fracture surfaces. This information, together with data on the chemical composition of primary minerals and the extent to which they have undergone dissolution, has been used in theoretical simulations of mass transfer which is the subject of Part II (Task IV) of this report.

  11. Viscous heating effect on deactivation of helminth eggs in ventilated improved pit sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, D; Foutch, G L; Smay, J; Archer, C; Buckley, C A

    2015-01-01

    Viscous heating by extrusion of faecal material obtained from ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines can be used to deactivate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by increasing the temperature of faecal sludge uniformly. Viscous heating can deactivate STH eggs present in sludge to make the material safer to transport, dispose of, or use in agricultural applications or as an energy source. The mechanical energy required to generate the shear rate can originate from any source. No other heat source or additive is required. Here we determined a baseline for the deactivation of STH eggs using viscous heating. To characterize equipment performance, three parameters were investigated: (1) minimum temperature required for deactivation; (2) local maximum temperatures for various flow rates and moisture contents (MCs); and (3) thermal efficiency. Excess water is undesirable since low viscosities require extended residence time and increased energy input. The minimum temperature to achieve greater than 90% helminth egg deactivation is 70 °C. For the laboratory-scale equipment tested, the maximum allowable mass flow rate for VIP sludge with 77% MC was found to be 3.6 g/s.

  12. Metallization of oxide-ore-containing wastes with the use of brown coal semicoke from Berezovsky deposit of the Kansk- Achinsk Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The research of the metallization process of the roll scale and sludge after gas treatment in the BOF production with the use of brown coal semicoke mined in Berezovsky field of the Kansk-Achinsk Basin was carried out. A flow diagram of “cold” briquetting using a water-soluble binder was offered. The reduction of iron from its oxide Fe2O3 with brown coal semicoke in the laboratory electric-tube furnace in the argon atmosphere was studied. The mathematical models of dependence of the metallization degree on variable factors were developed. The optimal values of technological factors and essential characteristics of the obtained metallized products were revealed.

  13. Decoupling HZSM-5 catalyst activity from deactivation during upgrading of pyrolysis oil vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shaolong; Waters, Christopher; Stevens, Adam; Gumidyala, Abhishek; Jentoft, Rolf; Lobban, Lance; Resasco, Daniel; Mallinson, Richard; Crossley, Steven

    2015-02-01

    The independent evaluation of catalyst activity and stability during the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass is challenging because of the nature of the reaction system and rapid catalyst deactivation that force the use of excess catalyst. In this contribution we use a modified pyroprobe system in which pulses of pyrolysis vapors are converted over a series of HZSM-5 catalysts in a separate fixed-bed reactor controlled independently. Both the reactor-bed temperature and the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite are varied to evaluate catalyst activity and deactivation rates independently both on a constant surface area and constant acid site basis. Results show that there is an optimum catalyst-bed temperature for the production of aromatics, above which the production of light gases increases and that of aromatics decrease. Zeolites with lower Si/Al ratios give comparable initial rates for aromatics production, but far more rapid catalyst deactivation rates than those with higher Si/Al ratios.

  14. Offshore waste management monitoring system: drilling campaign BM-CAL-4 Block, Camanu-Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Gestao de rejeitos offshore em areas sensiveis e ambientes isolados - estudo de caso: campanha exploratoria da El Paso no Bloco BM-CA-4, Bacia de Camamu-Almada, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranieri, Adriano [El Paso Oleo e Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Perez, Pedro; Andrade, Albert [EnvironPact, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper addresses the principal aspects related to the difficulties found to implement a pollution control project in sensitive areas and isolated environments. For that, it was utilized a case study on the El Paso's second exploratory campaign on BM-CAL-4 Block, located in Camamu Almada Basin, Bahia - Brazil. Two of the items of the pollution control project implemented on this campaign where herein detailed: drilling wastes management and waste management on the smaller vessels, which had to attend to the same requirements applied to the supply vessels and the drilling rig, due to the discharge restrictions established by the environmental agency. (author)

  15. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S&M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the IFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of IFDP facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 1999. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $36M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S&M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year.

  16. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S and M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S and M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the EFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of EFDP Facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 2000. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $51M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S and M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year.

  17. Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of SO2 Oxidation Catalysts in Simulated Power Plant Flue Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Chrissanthopoulos, Asthanassios; Eriksen, Kim Michael;

    1997-01-01

    The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas.......The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas....

  18. Beyond catalyst deactivation: cross-metathesis involving olefins containing N-heteroaromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Kevin; Bosset, Cyril; Nicolas, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Alkenes containing N-heteroaromatics are known to be poor partners in cross-metathesis reactions, probably due to catalyst deactivation caused by the presence of a nitrogen atom. However, some examples of ring-closing and cross-metathesis involving alkenes that incorporate N-heteroaromatics can be found in the literature. In addition, recent mechanistic studies have focused on the rationalization of nitrogen-induced catalysts deactivation. The purpose of this mini-review is to give a brief overview of successful metathesis reactions involving olefins containing N-heteroaromatics in order to delineate some guidelines for the use of these challenging substrates in metathesis reactions. PMID:26664645

  19. Beyond catalyst deactivation: cross-metathesis involving olefins containing N-heteroaromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Kevin; Bosset, Cyril; Nicolas, Lionel; Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Alkenes containing N-heteroaromatics are known to be poor partners in cross-metathesis reactions, probably due to catalyst deactivation caused by the presence of a nitrogen atom. However, some examples of ring-closing and cross-metathesis involving alkenes that incorporate N-heteroaromatics can be found in the literature. In addition, recent mechanistic studies have focused on the rationalization of nitrogen-induced catalysts deactivation. The purpose of this mini-review is to give a brief overview of successful metathesis reactions involving olefins containing N-heteroaromatics in order to delineate some guidelines for the use of these challenging substrates in metathesis reactions.

  20. Beyond catalyst deactivation: cross-metathesis involving olefins containing N-heteroaromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lafaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkenes containing N-heteroaromatics are known to be poor partners in cross-metathesis reactions, probably due to catalyst deactivation caused by the presence of a nitrogen atom. However, some examples of ring-closing and cross-metathesis involving alkenes that incorporate N-heteroaromatics can be found in the literature. In addition, recent mechanistic studies have focused on the rationalization of nitrogen-induced catalysts deactivation. The purpose of this mini-review is to give a brief overview of successful metathesis reactions involving olefins containing N-heteroaromatics in order to delineate some guidelines for the use of these challenging substrates in metathesis reactions.

  1. Defects in RGS9 or its anchor protein R9AP in patients with slow photoreceptor deactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishiguchi, KM; Sandberg, MA; Kooijman, AC; Martemyanov, KA; Pott, JWR; Hagstrom, SA; Arshavsky, VY; Berson, EL; Dryja, TP

    2004-01-01

    The RGS proteins are GTPase activating proteins that accelerate the deactivation of G proteins in a variety of signalling pathways in eukaryotes(1-6). RGS9 deactivates the G proteins (transducins) in the rod and cone phototransduction cascades(7,8). It is anchored to photoreceptor membranes by the t

  2. Deactivation of the default mode network as a marker of impaired consciousness: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sophia Crone

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of patients with a disorder of consciousness is very challenging. Previous studies investigating resting state networks demonstrate that 2 main features of the so-called default mode network (DMN, metabolism and functional connectivity, are impaired in patients with a disorder of consciousness. However, task-induced deactivation--a third main feature of the DMN--has not been explored in a group of patients. Deactivation of the DMN is supposed to reflect interruptions of introspective processes. Seventeen patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, former vegetative state, 8 patients in minimally conscious state (MCS, and 25 healthy controls were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a passive sentence listening task. Results show that deactivation in medial regions is reduced in MCS and absent in UWS patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, behavioral scores assessing the level of consciousness correlate with deactivation in patients. On single-subject level, all control subjects but only 2 patients in MCS and 6 with UWS exposed deactivation. Interestingly, all patients who deactivated during speech processing (except for one showed activation in left frontal regions which are associated with conscious processing. Our results indicate that deactivation of the DMN can be associated with the level of consciousness by selecting those who are able to interrupt ongoing introspective processes. In consequence, deactivation of the DMN may function as a marker of consciousness.

  3. GEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF F AREA SEEPAGE BASIN COMPOSITION AND VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.

    2012-05-08

    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors

  4. Active linear mass absorber technology for the reduction of noise and vibration at a cylinder deactivation vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottner, T.; Eckel, H.G. [Vibracoustic GmbH und Co. KG (Germany); Kim, J.H. [Hyundai Motor Company (Korea); Klatt, C. [Freudenberg New Technologies, Weinheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Cylinder deactivation is a suitable strategy for reducing the fuel consumption of a vehicle. In this particular case, a V6 engine runs under partial load conditions in a restricted engine speed range as an inline three cylinder engine by deactivating an entire bank. As a side effect, noise and vibrations in the deactivated condition deteriorate significantly. For comfort reasons, however, a similar noise and vibration level for both - full and deactivated engine running condition - is desired. To achieve this, active technology is used. In the cylinder deactivation mode, two active linear mass aborbers installed at the engine mounts cancel out the main disturbing engine excitation orders of the engine mount forces. As a result, the noise and vibration in the passenger compartment is significantly reduced. (orig.)

  5. Determination of a Jet Fuel Metal Deactivator by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Paul C. Hayes, Jr. Fuels Branch...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) High Performance Liquid Chromatography absorbance...SYMBOL HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography P-4 jet propulsion fuel, wide-boiling range, conforming to MIL-T-5624L MDA metal deactivator,

  6. Self-related processing and deactivation of cortical midline regions in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sophia eCrone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-related stimuli activate anterior parts of cortical midline regions, which normally show task-induced deactivation. Deactivation in medial posterior and frontal regions is associated with the ability to focus attention on the demands of the task, and therefore, with consciousness. Studies investigating patients with impaired consciousness, that is, patients in minimally conscious state and patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (formerly vegetative state, demonstrate that these patients show responses to self-related content in the anterior cingulate cortex. However, it remains unclear if these responses are an indication for conscious processing of stimuli or are due to automatic processing. To shed further light on this issue, we investigated responses of cortical midline regions to the own and another name in 27 patients with a disorder of consciousness and compared them to task-induced deactivation. While almost all of the control subjects responding to the own name demonstrated higher activation due to the self-related content in anterior midline regions and additional deactivation, none of the responding patients did so. Differences between groups showed a similar pattern of findings. Despite the relation between behavioral responsiveness in patients and activation in response to the own name, the findings of this study do not provide evidence for a direct association of activation in anterior midline regions and conscious processing. The deficits in processing of self-referential content in anterior midline regions may rather be due to general impairments in cognitive processing and not particularly linked to impaired consciousness.

  7. On the Deactivation of Cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process is an attractive way to obtain synthetic liquid fuel from alternative energy sources such as natural gas, coal or biomass. However, the deactivation of the catalyst, consisting of cobalt nanoparticles supported on TiO2, currently hampers the industrial app

  8. Stronger activation and deactivation in archery experts for differential cognitive strategy in visuospatial working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Yang-Tae; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Tae-Du; Lee, Gunyoung; Kwon, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that elite athletes have higher performance in perception, planning, and execution in sports activities relative to novices. It remains controversial, however, whether any differences in basic cognitive functions between experts and novices exist. Furthermore, few studies have directly used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation and deactivation differences between experts and novices while performing visuospatial working memory (WM) tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in neural activation and deactivation associated with working memory components in processing visuospatial information between archery experts and novices. To this end, we employed a judgment of line orientation (JLO) task, which has a strong WM component. With regard to brain activation, archery experts displayed higher activation in cortical areas associated with visuospatial attention and working memory, including the middle frontal cortex, supplemental motor area, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than that of the novices during the performance of the JLO task. With regard to brain deactivation, archery experts exhibited stronger task-related deactivation in cortical areas, such as the paracentral cortex/precuneus and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex related to the default network, than that of the novices. These results suggest that the archery experts have a strategy that demands greater use of neural correlates associated with visuospatial working memory and attention in addition to greater use of DMN in visuospatial working memory task not directly tied to their domain of expertise.

  9. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC with posi......Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC...... with positron emission tomography (PET) of labeled water (H(15)2O) uptake in brain of 14 healthy subjects. The subjects performed either a less demanding or a more demanding task of attention while they watched neutral and emotive images of people in realistic indoor or outdoor situations. In the less demanding...... task, subjects used the index finger to press any key when a new image appeared. In the more demanding task, subjects chose the index or middle finger to press separate keys for outdoor and indoor scenes. Compared to the less demanding task, in a global search of all gray matter, the more demanding...

  10. Chemical deactivation of Cu-SSZ-13 ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano-Gonzalez, I.; Deka, U.; van der Bij, H. E.; Paalanen, P.; Arstad, B.; Weckhuysen, B. M.; Beale, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical deactivation of Cu-SSZ-13 Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3-SCR) catalysts by Pt, Zn, Ca and P has been systematically investigated using a range of analytical techniques in order to study the influence on both the zeolitic framework and the active Cu2+ ions. The results obtain

  11. Patients' perspective on deactivation of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator near the end of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Chaitsing, Rismy; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    (67%) completed the survey. Most patients (68%) were aware that it is possible to turn the ICD off, and 95% believed it is important to inform patients about the possibility. Of the patients completing the survey, 84% indicated a choice for or against deactivation. Psychological morbidity...

  12. Deactivation of vanadia-based commercial SCR catalysts by polyphosphoric acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellino, Francesco; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2008-01-01

    Commercial vanadia-based SCR monoliths have been exposed to flue gases in a pilot-scale Setup into which phosphoric acid has been added and the deactivation has been followed during the exposure time. Separate measurements by SMPS showed that the phosphoric acid formed polyphosphoric acid aerosol...

  13. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  14. Working memory encoding and maintenance deficits in schizophrenia: neural evidence for activation and deactivation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence implicates working memory (WM) as a core deficit in schizophrenia (SCZ), purportedly due to primary deficits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functioning. Recent findings suggest that SCZ is also associated with abnormalities in suppression of certain regions during cognitive engagement--namely the default mode system--that may further contribute to WM pathology. However, no study has systematically examined activation and suppression abnormalities across both encoding and maintenance phases of WM in SCZ. Twenty-eight patients and 24 demographically matched healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while performing a delayed match-to-sample WM task. Groups were accuracy matched to rule out performance effects. Encoding load was identical across subjects to facilitate comparisons across WM phases. We examined activation differences using an assumed model approach at the whole-brain level and within meta-analytically defined WM areas. Despite matched performance, we found regions showing less recruitment during encoding and maintenance for SCZ subjects. Furthermore, we identified 2 areas closely matching the default system, which SCZ subjects failed to deactivate across WM phases. Lastly, activation in prefrontal regions predicted the degree of deactivation for healthy but not SCZ subjects. Current results replicate and extend prefrontal recruitment abnormalities across WM phases in SCZ. Results also indicate deactivation abnormalities across WM phases, possibly due to inefficient prefrontal recruitment. Such regional deactivation may be critical for suppressing sources of interference during WM trace formation. Thus, deactivation deficits may constitute an additional source of impairments, which needs to be further characterized for a complete understanding of WM pathology in SCZ.

  15. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Saghrouni, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  16. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  17. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  18. Depletion effect of polycrystalline-silicon gate electrode by phosphorus deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Woojin; Ahn, Ji-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    A study of the polycrystalline silicon depletion effect generated from the subsequent thermal process is undertaken. Although phosphorus out-diffusion, which causes the polycrystalline silicon depletion effect, is increased with an increase in the thermal process temperature, the polysilicon depletion effect is stronger when inducing rapid thermal annealing in lower temperatures of 600-800 °C than in 900 °C. This indicates that the major reason for the polysilicon depletion effect is not the out-diffusion of phosphorus but the electrical deactivation of phosphorus, which is segregated at the grain boundary. Therefore, by increasing the size of polycrystalline silicon grain, we can efficiently reduce the polysilicon depletion effect and enhance the tolerance to deactivation.

  19. Causes of Activation and Deactivation of Modified Nanogold Catalysts during Prolonged Storage and Redox Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Kolobova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of modified Au/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation are affected by deactivation and reactivation after long-term storage and by redox treatments. The effect of these phenomena on the catalysts was studied by HRTEM, BET, SEM, FTIR CO, XPS and H2 TPR methods. The main cause for the deactivation and reactivation of catalytic properties is the variation in the electronic state of the supported gold, mainly, the proportion of singly charged ions Au+. The most active samples are those with the highest proportion of singly charged gold ions, while catalysts with a high content of trivalent gold ions are inactive at low-temperatures. Active states of gold, resistant to changes caused by the reaction process and storage conditions, can be stabilized by modification of the titanium oxide support with transition metals oxides. The catalyst modified with lanthanum oxide shows the highest stability and activity.

  20. Electron microscopy study of the deactivation of nickel based catalysts for bio oil hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed as an efficient way to remove oxygen in bio-oil, improving its quality as a more sustainable alternative to conventional fuels in terms of CO2 neutrality and relative short production cycle [1]. Ni and Ni-MoS2 nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 show potential...... as high-pressure (100 bar) catalysts for purification of bio-oil by HDO. However, the catalysts deactivate in presence of sulfur, chlorine and potassium species, which are all naturally occurring in real bio-oil. The deactivation mechanisms of the Ni/ZrO2 have been investigated through scanning...... transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic testing has been performed using guaiacol in 1-octanol acting as a model compound for bio-oil. Addition of sulphur (0.3 vol% octanethiol) in the feed...

  1. The Deactivation of Nickel Hydroxide to Hypophosphite Electrooxidation on a Nickel Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue ZENG; Min MO; Jian Long YI; Xin Jun TANG; Hui Xian WANG

    2004-01-01

    The deactivation of nickel hydroxide to the electrooxidation of hypophosphite on a nickel electrode was studied by means of in situ UV-Vis subtractive reflectance spectroscopy. The experimental results show that when the potential is lower than -1.0 V (SCE), the surface on nickel electrode is free of nickel hydroxide, on which hypophosphite is active. When the potential moves positively to about-0.75V, two absorbency bands around 300 nm and 550 nm, which were ascribed to the formation of α-nickel hydroxide, were observed, nickel is oxidized to α-nickel hydroxide.Severe deactivation of the surface occurs when the nickel surface is covered with nickel hydroxide,which separates the hypophosphite ion from nickel substrate.

  2. Reversible and rapid transfer-RNA deactivation as a mechanism of translational repression in stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Andreas; Wende, Sandra; Mörl, Mario; Pan, Tao; Ignatova, Zoya

    2013-08-01

    Stress-induced changes of gene expression are crucial for survival of eukaryotic cells. Regulation at the level of translation provides the necessary plasticity for immediate changes of cellular activities and protein levels. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure to oxidative stress results in a quick repression of translation by deactivation of the aminoacyl-ends of all transfer-RNA (tRNA). An oxidative-stress activated nuclease, angiogenin, cleaves first within the conserved single-stranded 3'-CCA termini of all tRNAs, thereby blocking their use in translation. This CCA deactivation is reversible and quickly repairable by the CCA-adding enzyme [ATP(CTP):tRNA nucleotidyltransferase]. Through this mechanism the eukaryotic cell dynamically represses and reactivates translation at low metabolic costs.

  3. Reversible and rapid transfer-RNA deactivation as a mechanism of translational repression in stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Czech

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced changes of gene expression are crucial for survival of eukaryotic cells. Regulation at the level of translation provides the necessary plasticity for immediate changes of cellular activities and protein levels. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure to oxidative stress results in a quick repression of translation by deactivation of the aminoacyl-ends of all transfer-RNA (tRNA. An oxidative-stress activated nuclease, angiogenin, cleaves first within the conserved single-stranded 3'-CCA termini of all tRNAs, thereby blocking their use in translation. This CCA deactivation is reversible and quickly repairable by the CCA-adding enzyme [ATP(CTP:tRNA nucleotidyltransferase]. Through this mechanism the eukaryotic cell dynamically represses and reactivates translation at low metabolic costs.

  4. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...

  5. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  6. A study on the deactivation of USY zeolites with different rare earth contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, C.A.; Santos, J.O.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Polato, C.M.S.; Valle, Murta; Aguiar, E.F.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Monteiro, J.L.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Nucleo de Catalise

    1998-06-01

    The deactivation of USY zeolites different rare earth contents due to the coke formed n-heptane at 450 deg C was studied. The results show that the presence of rare earth elements decreases the cracking and coking activities, increasing catalytic stability. However, reaction selectivity was not significantly influenced. The greater the rare earth content, the lower the cocking rates and the coke contents. The TPO/DSC profiles suggested that the catalytic effect of the rare earth elements promoted coke oxidation. (author)

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  8. How Can the Deactivation of the Marine Prowler Community Best Serve the Marine Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Electronic Counter Measure Officers ( ECMO ) transitioning to new communities. Before the Prowler community deactivation begins it will undergo some...Prowler squadron consists of 180 Marines. Eight are pilots, twenty are Electronic Counter Measure Officers ( ECMO ), twenty seven are Sta:ffNon-Commissioned...three operational squadrons and an FRS. The FRS activation would be used to facilitate the production of any remaining pilots and ECMOs needed to

  9. Expertise-related deactivation of the right temporoparietal junction during musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Musical training has been associated with structural changes in the brain as well as functional differences in brain activity when musicians are compared to nonmusicians on both perceptual and motor tasks. Previous neuroimaging comparisons of musicians and nonmusicians in the motor domain have used tasks involving prelearned motor sequences or synchronization with an auditorily presented sequence during the experiment. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine expertise-related differences in brain activity between musicians and nonmusicians during improvisation--the generation of novel musical-motor sequences--using a paradigm that we previously used in musicians alone. Despite behaviorally matched performance, the two groups showed significant differences in functional brain activity during improvisation. Specifically, musicians deactivated the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) during melodic improvisation, while nonmusicians showed no change in activity in this region. The rTPJ is thought to be part of a ventral attentional network for bottom-up stimulus-driven processing, and it has been postulated that deactivation of this region occurs in order to inhibit attentional shifts toward task-irrelevant stimuli during top-down, goal-driven behavior. We propose that the musicians' deactivation of the rTPJ during melodic improvisation may represent a training-induced shift toward inhibition of stimulus-driven attention, allowing for a more goal-directed performance state that aids in creative thought.

  10. Age association of language task induced deactivation induced in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binjian; Berl, Madison M; Burns, Thomas G; Gaillard, William D; Hayes, Laura; Adjouadi, Malek; Jones, Richard A

    2013-01-15

    Task-induced deactivation (TID) potentially reflects the interactions between the default mode and task specific networks, which are assumed to be age dependent. The study of the age association of such interactions provides insight about the maturation of neural networks, and lays out the groundwork for evaluating abnormal development of neural networks in neurological disorders. The current study analyzed the deactivations induced by language tasks in 45 right-handed normal controls aging from 6 to 22 years of age. Converging results from GLM, dual regression and ROI analyses showed a gradual reduction in both the spatial extent and the strength of the TID in the DMN cortices as the brain matured from kindergarten to early adulthood in the absence of any significant change in task performance. The results may be ascribed to maturation leading to either improved multi-tasking (i.e. reduced deactivation) or reduced cognitive demands due to greater experience (affects both control and active tasks but leads to reduced overall difference). However, other effects, such as changes in the DMN connectivity that were not included in this study may also have influenced the results. In light of this, researchers should be cautious when investigating the maturation of DMN using TID. With a GLM analysis using the concatenated fMRI data from several paradigms, this study additionally identified an age associated increase of TID in the STG (bilateral), possibly reflecting the role of this area in speech perception and phonological processing.

  11. Thermal deactivation kinetics of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase entrapped in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kwon, Chang Woo; Choi, Seung Jun; Son, Young-Hwan; Lim, Seokwon; Yoo, Yoonjung; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2013-10-02

    Thermostability of the lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) was found to be increased by the enzyme-entrapment in 50 mM AOT/isooctane reverse micelles. The half-life (15.75 h) of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase entrapped in reverse micelles at 70 °C was 9.72- and 11.41-fold longer than those solubilized in a glycerol pool or in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), respectively. The enzyme deactivation model considering a two-step series-type was employed, and deactivation constants for the second step (k₂) at all temperatures were drastically decreased after the lipase was entrapped in reverse micelles. In particular, k₂ (0.0354 h⁻¹) at 70 °C in reverse micelles was 12.33- and 13.14-fold lower than in a glycerol pool or in the phosphate buffer, respectively. The deactivation energies (from k₁, k₂) for the lipase entrapped in the reverse micelles, solubilized in a glycerol pool, or in the aqueous buffer were 7.51, 26.35 kcal/mol, 5.93, 21.08 kcal/mol, and 5.53, 17.57 kcal/mol, respectively.

  12. Atmospheric pressure low-power microwave microplasma source for deactivation of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Dors, Mirosław; Jasiński, Mariusz; Hrycak, Bartosz; Czylkowski, Dariusz

    2013-02-01

    This work was aimed at experimental investigations of deactivation of different types of microorganisms by using atmospheric pressure low-temperature microwave microplasma source (MmPS). The MmPS was operated at standard microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Its main advantages are simple and cheap construction, portability and possibility of penetrating into small cavities. The microplasma deactivation concerned two types of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis) and one fungus (Aspergillus niger). The quality as well as quantity tests were performed. The influence of the microorganism type, oxygen concentration, absorbed microwave power, microplasma treatment time and MmPS distance from the treated sample on the microorganism deactivation efficiency was investigated. All experiments were performed for Ar microplasma and Ar/O2 microplasma with up to 3% of O2. Absorbed microwave power was up to 50 W. The Ar flow rate was up to 10 L/min. The sample treatment time was up to 10 s. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  13. Deactivation mechanism and feasible regeneration approaches for the used commercial NH3-SCR catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanke; Meng, Xiaoran; Chen, Jinsheng; Yin, Liqian; Qiu, Tianxue; He, Chi

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation and regeneration of selective catalytic reduction catalysts which have been used for about 37,000 h in a coal power plant are studied. The formation of Al2(SO4)3, surface deposition of K, Mg and Ca are primary reasons for the deactivation of the studied Selective catalytic reduction catalysts. Other factors such as activated V valence alteration also contribute to the deactivation. Reactivation of used catalysts via environment-friendly and finance-feasibly approaches, that is, dilute acid or alkali solution washing, would be of great interest. Three regeneration pathways were studied in the present work, and dilute nitric acid or sodium hydroxide solution could remove most of the contaminants over the catalyst surface and partly recover the catalytic performance. Notably, the acid-alkali combination washing, namely, catalysts treated by dilute sodium hydroxide and nitric acid solutions orderly, was much more effective than single washing approach in recovering the activity, and NO conversion increased from 23.6% to 89.5% at 380°C. The higher removal efficiency of contaminants, the lower dissolution of activated V, and promoting the formation of polymeric vanadate should be the main reason for recovery of the activity.

  14. SMFs-supported Pd nanocatalysts in selective acetylene hydrogenation:Pore structure-dependent deactivation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaheh; Esmaeili; Ali; Morad; Rashidi; Yadollah; Mortazavi; Abbas; Ali; Khodadadi; Mehdi; Rashidzadeh

    2013-01-01

    In the present study,CNFs,ZnO and Al2O3 were deposited on the SMFs panels to investigate the deactivation mechanism of Pd-based catalysts in selective acetylene hydrogenation reaction.The examined supports were characterized by SEM,NH3-TPD and N2adsorption-desorption isotherms to indicate their intrinsic characteristics.Furthermore,in order to understand the mechanism of deactivation,the resulted green oil was characterized using FTIR and SIM DIS.FTIR results confirmed the presence of more unsaturated constituents and then,more branched hydrocarbons formed upon the reaction over alumina-supported catalyst in comparison with the ones supported on CNFs and ZnO,which in turn,could block the pores mouths.Besides the limited hydrogen transfer,N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms results supported that the lowest pore diameters of Al2O3/SMFs close to the surface led to fast deactivation,compared with the other catalysts,especially at higher temperatures.

  15. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret.Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection. During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  16. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret. Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs) and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs) matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection). During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  17. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed.

  18. Tyrosine Residues from the S4-S5 Linker of Kv11.1 Channels Are Critical for Slow Deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chai-Ann; Gravel, Andrée E; Perry, Matthew D; Arnold, Alexandre A; Marcotte, Isabelle; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2016-08-12

    Slow deactivation of Kv11.1 channels is critical for its function in the heart. The S4-S5 linker, which joins the voltage sensor and pore domains, plays a critical role in this slow deactivation gating. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to identify the membrane-bound surface of the S4S5 linker, and we show that two highly conserved tyrosine residues within the KCNH subfamily of channels are membrane-associated. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiological analysis indicates that Tyr-542 interacts with both the pore domain and voltage sensor residues to stabilize activated conformations of the channel, whereas Tyr-545 contributes to the slow kinetics of deactivation by primarily stabilizing the transition state between the activated and closed states. Thus, the two tyrosine residues in the Kv11.1 S4S5 linker play critical but distinct roles in the slow deactivation phenotype, which is a hallmark of Kv11.1 channels.

  19. Session 6: Hydro-dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride: Study of the Deactivation and Regeneration of Pt Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetto, T.F.; Borgna, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica-INCAPE. (UNL-CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina); Montoya, J.A.; Acosta, D. [Zaragoza Univ., Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente. Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Monzon, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to get more insight on the deactivation-regeneration process of supported metal catalysts during CTC hydro-dechlorination. In this contribution we report a kinetic analysis on the deactivation-regeneration of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the effect of the regeneration conditions. Particularly, the effectiveness of the regeneration treatment under different atmospheres is analyzed. (authors)

  20. Attention-induced deactivations in very low frequency EEG oscillations: differential localisation according to ADHD symptom status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Broyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The default-mode network (DMN is characterised by coherent very low frequency (VLF brain oscillations. The cognitive significance of this VLF profile remains unclear, partly because of the temporally constrained nature of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal. Previously we have identified a VLF EEG network of scalp locations that shares many features of the DMN. Here we explore the intracranial sources of VLF EEG and examine their overlap with the DMN in adults with high and low ADHD ratings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DC-EEG was recorded using an equidistant 66 channel electrode montage in 25 adult participants with high- and 25 participants with low-ratings of ADHD symptoms during a rest condition and an attention demanding Eriksen task. VLF EEG power was calculated in the VLF band (0.02 to 0.2 Hz for the rest and task condition and compared for high and low ADHD participants. sLORETA was used to identify brain sources associated with the attention-induced deactivation of VLF EEG power, and to examine these sources in relation to ADHD symptoms. There was significant deactivation of VLF EEG power between the rest and task condition for the whole sample. Using s-LORETA the sources of this deactivation were localised to medial prefrontal regions, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and temporal regions. However, deactivation sources were different for high and low ADHD groups: In the low ADHD group attention-induced VLF EEG deactivation was most significant in medial prefrontal regions while for the high ADHD group this deactivation was predominantly localised to the temporal lobes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attention-induced VLF EEG deactivations have intracranial sources that appear to overlap with those of the DMN. Furthermore, these seem to be related to ADHD symptom status, with high ADHD adults failing to significantly deactivate medial prefrontal regions while at the same time showing significant attenuation of

  1. Plasma Deactivation of Oral Bacteria Seeded on Hydroxyapatite Disks as Tooth Enamel Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumhagen, Adam; Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the plasma treatment effects on deactivation of oral bacteria seeded on a tooth enamel analogue. Methods A non-thermal atmospheric pressure argon plasma brush was used to treat two different Gram-positive oral bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The bacteria were seeded on hydroxyapatite (HA) disks used as tooth enamel analogue with three initial bacterial seeding concentrations: a low inoculum concentration between 2.1×108 and 2.4×108 cfu/mL, a medium inoculum concentration between 9.8×108 and 2.4×109 cfu/mL, and a high inoculum concentration between 1.7×1010 and 3.5×1010 cfu/mL. The bacterial survivability upon plasma exposure was examined in terms of plasma exposure time and oxygen addition into the plasmas. SEM was performed to examine bacterial morphological changes after plasma exposure. Results The experimental data indicated that 13 second plasma exposure time completely killed all the bacteria when initial bacterial seeding density on HA surfaces were less than 6.9×106 cfu/cm2 for L. acidophilus and 1.7×107 cfu/cm2 for S. mutans, which were resulted from low initial seeding inoculum concentration between 2.1×108 and 2.4×108 cfu/mL. Plasma exposure of the bacteria at higher initial bacterial seeding density obtained with high initial seeding inoculum concentration, however, only resulted in ~ 1.5 to 2 log reduction and ~ 2 to 2.5 log reduction for L. acidophilus and S. mutans, respectively. It was also noted that oxygen addition into the argon plasma brush did not affect the plasma deactivation effectiveness. SEM images showed that plasma deactivation mainly occurred with the top layer bacteria, while shadowing effects from the resulting bacterial debris reduced the plasma deactivation of the underlying bacteria. Clinical Significance The experimental results indicate that, with direct contact, nonthermal atmospheric pressure argon plasmas could rapidly and

  2. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope area services, Building 3034, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3034, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Program. This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3034 before commencement of deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover, items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance & Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, an supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover Package, are discussed. Building 3034 will require access to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3034 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. In addition to the minimal S&M activities, the building will be occupied by the maintenance coordinator and the S&M supervisor for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project. The exterior doors are locked when unoccupied to prevent unauthorized access. All materials have been removed from the building. Piping and alarms have been deactivated.

  3. Long term deactivation test of high dust SCR catalysts by straw co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigang Lin; Degn Jensen, A.; Bjerkvig, J.

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of carbon dioxide induced global warming cause major concern worldwide. The consumption of energy produced with fossil fuels is the major factor that contributes to the global warming. Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has a nature of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Co-combustion of biomass in existing coal fired power plants can maintain high efficiency and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} at same time. However, one of the problems faced by co-firing is deactivation of the SCR catalysts. Understanding of the mechanisms of deactivation of the catalyst elements at co-firing conditions is crucial for long term runs of the power plants. Twenty six SCR catalyst elements were exposed at two units (SSV3 and SSV4) in the Studstrup Power Plant for a long period. Both units co-fire coal and straw with a typical fraction of 8-10% straw on an energy basis during co-firing. SSV4 unit operated in co-firing mode most of the time; SSV3 unit co-fired straw half of the operating time. The main objective of this PSO-project is to gain knowledge of a long term influence on catalyst activity when co-firing straw in coal-fired power plants, thus, to improve the basis for operating the SCR-plants for NO{sub x}-reduction. The exposure time of the applied catalyst elements (HTAS and BASF) varied from approximately 5000 to 19000 hours in the power plant by exchanging the element two times. The activity of all elements was measured before and after exposure in a bench scale test rig at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The results show that the activity, estimated by exclusion of channel clogging of the elements, decreases gradually with the total exposure time. It appears that the exposure time under co-firing condition has little effect on the deactivation of the catalyst elements and no sharp decrease of the activity was observed. The average deactivation rate of the catalyst elements is 1.6 %/1000 hours. SEM

  4. Study on the thermal deactivation of motorcycle catalytic converters by laboratory aging tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    2010-03-01

    Catalytic converters are used to curb exhaust pollution from motorcycles in Taiwan. A number of factors, including the length of time the converter is used for and driving conditions, affect the catalysts' properties during periods of use. The goal of this study is to resolve the thermal deactivation mechanism of motorcycle catalytic converters. Fresh catalysts were treated under different aging conditions by laboratory-scale aging tests to simulate the operation conditions of motorcycle catalytic converters. The aged catalysts were characterized by analytical techniques in order to provide information for investigating deactivation phenomena. The time-dependent data of specific surface areas were subsequently used to construct kinetics of sintering at the specific temperature. According to the analytical results of the catalysts' properties, the increase in aging temperature causes an increase in pore size of the catalysts and a decrease in the specific surface area. The aged catalysts all exhibited lower performances than the fresh ones. The reduction in catalytic activity is consistent with the reduction in the loss of specific surface area. The finding of catalytic properties' dependence on temperature is consistent with the thermally activated theory. In contrast, the effect of the aging time on the specific surface area was only significant during the initial few hours. The high correlation between specific surface areas measured by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and predicted by the constructed model verifies that the prediction models can predict the sintering rate reasonably under the aging conditions discussed in this study. As compared to automobile catalytic converters, the differences of structures and aging conditions are made less obvious by the deactivation phenomena of motorcycles.

  5. Force depression and relaxation kinetics after active shortening and deactivation in mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, P; Van Leemputte, M

    2013-03-15

    After active shortening, isometric force production capacity of muscle is reduced (force depression, FD). The mechanism is incompletely understood but increasing cross-bridge detachment and/or decreasing attachment rate might be involved. Therefore we aimed to investigate the relation between work delivered during shortening (W), and change in half-relaxation time (Δ0.5RT) and change in the slow phase of muscle relaxation (Δkslow), considered as a marker for cross-bridge detachment rate, after shortening and after a short (0.7s) interruption of activation (deactivation). We hypothesized that shortening induces an accelerated relaxation related to W which is, similar to FD, largely abolished by a short deactivation. In 10 incubated supra-maximally stimulated mouse soleus muscles, we varied the amount of FD at L0 by varying shortening amplitude (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4mm). We found that W not only induces FD (R(2)=0.92) but also a dose dependent accelerated relaxation (R(2)=0.88 and R(2)=0.77 for respectively Δkslow and Δ0.5RT). In cyclic movements this is of functional significance, because the loss in force generating capacity might be (partially) compensated by faster relaxation. After a short deactivation, both FD and Δkslow were largely abolished but Δ0.5RT remained largely present. Under the assumption that Δkslow reflects a change in cross-bridge detachment rate, these results support the idea that FD is an intrinsic sarcomeric property originating from a work induced reduction of the number of force generating cross-bridges, however not via decreased attachment but via increased detachment rate.

  6. Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chiang

    Full Text Available While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF, lateral parietal lobe (BA7, and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43 were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.

  7. A study on the Deactivation of Usy Zeolites with Different Rare Earth Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriques C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The deactivation of USY zeolites with different rare earth contents due to the coke formed from n-heptane at 450oC was studied. The results show that the presence of rare earth elements decreases the cracking and coking activities, increasing catalytic stability. However, reaction selectivity was not significantly influenced. The greater the rare earth content, the lower the coking rates and the coke contents. The TPO/DSC profiles suggested that the catalytic effect of the rare earth elements promoted coke oxidation.

  8. Mechanically fully variable valvetrain and cylinder deactivation; Mechanisch vollvariabler Ventiltrieb und Zylinderabschaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Rudolf; Lauer, Frederic [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    2013-04-15

    Engines with a mechanically fully variable valvetrain on inlet and exhaust side can easily be equipped with the functionality of cylinder deactivation. Hereby the fully variable valvetrain is used for valve shut-off on particular cylinders, while the full functionality of valve lift and valve duration variation on the other valves is maintained. The effectiveness of these measures is demonstrated at the University of Kaiserslautern using a four-cylinder downsizing gasoline engine with direct injection and monoscroll turbo charger. Additionally a strategy for mode transition between four- and two-cylinder mode is presented. (orig.)

  9. Deactivation Studies of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alex; Roh, Hyun-Seog; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2007-10-30

    Rapid deactivation of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts in low temperature ethanol steam reforming was studied. A significant build-up of carbonaceous intermediate, instead of carbon deposit, was observed at a lower reaction temperature which was attributed to the rapid catalyst deactivation. Co-feed experiments indicated that acetone and ethylene caused more severe catalyst deactivation than other oxygenates such as acidic acid and acetaldehyde.

  10. Purification and characterization of a lipid thiobis ester from human neutrophil cytosol that reversibly deactivates the O2- -generating NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, E A; Gabig, T G

    1990-05-25

    Intact neutrophils possess a cellular mechanism that efficiently deactivates the microbicidal O2-generating NADPH oxidase during the respiratory burst (Akard, L. P., English, D., and Gabig, T. G. (1988) Blood 72, 322-327). The present studies directed at identifying the molecular mechanism(s) involved in NADPH oxidase deactivation showed that a heat- and trypsin-insensitive species in the cytosolic fraction from normal unstimulated neutrophils was capable of deactivating the membrane-associated NADPH oxidase isolated from opsonized zymosan- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. This cytosolic species also deactivated the cell-free-activated oxidase. Deactivation by this cytosolic species occurred in the absence of NADPH-dependent catalytic turnover and was reversible, since NADPH oxidase activity could be subsequently reactivated in the cell-free system. The sedimentable particulate fraction from unstimulated neutrophils did not demonstrate deactivator activity. Deactivator activity was demonstrated in the neutral lipid fraction of neutrophil cytosol extracted with chloroform:methanol. Following complete purification of cytosolic deactivator activity by thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, the deactivator species was shown to be a lipid thiobis ester compound by mass spectroscopy. Cellular metabolism of this compound in human neutrophils may reveal a unique mechanism for enzymatic control of the NADPH oxidase system and thereby play an important role in regulation of the inflammatory response.

  11. H{sub 2} production from methane pyrolysis over commercial carbon catalysts: Kinetic and deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, D.P.; Botas, J.A. [Chemical and Environmental Technology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain); IMDEA Energia, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain); Guil-Lopez, R. [Chemical and Environmental Technology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen production from catalytic methane decomposition (DeCH{sub 4}) is a simple process to produce high purity hydrogen with no formation of carbon oxides (CO or CO{sub 2}). However, to completely avoid those emissions, the catalyst must not be regenerated. Therefore, it is necessary to use inexpensive catalysts, which show low deactivation during the process. Use of carbon materials as catalysts fulfils these requirements. Methane decomposition catalysed by a number of commercial carbons has been studied in this work using both constant and variable temperature experiments. The results obtained showed that the most active catalyst at short reaction times was activated carbon, but it underwent a fast deactivation due to the deposition of the carbon formed from methane cracking. On the contrary, carbon blacks, and especially the CB-bp sample, present high reaction rates for methane decomposition at both short and long reaction times. Carbon nanotubes exhibit a relatively low activity in spite of containing significant amounts of metals. The initial loss of activity observed with the different catalysts is attributed mainly to the blockage of their micropores due to the deposition of the carbon formed during the reaction. (author)

  12. The role of arsine in the deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, R.; Mebrahtu, T.; Dahl, T.A.; Lucrezi, F.A.; Toseland, B.A. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Adsorption Technology Center, 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501 (United States)

    2004-06-18

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH) process is successfully producing methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas on an industrial scale. This process uses a standard copper, zinc oxide, and alumina catalyst suspended in an inert mineral oil in a slurry bubble column reactor. An arsenic-containing species, most reasonably arsine, was found in the feed to the LPMEOH commercial demonstration facility located at Eastman Chemical Company's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, TN. Laboratory testing showed that arsine is, in fact, a powerful methanol synthesis catalyst poison. At levels as low as 150ppbv, arsine results in a rapid deactivation of the catalyst. Removal of arsine results in a deactivation rate consistent with a clean synthesis gas feed; that is, arsine poisoning stops when it is removed from the feed. We infer that arsine reacts irreversibly with the catalyst under the methanol synthesis conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of arsenic-containing used catalyst indicated the presence of zero-valent arsenic in an intermetallic surface phase that is structurally related to Domeykite (Cu{sub 3}As). Experimental evidence, thermodynamics, and literature relating to other metal-arsine chemistry were consistent with dissociative adsorption of arsine on the copper surface to form gaseous H{sub 2} and Cu{sub 3}As. To deal with arsine poisoning, we have developed adsorption technology that can remove arsine to levels low enough that catalyst performance is unaffected.

  13. Polyhydric alcohol protective effect on Rhizomucor miehei lipase deactivation enhanced by pressure and temperature treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marilyne; Lozano, Pedro; Combes, Didier

    2005-10-01

    The influence of polyhydric alcohols (sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, glycerol) on the thermal stability of Rhizomucor miehei lipase has been studied at high hydrostatic pressure (up to 500 MPa). In the absence of additives, a protective effect (PE) (the ratio between the residual activities determined at 480 MPa for the enzyme in the presence or absence of polyhydric alcohols) of low-applied pressures (from 50 MPa to 350 MPa) against thermal deactivations (at 50 degrees C and 55 degrees C) has been noticed. In the presence of additives, a strong correlation between PE and the total hydroxyl group concentration has been obtained, for the first time, under treatments of combining denaturing temperatures and high hydrostatic pressures. This relationship does not seem to be dependent on the nature polyhydric alcohols as the same effect could be observed with 1 M sorbitol and 2 M glycerol. This PE, against thermal and high pressure combined lipase deactivation, increases with polyhydric alcohol concentrations, and when temperature increases from 25 degrees C to 55 degrees C.

  14. Insight into deactivation of commercial SCR catalyst by arsenic: an experiment and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Si, Wenzhe; Luo, Jinming; Dai, Qizhou; Luo, Xubiao; Liu, Xin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    Fresh and arsenic-poisoned V2O5–WO3/TiO2 catalysts are investigated by experiments and DFT calculations for SCR activity and the deactivation mechanism. Poisoned catalyst (1.40% of arsenic) presents lower NO conversion and more N2O formation than fresh. Stream (5%) could further decrease the activity of poisoned catalyst above 350 °C. The deactivation is not attributed to the loss of surface area or phase transformation of TiO2 at a certain arsenic content, but due to the coverage of the V2O5 cluster and the decrease in the surface acidity: the number of Lewis acid sites and the stability of Brønsted acid sites. Large amounts of surface hydroxyl induced by H2O molecules provide more unreactive As–OH groups and give rise to a further decrease in the SCR activity. N2O is mainly from NH3 unselective oxidation at high temperatures since the reducibility of catalysts and the number of surface-active oxygens are improved by As2O5. Finally, the reaction pathway seems unchanged after poisoning: NH3 adsorbed on both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites is reactive.

  15. Task-related deactivation and functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Davey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder is associated with functional alterations in activity and resting-state connectivity of the extended medial frontal network. In this study we aimed to examine how task-related medial network activity and connectivity were affected by depression.Methods: Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15- to 24-years-old, were matched with 19 healthy control participants. We characterised task-related activations and deactivations while participants engaged with an executive-control task (the multi-source interference task; MSIT. We used a psycho-physiological interactions (PPI approach to examine functional connectivity changes with subgenual ACC. Voxelwise statistical maps for each analysis were compared between the patient and control groups.Results: There were no differences between groups in their behavioral performances on the MSIT task, and nor in patterns of activation and deactivation. Assessment of functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate showed that depressed patients did not demonstrate the same reduction in functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during task performance, but that they showed greater reduction in functional connectivity with adjacent ventromedial frontal cortex. The magnitude of this latter connectivity change predicted the relative activation of task-relevant executive control regions in depressed patients.Conclusions: The study reinforces the importance of the subgenual cingulate cortex for depression, and demonstrates how dysfunctional connectivity with ventral brain regions might influence executive–attentional processes.

  16. Impaired temporoparietal deactivation with working memory load in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Siebner, Hartwig R;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal task-related deactivations during working memory (WM) in schizophrenia patients with recent emphasis on brain regions within the default mode network. Using fMRI, we tested whether antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were impaired...... load) conditions. Results. Contrasting the 2-back and 0-back conditions revealed that patients deactivated default mode network regions to a similar degree as controls. However, patients were impaired in deactivating large bilateral clusters centred on the superior temporal gyrus with increasing WM...... load. These regions activated with the no WM load condition (0-back) in both groups. Conclusions. Because 0-back activation reflects verbal attention processes, patients' persistent activation in the 1-back and 2-back conditions may reflect an inability to shift cognitive strategy with onset of WM...

  17. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  18. Falls related to accidental deactivation of deep brain stimulators in patients with Parkinson's disease living in long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousi, Babak; Wilson, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    This case series highlights three patients with Parkinson's disease residing at nursing home facilities whose deep brain stimulators were accidentally deactivated for varying lengths of time, which was associated with an increase in falls. In all three cases, neither the patients nor the caregivers were aware of the random deactivations/reactivations. We propose a specific care plan for these patients that includes further education of caregivers regarding deep brain stimulators and regular checks of the review device, especially when there is concern about a patient's mobility or balance that is out of character.

  19. Deactivation of lipopolysaccharide by Ar and H2 inductively coupled low-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, E. A. J.; Barrett, C.; Chung, T.-Y.; Ning, N.; Chu, J.-W.; Graves, D. B.; Seog, J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma system, we study the effects of direct plasma, plasma-generated high-energy photons in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV), and radical treatments on lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is a biomolecule found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a potent stimulator of the immune system composed of polysaccharide and lipid A, which contains six aliphatic chains. LPS film thickness spun on silicon was monitored by ellipsometry while the surface chemistry was characterized before and after treatments by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, biological activity was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay under (a) a sensitive regime (sub-µM concentrations of LPS) and (b) a bulk regime (above µM concentrations of LPS) after plasma treatments. Direct plasma treatment causes rapid etching and deactivation of LPS in both Ar and H2 feed gases. To examine the effect of UV/VUV photons, a long-pass filter with a cut-off wavelength of 112 nm was placed over the sample. H2 UV/VUV treatment causes material removal and deactivation due to atomic and molecular UV/VUV emission while Ar UV/VUV treatment shows minimal effects as Ar plasma does not emit UV/VUV photons in the transmitted wavelength range explored. Interestingly, radical treatments remove negligible material but cause deactivation. Based on the amphiphilic structure of LPS, we expect a lipid A rich surface layer to form at the air-water interface during sample preparation with polysaccharide layers underneath. XPS shows that H2 plasma treatment under direct and UV/VUV conditions causes oxygen depletion through removal of C-O and O-C = O bonds in the films, which does not occur in Ar treatments. Damage to these groups can remove aliphatic chains that contribute to the pyrogenicity of LPS. Radical treatments from both Ar and H2 plasmas remove aliphatic carbon from the near-surface, demonstrating the important role of neutral species.

  20. Photon hormesis deactivates alpha-particle induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Cheng, S. H.; Yu, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, we studied the effects of low-dose X-ray photons on the alpha-particle induced bystander effects between embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals (amounts of cells undergoing apoptosis) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) using vital dye acridine orange staining, followed by counting the stained cells under a fluorescent microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4.4 mGy alpha-particle irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We also report that the bystander effect was deactivated when the irradiated embryos were subjected to a concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays, but no such deactivation was achieved if the concomitant X-ray dose dropped to 2.5 or 5 mGy. In the present study, the significant drop in the amount of apoptotic signals on the embryos having received 4.4 mGy alpha particles together X-rays irradiation from 2.5 or 5 mGy to 10 or 14 mGy, together with the deactivation of RIBE with concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays supported the participation of photon hormesis with an onset dose between 5 and 10 mGy, which might lead to removal of aberrant cells through early apoptosis or induction of high-fidelity DNA repair. As we found that photons and alpha particles could have opposite biological effects when these were simultaneously irradiated onto living organisms, these ionizing radiations could be viewed as two different environmental stressors, and the resultant effects could be regarded as multiple stressor effects. The present work presented the first study on a multiple stressor effect which occurred on bystander organisms. In other words, this was a non-targeted multiple stressor effect. The photon hormesis could also explain some failed attempts to observe neutron-induced bystander

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  2. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state A functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Huang; Tongjun Zeng; Guifeng Zhang; Ganlong Li; Na Lu; Xinsheng Lai; Yangjia Lu; Jiarong Chen

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state,as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture.Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint.Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling,true needling activated Brodmann areas 3,6,8,9,10,11,13,20,21,37,39,40,43,and 47,the head of the caudate nucleus,the parahippocampal gyrus,thalamus and red nucleus.True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,18,24,31,40 and 46.

  3. Standard Guide for Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance of Radiologically Contaminated Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines a method for developing a Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) plan for inactive nuclear facilities. It describes the steps and activities necessary to prevent loss or release of radioactive or hazardous materials, and to minimize physical risks between the deactivation phase and the start of facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). 1.2 The primary concerns for S&M are related to (1) animal intrusion, (2) structural integrity degradation, (3) water in-leakage, (4) contamination migration, (5) unauthorized personnel entry, and (6) theft/intrusion. This document is intended to serve as a guide only, and is not intended to modify existing regulations.

  4. Study on Deactivation and Cracking Performance of Catalysts Containing Y and MFI Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenyu; Li Caiying; Tian Huiping; Huang Zhiqing

    2004-01-01

    This article investigated the deactivation caused by hydrothermal treatment and metal contamination of two cracking catalysts containing the Y and ZRP- 1 zeolites aimed at maximization of light olefin yield.Test results had shown that the hydrothermal stability and resistance to metal contamination of the ZRP-1zeolite were apparently better than those of the Y zeolite. Hydrothermal treatment and metal contamination had not only changed the catalytic cracking performance of respective zeolites, but at the same time had also modified to a definite degree of the relative proportions of effective components in these two zeolites and affected the synergistic effects between them, resulting in a relative enhancement of secondary cracking ability of the catalyst and increased olefin selectivity in the FCC products. In the course of application of catalyst for maximization of light olefins yield appropriate adjustment of the relative proportion of two active components can help to alleviate the products distribution and selectivity changes caused by deactivationof FCC catalysts.

  5. Origin of low temperature deactivation of Ni5Ga3 nanoparticles as catalyst for methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    In an effort to find alternative energy sources capable to compete with fossil fuels, methanol synthesis could represent a realistic solution to store “green” hydrogen produced from electrolysis or photo-induced water splitting. Recently, density functional theory (DFT) calculations [1] proposed Ni......-Ga alloys as active catalysts for methanol production from syngas mixtures and Ni-Ga nanoparticles supported on highly porous silica have been prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation technique from a solution of nickel and gallium nitrates [2]. Tests conducted in a fixed-bed reactor showed...... as catalyst for methanol production. Synthesis, followed by deactivation and a series of regeneration steps at increasing temperature in pure H2 has been carried out in a fixed-bed reactor connected to a gas chromatography system. In each regeneration step, CH4 is generated and the activity of the catalyst...

  6. Activity and deactivation behavior of Au/LaMnO3 catalysts for CO oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Meilin; LI Xu; Zhaorigetu; SHEN Yuenian; LI Yunxia

    2011-01-01

    Perovskite oxide LaMnO3 was prepared by sol-gel method and the nanosize Au/LaMnO3 catalyst was prepared by deposition- precipitation (DP) method in the paper. Characterization of the catalyst sample was made by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atom absorption spectra (AAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrumental methods. The activity, long-term stability and the reasons for deactivation of the gold catalyst in CO oxidation were investigated. The experiment results demonstrated that the Au/LaMnO3 catalyst exhibited high stability in the ambient storage process. However, the gradual decrease in initial activity during 100 h reaction was still observed, which could be ascribed to the aggregation of gold particles and the transfer from gold ion to the metal gold.

  7. Catalytic ramifications of steam deactivation of Y zeolites: An analysis using 2-methylhexane cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaluris, G.; Dumesic, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Madon, R.J. [Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1999-08-15

    Kinetic analysis of experimental data for 2-methylhexane cracking demonstrates that trends in activity and selectivity are well simulated by adjusting a single parameter that represents the acid strength of a Y-based FCC catalyst. This acid strength may be modified via steam deactivation, and the authors have experimentally corroborated acidity changes using ammonia microcalorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. Increased severity of steam treatment reduces the number and strength of catalyst acid sites, and it leads to a reduction in the turnover frequency of all surface processes and a decrease in overall site time yield. Streaming of the catalyst does not change the fundamental chemistry involved in catalytic cracking. However, change in acidity caused by steaming alters product selectivity by changing relative rates of various catalytic cycles in the cracking process. For example, steam treatment increases olefin selectivity by favoring catalytic cycles that produce olefins.

  8. Hot-plug Based Activation and Deactivation of ATCA FRU Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Predki, P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: One of the most important features of the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) contributing to its exceptional reliability and availability is its hot-swap functionality. In order for the user to be able to add and remove the components of an ATCA shelf without the necessity of switching the power on and off the PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG) specification clearly enumerates the stages a Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) has to go through upon insertion into and extraction from the shelf. These stages form the activation and deactivation processes that occur every time an element is changed in the ATCA system. This paper focuses on these processes placing the emphasis on the Electronic Keying (EK) implementation in the Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) software developed for the self-designed ATCA Carrier Board for FLASH. This Carrier Board utilizes the standard-defined PCI Express (PCIe) interface as well as introduces proprietary protocols in fo...

  9. Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Induced by Photochemical Reduction of Various Copper Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mosnáček

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Photochemically mediated reversible-deactivation radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate was successfully performed using 50–400 ppm of various copper compounds such as CuSO4·5H2O, copper acetate, copper triflate and copper acetylacetonate as catalysts. The copper catalysts were reduced in situ by irradiation at wavelengths of 366–546 nm, without using any additional reducing agent. Bromopropionitrile was used as an initiator. The effects of various solvents and the concentration and structure of ligands were investigated. Well-defined polymers were obtained when at least 100 or 200 ppm of any catalyst complexed with excess tris(2-pyridylmethylamine as a ligand was used in dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent.

  10. Impaired secondary oxidant deactivation capacity and enhanced oxidative stress in serum from alveld affected lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegge, Anne Bee; Mysterud, Ivar; Karlsen, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    Alveld is a hepatogenous photosensitivity disorder in lambs. The aim of the study was to investigate if alveld affected lambs had a reduced capacity to handle oxidative stress induced from either endogenous and/or exogenous photosensitizers. Serum samples from alveld lambs (n=33) were compared...... to serum samples from control lambs (n=31) and exposed to a controlled amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). The sera from alveld lambs were found to have an impaired ability to deactivate reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to control sera. A higher degree of initial hemolysis and a higher concentration...... in pooled serum from alveld lambs that showed a high degree of hemolysis. It was concluded that alveld photosensitivity is likely to be initiated by a photodynamic reaction involving PP and possibly also PP IX followed by a light-independent reaction involving hemoglobin-related products and catalysis...

  11. Deactivation of the inferior colliculus by cooling demonstrates intercollicular modulation of neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llwyd David Orton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The auditory pathways coursing through the brainstem are organised bilaterally in mirror image about the midline and at several levels the two sides are interconnected. One of the most prominent points of interconnection is the commissure of the inferior colliculus (CoIC. Anatomical studies have revealed that these fibres make reciprocal connections which follow the tonotopic organisation of the inferior colliculus (IC, and that the commissure contains both excitatory and, albeit fewer, inhibitory fibres. The role of these connections in sound processing is largely unknown. Here we describe a method to address this question in the anaesthetised guinea pig. We used a cryoloop placed on one IC to produce reversible deactivation while recording electrophysiological responses to sounds in both ICs. We recorded single units, multi-unit clusters and local field potentials (LFPs before, during and after cooling. The degree and spread of cooling was measured with a thermocouple placed in the IC and other auditory structures. Cooling sufficient to eliminate firing was restricted to the IC contacted by the cryoloop. The temperature of other auditory brainstem structures, including the contralateral IC and the cochlea were minimally affected. Cooling below 20 °C reduced or eliminated the firing of action potentials in frequency laminae at depths corresponding to characteristic frequencies up to ~8 kHz. Modulation of neural activity also occurred in the un-cooled IC with changes in single unit firing and LFPs. Components of LFPs signalling lemniscal afferent input to the IC showed little change in amplitude or latency with cooling, whereas the later components, which likely reflect inter- and intra-collicular processing, showed marked changes in form and amplitude. We conclude that the cryoloop is an effective method of selectively deactivating one IC in guinea pig, and demonstrate that auditory processing in the IC is strongly influenced by the other.

  12. Kinetics of rhodopsin deactivation and its role in regulating recovery and reproducibility of rod photoresponse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Caruso

    Full Text Available The single photon response (SPR in vertebrate phototransduction is regulated by the dynamics of R* during its lifetime, including the random number of phosphorylations, the catalytic activity and the random sojourn time at each phosphorylation level. Because of this randomness the electrical responses are expected to be inherently variable. However the SPR is highly reproducible. The mechanisms that confer to the SPR such a low variability are not completely understood. The kinetics of rhodopsin deactivation is investigated by a Continuous Time Markov Chain (CTMC based on the biochemistry of rhodopsin activation and deactivation, interfaced with a spatio-temporal model of phototransduction. The model parameters are extracted from the photoresponse data of both wild type and mutant mice, having variable numbers of phosphorylation sites and, with the same set of parameters, the model reproduces both WT and mutant responses. The sources of variability are dissected into its components, by asking whether a random number of turnoff steps, a random sojourn time between steps, or both, give rise to the known variability. The model shows that only the randomness of the sojourn times in each of the phosphorylated states contributes to the Coefficient of Variation (CV of the response, whereas the randomness of the number of R* turnoff steps has a negligible effect. These results counter the view that the larger the number of decay steps of R*, the more stable the photoresponse is. Our results indicate that R* shutoff is responsible for the variability of the photoresponse, while the diffusion of the second messengers acts as a variability suppressor.

  13. Explaining the encoding/retrieval flip: memory-related deactivations and activations in the posteromedial cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, W; Vannini, P; Sperling, RA; Pennartz, CMA; Cabeza, R; Daselaar, SM

    2013-01-01

    The posteromedial cortex (PMC) is strongly linked to episodic memory and age-related memory deficits. The PMC shows deactivations during a variety of demanding cognitive tasks as compared to passive baseline conditions and has been associated with the default-mode of the brain. Interestingly, the PMC exhibits opposite levels of functional MRI activity during encoding (learning) and retrieval (remembering), a pattern dubbed the encoding/retrieval flip (E/R-flip). Yet, the exact role of the PMC in memory function has remained unclear. This review discusses the possible neurofunctional and clinical significance of the E/R-flip pattern. Regarding neurofunctional relevance, we will review four hypotheses on PMC function: (1) the internal orienting account (2) the self-referential processing account (3) the reallocation account and (4) the bottom-up attention account. None of these accounts seem to provide a complete explanation for the E/R-flip pattern in PMC. Regarding clinical relevance, we review work on aging and Alzheimer’s disease, indicating that amyloid deposits within PMC, years before clinical memory deficits become apparent. High amyloid burden within PMC is associated with detrimental influences on memory encoding, in particular, the attenuation of beneficial PMC deactivations. Finally, we discuss functional subdivisions within PMC that help to provide a more precise picture of the variety of signals observed within PMC. Collective data from anatomical, task-related fMRI and resting-state studies all indicate that the PMC is composed of three main regions, the precuneus, retrosplenial, and posterior cingulate cortex, each with a distinct function. We will conclude with a summary of the findings and provide directions for future research. PMID:22982484

  14. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winogard, I J

    1981-06-26

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  16. Correlating metal poisoning with zeolite deactivation in an individual catalyst particle by chemical and phase sensitive X-ray microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Beale, A.M.; Deka, U.; O'Brien, M.G.; Quinn, P.D.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the main conversion process used in oil refineries. An X-ray microscopy method is used to show that metal poisoning and related structural changes in the zeolite active material lead to a non-uniform core–shell deactivation of FCC catalyst particles. The study links

  17. Deactivation of solid catalysts in liquid media: the case of leaching of active sites in biomass conversion reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sádaba, Irantzu; Lopez Granados, Manuel; Riisager, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This review is aimed to be a brief tutorial covering the deactivation of solid catalysts in the liquid phase, with specific focus on leaching, which can be especially helpful to researchers not familiarized with catalytic processes in the liquid phase. Leaching refers to the loss of active specie...

  18. Brief and Rare Mental "Breaks" Keep You Focused: Deactivation and Reactivation of Task Goals Preempt Vigilance Decrements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Atsunori; Lleras, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We newly propose that the vigilance decrement occurs because the cognitive control system fails to maintain active the goal of the vigilance task over prolonged periods of time (goal habituation). Further, we hypothesized that momentarily deactivating this goal (via a switch in tasks) would prevent the activation level of the vigilance goal from…

  19. Deactivation mechanisms of Ni-based tar reforming catalysts as monitored by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Matthew M; Kuhn, John N

    2010-11-02

    Deactivation mechanisms of alumina-supported, Ni-based catalysts for tar reforming in biomass-derived syngas were evaluated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Catalysts were characterized before and after catalytic reaction cycles and regeneration procedures, which included oxidation by a mixture of steam and air, and reduction in hydrogen. Qualitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra revealed that oxidation of a portion of the Ni in the catalysts to form an oxide phase and/or a sulfide phase were likely scenarios that led to catalyst deactivation with time-on-stream and with increased reaction cycles. Deactivation through carbon deposition, phosphorus poisoning, or changes in particle size were deemed as unlikely causes. Quantitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra indicated sulfur poisoning occurred with time-on-stream, and the contaminating species could not be completely removed during the regeneration protocols. The results also verified that Ni-containing oxide phases (most likely a spinel also containing Mg and Al) formed and contributed to the deactivation. This study validates the need for developing catalyst systems that will protect Ni from sulfur poisoning and oxide formation at elevated reaction and regeneration temperatures.

  20. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope production Lab-D, Building 3031, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3031 after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Program. This report provides a profile of Bldg. 3031 before and after deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance & Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package, are discussed. Building 3031 will require access to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3031 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal surveillance and maintenance effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal surveillance and maintenance activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required surveillance and maintenance. All materials have been removed from the building and the hot cell, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated.

  1. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  2. Green tide deactivation with layered-structure cuboids of Ag/CaTiO{sub 3} under UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo-Wohn [Global Research Laboratory, Sun Moon University, Galsan-Ri, Tangjung-Myon, Asan Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Lozano-Sánchez, L.M. [División de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a sección, C.P. 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Rodríguez-González, V., E-mail: vicente.rdz@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a sección, C.P. 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Synergic reasons such as mass transfer, morphology, biocide properties, UV-A photoresponse, and electron trapping that reduce recombination on Ag/CaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites, have the potential for the generation of reactive radicals that promote the fatal irreversible deactivation of Tetraselmis suecica algae in 12 min under UV-A irradiation. -- Highlights: • An alternative to deactivate harmful green tide is proposed by employing Ag/CaTiO{sub 3}. • Particles of perovskite-like have rectangular prisms morphology with AgNPs ∼13 nm. • The cuboids achieve complete inactivation of Tetraselmis suecica algae in 12 min. • AgNPs functionalization induce fatal irreversible damages on the algae surface. -- Abstract: In this work, an alternative to deactivate noxious green tide Tetraselmis suecica in the short-term is proposed by employing Perovskite-like cube-shaped, crystalline CaTiO{sub 3} semiconductors functionalized with atomic silver nanoparticles. CaTiO{sub 3} was prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and then Ag{sup 0}NPs (1 wt% of CaTiO{sub 3}), were added by the photoreduction method. The XRD results show that crystalline CaTiO{sub 3} has an orthorhombic unit cell with a Perovskite-like structure. Images obtained by FESEM and HRTEM microscopies show well-faceted CaTiO{sub 3} rectangular prismatic morphology functionalizated with silver nanoparticles ∼13.5 nm. XPS and EDS-FESEM has confirmed the composition of CaTiO{sub 3} and silver occurring mainly as reduced metal. The UV inactivation of noxious T. suecica with Ag/CaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites formed on bare materials results in complete deactivation of the algae in 12 min. The direct contact between harmful algae and Ag/CaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposite is necessary to deactivate the algae and inhibits algae viability.

  3. White matter microstructure contributes to age-related declines in task-induced deactivation of the default mode network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Task-induced deactivations within the brain’s default mode network (DMN are thought to reflect suppression of endogenous thought processes to support exogenous goal-directed task processes. Older adults are known to show reductions in deactivation of the DMN compared to younger adults. However, little is understood about the mechanisms contributing to functional dysregulation of the DMN in aging. Here, we explored the relationships between functional modulation of the DMN and age, task performance and white matter (WM microstructure. Participants were 117 adults ranging from 25 to 83 years old who completed an fMRI task switching paradigm, including easy (single and difficult (mixed conditions, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The fMRI results revealed an age by condition interaction (β = -.13, t = 3.16, p = .002 such that increasing age affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = -.29, t = -3.24 p = .002 but not the single condition (p = .58. Additionally, there was a white matter by condition interaction (β = .10, t = 2.33, p = .02 such that decreasing white matter microstructure affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = .30, t = 3.42 p = .001 but not the single condition (p = .17. Critically, mediation analyses indicated that age-related reductions in WM microstructure accounted for the relationship between age and DMN deactivation in the more difficult mixed condition. These findings suggest that age-related declines in anatomical connectivity between DMN regions contribute to functional dysregulation within the DMN in older adults.

  4. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...... available about industrial waste – maybe also influenced by the policy of the industry as to making information publicly available. The data presented in this chapter is scarce and maybe not fully representative for the industrial sectors and hence should be used with caution only....

  5. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  6. Silica supported palladium nanoparticles for the decarboxylation of high-acid feedstocks: Design, deactivation and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Eric Wayne

    2011-12-01

    The major goals of this thesis were to (1) design and synthesize a supported catalyst with well-defined monodisperse palladium nanoparticles evenly distributed throughout an inorganic oxide substrate with tunable porosity characteristics, (2) demonstrate the catalytic activity of this material in the decarboxylation of long chain fatty acids and their derivatives to make diesel-length hydrocarbons, (3) elucidate the deactivation mechanism of supported palladium catalysts under decarboxylation conditions via post mortem catalyst characterization and develop a regeneration methodology thereupon, and (4) apply this catalytic system to a real low-value biofeedstock. Initial catalyst designs were based on the SBA-15 silica support, but in an effort to maximize loading and minimize mass transfer limitations, silica MCF was synthesized as catalyst support. Functionalization with various silane ligands yielded a surface that facilitated even distribution of palladium precursor salts throughout the catalyst particle, and, after reduction, monodisperse palladium nanoparticles approximately 2 nm in diameter. Complete characterization was performed on this Pd-MCF catalyst. The Pd-MCF catalyst showed high one-time activity in the decarboxylation of fatty acids to hydrocarbons in dodecane at 300°C. Hydrogen was found to be an unnecessary reactant in the absence of unsaturations, but was required in their presence---full hydrogenation of the double bonds occurs before any decarboxylation can take place. The Pd-MCF also exhibited good activity for alkyl esters and glycerol, providing a nice hypothetical description of a stepwise reaction pathway for catalytic decarboxylation of acids and their derivatives. As expected, the Pd-MCF catalyst experienced severe deactivation after only one use. Substantial effort was put into elucidating the nature of this deactivation via post mortem catalyst characterization. H2 chemisorption confirmed a loss of active surface area, but TEM and

  7. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  8. Deactivation of ferrylmyoglobin by vanillin as affected by vanillin binding to β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Silvia Helena; Borges, Júlio C; Skibsted, Leif H; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2011-06-01

    Vanillin was found to be efficient as a deactivator of ferrylmyoglobin with a second-order rate constant of k(2) = 57 ± 1 L mol(-1) s(-1) for reduction to metmyoglobin with ΔH(‡) = 58.3 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -14 ± 1 J mol(-1) K(-1) in aqueous pH 7.4 solution at 25 °C. Binding to β-lactoglobulin (βLG) was found to affect the reactivity of vanillin at 25 °C only slightly to k(2) = 48 ± 2 L mol(-1) s(-1) (ΔH(‡) = 68.4 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = 17 ± 1 J mol(-1) K(-1)) for deactivation of ferrylmyoglobin. Binding of vanillin to βLG was found to have a binding stoichiometry vanillin/βLG > 10 with K(A) = 6 × 10(2) L mol(-1) and an apparent total ΔH° of approximately -38 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS° = -55.4 ± 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C and ΔC(p, obs) = -1.02 kJ mol(-1) K(-1) indicative of increasing ordering in the complex, as determined by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. From tryptophan fluorescence quenching for βLG by vanillin, approximately one vanillin was found to bind to each βLG far stronger with K(A) = 5 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and a ΔH° = -10.2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS° = 55 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. The kinetic entropy/enthalpy compensation effect seen for vanillin reactivity by binding to βLG is concluded to relate to the weakly bound vanillin oriented through hydrogen bonds on the βLG surface with the phenolic group pointing toward the solvent, in effect making both ΔH(‡) and ΔS(‡) more positive. The more strongly bound vanillin capable of tryptophan quenching in the βLG calyx seems less or nonreactive.

  9. Synthesis of ZnWO4 Electrode with tailored facets: Deactivating the Microorganisms through Photoelectrocatalytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Su; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Naibao; Liu, Yujun; He, Qiuchen; Tian, Yu; Yang, Yifan; Ye, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The exotic invasive species from the ballast water in the ship will bring about serious damages to ecosystem. Photocatalyst films have been widely studied for sterilization. In this study, ZnWO4 with different exposed facets was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and ZnWO4 film electrodes have been applied in ballast water treatment through the electro-assisted photocatalytic system. Then the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission on scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). ZnWO4 with an appropriate exposure of (0 1 1) facets ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities. The microorganisms deactivated completely in 10 min by ZnWO4 films with 3 V bias. The mechanisms of (0 1 1) facets enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities which were deduced based on the calculated result from the first principles. Simultaneously, appropriate exposed facets and applied bias could reduce the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and improve the photocatalytic activities of ZnWO4.

  10. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Dussourd

    Full Text Available In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts.

  11. Supplementary motor area deactivation impacts the recovery of hand function from severe peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-chen Lu; Han-qiu Liu; Xu-yun Hua; Yun-dong Shen; Wen-dong Xu; Jian-guang Xu; Yu-dong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is dififcult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function.

  12. Catabolism and Deactivation of the Lipid-derived Hormone Jasmonoyl-isoleucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham JK Koo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxylipin hormone jasmonate controls myriad processes involved in plant growth, development and immune function. The discovery of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile as the major bioactive form of the hormone highlights the need to understand biochemical and cell biological processes underlying JA-Ile homeostasis. Among the major metabolic control points governing the accumulation of JA-Ile in plant tissues are the availability of jasmonic acid, the immediate precursor of JA-Ile, and oxidative enzymes involved in catabolism and deactivation of the hormone. Recent studies indicate that JA-Ile turnover is mediated by a ω-oxidation pathway involving members of the CYP94 family of cytochromes P450. This discovery opens new opportunities to genetically manipulate JA-Ile levels for enhanced resistance to environmental stress, and further highlights ω-oxidation as a conserved pathway for catabolism of lipid-derived signals in plants and animals. Functional characterization of the full complement of CYP94 P450s promises to reveal new pathways for jasmonate metabolism and provide insight into the evolution of oxylipin signaling in land plants.

  13. Field Dependent Dopant Deactivation in Bipolar Devices at Elevated irradiation Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITCZAK,STEVEN C.; LACOE,RONALD C.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; MAYER,DONALD C.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    Metal-oxide-silicon capacitors fabricated in a bi-polar process were examined for densities of oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated substrate acceptors following high-dose-rate irradiation at 100 C. Acceptor neutralization near the Si surface occurs most efficiently for small irradiation biases in depletion. The bias dependence is consistent with compensation and passivation mechanisms involving the drift of H{sup +} ions in the oxide and Si layers and the availability of holes in the Si depletion region. Capacitor data from unbiased irradiations were used to simulate the impact of acceptor neutralization on the current gain of an npn bipolar transistor. Neutralized acceptors near the base surface enhance current gain degradation associated with radiation-induced oxide trapped charge and interface traps by increasing base recombination. The additional recombination results from the convergence of carrier concentrations in the base and increased sensitivity of the base to oxide trapped charge. The enhanced gain degradation is moderated by increased electron injection from the emitter. These results suggest that acceptor neutralization may enhance radiation-induced degradation of linear circuits at elevated temperatures.

  14. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources.

  15. Enhanced sympathetic arousal in response to FMRI scanning correlates with task induced activations and deactivations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Muehlhan

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited by the scanning procedure itself may act as a potential confounder of fMRI data remains unresolved today. Thirty-seven scanner naive healthy subjects performed a simple cued target detection task. Levels of salivary alpha amylase (sAA, as a biomarker for sympathetic activity, were assessed in samples obtained at several time points during the lab visit. SAA increased two times, immediately prior to scanning and at the end of the scanning procedure. Neural activation related to motor preparation and timing as well as task performance was positively correlated with the first increase. Furthermore, the first sAA increase was associated with task induced deactivation (TID in frontal and parietal regions. However, these effects were restricted to the first part of the experiment. Consequently, this bias of scanner related sympathetic activation should be considered in future fMRI investigations. It is of particular importance for pharmacological investigations studying adrenergic agents and the comparison of groups with different stress vulnerabilities like patients and controls or adolescents and adults.

  16. Activation and deactivation of neutral palladium(II) phosphinesulfonato polymerization catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Rünzi, Thomas

    2012-12-10

    13C-Labeled ethylene polymerization (pre)catalysts [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O]Pd(13CH3)(L) (1-13CH3-L) (L = pyridine, dmso) based on di(2-anisyl)phosphine benzenesulfonate were used to assess the degree of incorporation of 13CH3 groups into the formed polyethylenes. Polymerizations of variable reaction time reveal that ca. 60-85% of the 13C-label is found in the polymer after already 1 min polymerization time, which provides evidence that the pre-equilibration between the catalyst precursor 1-13CH3-L and the active species 1-13CH3-(ethylene) is fast with respect to chain growth. The fraction of 1-13CH3-L that initiates chain growth is likely higher than the 60-85% determined from the 13C-labeled polymer chain ends since (a) chain walking results in in-chain incorporation of the 13C-label, (b) irreversible catalyst deactivation by formation of saturated (and partially volatile) alkanes diminishes the amount of 13CH3 groups incorporated into the polymer, and (c) palladium-bound 13CH3 groups, and more general palladium-bound alkyl(polymeryl) chains, partially transfer to phosphorus by reductive elimination. NMR and ESI-MS analyses of thermolysis reactions of 1-13CH3-L provide evidence that a mixture of phosphonium salts (13CH3)xP+(aryl)4-x (2-7) is formed in the absence of ethylene. In addition, isolation and characterization of the mixed bis(chelate) palladium complex [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O]Pd[κ2-(anisyl) (13CH3)P,O] (11) by NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses from these mixtures indicate that oxidative addition of phosphonium salts to palladium(0) species is also operative. The scrambling of palladium-bound carbyls and phosphorus-bound aryls is also relevant under NMR, as well as preparative reactor polymerization conditions exemplified by the X-ray diffraction analysis of [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O] Pd[κ2-(anisyl)(CH2CH3)P,O] (12) and [κ2-(anisyl)2P,O]Pd[κ2-(anisyl) ((CH2)3CH3)P,O] (13) isolated from pressure reactor polymerization experiments. In addition, ESI-MS analyses of reactor

  17. Nonlinear analysis and modeling of cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electrocorticogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Karin; Groh, Tobias; Schwab, Matthias; Witte, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    An approach combining time-continuous nonlinear stability analysis and a parametric bispectral method was introduced to better describe cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electroencephalogram (EEG). Signal models and data-driven investigations were performed to find optimal parameters of the nonlinear methods and to confirm the occurrence of nonlinear sections in the fetal EEG. The resulting measures were applied to the in utero electrocorticogram (ECoG) of fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation when organized sleep states were not developed and compared to previous results at 0.9 gestation. Cycling of the nonlinear stability of the fetal ECoG occurred already at this early gestational age, suggesting the presence of premature sleep states. This was accompanied by cycling of the time-variant biamplitude which reflected ECoG synchronization effects during premature sleep states associated with nonrapid eye movement sleep later in gestation. Thus, the combined nonlinear and time-variant approach was able to provide important insights into the properties of the immature fetal ECoG.

  18. Cyclitols protect glutamine synthetase and malate dehydrogenase against heat induced deactivation and thermal denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaindl, Martina; Popp, Marianne

    2006-06-30

    The accumulation of cyclitols in plants is a widespread response that provides protection against various environmental stresses. The capacity of myo-Inositol, pinitol, quercitol, and other compatible solutes (i.e., sorbitol, proline, and glycinebetaine) to protect proteins against thermally induced denaturation and deactivation was examined. Enzymatic activity measurements of L-glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli and Hordeum vulgare showed that the presence of cyclitols during heat treatment resulted in a significantly higher percentage of residual activity. CD spectroscopy experiments were used to study thermal stabilities of protein secondary structures upon the addition of myo-Inositol, pinitol, and glucose. 0.4 M myo-Inositol was observed to raise the melting temperature (Tm) of GS from E. coli by 3.9 degrees C and MDH from pig heart by 3.4 degrees C, respectively. Pinitol showed an increase in Tm of MDH by 3.8 degrees C, whereas glucose was not effective. Our results show a great potential of stabilizing proteins by the addition of cyclitols.

  19. Minimally Invasive LVAD Deactivation in a 65-Year-Old Man with Recurrent Pump Thrombosis and Left Ventricular Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Christopher V.; Mudd, James O.; Gelow, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Pump thrombosis is a dire sequela after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Treatment comprises antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, and pump exchange. Although pump exchange is the definitive therapy, it is also the most invasive, often exposing patients to the risks of repeat sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. In some cases, patients experience left ventricular recovery after LVAD implantation. The optimal strategy surrounding the management of LVADs in patients who have experienced ventricular recovery is unknown; techniques range from total system explantation to partial pump resection. Here, we describe a novel means of LVAD deactivation in a 65-year-old man with recurrent pump thrombosis, via percutaneous outflow graft closure in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. We also review the existing literature on surgical and percutaneous LVAD deactivation techniques. PMID:28265218

  20. Minimally Invasive LVAD Deactivation in a 65-Year-Old Man with Recurrent Pump Thrombosis and Left Ventricular Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyal, Akshay; Chien, Christopher V; Mudd, James O; Gelow, Jill M

    2017-02-01

    Pump thrombosis is a dire sequela after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Treatment comprises antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, and pump exchange. Although pump exchange is the definitive therapy, it is also the most invasive, often exposing patients to the risks of repeat sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. In some cases, patients experience left ventricular recovery after LVAD implantation. The optimal strategy surrounding the management of LVADs in patients who have experienced ventricular recovery is unknown; techniques range from total system explantation to partial pump resection. Here, we describe a novel means of LVAD deactivation in a 65-year-old man with recurrent pump thrombosis, via percutaneous outflow graft closure in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. We also review the existing literature on surgical and percutaneous LVAD deactivation techniques.

  1. Real-time piscicide tracking using Rhodamine WT dye for support of application, transport, and deactivation strategies in riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Patrick Ryan; Lageman, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Piscicide applications in riverine environments are complicated by the advection and dispersion of the piscicide by the flowing water. Proper deactivation of the fish toxin is required outside of the treatment reach to ensure that there is minimal collateral damage to fisheries downstream or in connecting and adjacent water bodies. In urban settings and highly managed waterways, further complications arise from the influence of industrial intakes and outfalls, stormwater outfalls, lock and dam operations, and general unsteady flow conditions. These complications affect the local hydrodynamics and ultimately the transport and fate of the piscicide. This report presents two techniques using Rhodamine WT dye for real-time tracking of a piscicide plume—or any passive contaminant—in rivers and waterways in natural and urban settings. Passive contaminants are those that are present in such low concentration that there is no effect (such as buoyancy) on the fluid dynamics of the receiving water body. These methods, when combined with data logging and archiving, allow for visualization and documentation of the application and deactivation process. Real-time tracking and documentation of rotenone applications in rivers and urban waterways was accomplished by encasing the rotenone plume in a plume of Rhodamine WT dye and using vessel-mounted submersible fluorometers together with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and global positioning system (GPS) receivers to track the dye and map the water currents responsible for advection and dispersion. In this study, two methods were used to track rotenone plumes: (1) simultaneous injection of dye with rotenone and (2) delineation of the upstream and downstream boundaries of the treatment zone with dye. All data were logged and displayed on a shipboard laptop computer, so that survey personnel provided real-time feedback about the extent of the rotenone plume to rotenone application and deactivation personnel. Further

  2. Deactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms on a Tooth Surface Using He Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imola, Molnar; Judit, Papp; Alpar, Simon; Sorin, Dan Anghel

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the low temperature atmospheric helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms formed on tooth surface. Pig jaws were also treated by plasma to detect if there is any harmful effect on the gingiva. The plasma was characterized by using optical emission spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated that the discharge is very effective in deactivating Streptococcus mutans biofilms. It can destroy them with an average decimal reduction time (D-time) of 19 s and about 98% of them were killed after a treatment time of 30 s. According to the survival curve kinetic an overall 32 s treatment time would be necessary to perform a complete sterilization. The experimental results presented in this study indicated that the helium dielectric barrier discharge, in plan-parallel electrode configuration, could be a very effective tool for deactivation of oral bacteria and might be a promising technique in various dental clinical applications.

  3. Investigation on the deactivation cause of lead-zinc double oxide for the synthesis of diphenyl carbonate by transesterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihui Li; Yanji Wang; Xiaoshu Ding; Xinqiang Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The deactivation cause of lead-zinc double oxide for synthesis of diphenyl carbonate (DPC) by transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) with phenol has been investigated.X-ray diffraction (XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),infrared spectroscopy (IR),thermogravimetry analysis (TG),atomic absorption spectroscopy and elementary analysis are employed for the catalyst characterizaton.The results show that,the formation of Pb40(OC6H5)6 through the reaction of phenol and lead species in the catalyst leads to the crystal phase change of active component and serious leaching of lead,which is the cause of the catalyst deactivation.In addition,the composition of the leached lead is ascertained to be a mixture of Pb40(OC6H5)6 and PbO with the weight percentage of 62.7% and 37.3%,respectively.

  4. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O' Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  5. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rod W.King; Lewis N.Mander; Torben Asp; Colleen P. MacMillan; Cheryl A.Blundell; Lloyd T.Evans

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA1 explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea.For flowering,it is GAs which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass,Lolium.As we show here,GA1 and GA4 are restricted in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex.In contrast,GAs is effective because of its structural protection at C-2.Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1,[14C]GA4,and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h),but not [14C]GA5.Coincidentally,genes encoding two 2β-oxidases and a putative 16-17-epoxidase were most expressed just below the shoot apex (4 mm),expression of these GA deactivation genes is reduced,so allowing GA1 and GA4 to promote sub-apical stem elongation.Subsequently,GA degradation declines in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development.Structural changes which stabilize GA4 confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2β-hydroxylation (e.g.2α-hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation).Additionally,a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl) enhanced the activity of applied GA4,as did limiting C-16,17 epoxidation in 16,17-dihydro GAs or after C-13 hydroxylation.Overall,deactivation of GA1 and GA4 just below the shoot apex effectively restricts their florigenicity in Lolium and,conversely,with GAs,C-2 and C-13 protection against deactivation allows its high florigenicity.Speculatively,such differences in GA access to the shoot apex of grasses may be important for separating floral induction from inflorescence emergence and thus could influence their survival under conditions of herbivore predation.

  6. Maquet Vasoview Hemopro VH-3000 vessel harvesting system may self-activate or fail to deactivate, potentially resulting in injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Harvesting Tool component of the Maquet Vasoview Hemopro VH-3000 vessel harvesting system may self-activate or may fail to deactivate, increasing the chance of thermal injury to the patient or staff, or of igniting a fire. Users of this product must be aware of the potential for either of the unintended activation problems to occur and must be familiar with Maquet's recommendations for dealing with the issue, which are provided in the system's instructions for use.

  7. Selective deactivation of gibberellins below the shoot apex is critical to flowering but not to stem elongation of Lolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rod W; Mander, Lewis N; Asp, Torben; MacMillan, Colleen P; Blundell, Cheryl A; Evans, Lloyd T

    2008-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA(1) explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea. For flowering, it is GA(5) which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass, Lolium. As we show here, GA(1) and GA(4) are restricted in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex. In contrast, GA(5) is effective because of its structural protection at C-2. Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA(1), [14C]GA(4), and [14C]GA(20) (>80% in 6 h), but not [14C]GA(5). Coincidentally, genes encoding two 2beta-oxidases and a putative 16-17-epoxidase were most expressed just below the shoot apex (4 mm), expression of these GA deactivation genes is reduced, so allowing GA(1) and GA(4) to promote sub-apical stem elongation. Subsequently, GA degradation declines in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development. Structural changes which stabilize GA(4) confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2beta-hydroxylation (e.g. 2alpha-hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation). Additionally, a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl) enhanced the activity of applied GA(4), as did limiting C-16,17 epoxidation in 16,17-dihydro GAs or after C-13 hydroxylation. Overall, deactivation of GA(1) and GA(4) just below the shoot apex effectively restricts their florigenicity in Lolium and, conversely, with GA(5), C-2 and C-13 protection against deactivation allows its high florigenicity. Speculatively, such differences in GA access to the shoot apex of grasses may be important for separating floral induction from inflorescence emergence and thus could influence their survival under conditions of herbivore predation.

  8. The S4-S5 linker acts as a signal integrator for HERG K+ channel activation and deactivation gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chai Ann; Perry, Matthew D; Tan, Peter S; Hill, Adam P; Kuchel, Philip W; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2012-01-01

    Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels have unusual gating kinetics. Characterised by slow activation/deactivation but rapid inactivation/recovery from inactivation, the unique gating kinetics underlie the central role hERG channels play in cardiac repolarisation. The slow activation and deactivation kinetics are regulated in part by the S4-S5 linker, which couples movement of the voltage sensor domain to opening of the activation gate at the distal end of the inner helix of the pore domain. It has also been suggested that cytosolic domains may interact with the S4-S5 linker to regulate activation and deactivation kinetics. Here, we show that the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the S4-S5 linker of hERG contains an amphipathic helix. The effects of mutations at the majority of residues in the S4-S5 linker of hERG were consistent with the previously identified role in coupling voltage sensor movement to the activation gate. However, mutations to Ser543, Tyr545, Gly546 and Ala548 had more complex phenotypes indicating that these residues are involved in additional interactions. We propose a model in which the S4-S5 linker, in addition to coupling VSD movement to the activation gate, also contributes to interactions that stabilise the closed state and a separate set of interactions that stabilise the open state. The S4-S5 linker therefore acts as a signal integrator and plays a crucial role in the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel.

  9. Swatara Creek basin of southeastern Pennsylvania--An evaluation of its hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Wilbur Tennant; Schneider, William J.; Crooks, James W.

    1967-01-01

    Local concentrations of population in the Swatara Creek basin of Pennsylvania find it necessary to store, transport, and treat water because local supplies are either deficient or have been contaminated by disposal of wastes in upstream areas. Water in the basin is available for the deficient areas and for dilution of the coal-mine drainage in the northern parts and the sewage wastes in the southern parts.

  10. Kinetics of the permanent deactivation of the boron-oxygen complex in crystalline silicon as a function of illumination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreiter, Verena; Walter, Dominic C.; Schmidt, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Based on contactless carrier lifetime measurements performed on p-type boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si) wafers, we examine the rate constant Rde of the permanent deactivation process of the boron-oxygen-related defect center as a function of the illumination intensity I at 170°C. While at low illumination intensities, a linear increase of Rde on I is measured, at high illumination intensities, Rde seems to saturate. We are able to explain the saturation by assuming that Rde increases proportionally with the excess carrier concentration Δ n and take the fact into account that at sufficiently high illumination intensities, the carrier lifetime decreases with increasing Δ n and hence the slope of Δ n (I) decreases, leading to an apparent saturation. Importantly, on low-lifetime Cz-Si samples no saturation of the deactivation rate constant is observed for the same illumination intensities, proving that the deactivation is stimulated by the presence of excess electrons and not directly by the photons.

  11. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis of primary amines in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżaniak, Agnieszka; Weggemans, Wilko; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, André B

    2011-12-16

    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct analysis of aliphatic amines and diamines in aqueous samples by gas chromatography (GC) with silanol deactivation using ionic liquids (ILs). ILs including trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis 2,4,4-(trimethylpentyl)phosphinate (Cyphos IL-104), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [pmim][Tf(2)N] and N″-ethyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [etmg][FAP] were tested as deactivating media for the GC liner. Solutions of these ILs in methanol were injected in the system prior to the analysis of primary amines. Butane-1,4-diamine (putrescine, BDA) was used as a reference amine. The best results were obtained using the imidazolium IL [pmim][Tf(2)N]. With this deactivator, excellent reproducibility of the analysis was achieved, and the detection limit of BDA was as low as 1mM. The applicability of the method was proven for the analysis of two different primary amines (C4-C5) and pentane-1,5-diamine.

  12. Kinetic study of propane dehydrogenation and catalyst deactivation over Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz; Tahriri; Zangeneh; Abbas; Taeb; Khodayar; Gholivand; Saeed; Sahebdelfar

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of propane dehydrogenation and catalyst deactivation over Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst were studied.Performance test runs were carried out in a fixed-bed integral reactor.Using a power-law rate expression for the surface reaction kinetics and independent law for deactivation kinetics,the experimental data were analyzed both by integral and a novel differential method of analysis and the results were compared.To avoid fluctuation of time-derivatives of conversion required for differential analysis,the conversion-time data were first fitted with appropriate functions.While the time-zero and rate constant of reaction were largely insensitive to the function employed,the rate constant of deactivation was much more sensitive to the function form.The advantage of the proposed differential method,however,is that the integration of the rate expression is not necessary which otherwise could be complicated or impossible.It was also found that the reaction is not limited by external and internal mass transfer limitations,implying that the employed kinetics could be considered as intrinsic ones.

  13. Transient and linearly graded deactivation of the human default-mode network by a visual detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K D; Fawcett, I P

    2008-05-15

    In this fMRI study, we show that an extended network of brain areas, previously described as the default-mode network, is suppressed during the performance of a global visual motion discrimination task. For the first time, we demonstrate that this network is transiently suppressed in an event-related fashion, reflecting a true negative activation compared to baseline, and that this deactivation occurs in a strongly graded fashion depending on the strength of the global motion signal. Deactivation across the network varied in an inverse linear relationship with motion coherency, demonstrating that the strongest suppression occurs for the most error-prone tasks. Deactivations were absent for the easiest of the tasks (100% coherence). We also show that the magnitude of task-related activation of the individual sub-components of the default-mode network are strongly correlated, indicating a highly integrated system. The results offer a striking indication of a rapid, highly reactive and tunable system within the brain for active suppression of this network of brain areas.

  14. A rare CYP 21 mutation (p.E431K) induced deactivation of CYP 21A2 and resulted in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yuki; Usui, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Masanobu; Miyahara, Naoki; Nishimura, Rei; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. The residual enzyme activity is strongly associated with the phenotype. We describe a rare case of CAH with a rare CYP21A2 mutation. The patient was a one-year-old Japanese boy. At 16 days old, he was referred to our hospital because of elevated serum 17-OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels in neonatal screening. The compound heterozygous mutations (IVS2-13 A/C>G, and p.E431K) in CYP21A2 were identified at 2 months old, and we diagnosed non-classical CAH, since he did not have significant physical signs (pigmentation and salt-wasting). However, his body weight decreased, and his serum 17-OHP level (99.5 ng/mL) was elevated at 3 months old. Steroid replacement therapy was started at 3 months old. Our patient's clinical course resembled simple virilizing (SV) CAH, but classification was difficult because the patient showed increased renin activity indicating an aldosterone deficiency, and late onset of symptoms. While the IVS 2-13 A/C>G mutation is common in the classical form of CAH, p.E431K is a rare point mutation. Functional analysis revealed that the residual enzyme activity of p.E431L was 5.08±2.55% for 17-OHP and 4.12±2.37% for progesterone, which is consistent with SV CAH. p.E431 is localized in the L-helix near the heme-binding site. The mutation might interfere with heme binding, leading to deactivation of CYP21A2. This report showed that CYP21A2 p.E431 has an important effect on enzyme activity.

  15. Fuel Efficiency Mapping of a 2014 6-Cylinder GM EcoTec 4.3L Engine with Cylinder Deactivation (SAE 2016-01-0662)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the method and test results of the engine dyno portion of the benchmarking test results including engine fuel consumption maps showing the effects of cylinder deactivation engine technology.

  16. Probing the Mechanism of the Double C—H (De)Activation Route of a Ru-Based Olefin Metathesis Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi

    A theoretical study of a double C—H activation mechanism that deactivates a family of second generation Ru-based catalysts is presented. DFT calculations are used to rationalize the complex mechanistic pathway from the starting precatalyst to the experimentally characterized decomposition products. In particular, we show that all the intermediates proposed by Grubbs and coworkers are indeed possible intermediates in the deactivation pathway, although the sequence of steps is somewhat different

  17. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  18. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning deactivation thermal analysis of PUREX Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.W.; Gregonis, R.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for the proposed Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant exhaust system after deactivation. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if enough condensation will occur to plug or damage the filtration components. A heat transfer and fluid flow analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal characteristics of the underground duct system, the deep-bed glass fiber filter No. 2, and the high-efficiency particulate air filters in the fourth filter building. The analysis is based on extreme variations of air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point temperature using 15 years of Hanford Site weather data as a basis. The results will be used to evaluate the need for the electric heaters proposed for the canyon exhaust to prevent condensation. Results of the analysis indicate that a condition may exist in the underground ductwork where the duct temperature can lead or lag changes in the ambient air temperature. This condition may contribute to condensation on the inside surfaces of the underground exhaust duct. A worst case conservative analysis was performed assuming that all of the water is removed from the moist air over the inside surface of the concrete duct area in the fully developed turbulent boundary layer while the moist air in the free stream will not condense. The total moisture accumulated in 24 hours is negligible. Water puddling would not be expected. The results of the analyses agree with plant operating experiences. The filters were designed to resist high humidity and direct wetting, filter plugging caused by slight condensation in the upstream duct is not a concern. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Interpretations of de-orbit, deactivation, and shutdown guidelines applicable to GEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, L.; Perkins, J.; Sun, Sheng

    As the population of space debris in orbit around the Earth grows, the probability for catastrophic collisions increases. Many agencies such as the IADC, FCC, and UN have proposed space debris mitigation guidelines or recommendations. For example, a minimum increase in perigee altitude of 235km + (1000 Cr A / m) where Cr is the solar radiation pressure coefficient, A/m is the aspect area to dry mass ratio, and 235 km is the sum of the upper altitude of the geostationary orbit (GEO) protected region (200 km) and the maximum descent of a re-orbited spacecraft due to lunar-solar & geopotential perturbations (35 km) with an eccentricity less than or equal to 0.003. While this particular recommendation is reasonably straightforward, the assumptions an operator chooses may change the result by 25 km. Other recommendations are more ambiguous. For example, once the space vehicle has been de-orbited to the required altitude, all on-board stored energy sources must be discharged by venting propellants and pressurants, discharging batteries and disabling the ability to charge them, and performing other appropriate measures. “ Vented” is not usually defined. In addition, the broadcasting capability of the spacecraft must be disabled. Boeing and its customers are working together to devise de-orbit and deactivation sequences that meet the spirit of the recommendations. This paper derives and proposes a generic minimum deorbit altitude, appropriate depletion and venting pressures based on tank design, propellant and pressurant type, and an acceptable shutdown procedure and final configuration that avoid interference with those still in the GEO belt well into the future. The goal of this paper is to open a dialogue with the global community to establish reasonable guidelines that are straightforward, safe, and achievable before an absolute requirement is set.

  20. Combined structural and functional imaging reveals cortical deactivations in grapheme-colour synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eO'Hanlon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaesthesia is a heritable condition in which particular stimuli generate specific and consistent sensory percepts or associations in another modality or processing stream. Functional neuroimaging studies have identified potential correlates of these experiences, including, in some but not all cases, the hyperactivation of visuotemporal areas and of parietal areas thought to be involved in perceptual binding. Structural studies have identified a similarly variable spectrum of differences between synaesthetes and controls. However, it remains unclear the extent to which these neural correlates reflect the synaesthetic experience itself or additional phenotypes associated with the condition. Here, we acquired both structural and functional neuroimaging data comparing thirteen grapheme-colour synaesthetes with eleven non-synaesthetes. Using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, we identify a number of clusters of increased volume of grey matter, of white matter or of increased fractional anisotropy in synaesthetes versus controls. To assess the possible involvement of these areas in the synaesthetic experience, we used nine areas of increased grey matter volume as regions of interest in an fMRI experiment that characterised the contrast in response to stimuli which induced synaesthesia (i.e. letters versus those which did not (non-meaningful symbols. Two of these areas, in left lateral occipital cortex and in postcentral gyrus, showed sensitivity to this contrast in synaesthetes but not controls. Unexpectedly, in both regions, the letter stimuli produced a strong negative BOLD signal in synaesthetes. An additional whole-brain fMRI analysis identified fourteen areas, three of which were driven mainly by a negative BOLD response to letters in synaesthetes. Our findings suggest that cortical deactivations may be involved in the conscious experience of internally generated synaesthetic percepts

  1. Deactivating bacteria with RF Driven Hollow Slot Microplasmas in Open Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengqi; Pruden, Amy; Sharma, Ashish; Collins, George

    2003-10-01

    A hollow slot discharge operating in open air at atmospheric pressure has demonstrated its ability to deactivate bacterial growth on nearby surfaces exposed to the RF driven plasma. The cold plasma exits from a hollow slot with a width of 0.2 mm and variable length of 1-35 cm. An internal electrode was powered by 13.56 MHz radio-frequency power at a voltage below 200 V. External electrically grounded slots face the work piece. The plasma plume extends millimeters to centimeter beyond the hollow slot toward the work piece to be irradiated. Argon-Oxygen gas mixtures, at 33 liters per minute flow, were passed through the electrodes and the downstream plasma was employed for the process, with treatment exposure time varied from 0.06 to 0.18 seconds. Bacterial cultures were fixed to 0.22 micron cellulose filter membranes and passed under the plasma at a controlled rate at a distance of about 5-10 millimeters from the grounded slot electrode. Preliminary studies on the effectiveness of the plasma for sterilization were carried out on E. coli. Cultures were grown overnight on the membranes after exposure and the resulting colony forming units (cfu) were determined in treated and untreated groups. In the plasma treated group, a 98.2% kill rate was observed with the lowest exposure time, and increased to 99.8% when the exposure time was tripled. These studies clearly demonstrate the ability of the RF-driven hollow slot atmospheric plasma to inhibit bacterial growth on surfaces.

  2. Treatment Study Plan for Nitrate Salt Waste Remediation Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The two stabilization treatment methods that are to be examined for their effectiveness in the treatment of both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt wastes include (1) the addition of zeolite and (2) cementation. Zeolite addition is proposed based on the results of several studies and analyses that specifically examined the effectiveness of this process for deactivating nitrate salts. Cementation is also being assessed because of its prevalence as an immobilization method used for similar wastes at numerous facilities around the DOE complex, including at Los Alamos. The results of this Treatment Study Plan will be used to provide the basis for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit modification request of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit for approval by the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the proposed treatment process and the associated facilities.

  3. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M{sup 3} (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  4. Novel catalytic materials for carbon dioxide reforming of methane under severely deactivating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg-Williams, Susan Michelle

    In recent years, the utilization of carbon dioxide for the reforming of methane (dry reforming) has attracted significant interest due to the industrial advantages over conventional steam reforming. The major obstacle preventing commercialization of this process is the lack of a catalyst capable of operating at the high temperatures and pressures required by industry. This thesis reports the study of the dry reforming reaction over SiO 2 and ZrO2 supported Pt catalysts. It was found that the Pt/ZrO2 catalyst had much higher activity and stability than the Pt/SiO2 catalyst due to the ability of the ZrO2 to adsorb CO2 near the metal particle, facilitating its dissociation. The decomposition of CH4 and the dissociation of CO2 occur via two independent pathways. CH4 decomposition occurs on the metal particle resulting in the formation of H2 and carbon deposition. When Pt is supported on ZrO2, the carbon formed during the decomposition of CH4 can reduce the support to form CO2 creating oxygen vacancies in the support lattice near the metal particle. The adsorption and dissociation of CO2 occurs at the vacancies, forming CO and replenishing the oxygen in the support lattice. This redox mechanism results in a cleaning of the metal particle by oxygen provided by the support. Promoters were added to both the metallic phase and to the support to improve the stability of the catalyst by decreasing carbon deposition. The co-impregnation of Sn and Pt on the ZrO2 resulted in lower activity and stability than the monometallic catalysts. Under oxidizing conditions, segregation of the Pt-Sn alloys occurred, resulting in the formation of tin oxide inhibiting the role of the ZrO2. Catalysts prepared by methods that allow for the controlled placement of Sn on the Pt particle, exhibited high activity and stability under severely deactivating conditions. Promotion of the ZrO2 support with cerium and lanthanum resulted in increased activity and stability of the catalyst. The improved

  5. Landfills - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  6. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waste Experiences: More Than You May Think

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, D. C.; Honerlah, H. B.

    2003-02-24

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) works with other federal, and state agencies through several different programs on numerous Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (HTRW) sites. Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Program (FUSRAP), Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS), EPA Superfund, Installation Restoration, Army Deactivated Nuclear Reactor Program, and many other programs present hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste issues. While the USACE has a reputation of excellent dirt movers, little is discussed of our other waste management experiences. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing the Health Physics (HP) staff of the USACE. The HP staff is currently organized as one team, the Radiation Safety Support Team (RSST), comprised of 15 individuals at 6 locations across the country. With typical RSST missions including HP consultation to USACE activities world wide, many waste challenges arise. These challenges have involved radioactive wastes of all classifications and stability. Sealed and unsealed sources; instruments and dials; contaminated earth and debris; liquids; lab, reactor, and medical wastes are all successfully managed by the USACE. USACE also develops, evaluates, and utilizes waste treatment Types of radioactive waste at HTRW sites include: Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW) (class A, B, C, and greater than C), 11e.(2), Transuranic (TRU), Mixed, and Naturally Occurring (NORM/TENORM).

  7. Catalyst Deactivation Simulation Through Carbon Deposition in Carbon Dioxide Reforming over Ni/CaO-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Major problem in CO2 reforming of methane (CORM process is coke formation which is a carbonaceous residue that can physically cover active sites of a catalyst surface and leads to catalyst deactivation. A key to develop a more coke-resistant catalyst lies in a better understanding of the methane reforming mechanism at a molecular level. Therefore, this paper is aimed to simulate a micro-kinetic approach in order to calculate coking rate in CORM reaction. Rates of encapsulating and filamentous carbon formation are also included. The simulation results show that the studied catalyst has a high activity, and the rate of carbon formation is relatively low. This micro-kinetic modeling approach can be used as a tool to better understand the catalyst deactivation phenomena in reaction via carbon deposition. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 10th May 2011; Revised: 16th August 2011; Accepted: 27th August 2011[How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, N.A.S. Amin, and D.H.W. Ling. (2011. Catalyst Deactivation Simulation Through Carbon Deposition in Carbon Dioxide Reforming over Ni/CaO-Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 129-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.1213.129-136][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.1213.129-136 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/1213 ] | View in  |  

  8. The Orosomucoid 1 protein is involved in the vitamin D – mediated macrophage de-activation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemelli, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.gemelli@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Gottardi 100, 41125 Modena (Italy); Martello, Andrea; Montanari, Monica; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Selmi, Tommaso; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also named Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein A (AGP-A), is an abundant plasma protein characterized by anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The present study was designed to identify a possible correlation between ORM1 and Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a hormone exerting a widespread effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and regulation of the immune system. In particular, the data described here indicated that ORM1 is a 1,25(OH)2D3 primary response gene, characterized by the presence of a VDRE element inside the 1 kb sequence of its proximal promoter region. This finding was demonstrated with gene expression studies, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase transactivation experiments and confirmed by VDR full length and dominant negative over-expression. In addition, several experiments carried out in human normal monocytes demonstrated that the 1,25(OH)2D3 – VDR – ORM1 pathway plays a functional role inside the macrophage de-activation process and that ORM1 may be considered as a signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling. - Highlights: • ORM1 is a Vitamin D primary response gene. • VD and its receptor VDR are involved in the de-activation process mediated by human resident macrophages. • The signaling pathway VD-VDR-ORM1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage de-activation process. • ORM1 may be defined as a signaling molecule implicated in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling.

  9. Psychosocial versus physiological stress - Meta-analyses on deactivations and activations of the neural correlates of stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Müller, Veronika I; Chang, Amy; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Gur, Ruben C; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Stress is present in everyday life in various forms and situations. Two stressors frequently investigated are physiological and psychosocial stress. Besides similar subjective and hormonal responses, it has been suggested that they also share common neural substrates. The current study used activation-likelihood-estimation meta-analysis to test this assumption by integrating results of previous neuroimaging studies on stress processing. Reported results are cluster-level FWE corrected. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the anterior insula (AI) were the only regions that demonstrated overlapping activation for both stressors. Analysis of physiological stress showed consistent activation of cognitive and affective components of pain processing such as the insula, striatum, or the middle cingulate cortex. Contrarily, analysis across psychosocial stress revealed consistent activation of the right superior temporal gyrus and deactivation of the striatum. Notably, parts of the striatum appeared to be functionally specified: the dorsal striatum was activated in physiological stress, whereas the ventral striatum was deactivated in psychosocial stress. Additional functional connectivity and decoding analyses further characterized this functional heterogeneity and revealed higher associations of the dorsal striatum with motor regions and of the ventral striatum with reward processing. Based on our meta-analytic approach, activation of the IFG and the AI seems to indicate a global neural stress reaction. While physiological stress activates a motoric fight-or-flight reaction, during psychosocial stress attention is shifted towards emotion regulation and goal-directed behavior, and reward processing is reduced. Our results show the significance of differentiating physiological and psychosocial stress in neural engagement. Furthermore, the assessment of deactivations in addition to activations in stress research is highly recommended.

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-06-21

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste.

  11. Biological de-activation of granular formulation of a carbamate insecticide Cartap in water under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Abdullah; Ayat U. Awank; Masood K. Khattak; Sumbal Yasmin

    2009-01-01

    Cartap 4% (Padan 4G™) at different concentrations was evaluated for its biological deactivation in laboratory-conditions. The insecticide at 1.88 ppm or above concentrations showed significant increase in percent of dead fingerlings up to 46 days insecticide aging as compared to the control, while 0.8 ppm and below proved to be sub-lethal concentrations. The LD50 at 0-day (fresh solution) was 0.997 ppm, which gradually rose to 2.074 ppm up to the day 46. The chemical attained half-life in 44....

  12. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  13. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  14. Photoluminescence study of time- and spatial-dependent light induced trap de-activation in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Jacobs, Daniel A; Beck, Fiona J; Duong, The; Shen, Heping; Catchpole, Kylie R; White, Thomas P

    2016-08-10

    Organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells have rapidly achieved high efficiency in recent years. However, many fundamental recombination mechanisms underlying the excellent performance are still not well understood. Here we apply confocal photoluminescence microscopy to investigate the time and spatial characteristics of light-induced trap de-activation in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films. Trap de-activation is characterized by a dramatic increase in PL emission during continuous laser illumination accompanied by a lateral expansion of the PL enhancement far beyond the laser spot. These observations are attributed to an oxygen-assisted trap de-activation process associated with carrier diffusion. To model this effect, we add a trap de-activation term to the standard semiconductor carrier recombination and diffusion models. With this approach we are able to reproduce the observed temporal and spatial dependence of laser induced PL enhancement using realistic physical parameters. Furthermore, we experimentally investigate the role of trap diffusion in this process, and demonstrate that the trap de-activation is not permanent, with the traps appearing again once the illumination is turned off. This study provides new insights into recombination and trap dynamics in perovskite films that could offer a better understanding of perovskite solar cell performance.

  15. Studies on accelerated deactivation of ruthenium-promoted alumina-supported alkalized cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shohreh Tehrani; Mohamad Irani; Ahmad Tavasoli; Yadollah Mortazavi; Abbas A.Khodadadi; Ali Nakhaei Pour

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated deactivation of ruthenium-promoted alumina-supported alkalized cobalt(K-Ru-Co/-γ-Al2O3)Fischer-Tropsch(FT)synthesis catalyst along the catalytic bed over 120 h of time-on-stream(TOS)was investigated.Catalytic bed was divided into three parts and structural changes of the spent catalysts collected from each catalytic bed after FT synthesis were studied using different techniques.Rapid deactivation was observed during the reaction due to high reaction temperature and low feed flow rates.The physico-chemical properties of the catalyst charged in the Bed #1 of the reactor did not change significantly.Interaction of cobalt with alumina and the formation of CoAl2O4 increased along the catalytic bed.Reducibility percentage decreased by 4.5%,7.5% and 12.9% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively.Dispersion decreased by 8.8%,14.4% and 26.6% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively.Particle diameter increased by 0.6%,2.4% and 10.4% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively,suggesting higher rate of sintering at the last catalytic bed.The amount of coke at the last catalytic bed was significantly higher than those of Beds #1 and #2.

  16. Sulfur deactivation mechanism of Pt/MnOx-CeO2 for soot oxidation: Surface property study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Hou, Zhongyan; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Jianli; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, an advanced diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectra (DRIFTS) technology is used to describe the formation of surface sulfates on Pt/MnOx-CeO2 and study the possible deactivation mechanism for soot oxidation reactions in NO + O2. IR spectra of CO adsorption and H2-TPR results reveal the surface coverage of Pt by sulfates and the loss of partial active oxygen species after the sulfation, respectively. More importantly, in situ DRIRT spectra show sulfur poisoning apparently inhibits the formation of surface intermediates such as monodentate/bidentate nitrates and nitro species, which directly limits the production of NO2. Furthermore, the O2-TPD results indicate that the sulfation weakens the desorption of surface active oxygen resulting from the decomposition of surface nitrates. The sulfate formation would affect the production of oxygen vacant sites and thereby the mobility of surface oxygen species in both NO + O2 and O2. These factors above would play an important role on the deactivation mechanism for soot oxidation.

  17. Implementation of a Peltier-based cooling device for localized deep cortical deactivation during in vivo object recognition testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kyle; Graham, Brett; Carouso, Samantha; Cox, David

    2012-02-01

    While the application of local cortical cooling has recently become a focus of neurological research, extended localized deactivation deep within brain structures is still unexplored. Using a wirelessly controlled thermoelectric (Peltier) device and water-based heat sink, we have achieved inactivating temperatures (8 mm) than previously reported. After implanting the device into Long Evans rats' basolateral amygdala (BLA), an inhibitory brain center that controls anxiety and fear, we ran an open field test during which anxiety-driven behavioral tendencies were observed to decrease during cooling, thus confirming the device's effect on behavior. Our device will next be implanted in the rats' temporal association cortex (TeA) and recordings from our signal-tracing multichannel microelectrodes will measure and compare activated and deactivated neuronal activity so as to isolate and study the TeA signals responsible for object recognition. Having already achieved a top performing computational face-recognition system, the lab will utilize this TeA activity data to generalize its computational efforts of face recognition to achieve general object recognition.

  18. Work plan for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP), commissioned by the US Department of Energy Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program, is to place four primary high-risk surplus facilities with 28 associated ancillary facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition as rapidly and economically as possible. The facilities will be deactivated and left in a condition suitable for an extended period of minimized surveillance and maintenance (S and M) prior to decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D). These four facilities include two reactor facilities containing spent fuel. One of these reactor facilities also contains 55 tons of sodium with approximately 34 tons containing activated sodium-22, 2.5 tons of lithium hydride, approximately 100 tons of potentially contaminated lead, and several other hazardous materials as well as bulk quantities of contaminated scrap metals. The other two facilities to be transferred include a facility with a bank of hot cells containing high levels of transferable contamination and also a facility containing significant quantities of uranyl nitrate and quantities of transferable contamination. This work plan documents the objectives, technical requirements, and detailed work plans--including preliminary schedules, milestones, and conceptual FY 1996 cost estimates--for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan has been developed by the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO).

  19. Adsorption and Deactivation Characteristics of Cu/ZnO-Based Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Howard, Bret H; Lekse, Jonathan W; Baltrus, John P; Matranga, Christopher

    2013-07-09

    The adsorption and deactivation characteristics of coprecipitated Cu/ZnO-based catalysts were examined and correlated to their performance in methanol synthesis from CO₂ hydrogenation. The addition of Ga₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ promoters is shown to increase the Cu surface area and CO₂/H₂ adsorption capacities of the catalysts and enhance methanol synthesis activity. Infrared studies showed that CO₂ adsorbs spontaneously on these catalysts at room temperature as both monoand bi-dentate carbonate species. These weakly bound species desorb completely from the catalyst surface by 200 °C while other carbonate species persist up to 500 °C. Characterization using N₂O decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis clearly indicated that Cu sintering is the main cause of catalyst deactivation. Ga and Y promotion improves the catalyst stability by suppressing the agglomeration of Cu and ZnO particles under pretreatment and reaction conditions.

  20. ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that epoxidizes gibberellins in a novel deactivation reaction in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongyou; Nomura, Takahito; Xu, Yonghan; Zhang, Yingying; Peng, Yu; Mao, Bizeng; Hanada, Atsushi; Zhou, Haicheng; Wang, Renxiao; Li, Peijin; Zhu, Xudong; Mander, Lewis N; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; He, Zuhua

    2006-02-01

    The recessive tall rice (Oryza sativa) mutant elongated uppermost internode (eui) is morphologically normal until its final internode elongates drastically at the heading stage. The stage-specific developmental effect of the eui mutation has been used in the breeding of hybrid rice to improve the performance of heading in male sterile cultivars. We found that the eui mutant accumulated exceptionally large amounts of biologically active gibberellins (GAs) in the uppermost internode. Map-based cloning revealed that the Eui gene encodes a previously uncharacterized cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP714D1. Using heterologous expression in yeast, we found that EUI catalyzed 16alpha,17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs. Consistent with the tall and dwarfed phenotypes of the eui mutant and Eui-overexpressing transgenic plants, respectively, 16alpha,17-epoxidation reduced the biological activity of GA(4) in rice, demonstrating that EUI functions as a GA-deactivating enzyme. Expression of Eui appeared tightly regulated during plant development, in agreement with the stage-specific eui phenotypes. These results indicate the existence of an unrecognized pathway for GA deactivation by EUI during the growth of wild-type internodes. The identification of Eui as a GA catabolism gene provides additional evidence that the GA metabolism pathway is a useful target for increasing the agronomic value of crops.

  1. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  2. Study on Deactivation by Sulfur and Regeneration of Pd/C Catalyst in Hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) Acetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qunfeng; L(U) Jinghui; MA Lei; LU Chunshan; LIU Wei; LI Xiaonian

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation of Pd/C catalyst often occurs in liquid hydrogenation using industrial materials.For instance,the Pd/C catalyst is deactivated severely in the hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) acetamide.In this study,the chemisorption of sulfur on the surface of deactivated Pd/C was detected by energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Sulfur compounds poison the Pd/C catalyst and increase the formation of azo deposit,reducing the activity of catalyst.We report a mild method to regenerate the Pd/C catalyst:wash the deposit by N,N-dimethylformamide and oxidize the chemisorbed sulfur by hot air.The regenerated Pd/C catalyst can be reused at least ten runs with stable activity.

  3. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.

    2006-08-01

    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  4. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  5. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  6. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  7. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  9. Literature search on the use of resins for treatment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMahamid, I.; Smith, B.M.

    1997-10-01

    Over 100 commercial providers with mixed-waste treatability capabilities exist in the US. The maturity level of these technologies varies from a bench scale to a pilot or a commercial scale. The techniques include deactivation, chemical oxidation, recovery of metals, stabilization, vitrification, incineration, biodegradation, and chemical extraction. This report focuses on the use of resins to remove actinides and heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Only the literature that described resins with high removing efficiency are presented here. The majority of the literature reviewed are proceedings and national or international reports ordered through the Berkeley Lab Library. Some of the reports that the authors requested have not yet arrived. Only a few papers were found in the open literature (journals or magazines). Although this report does not include all existing references, it provides an accurate assessment of efficient resins to be considered for waste minimization procedures. 70 refs.

  10. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  11. Hydrotreating of waste lube oil by rejuvenated spent hydrotreating catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeek A. Sadeek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of catalysts are used in the Egyptian refining industry for the purification and upgrading of various petroleum streams. These catalysts gradually lose activity through deactivation with time and the spent catalysts were usually discarded as solid waste. On the other hand, waste lube oil contains heavy metals coming from undergirded base oil and additives, these metals have carcinogenic effect and cause serious environmental problems. Studies are conducted on the reclamation of metals, rejuvenation and reuse of the spent hydrotreating catalyst (Mo–Ni/Al which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company. Three leaching solvents were used: oxidized oxalic acid, benzoic acid and boric acid at different concentrations (4%, 8% and 16%, different oxidizing agents (H2O2 and Fe(NO33 and different modes of addition of oxidizing agents (batch and continuous. The results indicated that 4% oxalic acid + 5% Fe(NO33 at continuous addition of oxidizing agents was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate metal removal and rejuvenate catalyst. The fresh catalyst was applied for re-refining of waste lube oil under different reaction temperatures (320–410 °C in order to compare the hydrodesulphurization (HDS activity with both the fresh, treated and spent catalysts. The results indicated that the rejuvenation techniques introduce a catalyst have HDS activity nearly approach to that the fresh of the same type.

  12. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  13. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  14. Dynamic modeling of a H2O-permselective membrane reactor to enhance methanol synthesis from syngas considering catalyst deactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Farsi; A.Jahanmiri

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of water vapor removal on methanol synthesis capacity from syngas in a fixed-bed membrane reactor is studied considering long-term catalyst deactivation.A dynamic heterogeneous one-dimensional mathematical model that is composed of two sides is developed to predict the performance of this configuration.In this configuration,conventional methanol reactor is supported by an aluminasilica composite membrane layer for water vapor removal from reaction zone.To verify the accuracy of the considered model and assumptions,simulation results of the conventional methanol reactor is compared with the industrial plant data under the same process condition.The membrane reactor improves catalyst life time and enhances CO2 conversion to methanol by overcoming the limitation imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium.This configuration has enhanced the methanol production capacity about 4.06% compared with the industrial methanol reactor during the production time.

  15. Biological de-activation of granular formulation of a carbamate insecticide Cartap in water under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cartap 4% (Padan 4G™ at different concentrations was evaluated for its biological deactivation in laboratory-conditions. The insecticide at 1.88 ppm or above concentrations showed significant increase in percent of dead fingerlings up to 46 days insecticide aging as compared to the control, while 0.8 ppm and below proved to be sub-lethal concentrations. The LD50 at 0-day (fresh solution was 0.997 ppm, which gradually rose to 2.074 ppm up to the day 46. The chemical attained half-life in 44.89 days. Being a very slowly degrading insecticide, Cartap is not desirable in rice-fish culture and a threat to aquatic fauna.

  16. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Vyas

    2016-09-01

    Annual surplus water of about 1437 MCM in the river Chambal is going waste and ultimately reaches to sea after creating flood situations in various places in India including Rajasthan, while on the other hand 1077 MCM water is a requirement in the four other basins in Rajasthan i.e. Banas, Banganga, Gambhir and Parbati at 75% dependability. Interlinking and water transfer from Chambal to these four river basins is the prime solution for which 372 km link channel including 9 km tunnel of design capacity of 300 cumec with 64 m lift is required.

  17. Deployed Force Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Granath J., Baky A., Thhyselius L., (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming...Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming article In this paper different waste

  18. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  19. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  20. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  1. Subclinical cognitive decline in middle-age is associated with reduced task-induced deactivation of the brain's default mode network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Naja Liv; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive abilities decline with age, but with considerable individual variation. The neurobiological correlate of this variation is not well described. Functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated reduced task-induced deactivation (TID) of the brain's default mode network (DMN) in a wide...

  2. Deactivation of La-Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sup 3}. Field study results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Gongshin; Yang, Ralph T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Chang, Ramsay; Cardoso, Sylvio [Air Pollution Control, Power Generation, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395 (United States); Smith, Randall A. [Fossil Energy Research Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA 92653 (United States)

    2004-11-08

    Results are summarized for a study on the effects of poisons on the La-Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst activity for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia. The deactivation of La-Fe-ZSM-5 honeycombs was studied in field tests. A honeycomb catalyst containing 25%La-Fe-ZSM-5 had an overall activity similar to that of a commercial vanadia honeycomb catalyst. Long-term activity test results show that the 25%La-Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst activity decreased to 50% after 300h and 25% after 1769h of on-stream flue gas exposure. The deactivation is correlated to the amounts of poisons deposited on the catalyst. Poisons include alkali and alkaline earth metals, As and Hg. Hg was found to be ion-exchanged from HgCl{sup 2} to form Hg-ZSM-5, and Hg was found to be among the strongest poisons. The poisoning effects of these elements appeared to be additive. Thus, from the chemical analysis of the deactivated catalyst, the deactivation of Fe-ZSM-5 can be predicted.

  3. Deactivating fusarium spores throughout anaerobic fermentation in biogas plants. A prospect; Abtoetung von Fusariensporen waehrend des Gaerprozesses in Biogasanlagen. Ein Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauz, B.; Oechsner, H. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaftliches Maschinen- und Bauwesens; Weinmann, U. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Tierernaehrung

    2006-07-01

    Fusarium (the most harmful grain fungus in the field, known as fusarium head blight) and its poisonous product, catabolic mycotoxin DON (Deoxynivalenol) are known for their damaging effects. Due to this, the most feasible, environmentally compatible and economical disposal option are being researched in a cooperative project, where deactivating the fungus and reducing its mycotoxin are in the foreground. (orig.)

  4. Carbon-Oxygen Bond Cleavage by Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Compounds : Catalyst Deactivation Pathways and Observation of Acyl C-O Bond Cleavage in Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovitch, Ryan J.; Lobkovsky, Emil; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Chirik, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations into the substrate scope of bis(imino)pyridine iron-catalyzed hydrogenation and [2 pi + 2 pi]. diene cyclization reactions identified C-O bond cleavage as a principal deactivation pathway. Addition of diallyl or allyl ethyl ether to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complex, ((iP

  5. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  6. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  7. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  8. Environmental radiological impact of a Brazilian deactivated Uranium Mine along the period 1999-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (FCN/GMR/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Corrdenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to assess the environmental radiological impact (ERI) from the release of wastewaters used by the Mining Industrial Complex at Poços de Caldas (CIPC), today called Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG, Brazil, during the period 1999-2009. The effluent waters were analyzed once a week at point 014 (associated with the mine and waste pile 8). Critical radionuclides are {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra, in turn, were analyzed by radiochemical separation methods and subsequent radiometry. The dose estimates were based on the model proposed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for a hypothetical critical group associated with the point of effluents release into the river Ribeirao das Antas (point 014). The maximum dose rate allowed by CNEN for release is equal to 0.3 mSv·y{sup -1}for individuals of the critical group. Our calculations were performed using the average concentration along the ten years period study. The estimated dose value for the individual of the critical group was 0.12 mSv·y{sup -1}. It may be concluded that the reference levels established by CNEN were not reached. This indicates that the treatment of effluents generated by the CIPC/UTM was conducted efficiently, ensuring the safety of the population living in the surroundings of the Ore Processing Unit (UTM) at Caldas. (author)

  9. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  10. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  11. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  12. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  14. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  15. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  16. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.

    2006-07-01

    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  17. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  20. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. Steam reforming of Norpar13 (a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from Exxon Mobile) without and with sulfur was performed on various metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Ni) supported on different materials (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, MgO, and CeO2- Al2O3). A number of characterization techniques were applied to study the physicochemical properties of these catalysts before and after the reactions. Especially, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was intensively used to investigate the nature of sulfur and carbon species in the used catalysts to reveal the catalyst deactivation mechanism. Among the tested noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalyst is the most sulfur tolerant. Al2O3 and CeO2 are much better than SiO2 and MgO as the supports for the Rh catalyst to reform sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. The good sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 can be attributed to the acidic nature of the Al2O3 support and its small Rh crystallites (1-3 nm) as these characteristics facilitate the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles with high sulfur tolerance. The good catalytic performance of Rh/CeO2 in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, which significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the Rh/CeO2catalyst. Steam reforming of Norpar13 in the absence and presence of sulfur was further carried out over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 °C. Both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 °C, iv and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 °C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. Sulfur K-edge XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur

  1. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  3. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  4. Expedient utilization of wastes from the 'Tverditza' coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, B.; Kamburova, G.; Terziev, S.

    1982-08-01

    The paper treats the problem of waste utilization at the Tverditza coal preparation plant in the Balkan coal basin, where, due to low coal quality (77.22% ash), more than 60% of the total run-of-mine coal is disposed of as waste on nearby spoil banks. The results of chemical analysis of waste material are given, showing that this material may be used for production of ceramic products and bricks. Results of industrial utilization of prepared waste material (crushed to under 3 mm) at the Demir Slavov ceramic factory are described. Annually more than 230,000 tons of waste material containing 77-80% or 60-65% of carbon may be used for production of ceramic products and bricks in ceramic factories of the Balkan coal basin, bringing about an annual savings of 300,000 BLevs. (4 refs.)

  5. 几种加氢预处理催化剂的失活原因探讨%Investigation on the Causes of Hydrotreating Catalyst Deactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁相程; 王继锋; 温德荣; 刘雪玲; 喻正南; 赵琰; 连丕勇

    2001-01-01

    The catalyst activity has been estimated through a small hydrogeneration unit. The results indicate that the hydrodenitrogen activity of regenerated catalyst decreased obviously compared with fresh catalyst. The reaction temperature by using regenerated catalyst is 7~8 ℃ higher than by using fresh catalyst . The physicochemical characteristics and their variation before and after regeneration of hydrogeneration catalysts largely used in commercial units were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), and infrared spectroscopy (IR) in order to obtain the causes of catalyst deactivation. The results show that the deactivation causes of hydrogeneration catalysts used in commercial units fall into three major categories: temporal deactivation caused by pore blocking via coke deposition in the catalyst pores; permanent deactivation caused by pore blocking via heavy metal deposition at the catalyst pore mouths that decreases acidity and deactivates some active sites permanently; permanent deactivation caused by smaller metal aggregation and supports sintering .%通过小型加氢装置对催化剂进行活性评价,结果表明,失活催化剂经再生后加氢脱氮活性明显降低,其反应温度比新鲜催化剂反应温度高7~8 ℃左右。通过使用XRD、XPS、TPR、ICP、IR等技术,测试和表征几种工业大量应用的加氢预处理催化剂,从不同角度研究再生前、后催化剂的各种性能的变化,研究、探讨催化剂失活的原因。研究表明,加氢预处理催化剂经工业使用后,导致催化剂失活的原因有:在运转中碳的沉积使其暂时性失活、重金属沉积堵塞孔口、降低酸度、使催化剂部分活性位永久性失活,而金属聚集、载体烧结使催化剂加氢活性降低,导致催化剂永久性失活。

  6. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii;

    stream, i.e. by in situ treatment of the Pt-catalyst by reductive H2-gas. However, introduction of H2 gas in the gas stream could also affect other units in the tail pipe gas cleaning system. Of special interest here, is the effect of hydrogen gas on the performance of the deNOx + SCR catalytic process...

  7. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady;

    on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  8. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  9. Long time experience with deactivation and regeneration of DENOX catalysts and evaluation with the Internet database LEONID; Langzeiterfahrung mit der Deaktivierung und Regeneration von DENOX-Katalysatoren sowie Auswertung mit der Internet-Datenbank LEONID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenstein, J.; Dieckmann, H.J.; Gutberlet, H. [E.ON Engineering GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The paper gives an overview over the long-term catalyst deactivation and the main reasons for catalyst aging. The chemical composition of de-activated catalysts provides information on the optimum catalyst regeneration process. The long-term deactivation behaviour of regenerated catalysts is compared to new catalysts. All characteristic catalyst features are listed in an online 'LEONID'-database, developed by E.ON Engineering. The database provides the basis for long-term catalyst management of all connected SCR systems. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  11. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  12. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-05-01

    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  13. Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma Treatment for Deactivation of Oral Bacteria and Improvement of Dental Composite Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing Song; Li, H.; Ritts, A. C.; Yang, B.; Chen, M.; Hong, L.; Xu, C.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.

    This paper reviews our recent research results of using non-thermal ­atmospheric plasmas for oral bacterial deactivation and for composite restoration improvement. Oral bacteria of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) with an initial bacterial population density between 1.0 × 108 and 5.0 × 108 cfu/ml were seeded on various media and their survivability with plasma exposure was examined. The plasma exposure time for a 99.9999% cell reduction was less than 15 s for S. mutans and within 5 min for L. acidophilus. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. After dental composite application and light curing, the teeth were then sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for microtensile test. Student Newman Keuls (SNK) tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment of the dentin surfaces. These findings indicated that non-thermal atmospheric plasma technology is very promising for dental clinical applications.

  14. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Rod W; Mander, Lewis N; Asp, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA1 explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea. For flowering, it is GA5 which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass, Lolium. As we show here, GA1 and GA4 are restricted in their effectiven......Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA1 explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea. For flowering, it is GA5 which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass, Lolium. As we show here, GA1 and GA4 are restricted...... in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex. In contrast, GA5 is effective because of its structural protection at C-2. Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1, [14C]GA4, and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h), but not [14C]GA5. Coincidentally, genes...

  15. Study on the Deactivation Kinetics of Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 in the Monocarbonylation of Benzyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zumin Qiu; Yunbing He; Huiping Xiao

    2004-01-01

    The deactivation kinetics of Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 in the monocarbonylation of benzyl chloride to synthesize phenylacetic acid is studied in this paper. Solid 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) is used as the colouring agent, and the concentration of Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 in the system is measured through absorptiometry.The result shows that the optimum condition of the chromogenic reaction between Pd2+ and PAN is:0.5 ml of 0.04% PAN added to 10 ml of Pd2+ solution (1.0×10-6-2.0×10-5 mol/L), and heated in a constant temperature water bath at 40 ℃ for about 30 min, with pH of the solution being about 3.0.The molar coefficient of absorption is 1.384×104 L/(mol.cm); the orders of the hydrolytic reaction to the concentration of Pd(PPh3)2Cl2, PPh3, phenylacetic acid and NaOH are 0.5, minus 0.8, 2 and 1.2,respectively. The activation energy (E) of the hydrolytic reaction is 75.59 k J/mol, and the pre-exponential factor is 1.68×1012.

  16. Coking and Deactivation of Catalyst Inhibited by Silanization Modification in Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol with Nitrous Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丕沐; 王立秋; 刘长厚; 张守臣

    2005-01-01

    The main cause to the deactivation of ZSM-5 catalyst, used for oxidation of benzene to phenol (BTOP) by nitrous oxide, is that the carbon deposition on the catalyst surface blocks the mouth of pores of the catalyst.In the experiments, ZSM-5 catalyst was modified by chemical surface deposition of silicon, and then the effect of modification condition on the catalyst activation was studied. The catalyst samples were characterized by XRF,EPS, XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption at low temperature, pyridine adsorption-infrared technique and etc. All the above results show that the uniform SiO2 membrane can be formed on ZSM-5 crystal surface. The SiO2 membrane covers the acid centers on ZSM-5 surface to inhibit surface coking, to avoid or decrease the possibility of ZSM-5 pore blockage so that the catalyst activity and stability can be improved efficiently. The optimum siliconiting conditions determined by the experiments are as follows: 4% load of silanizing agent, volume (ml)/mass (g) ratio of hexane/ZSM-5=15/1, and 16 h of modification time. Compared with the samples without siliconiting treatment,the samples treated under the above optimum condition can increase the productivity of phenol by 14% for 3 h reaction time and by 41% for 6 h reaction time respectively.

  17. Through experience to boldness? Deactivation of neophobia towards novel and aposematic prey in three European species of tits (Paridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová-Ježová, Dana; Hospodková, Eliška; Fuchsová, Lucie; Štys, Pavel; Exnerová, Alice

    2016-10-01

    European tits (Paridae) exhibit species-specific levels of initial wariness towards aposematic prey. This wariness may be caused by neophobia, dietary conservatism or innate bias against particular prey traits. We assessed the contribution of these three mechanisms to the behaviour of juvenile tits towards novel palatable prey and novel aposematic prey. We compared levels of initial wariness in great tits (Parus major), blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and coal tits (Periparus ater), and tested how the wariness can be deactivated by experience with a palatable prey. One group of birds was pre-trained to attack familiar naturally coloured mealworms the other one, novel red-painted mealworms. Then all the birds were offered a novel palatable prey of different colour and shape: cricket (Acheta domestica) with blue sticker, and then a novel aposematic firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus). The three species of tits differed in how the experience with a novel palatable prey affected their behaviour towards another novel prey. Great tits and coal tits from experienced groups significantly decreased their neophobia towards both palatable prey and aposematic prey while blue tits did not change their strongly neophobic reactions. The interspecific differences may be explained by differences in body size, geographic range, and habitat specialisation.

  18. [Deactivation by SO2 of transition metal oxides modified low-temperature SCR catalyst for NOx reduction with NH3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-xiong; Liu, Ting; Yang, Ting-ting; Xiong, Li-xian; Wang, Jing

    2009-08-15

    MnOx-CeOx/ACF catalyst was prepared by impregnation method, which exhibited high activity for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx over the temperature range 110-230 degrees C. Experiments results indicated that the catalyst yielded 80% NO conversion at 150 degrees C and 90% at 230 degrees C. The Oxides of Fe,Cu and V were added to the catalysts based on MnOx-CeOx/ACF. The additions of these transition metal oxides had a negative effect on the activity of the catalysts. Compared with MnOx-CeOx/ACF and Cu and V modified catalysts, NO conversion for Fe-MnOx-CeOx/ACF catalyst leveled off at nearly 75% in the first 6 h in the presence of SO2. Two mechanisms of catalyst deactivation by SO2 were discovered by the methods of X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), indicating that the catalysts were covered by ammonium sulfates and the metal oxides, acting as active components, were also sulfated by SO2 to form metal sulfates.

  19. Large Ferrierite Crystals as Models for Catalyst Deactivation during Skeletal Isomerisation of Oleic Acid: Evidence for Pore Mouth Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Sophie C C; Ristanović, Zoran; Whiting, Gareth T; Reddy Marthala, V R; Kärger, Jörg; Weitkamp, Jens; Wels, Bas; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-04

    Large zeolite crystals of ferrierite have been used to study the deactivation, at the single particle level, of the alkyl isomerisation catalysis of oleic acid and elaidic acid by a combination of visible micro-spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy (both polarised wide-field and confocal modes). The large crystals did show the desired activity, albeit only traces of the isomerisation product were obtained and low conversions were achieved compared to commercial ferrierite powders. This limited activity is in line with their lower external non-basal surface area, supporting the hypothesis of pore mouth catalysis. Further evidence for the latter comes from visible micro-spectroscopy, which shows that the accumulation of aromatic species is limited to the crystal edges, while fluorescence microscopy strongly suggests the presence of polyenylic carbocations. Light polarisation associated with the spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy reveals that these carbonaceous deposits are aligned only in the larger 10-MR channels of ferrierite at all crystal edges. The reaction is hence further limited to these specific pore mouths.

  20. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  1. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Motivation RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis...... of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  2. Deactivation of Bromelain in Pineapple Juice and analysing its Physico-Chemical and Organoleptic properties for successful commercialization via FMCG Industries in Indian Subcontinent.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Mitra; Kunal Garg; Suneetha V

    2013-01-01

    The plan of this investigation was formulated to study the biochemical and physical attributes of juice extracted from the pulp which has high sugar (glucose and fructose) content and adequate moisture. Pineapple confers health benefit on the host as it contains huge quantities of vitamin C and other antioxidants. Deactivation of bromelain was also performed so that there are no hindrances in the juice manufacturing process. Sodium meta-bisulphite was also added to increase the shelf life of ...

  3. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  4. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  6. New approaches to variable displacement. What will be next after cylinder deactivation on gasoline engines?; Neue Wege zum variablen Hubvolumen. Was kommt nach der Zylinderabschaltung am Ottomotor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.; Grigoriadis, P.; Dingel, O.; Werler, A.; Neukirchner, H. [IAV GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Fuel economy results close to those of diesel engines could be obtained for the gasoline (Otto) engine in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) by means of cylinder deactivation (CDA). This can be achieved without renouncing the classical benefits of the gasoline engine such as low noise and emission levels or its typical liveliness. In cycles providing higher load fractions, the positive fuel economy effect of CDA can turn out to be much smaller. Additionally, shutting off cylinders by deactivating the intake and exhaust valves does not lead to significantly reduced friction torque in the engine. This article therefore discusses additional measures aimed at further decreasing fuel consumption such as the partial deactivation of the cranktrain, an asymmetric displacement split and a combination with variable valve lift. The fuel consumption scenarios discussed are based on experimental and simulation data from a turbocharged 1.6l four-cylinder gasoline engine. The impact of the measures described on vibration characteristics and the harshness of the engine is considered in the analysis of the fuel consumption potential. Design solutions for the suggested measures are illustrated and their impact on friction torque and fuel economy in cycles with higher load distribution is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Possibilities for recycling cellulases after use in cotton processing: part I: Effects of end-product inhibition, thermal and mechanical deactivation, and cellulase depletion by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Helena; Bishop, David; Cavaco-Paul, Artur

    2002-04-01

    Preliminary recycling experiments with cellulase enzymes after cotton treatments at 50 degrees C showed that activity remaining in the treatment liquors was reduced by about 80% after five recycling steps. The potential problems of end-product inhibition, thermal and mechanical deactivation, and the loss of some components of the cellulase complex by preferential and or irreversible adsorption to cotton substrates were studied. End-product inhibition studies showed that the build-up of cellobiose and glucose would be expected to cause no more than 40% activity loss after five textile treatment cycles. Thermal and mechanical treatments of cellulases suggested that the enzymes start to be deactivated at 60 degrees C and agitation levels similar to those used in textile processing did not cause significant enzyme deactivation. Analysis of cellulase solutions, by fast protein liquid chromatography, before and after adsorption on cotton fabrics, suggested that the cellobiohydrolase II (Cel6A) content of the cellulase complex was reduced, relative to the other components, by preferential adsorption. This would lead to a marked reduction in activity after several treatment cycles and top-up with pure cellobiohydrolase II would be necessary unless this component is easily recoverable from the treated fabric.

  8. Nutrient Mass Balance for the Mobile River Basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Harvill, J. S.; McMahon, G.

    2001-12-01

    The source and fate of nutrients in the Mobile River drainage basin are important water-quality concerns in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Land cover in the basin is 74 percent forested, 16 percent agricultural, 2.5 percent developed, and 4 percent wetland. A nutrient mass balance calculated for 18 watersheds in the Mobile River Basin indicates that agricultural non-point nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban non-point nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in the streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from atmospheric deposition, crop fertilizer, biological nitrogen fixation, animal waste, and point sources were estimated for each of the 18 drainage basins. Total basin nitrogen inputs ranged from 27 to 93 percent from atmospheric deposition (56 percent mean), 4 to 45 percent from crop fertilizer (25 percent mean), biological nitrogen fixation (8 percent mean), 2 to 14 percent from animal waste (8 percent mean), and 0.2 to 11 percent from point sources (3 percent mean). Total basin phosphorus inputs ranged from 10 to 39 percent from atmospheric deposition (26 percent mean), 7 to 51 percent from crop fertilizer (28 percent mean), 20 to 64 percent from animal waste (41 percent mean), and 0.2 to 11 percent from point sources (3 percent mean). Nutrient outputs for the watersheds were estimated by calculating instream loads and estimating nutrient uptake, or withdrawal, by crops. The difference between the total basin inputs and outputs represents nutrients that are retained or processed within the basin while moving from the point of use to the stream, or in the stream. Nitrogen output, as a percentage of the total basin nitrogen inputs, ranged from 19 to 79 percent for instream loads (35 percent mean) and from 0.01 to 32 percent for crop harvest (10 percent mean). From 53 to 87 percent (75 percent mean) of nitrogen inputs were retained within the 18 basins. Phosphorus output ranged from 9 to 29 percent for instream loads (18

  9. Work plan for the Sangamon River basin, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; Mades, Dean M.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the Illinois Department of Transportation and other State agencies, recognizes the need for basin-type assessments in Illinois. This report describes a plan of study for a water-resource assessment of the Sangamon River basin in central Illinois. The purpose of the study would be to provide information to basin planners and regulators on the quantity, quality, and use of water to guide management decisions regarding basin development. Water quality and quantity problems in the Sangamon River basin are associated primarily with agricultural and urban activities, which have contributed high concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter to the streams. The impact has resulted in eutrophic lakes, diminished capacity of lakes to store water, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and turbid stream and lake waters. The four elements of the plan of study include: (1) determining suspended sediment and nutrient transport, (2) determining the distribution of selected inorganic and organic residues in streambed sediments, (3) determining the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Sangamon River, and (4) applying a hydraulic model to high streamflows. (USGS)

  10. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  11. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... risks associated with household hazardous wastes, it is important that people always monitor the use, storage, and ...

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE TOWN OF SÃO LEOPOLDO - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Naime

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the current solid waste management in the municipality of Sao Leopoldo, located in the river basin of the Bells, the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre-RS. Based on data of the City Hall, are described and evaluated all the processes involved from generation to final disposal of domestic solid waste from the city. The municipality of Sao Leopoldo is the second largest municipality integral basin river valley of the Bells. It counts on a former landfill where it operates a transfer station for sorting and solid waste. Practicing segregation of dry waste after separate collection of reduced efficiency which makes the whole process with low efficiency. This occurs by the lack of systematic environmental education. Organic waste is not destined for composting. The average daily domestic solid waste collected in the municipality is 120 tons. Currently, less than 8.4% of the amount of waste collected is recycled into local plant and the remainder is sent to landfill. The example of this council emphasized the importance of paradigm shift on the design of the management of municipal solid waste. The council carries out an appropriate destination landfill itself well built and operated properly licensed. But it is necessary to strengthen the new standards for the integrated management of municipal solid waste. With the reuse of raw materials, producing water and energy saving and generation of jobs and income for excluded portions of the population.

  13. Comparing the deactivation behaviour of Co/CNT and Co/γ-Al2O3 nano catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Tavasoli; Saba Karimi; Somayeh Taghavi; Zahra Zolfaghari; Hamideh Amirfirouzkouhi

    2012-01-01

    An extensive study of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis on cobalt nano particles supported on γ-alumina and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) catalysts is reported.20 wt% of cobalt is loaded on the supports by impregnation method.The deactivation of the two catalysts was studied at 220℃,2 MPa and 2.7 L/h feed flow rate using a fixed bed micro-reactor.The calcined fresh and used catalysts were characterized extensively and different sources of catalyst deactivation were identified.Formation of cobalt-support mixed oxides in the form of xCoO·y.Al2O3 and cobalt aluminates formation were the main sources of the Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst deactivation.However sintering and cluster growth of cobalt nano particles are the main sources of the Co/CNTs catalyst deactivation.In the case of the Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst,after 720 h on stream of continuous FT synthesis the average cobalt nano particles diameter increased from 15.9 to 18.4 nm,whereas,under the same reaction conditions the average cobalt nano particles diameter of the Co/CNTs increased from 11.2 to 17.8 nm.Although,the initial FT activity of the Co/CNTs was 26%higher than that of the Co/γ-Al2O3,the FT activity over the Co/CNTs after 720 h on stream decreased by 49% and that over the Co/γ-Al2O3by 32%.For the Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst 6.7% of total activity loss and for the Co/CNTs catalyst 11.6% of total activity loss cannot be recovered after regeneration of the catalyst at the same conditions of the first regeneration step.It is concluded that using CNTs as cobalt catalyst support is beneficial in carbon utilization as compared to γ-Al2O3 support,but the Co/CNTs catalyst is more susceptible for deactivation.

  14. Mechanism of deactivation of triplet-excited riboflavin by ascorbate, carotenoids, and tocopherols in homogeneous and heterogeneous aqueous food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Daniel R; Olsen, Karsten; Skibsted, Leif H

    2007-07-25

    Tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) and Trolox were found to deactivate triplet-excited riboflavin in homogeneous aqueous solution (7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water) with second-order reaction rates close to diffusion control [k2 between 4.8 x 10(8) (delta-tocopherol) and 6.2 x 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1) (Trolox) at 24.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C] as determined by laser flash photolysis transient absorption spectroscopy. In aqueous buffer (pH 6.4) the rate constant for Trolox was 2.6 x 10(9) L mol(-1) s1 and comparable to the rate constant found for ascorbate (2.0 x 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1)). The deactivation rate constant was found to be inferior in heterogeneous systems as shown for alpha-tocopherol and Trolox in aqueous Tween-20 emulsion (approximately by a factor of 4 compared to 7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water). Neither beta-carotene (7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water and Tween-20 emulsion), lycopene (7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water), nor crocin (aqueous buffer at pH 6.4, 7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water, and Tween-20 emulsion) showed any quenching on the triplet excited state of riboflavin. Therefore, all carotenoids seem to reduce the formation of triplet-excited riboflavin through an inner-filter effect. Activation parameters were based on the temperature dependence of the triplet-excited deactivation between 15 and 35 degrees C, and the isokinetic behavior, which was found to include purine derivatives previously studied, confirms a common deactivation mechanism with a bimolecular diffusion-controlled encounter with electron (or hydrogen atom) transfer as rate-determining step. DeltaH for deactivation by ascorbic acid, Trolox, and homologue tocopherols (ranging from 18 kJ mol(-1) for Trolox in Tween-20 emulsion to 184 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid in aqueous buffer at pH 6.4) showed a linear dependence on DeltaS (ranging from -19 J mol(-1) K(-1) for Trolox in aqueous buffer at pH 6.4 to +550 J mol(-1) K(-1) for ascorbic acid in aqueous buffer pH 6.4). Among photooxidation products from the

  15. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  16. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  17. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  18. The induction phenomenon and catalytic deactivation of thiolate-stabilized raspberry-like polymer composites coated with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maolin; Chen, Guofang; Bhuyain, Shiper

    2015-01-01

    Alkylthiolate ligands play dual roles in metal nanoparticles-coated polymer composite catalysts: stabilizer and deactivator. Herein, individual raspberry-like polymer composite spheres coated with gold nanoparticles were separated from each other in the presence of 6-mercaptohexanoic acid or 3-mercaptopropionic acid ligands. Effects of thiolate ligands on the induction time and the catalytic activity of such non-aggregated polymer composites were investigated experimentally and theoretically in the 4-nitrophenol/NaBH4 model reaction from the following aspects: ligand surface coverage, chain order and chain length. With the increase in alkylthiolate surface coverage and chain order on composite particles, the induction time increases first and then decreases, which can be explained based on spontaneous dynamic surface restructuring and electron injection from borohydride ions to the gold nanoparticle surface. The catalytic activity is compromised with the existence of thiolate ligands, but is enhanced with increasing alkylthiolate ligand coverage, which can be ascribed to sulfur-induced electronic charge depletion of the gold nanoparticles. The increment of CH2 in alkylthiolate chains results in the increase of induction time and the decrease of the catalytic activity, which can be attributed to the steric hindrance effect. The reactant addition sequence was also found to affect the induction time and the catalytic activity, which can be partially credited to NaBH4 reductant-induced desorption of thiolate ligands.Alkylthiolate ligands play dual roles in metal nanoparticles-coated polymer composite catalysts: stabilizer and deactivator. Herein, individual raspberry-like polymer composite spheres coated with gold nanoparticles were separated from each other in the presence of 6-mercaptohexanoic acid or 3-mercaptopropionic acid ligands. Effects of thiolate ligands on the induction time and the catalytic activity of such non-aggregated polymer composites were

  19. Extended characterization of M-Area settling basin and vicinity. Technical data summary. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J B

    1985-10-01

    The Savannah River Plant M-Area settling basin, an unlined surface impoundment, has received process effluents from the M-Area fuel and target fabrication facilities since 1958. The waste effluents have contained metal degreasing agents (chlorinated hydrocarbons), acids, caustics, and heavy metals. Data analyses are provided.

  20. Concerning the Deactivation of Cobalt(III)-Based Porphyrin and Salen Catalysts in Epoxide/CO 2 Copolymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Wei

    2015-02-05

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Functioning as active catalysts for propylene oxide (PO) and carbon dioxide copolymerization, cobalt(III)-based salen and porphyrin complexes have drawn great attention owing to their readily modifiable nature and promising catalytic behavior, such as high selectivity for the copolymer formation and good regioselectivity with respect to the polymer microstructure. Both cobalt(III)-salen and porphyrin catalysts have been found to undergo reduction reactions to their corresponding catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species in the presence of propylene oxide, as evidenced by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography (for cobalt(II)-salen). Further investigations on a TPPCoCl (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin) and NaOMe system reveal that such a catalyst reduction is attributed to the presence of alkoxide anions. Kinetic studies of the redox reaction of TPPCoCl with NaOMe suggests a pseudo-first order in cobalt(III)-porphyrin. The addition of a co-catalyst, namely bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride (PPNCl), into the reaction system of cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin and PO shows no direct stabilizing effect. However, the results of PO/CO2 copolymerization by cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin with PPNCl suggest a suppressed catalyst reduction. This phenomenon is explained by a rapid transformation of the alkoxide into the carbonate chain end in the course of the polymer formation, greatly shortening the lifetime of the autoreducible PO-ring-opening intermediates, cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin alkoxides. CO2 saves: The deactivation of cobalt(III)-porphyrin and salen catalysts in propylene oxide/carbon dioxide copolymerization is systematically investigated, revealing a proposed mechanism for the catalyst reduction (see scheme).

  1. Rapid deactivation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils: continuous replacement by newly activated enzyme sustains the respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, L P; English, D; Gabig, T G

    1988-07-01

    The cell-free system for activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase allowed us to examine activation of the oxidase in the absence of its NADPH-dependent turnover. The covalent sulfhydryl-modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide completely inhibited the activation step (Ki = 40 mumol/L) in the cell-free system but had no effect on turnover of the preactivated particulate NADPH oxidase (up to 1 mmol/L). When N-ethylmaleimide was added to intact neutrophils during the period of maximal O2 generation in response to stimuli that activate the respiratory burst (phorbol myristate acetate, f-Met-Leu-Phe, opsonized zymosan, arachidonic acid), O2- generation ceased within seconds. Study of components of the cell-free activation system indicated that the cytosolic cofactor was irreversibly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide whereas the N-ethylmaleimide-treated, membrane-associated oxidase could be activated by arachidonate and control cytosolic cofactor. Likewise, the cell-free system prepared from intact neutrophils that had been briefly exposed to N-ethylmaleimide and then washed reflected the effects of N-ethylmaleimide on the isolated cell-free components: cytosolic cofactor activity was absent, but the membrane oxidase remained fully activatable. Thus inhibition of oxidase activation by N-ethylamaleimide unmasked a rapid deactivation step that was operative in intact neutrophils but not in isolated particulate NADPH oxidase preparations. The demonstrated specificity of N-ethylmaleimide for oxidase activation and lack of effect on turnover of the NADPH oxidase suggested that sustained O2- generation by intact neutrophils was a result of continued replenishment of a small pool of active oxidase. The existence of an inactive pool of NADPH oxidase molecules in particulate preparations from stimulated neutrophils was supported more directly by activating these preparations again in the cell-free system.

  2. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  3. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  4. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  5. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  6. K-Basin gel formation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1998-07-23

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

  7. Natural frequency of regular basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  8. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  9. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  10. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for 1986 through 1991 from two small basins in central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating the volcanic tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for their suitability as storage sites for nuclear waste. Two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to the ground water. The semiarid 3 Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. This publication presents the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Data were collected throughout the two basins. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins. Meteorological data are available from the lower sites from the winter of 1986 through the fall of 1991. Periods of data collection were shorter for additional sites in the basin.

  11. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  12. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  13. Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.

  14. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [Western Pacific Regional Environmental Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Design of Embedded Metal Catalysts via Reverser Micro-Emulsion System: a Way to Suppress Catalyst Deactivation by Metal Sintering

    KAUST Repository

    AlMana, Noor

    2016-06-19

    The development of highly selective and active, long-lasting, robust, low-cost and environmentally benign catalytic materials is the greatest challenge in the area of catalysis study. In this context, core-shell structures where the active sites are embedded inside the protecting shell have attracted a lot of researchers working in the field of catalysis owing to their enhanced physical and chemical properties suppress catalyst deactivation. Also, a new active site generated at the interface between the core and shell may increases the activity and efficiency of the catalyst in catalytic reactions especially for oxide shells that exhibit redox properties such as TiO2 and CeO2. Moreover, coating oxide layer over metal nanoparticles (NPs) can be designed to provide porosity (micropore/mesopore) that gives selectivity of the various reactants by the different gas diffusion rates. In this thesis, we will discuss the concept of catalyst stabilization against metal sintering by a core-shell system. In particular we will study the mechanistic of forming core-shell particles and the key parameters that can influence the properties and morphology of the Pt metal particle core and SiO2 shell (Pt@SiO2) using the reverse micro-emulsion method. The Pt@SiO2 core-shell catalysts were investigated for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction. The study was further extended to other catalytic applications by varying the composition of the core as well as the chemical nature of the shell material. The Pt NPs were embedded within another oxide matrix such as ZrO2 and TiO2 for CO oxidation reaction. These materials were studied in details to identify the factors governing the coating of the oxide around the metal NPs. Next, a more challenging system, namely, bimetallic Ni9Pt NPs embedded in TiO2 and ZrO2 matrix were investigated for dry reforming of methane reaction at high temperatures. The challenges of designing Ni9Pt@oxide core-shell structure with TiO2 and ZrO2 and their tolerance

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF REACTOR VESSELS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.

    2010-11-10

    The R- and P-reactor vessels at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of physically isolating and stabilizing the reactor vessel by filling it with a grout material. The reactor vessels contain aluminum alloy materials, which pose a concern in that aluminum corrodes rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout. A product of the corrosion reaction is hydrogen gas and therefore potential flammability issues were assessed. A model was developed to calculate the hydrogen generation rate as the reactor is being filled with the grout material. Three options existed for the type of grout material for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options included ceramicrete (pH 6-8), a calcium aluminate sulfate (CAS) based cement (pH 10), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.4). Corrosion data for aluminum in concrete were utilized as input for the model. The calculations considered such factors as the surface area of the aluminum components, the open cross-sectional area of the reactor vessel, the rate at which the grout is added to the reactor vessel, and temperature. Given the hydrogen generation rate, the hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of the reactor vessel above the grout was calculated. This concentration was compared to the lower flammability limit for hydrogen. The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the CAS grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters did not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. Therefore, it was recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. On the other hand, the R-reactor vessel

  17. Sappan Lignum Extract Inhibits Restenosis in the Injured Artery through the Deactivation of Nuclear Factor-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore whether Sappan Lignum Extract (SLE would inhibit vascular restenosis in injured artery and its inhibitory mechanism by using a balloon-injured rat carotid artery restenosis model. Different doses of SLE were administered to the rats by tube feeding, starting from four days before surgery and continuing twice per day for two weeks after carotid injury. Injured carotid arteries isolated from rats were embedded in paraffin block and tissue sections were stained with H&E to assess restenosis. The Effects of SLE on vascular restenosis, which are involved in smooth muscle cell cycle, NF-κB p65 expression, and Superoxide (O2- production, was assessed by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that in a rat carotid model of balloon dilatation injury, SLE significantly reduced the intimal-to-medial area ratio and vascular restenosis after 14 days of the injury. Immunohistochemistry study revealed no inhibited PCNA expression caused by SLE. Rat serum containing Sappan Lignum (RSC was found neither anti-proliferative effect in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and nor arrest cell cycle progress detected by flow cytometry. RSC remarkably decreased the expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein in cultured VSMCs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay proved that RSC inhibited the binding of NF-κB to specific DNA sequences in TNF-α treated VSMCs. Western blot pronounced that RSC and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC reduced expression of NF-κB p65 in nuclear extracts in TNF-α treated VSMCs. RSC and NAC also attenuated superoxide anion generation in TNF-α treated VSMCs. In summary, the inhibitory effects of SLE on vascular restenosis may not be mediated through inhibiting vascular cell proliferation, but through inhibiting vascular inflammation instead, which may be attributed to the inhibition of TNF-α and subsequent deactivation of NF-κB, which was in part mediated through inhibiting

  18. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  19. Data Basin: Expanding Access to Conservation Data, Tools, and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comendant, T.; Strittholt, J.; Frost, P.; Ward, B. C.; Bachelet, D. M.; Osborne-Gowey, J.

    2009-12-01

    Mapping and spatial analysis are a fundamental part of problem solving in conservation science, yet spatial data are widely scattered, difficult to locate, and often unavailable. Valuable time and resources are wasted locating and gaining access to important biological, cultural, and economic datasets, scientific analysis, and experts. As conservation problems become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, a new way to connect science and practice is needed. To meet this need, an open-access, web tool called Data Basin (www.databasin.org) has been created by the Conservation Biology Institute in partnership with ESRI and the Wilburforce Foundation. Users of Data Basin can gain quick access to datasets, experts, groups, and tools to help solve real-world problems. Individuals and organizations can perform essential tasks such as exploring and downloading from a vast library of conservation datasets, uploading existing datasets, connecting to other external data sources, create groups, and produce customized maps that can be easily shared. Data Basin encourages sharing and publishing, but also provides privacy and security for sensitive information when needed. Users can publish projects within Data Basin to tell more complete and rich stories of discovery and solutions. Projects are an ideal way to publish collections of datasets, maps and other information on the internet to reach wider audiences. Data Basin also houses individual centers that provide direct access to data, maps, and experts focused on specific geographic areas or conservation topics. Current centers being developed include the Boreal Information Centre, the Data Basin Climate Center, and proposed Aquatic and Forest Conservation Centers.

  20. Functional MRI Assessment of Task-Induced Deactivation of the Default Mode Network in Alzheimer’s Disease and At-Risk Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Pihlajamäki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in old age, and is characterized by prominent impairment of episodic memory. Recent functional imaging studies in AD have demonstrated alterations in a distributed network of brain regions supporting memory function, including regions of the default mode network. Previous positron emission tomography studies of older individuals at risk for AD have revealed hypometabolism of association cortical regions similar to the metabolic abnormalities seen in AD patients. In recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of AD, corresponding brain default mode regions have also been found to demonstrate an abnormal fMRI task-induced deactivation response pattern. That is, the relative decreases in fMRI signal normally observed in the default mode regions in healthy subjects performing a cognitive task are not seen in AD patients, or may even be reversed to a paradoxical activation response. Our recent studies have revealed alterations in the pattern of deactivation also in elderly individuals at risk for AD by virtue of their APOE e4 genotype, or evidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. In agreement with recent reports from other groups, these studies demonstrate that the pattern of fMRI task-induced deactivation is progressively disrupted along the continuum from normal aging to MCI and to clinical AD and more impaired in e4 carriers compared to non-carriers. These findings will be discussed in the context of current literature regarding functional imaging of the default network in AD and at-risk populations.

  1. Active sites, deactivation and stabilization of Fe-ZSM-5 for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröcher, Oliver; Brandenberger, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Fe-ZSM-5 has been systematically investigated as catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH(3), concentrating on the active sites, the deactivation mechanism during hydrothermal aging and the chemical possibilities to stabilize this type of SCR catalyst. Regarding the active SCR sites, it could be shown that monomeric species start to become active at the lowest temperatures (E(a,app) ≈ 36.3 ± 0.2 kJ/mol), followed by dimeric species at intermediate temperatures (E(a,app) ≈ 77 ± 16 kJ/mol) and oligomeric species at high temperatures. Experiments with Fe-ZSM-5 samples, in which the Brønsted acidity was specifically removed, proved that Brønsted acidity is not required for high SCR activity and that NH(3) can also be adsorbed on other acidic sites on the zeolite surface. The hydrothermal deactivation of Fe-ZSM-5 could be explained by the migration of active iron ions from the exchange sites. Parallel to the iron migration dealumination of the zeolite framework occurs, which has to be regarded as an independent process. The migration of iron can be reduced by the targeted reaction of the aluminum hydroxide groups in the lattice with trimethylaluminium followed by calcination. With respect to the application of iron zeolites in the SCR process in diesel vehicles, the most efficient stabilization method would be to switch from the ZSM-5 to the BEA structure type. The addition of NO(2) to the feed gas is another effective measure to increase the activity of even strongly deactivated iron zeolites tremendously.

  2. Solid Waste in Drainage Network of Rio do Meio Watershed, Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Gava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban drainage network is among the main pollution transport load factors. Researches on the identification of solid waste transported in the drainage network have been considered the allow evaluation of its impact. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics that influences the presence of solid wastes in the drainage network of the Rio do Meio basin, Florianópolis/SC. A metal net was installed in selected river section and monitored after each rain event. The results showed about 0.27 kg/ha.year of waste are carried in the drainage network. The majority being composed of plastics and building materials. Through the analysis of the data, it was possible to verify the presence of waste in the drainage network is due to poor packaging and to the lack of sweeping in some parts of the basin. It was also found that the total precipitation is directly proportional to the appearance of solid waste. It was concluded that the lack of an integrated management between the components of sanitary system leave unnoticed simple structural measures that ultimately decrease the amount of solid waste in the drainage basin, and that could eliminate this source of pollution.

  3. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan: New TNX Seepage Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.L.

    1989-12-05

    The New TNX Seepage Basin is located across River Road east of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the basin is out of service and is awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the New TNX Seepage Basin was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater downgradient of the New TNX Seepage Basin had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by inorganic constituents with no associated health risks. The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituents, such as Mn, Na, and Total PO{sub 4} in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment.

  4. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  5. The role of zeolites in the deactivation of multifunctional fischer-tropsch synthesis catalysts: the interaction between HZSM-5 and Fe-based Ft-catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Zonetti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce gasoline directly from syngas, HZSM-5 can be added to the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. However, this catalytic system shows an important deactivation rate. Aiming at describing this phenomenon, Fe-based catalysts and physical mixtures containing these catalysts and HZSM-5 were employed in this reaction. All these systems were characterized using the following techniques: XRD, XPS, TPR and TPD of CO. This work shows that HZSM-5 interacts with the Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst during the reduction step, decreasing the Fe concentration on the catalytic surface and thus lowering the activity of the catalytic system in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.

  6. The role of zeolites in the deactivation of multifunctional Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis catalysts: the interaction between HZSM-5 and Fe-based FT-catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonetti, P.C.; Gaspar, A.B.; Mendes, F.M.T.; Appel, L.G., E-mail: lucia.appel@int.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Avillez, R. R. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa-Aguiar, E.F. [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    In order to produce gasoline directly from syngas, HZSM-5 can be added to the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. However, this catalytic system shows an important deactivation rate. Aiming at describing this phenomenon, Fe-based catalysts and physical mixtures containing these catalysts and HZSM-5 were employed in this reaction. All these systems were characterized using the following techniques: XRD, XPS, TPR and TPD of CO. This work shows that HZSM-5 interacts with the Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst during the reduction step, decreasing the Fe concentration on the catalytic surface and thus lowering the activity of the catalytic system in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. (author)

  7. Absolute rate constant determinations for the deactivation of O/1D/ by time resolved decay of O/1D/ yields O/3P/ emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. A.; Sadowski, C. M.; Schiff, H. I.; Howard, C. J.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Jennings, D. A.; Streit, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the deactivation of O(1D) atoms by some atmospheric gases have been determined by observing the time-resolved emission of O(1D) at 630 nm. O(1D) atoms were produced by the dissociation of ozone via repetitive laser pulses at 266 nm. Absolute rate constants for the relaxation of O(1D) at 298 K are reported for N2, O2, CO2, O3, H2, D2, CH4, HCl, NH3, H2O, N2O, and Ne. The results obtained are compared with previous relative and absolute measurements reported in the literature.

  8. Role of Solvent, pH, and Molecular Size in Excited-State Deactivation of Key Eumelanin Building Blocks: Implications for Melanin Pigment Photostability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauden, M.; Pezzella, A.; Panzella, L.

    2008-01-01

    in the O-acetylated forms. The results show that: 1) excited state decays are faster for the trimer relative to the monomer; 2) for parent DHICA, excited state lifetimes are much shorter in aqueous acidic medium (380 ps) as compared to organic solvent (acetonitrile, 2.6 ns); 3) variation of fluorescence...... spectra and excited state dynamics can be understood as a result of excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The dependence on DHICA oligomer size of excited state deactivation and its ESIPT mechanism provides important insight into the photostability and photoprotective function of eumelanin...

  9. Continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: Activity, inhibition, and deactivation of TiO2 photocatalysts in wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Carbonaro, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts have been shown to be effective at degrading a wide range of organic micropollutants during short-term batch experiments conducted under ideal laboratory solution conditions (e.g., deionized water). However, little research has been performed regarding longer-term photocatalyst performance in more complex matrices representative of contaminated water sources (e.g., wastewater effluent, groundwater). Here, a benchtop continuous-flow reactor was developed for the purpose of studying the activity, inhibition, and deactivation of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts during water treatment applications. As a demonstration, degradation of four pharmaceutical micropollutants (iopromide, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine) was monitored in both a pH-buffered electrolyte solution and a biologically treated wastewater effluent (WWE) to study the effects of non-target constituents enriched in the latter matrix. Reactor performance was shown to be stable over 7d when treating micropollutants in buffered electrolyte, with 7-d averaged kobs values (acetaminophen=0.97±0.10h-1; carbamazepine=0.50±0.04h-1; iopromide=0.49±0.03h-1; sulfamethoxazole=0.79±0.06h-1) agreeing closely with measurements from short-term circulating batch reactions. When reactor influent was switched to WWE, treatment efficiencies decreased to varying degrees (acetaminophen=40% decrease; carbamazepine=60%; iopromide=78%; sulfamethoxazole=54%). A large fraction of the catalyst activity was recovered upon switching back to the buffered electrolyte influent after 4d, suggesting that much of the observed decrease resulted from reversible inhibition by non-target constituents (e.g., scavenging of photocatalyst-generated OH). However, there was also a portion of the decrease in activity that was not recovered, indicating WWE constituents also contributed to photocatalyst deactivation (acetaminophen=6% deactivation; carbamazepine=24%; iopromide=16

  10. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  11. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  12. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  13. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  14. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  15. Sedimentary basin geochemistry and fluid/rock interactions workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Fundamental research related to organic geochemistry, fluid-rock interactions, and the processes by which fluids migrate through basins has long been a part of the U.S. Department of Energy Geosciences program. Objectives of this program were to emphasize those principles and processes which would be applicable to a wide range of problems associated with petroleum discovery, occurrence and extraction, waste disposal of all kinds, and environmental management. To gain a better understanding of the progress being made in understanding basinal fluids, their geochemistry and movement, and related research, and to enhance communication and interaction between principal investigators and DOE and other Federal program managers interested in this topic, this workshop was organized by the School of Geology and Geophysics and held in Norman, Oklahoma in November, 1991.

  16. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  17. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  18. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  19. E-waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Hieronymi, Klaus; Williams, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of electronic waste, e-waste, management is changing dramatically. Besides a rapidly increasing world population, globalization is driving the demand for products, resulting in rising prices for many materials. Absolute scarcity looms for some special resources such as indium. Used electronic products and recyclable materials are increasingly crisscrossing the globe. This is creating both - opportunities and challenges for e-waste management. This focuses on the current and future trends, technologies and regulations for reusable and recyclable e-waste worldwide.

  20. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  2. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  3. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  4. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  5. Binding to Redox-Inactive Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Ions Strongly Deactivates the C-H Bonds of Tertiary Amides toward Hydrogen Atom Transfer to Reactive Oxygen Centered Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; Carboni, Giulia; Mangiacapra, Livia; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-09-18

    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) was studied by laser flash photolysis. In acetonitrile, a >2 order of magnitude decrease in the rate constant for hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the C-H bonds of these substrates (kH) was measured after addition of Li(+). This behavior was explained in terms of a strong interaction between Li(+) and the oxygen atom of both DMF and DMA that increases the extent of positive charge on the amide, leading to C-H bond deactivation toward HAT to the electrophilic radical CumO(•). Similar effects were observed after addition of Ca(2+), which was shown to strongly bind up to four equivalents of the amide substrates. With Mg(2+), weak C-H deactivation was observed for the first two substrate equivalents followed by stronger deactivation for two additional equivalents. No C-H deactivation was observed in DMSO after addition of Li(+) and Mg(2+). These results point toward the important role played by metal ion Lewis acidity and solvent Lewis basicity, indicating that C-H deactivation can be modulated by varying the nature of the metal cation and solvent and allowing for careful control over the HAT reactivity of amide substrates.

  6. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  7. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented.

  8. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  9. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in world river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global food production crucially depends on phosphorus (P). In agricultural and urban landscapes, much P is anthropogenic, entering via trade, and then can be transported by a combination of fluvial and human processes. To date there have been few long-term, large-scale analyses combining both fluvial and human modes of P transport. Here we present reconstructed historical records of anthropogenic P entering and leaving soils and aquatic systems via a combination of trade, infrastructure, food waste, and fluvial fluxes. We then report the net annual P inputs, and the mass of P that has accumulated over the long-term, for entire river basins. Our analyses reveal rapid historical P accumulation for two mixed agricultural-urban landscapes (Thames Basin, UK, Yangtze Basin, China), and one rural agricultural landscape (Maumee Basin, USA). We also show that the human P fluxes massively dominate over the fluvial fluxes in these large basins. For Thames and Maumee Basins, recently there has been modest P depletion/drawdown of the massive P pool accumulated in prior decades, whereas the Yangtze Basin has consistently and rapidly accumulated P since 1980. These first estimates of the magnitude of historical P accumulation in contrasting settings illustrate the scope of management challenges surrounding the storage, fate, exploitation, and reactivation of legacy P that is currently present in the Earth's critical zone.

  10. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  11. Antinutritional Factors in Feeds and Their Deactivation%饲料中的抗营养因子及其灭活

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐莉莉; 许梓荣

    2001-01-01

    Antinutritional factors commonly exist in plant feeds, which mainly include protease inhibitors, lectin, non-starch polyaccharides, phytic acid, tannis, free gossypol, glucosides, antivitamin factors, urease and so on. The antinutritional factors are mainly deactivated in physical, chemical and biological ways at present. The varieties, natures, antinutritional mechanisms of antinutritional factors in feeds and their deactivation ways are expounded in this paper.%抗营养因子普遍存在于植物性饲料中,主要包括蛋白酶抑制因子、植物凝集素、非淀粉多糖、植酸、单宁、糖苷、游离棉酚、抗维生素因子、脲酶等。目前主要通过物理、化学和生物学方法对其进行灭活和钝化。对饲料中抗营养因子的种类、性质、抗营养机理及灭活方法作一综述。

  12. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  13. Enhanced Reactivity in Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Tertiary Sites of Cyclohexanes and Decalins via Strain Release: Equatorial C-H Activation vs Axial C-H Deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; Ortega, Vanesa B; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Absolute rate constants for hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from cycloalkanes and decalins to the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) were measured by laser flash photolysis. Very similar reactivities were observed for the C-H bonds of cyclopentane and cyclohexane, while the tertiary C-H bond of methylcyclopentane was found to be 6 times more reactive than the tertiary axial C-H bond of methylcyclohexane, pointing toward a certain extent of tertiary axial C-H bond deactivation. Comparison between the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane, 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane and decalin provides a quantitative evaluation of the role played by strain release in these reactions. kH values for HAT from tertiary equatorial C-H bonds were found to be at least 1 order of magnitude higher than those for HAT from the corresponding tertiary axial C-H bonds (kH(eq)/kH(ax) = 10-14). The higher reactivity of tertiary equatorial C-H bonds was explained in terms of 1,3-diaxial strain release in the HAT transition state. Increase in torsional strain in the HAT transition state accounts instead for tertiary axial C-H bond deactivation. The results are compared with those obtained for the corresponding C-H functionalization reactions by dioxiranes and nonheme metal-oxo species indicating that CumO(•) can represent a convenient model for the reactivity patterns of these oxidants.

  14. Hydrogen atom transfer from 1,n-alkanediamines to the cumyloxyl radical. Modulating C-H deactivation through acid-base interactions and solvent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Michela; Salamone, Michela; Bietti, Massimo

    2014-06-20

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the effect of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) on the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from 1,n-alkanediamines (R2N(CH2)nNR2, R = H, CH3; n = 1-4), piperazine, and 1,4-dimethylpiperazine to the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)), has been carried out in MeCN and DMSO. Very strong deactivation of the α-C-H bonds has been observed following nitrogen protonation and the results obtained have been explained in terms of substrate basicity, of the distance between the two basic centers and of the solvent hydrogen bond acceptor ability. At [substrate] ≤ 1/2 [TFA] the substrates exist in the doubly protonated form HR2N(+)(CH2)nN(+)R2H, and no reaction with CumO(•) is observed. At 1/2 [TFA] [TFA], HAT occurs from the α-C-H bonds of R2N(CH2)nNR2, and the mesured kH values are very close to those obtained in the absence of TFA. Comparison between MeCN and DMSO clearly shows that in the monoprotonated diamines R2N(CH2)nN(+)R2H remote C-H deactivation can be modulated through solvent hydrogen bonding.

  15. Mindfulness-based Mode Deactivation Therapy for Adolescents with Behavioral Problems and Complex Comorbidity: Concepts in a Nutshell and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Swart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT was conceptualized on the principles of cognitive theory for adolescents with behavioral problems and complex comorbid disorders. The theory and methodology addresses many of the shortcomings that were experienced in treating this population with available therapy approaches. As a systematic, manualized, and contextual treatment, MDT incorporates selected elements from approaches such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT, together with the unique Validation-Clarification-Redirection (VCR change technique. Numerous empirical research studies have established MDT as an effective treatment for adolescents that consistently outperform alternative interventions. A cost-benefit analysis illustrates that MDT is also a cost-effective treatment, potentially saving between four and nine dollars in consequential behavioral costs for every dollar spent on the residential treatment of an adolescent. Therefore, there is ample evidence that Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT is a third wave therapy with potential to become the preferred intervention for this population. The objective of this article is to present a condensed summary of this evidence, together with a brief overview of the concepts and principles that constitute the MDT theory and methodology.

  16. Acupuncture at Waiguan (TE5) influences activation/deactivation of functional brain areas in ischemic stroke patients and healthy people A functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqi Chen; Yong Huang; Xinsheng Lai; Chunzhi Tang; Junjun Yang; Hua Chen; Tongjun Zeng; Junxian Wu; Shanshan Qu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, 10 patients with ischemic stroke in the left hemisphere and six healthy controls were subjected to acupuncture at right Waiguan (TE5). In ischemic stroke subjects, functional MRI showed enhanced activation in Broadmann areas 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 24, 32, the hypothalamic inferior lobe, the mamillary body, and the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the left hemisphere, and Broadmann areas 4, 6, 7, 18, 19 and 32 of the right hemisphere, but attenuated activation of Broadmann area 13, the hypothalamic inferior lobe, the posterior lobe of the tonsil of cerebellum, and the culmen of the anterior lobe of hypophysis, in the left hemisphere and Broadmann area 13 in the right hemisphere. In ischemic stroke subjects, a number of deactivated brain areas were enhanced, including Broadmann areas 6, 11, 20, 22, 37, and 47, the culmen of the anterior lobe of hypophysis, alae lingulae cerebella, and the posterior lobe of the tonsil of cerebellum of the left hemisphere, and Broadmann areas 8, 37, 45 and 47, the culmen of the anterior lobe of hypophysis, pars tuberalis adenohypophyseos, inferior border of lentiform nucleus, lateral globus pallidus, inferior temporal gyrus, and the parahippocampal gyrus of the right hemisphere. These subjects also exhibited attenuation of a number of deactivated brain areas, including Broadmann area 7. These data suggest that acupuncture at Waiguan specifically alters brain function in regions associated with sensation, vision, and motion in ischemic stroke patients. By contrast, in normal individuals, acupuncture at Waiguan generally activates brain areas associated with insomnia and other functions.

  17. The deactivation mechanism of Pb on the Ce/TiO2 catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3: TPD and DRIFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xian; Guo, Rui-Tang; Pan, Wei-Guo; Li, Ming-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Liu, Shu-Ming; Liu, Shuai-Wei; Sun, Xiao; Liu, Jian

    2017-02-15

    It was well recognized that Pb had a poisoning effect on a SCR catalyst. In this study, the deactivation mechanism of Pb on the Ce/TiO2 catalyst was investigated based on the characterization results of TPD and in situ DRIFT studies. It was found that the addition of Pb on the Ce/TiO2 catalyst not only inhibited the adsorption and activation of NH3 species, but also led to the decrease of the activity of adsorbed NH3 species in the SCR reaction. The adsorption of NOx species and the oxidation of NO by O2 over the Ce/TiO2 catalyst were also suppressed by the addition of Pb, while the reactivity of adsorbed NO2 species did not decrease. Moreover, the results revealed that the NH3-SCR reaction over the Ce/TiO2 catalyst followed both the E-R and L-H mechanisms, while the NH3-SCR reaction over Ce/TiO2-Pb was mainly controlled by the L-H mechanism. The contributions of the L-H mechanism to the SCR reactions over Ce/TiO2 and Ce/TiO2-Pb decreased with increasing reaction temperature. The deactivation of Ce/TiO2-Pb was mainly attributed to the suppressed NH3 adsorption and activation, accompanied by the inhibited NO oxidation and the decrease of Brønsted acid sites.

  18. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    little or no treatment for most uses. The water is a soft, sodium bicarbonate type and therefore has a low to moderate dissolved-solids content. Mineral content increases generally downdip in an aquifer. Excessive iron, common in shallow aquifers, is objectionable for some water uses. Water from the streams, except in salty tidal reaches, is less mineralized than ground water; in 10 sites the median dissolved-solids content in streamflow was 50 milligrams per liter or less. Moderately intensive ground-water development has been made in the Bogalusa area, Louisiana; at the Mississippi Test Facility, Hancock County, Miss. ; and in the Jackson area, Mississippi. Wells with pumping rates of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute each are common throughout the Pearl River basin, and some deep wells flow more than 3,000 gallons per minute in the coastal lowland areas. Probably 20 million gallons per day of artesian water flows uncontrolled from wells in the southern part of the basin. Ground-water levels, except in the higher altitudes, are within 60 feet of the surface, and flowing wells are common in the valleys and in the coastal Pine Meadows. Decline of water level is a problem in only a few small areas. Saline water as a resource is available for development from aquifers and streams near the coast and from aquifers at considerable depth in most of the Pearl River basin. Pollution is a problem in oil fields and in reaches of some streams below sewage and other waste-disposal points. The basin estuary contains water of variable quality but has potential for certain water-use developments that will require special planning and management.

  19. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  20. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  1. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  2. Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} internal piping characterization system - deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems.

  3. Waste statistics 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  4. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  5. The Waste Makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2005-01-01

    The throw-away spirit or the spirit of wastefulness has become part of American life and consumption (消费)only keeps rising. Besides, according to the economists, we depend so much on this wasting and buying that people will probably be encouraged to consume even more in the years to come if the US economy is to prosper(兴隆).

  6. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  7. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  8. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  9. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  10. Waste statistics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 reporting to the ISAG comprises 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. In 2002, reports covered 407 plants owned by 296 enterprises. Waste generation in 2003 is compared to targets from 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following can be said to summarise waste generation in 2003: 1) In 2003, total reported waste arisings amounted to 12,835,000 tonnes, which is 270,000 tonnes, or 2 per cent, less than in 2002. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2003 were 11,597,000 tonnes, which is a 2 per cent increase from 2002. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2003 amounted to 7,814,000 tonnes, which is 19,000 tonnes, or 1 per cent, less than in 2002. In other words, there has been a fall in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. 4) The overall rate of recycling amounted to 66 per cent, which is one percentage point above the overall recycling target of 65 per cent for 2008. In 2002 the total rate of recycling was 64 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2002. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point below the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. In 2002, 9 per cent was led to landfill. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being led to landfill. (au)

  11. The Socio-Economic Impacts on Water Resources in the Răut River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Bacal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research consists in the elucidation of spatial and economic aspects of the water use in the Răut river basin. The main topics presented in this paper are: 1 the dynamics of volume of wastewater discharged into the river Raut basin and its sections; 2 wastewater discharge by the degree of treatment; 3 spatial and branch profile of wastewater discharged: 4 existing problems in evaluation and monitoring of waste water. To achieve these objectives were used traditional methods of geographical and economic research.

  12. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  13. Particle tracking for selected groundwater wells in the lower Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Matthew P.

    2015-10-21

    The Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington has a long history of irrigated agriculture and a more recent history of large-scale livestock operations, both of which may contribute nutrients to the groundwater system. Nitrate concentrations in water samples from shallow groundwater wells in the lower Yakima River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard, generating concerns that current applications of fertilizer and animal waste may be exceeding the rate at which plants can uptake nutrients, and thus contributing to groundwater contamination.

  14. Structures, Mixed Types - Residual Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Residual Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Residual Waste Program. Residual waste is waste generated at an industrial,...

  15. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  17. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a cluster of twenty separate project reports concerning the fate, environmental transport, and toxicity of hazardous wastes in the Mississippi River Basin. Some of topics investigated involve: biological uptake and metabolism; heavy metal immobilization; biological indicators; toxicity; and mathematical models.

  18. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  19. Vermicomposting of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treatment, the nightcrawler earthworm are used to treat the food waste. The food will be collected from UTHM cafe. The experiment consist of peat soil as a base, earthworms and the food waste. The pH number and moisture content of each container were controlled at 7.0 to 7.2 and 60 to 80 % to maintain the favorable environment condition for the earthworms. The weight of the sample will be measured in three days time after exposure to the earthworm. The vermicomposting study was taken about two weeks time. After the treatment, the soil sample are tested for nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, and Potassium (K concentration. Based on the result obtained, it shows that vermicomposting will reduce the weight of treatment sample and the concentration of N, P, and K for the soil is greater than the chemical fertilizer. Therefore, vermicomposting is a promising  alternative treatment of food waste as it is more ecofriendly.

  20. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  1. The Amazon basin in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  2. Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zheng, Hao; Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390,USA (United States); Guo, Austin M. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yue, Jiang; Peng, Renxiu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}), phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}), phospho-Bad (Ser{sup 136}), and Bcl-x{sub L} expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic

  3. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  4. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  5. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  6. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  7. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  8. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  9. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  10. Molecular Dynamics and Combined QM/MM Studies on the Deactivation of anti-Tubercular Drug Isoniazid by Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔青安; 马翠华; 宋慧玲; 蔡红兰; 蔡政亭; 冯大诚

    2012-01-01

    Both a molecule dynamic study and a combined quantum mechanics and mole-cule mechanics(QM/MM) study on the acetylating deactivation mechanism of isoniazid were presented.This type of reaction was catalyzed by arylamine N-acetyltransferases(NATs) and the results strongly support a direct acetyl group transfer process rather than a stepwise one.The isoniazid was strictly restrained in proper relative position to accept the acetyl group by a Hydrogen-bond network formed by the residues at the active center.The residues,His110 and Cys70,would be functioned as 'general base' rather than 'general acid'.If all the residues(including H2O molecules) were removed from the system,the activation energy will be increased from 145.1 to 243.3 kJ/mol.The calculations met the experimental data with good agreement.

  11. Albendazole causes stage-dependent developmental toxicity and is deactivated by a mammalian metabolization system in a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Ullerås, Erik; Patring, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2012-08-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test has previously been combined with an external metabolic activation system (MAS) to assess developmental toxicity of metabolites produced by maternal metabolism. Due to toxicity of MAS the exposure was limited to one early and short period. We have modified the method and included additional testing time points with extended exposure durations. Using the anthelmintic drug albendazole as a model substance, we demonstrated stage-dependent toxic effects at three windows of zebrafish embryo development, i.e. 2-3, 12-14 and 24-28h post fertilization, and showed that MAS, by metabolic deactivation, reduced the toxicity of albendazole at all time points. Chemical analysis confirmed that albendazole was efficiently metabolized by MAS to the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone, which are non-toxic to zebrafish embryos. To conclude, the modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test with MAS can be expanded for assessment of metabolites at different developmental stages.

  12. Membrane potentials and intracellular Cl- activity of toad skin epithelium in relation to activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, N J; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1986-01-01

    M in skins from animals adapted to distilled water. Both Va and acCl were found to be positively correlated with Isc (r = 0.66 and r = 0.70, respectively). In eight epithelia from animals adapted to dry milieu/tap water Va and acCl were measured with KCl Ringer's on the outside during activation...... V was stepped back to 40 mV, Va instantaneously shifted to -67.8 +/- 3.9 mV while acCl and fRa remained constant during deactivation of GCl. Similar results were obtained in epithelia impaled from the serosal side. In 12 skins from animals adapted to either tap water or distilled water the density...... zero.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  13. Insights into the deactivation mechanism of supported tungsten hydride on alumina (W-H/Al2O3) catalyst for the direct conversion of ethylene to propylene

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne

    2014-04-01

    Tungsten hydride supported on alumina prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry method is an active precursor for the direct conversion of ethylene to propylene at low temperature and pressure. An extensive contact time study revealed that the dimerization of ethylene to 1-butene is the primary and also the rate limiting step. The catalytic cycle further involves isomerization of 1-butene to 2-butene, followed by cross-metathesis of ethylene and 2-butene to yield propylene with high selectivity. The deactivation mechanism of this reaction has been investigated. The used catalyst was extensively examined by DRIFTS, solid-state NMR, EPR, UV-Vis, TGA and DSC techniques. It was found that a large amount of carbonaceous species, which were due to side reaction like olefin polymerization took place with time on stream, significantly hindering the dimerization of ethylene to 1-butene and therefore the production of propylene. Crown Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemically Driven Deactivation and Recovery in PrBaCo2 O5+δ Oxygen Electrodes for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Wei, Bo; Wang, Zhihong; Chen, Kongfa; Zhang, Haiwu; Zhang, Yaohui; Huang, Xiqiang; Lü, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of surface chemistry changes on oxygen electrodes is critical for the development of reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC). Here, we report for the first time that the electrochemical potentials can drastically affect the surface composition and hence the electrochemical activity and stability of PrBaCo2 O5+δ (PBCO) electrodes. Anodic polarization degrades the activity of the PBCO electrode, whereas the cathodic bias could recover its performance. Alternating anodic/cathodic polarization for 180 h confirms this behavior. Microstructure and chemical analysis clearly show that anodic bias leads to the accumulation and segregation of insulating nanosized BaO on the electrode surface, whereas cathodic polarization depletes the surface species. Therefore, a mechanism based on the segregation and incorporation of BaO species under electrochemical potentials is considered to be responsible for the observed deactivation and recovery process, respectively.

  15. Deactivation mechanism of potassium on the V₂O₅/CeO₂ catalysts for SCR reaction: acidity, reducibility and adsorbed-NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Huang, Xu; Li, Xiang; Su, Wenkang; Sun, Xiaoxu; Wang, Dezhi; Hao, Jiming

    2014-04-15

    A series of V2O5/CeO2 catalysts with different potassium loadings were prepared to investigate alkali deactivations for selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3. An alkali poisoning mechanism could be attributed to surface acidity, reducibility, and NOx adsorption/desorption behaviors. The detailed factors are as follows: (1) decrease of surface acidity suppresses NH3 adsorption by strong bonding of alkali to vanadia (major factor); (2) low reducibility prohibits NH3 activation and NO oxidation by formation bonding of alkali to vanadia and ceria (important factor); (3) active NOx(-) species at low temperature diminish because of coverage of alkali on the surfaces (minor factor); and (4) stable, inactive nitrate species at high temperature increase by generating new basic sites (important factor).

  16. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  17. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  18. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  19. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  20. Climate Change and Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the life cycle of goods, including ways to reduce our carbon footprint. This page also includes statistics on greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of waste.

  1. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  2. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  3. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  4. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier fracti...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  5. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. E. [CH2M HIll Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. M. [AREVA, Avignon (France)

    2012-10-22

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

  6. The agonist-specific voltage dependence of M2 muscarinic receptors modulates the deactivation of the acetylcholine-gated K(+) current (I KACh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Alamilla, Javier; Sanchez-Chapula, José A; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has been shown that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) display intrinsic voltage sensitivity. We reported that the voltage sensitivity of M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R) is also ligand specific. Here, we provide additional evidence to understand the mechanism underlying the ligand-specific voltage sensitivity of the M2R. Using ACh, pilocarpine (Pilo), and bethanechol (Beth), we evaluated the agonist-specific effects of voltage by measuring the ACh-activated K(+) current (I KACh) in feline and rabbit atrial myocytes and in HEK-293 cells expressing M2R-Kir3.1/Kir3.4. The activation of I KACh by the muscarinic agonist Beth was voltage insensitive, suggesting that the voltage-induced conformational changes in M2R do not modify its affinity for this agonist. Moreover, deactivation of the Beth-evoked I KACh was voltage insensitive. By contrast, deactivation of the ACh-induced I KACh was significantly slower at -100 mV than at +50 mV, while an opposite effect was observed when I KACh was activated by Pilo. These findings are consistent with the voltage affinity pattern observed for these three agonists. Our findings suggest that independent of how voltage disturbs the receptor binding site, the voltage dependence of the signaling pathway is ultimately determined by the agonist. These observations emphasize the pharmacological potential to regulate the M2R-parasympathetic associated cardiac function and also other cellular signaling pathways by exploiting the voltage-dependent properties of GPCRs.

  7. Time- and space-resolved study of the methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction - influence of zeolite topology on axial deactivation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Gama, Daniel; Etemadi, Samaneh; Kirby, Eliot; Lillerud, Karl Petter; Beato, Pablo; Svelle, Stian; Olsbye, Unni

    2017-02-10

    Zeolites representing seven different topologies were subjected to life-time assessment studies as methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) catalysts at 400 °C, P(MeOH) = 13 kPa and P(tot) = 100 kPa. The following topologies were studied: ZSM-22 (TON), ZSM-23 (MTT), IM-5 (IMF), ITQ-13 (ITH), ZSM-5 (MFI), mordenite (MOR) and beta (BEA). Two experimental approaches were used. In the first approach, each catalyst was tested at three different contact times, all giving 100% initial conversion. The life-time before conversion decreased to 50% at each contact time was measured and used to calculate critical contact times (i.e. the contact time needed to launch the autocatalytic MTH reaction) and deactivation rates. It was found that the critical contact time is strongly correlated with pore size: the smaller the pore size, the longer the critical contact time. The second experimental approach consisted of testing the catalysts in a double tube reactor with 100% initial conversion, and quenching the reaction after 4 consecutive times on stream, representing full, partial, and zero conversion. After quenching, the catalyst bed was divided into four segments, which were individually characterised for coke content (temperature-programmed oxidation) and specific surface area (N2 adsorption). The axial deactivation pattern was found to depend on pore size. With increasing pore size, the main source of coke formation changed from methanol conversion (1D 10-ring structures), to partly methanol, partly product conversion (3D 10-ring structures) and finally mainly product conversion (3D 12-ring structure). As a result, the methanol conversion capacity changed little with contact time for ZSM-5, while it increased with increasing contact time for the catalysts with smaller pore sizes, and decreased with increasing contact time for pore sizes larger than ZSM-5.

  8. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  9. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  10. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  11. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  12. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When a waste

  13. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  14. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  15. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-10-25

    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  17. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  18. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  19. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  20. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  1. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  2. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  3. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  4. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... listed or characteristic hazardous waste. Finally, it is important to note that some facilities petitioned EPA to ...

  5. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  6. Studies on Pyrolysis Kinetic of Newspaper Wastes in a Packed Bed Reactor: Experiments, Modeling, and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper waste was pyrolysed in a 50 mm diameter and 640 mm long reactor placed in a packed bed pyrolyser from 573 K to 1173 K in nitrogen atmosphere to obtain char and pyro-oil. The newspaper sample was also pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA under the same experimental conditions. The pyrolysis rate of newspaper was observed to decelerate above 673 K. A deactivation model has been attempted to explain this behaviour. The parameters of kinetic model of the reactions have been determined in the temperature range under study. The kinetic rate constants of volatile and char have been determined in the temperature range under study. The activation energies 25.69 KJ/mol, 27.73 KJ/mol, 20.73 KJ/mol and preexponential factors 7.69 min−1, 8.09 min−1, 0.853 min−1 of all products (solid reactant, volatile, and char have been determined, respectively. A deactivation model for pyrolysis of newspaper has been developed under the present study. The char and pyro-oil obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures have been characterized. The FT-IR analyses of pyro-oil have been done. The higher heating values of both pyro-products have been determined.

  7. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  8. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  9. Korean Waste Management Law and Waste Disposal Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Soil Treatment Tanks) 69 Article 8. (Interim Measures on Report of Recycler or Reuser of Industrial Waste) 69 Article 9. (Interim Measures on Permit...recycling and reuse (hereinafter referred to as a "recycler and reuser of industrial waste"), pursuant to Article 23.2. of the Law, shall submit a "Filing... reuser of industrial waste, pursuant to Article 45.2., shall submit a "Modification of Recycle or Reuse of Industrial Waste" (Form No. 17), to the

  10. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  11. Testing for Basins of Wada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2015-11-10

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  12. Routine dose estimates for the removal of soil from a basin to the burial ground at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Ali A

    2004-02-01

    Worker dose estimates have been made for various exposure scenarios resulting from the relocation of soil from the H Area Retention Basin to the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground at the Savannah River Site. Estimates were performed by hand calculations and using RESRAD and MAXDOSE-SR. Doses were estimated for the following pathways: (1) shine and inhalation as a result of standing on contaminated soil at the H Area Retention Basin and the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground; (2) exposure to off-unit receptors due to soil disturbances from excavation type activities at the H Area Retention Basin and the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground; (3) exposure to off-unit receptors due to soil disturbances from dumping of soil from bucket and from roll-off pan; and (4) exposure to off-unit receptors from wind driven dust from contaminated area. The highest dose estimates (0.25 mSv h(-1)) resulted from the receptor standing on the H Area Retention Basin.

  13. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  14. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  15. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1998, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-23

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the H-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for selected hazardous and radioactive constituents. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program.

  16. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Correction Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1998, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-23

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the F-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for selected hazardous and radioactive constituents. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program.

  17. Tomography finds waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  18. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  19. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were converted...

  20. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  1. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  2. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  3. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  4. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  5. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  6. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  7. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  8. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  9. Experimental and theoretical study about sulfur deactivation of Ni/ CeO{sub 2} and Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocsachoque, Marco A., E-mail: ocmarco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas “Dr Jorge J. Ronco”, (CONICET, CCT La Plata), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Cs Exactas (UNLP), Calle 48 N° 257, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Eugenio Russman, Juan I.; Irigoyen, Beatriz [Instituto de Tecnologías del Hidrógeno y Energías Sostenibles (ITHES), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gazzoli, Delia [Dipartimento di Chimia, Universitá di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); González, María G. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas “Dr Jorge J. Ronco”, (CONICET, CCT La Plata), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Cs Exactas (UNLP), Calle 48 N° 257, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur deactivation of Ni/CeO{sub 2} and Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalysts were examined through an experimental and theoretical study. These catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reaction, thermogravimetric analysis, Uv–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and tested under the methane dry reforming reaction in the presence of H{sub 2}S. On the other hand, different possible interactions of sulfur with Rh, Ni or surface sites of the CeO{sub 2} support were evaluated by performing energy calculations with the density functional theory (DFT). Overall, the results indicate that tolerance to sulfur of Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalyst is higher than that of Ni/CeO{sub 2} one. In this sense, TPR measurements show that reduction of CeO{sub 2} is promoted by the presence of Rh. This effect, probably caused by hydrogen spillover to CeO{sub 2} support during the reduction of RhO{sub x} species, could be linked to a high oxygen donation capacity of Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. Accordingly, the O{sup 2−} species existing on Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, revealed by Raman spectra of these samples, could favor sulfur oxidation and prevent Rh–S interactions. Likewise, the theoretical calculations show that desorption of S–O species from Rh/CeO{sub 2} system is more favorable than that from Ni/CeO{sub 2} one. Therefore, our experimental and theoretical study about sulfur deactivation of Ni and Rh supported on CeO{sub 2} allow us to postulate that Rh can help to desorb SO{sub x} species formed on the support, retarding sulfur poisoning of the Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} support can act as a sacrifice trap decreasing sulfur poisoning. • Theoretical calculations indicate an important nickel affinity with sulfur. • Rh would favor desorption of S–O species formed on the support. • The O{sup 2−} species present on the Rh–CeO{sub 2} sample favor sulfur removal.

  10. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  11. 40 CFR 273.13 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.13 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.13 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A small quantity handler of universal waste must...

  12. 40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A large quantity handler of universal waste must...

  13. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  17. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  18. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    content), 2) low ash and xenobiotic content, 3) high gas yield, 4) volume (produced), 5) dependable distribution and 6) low competition with other end-user technologies. MSW is a complex substrate comprising both degradable and non-degradable material being metal, plastic, glass, building waste etc...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...

  19. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  20. Waste free restaurant : reststromen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, M.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Timmermans, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Het concept “Waste Free Restaurant”, is geïnspireerd op de ‘natuurlijke cyclus’ en wordt uitgebouwd tot een business concept. Het ontwikkelconcept gaat uit van voorkomen van waardevermindering en verspilling van voedsel en het sluiten van kringlopen. Het verbeeldt waarom het noodzakelijk is onze rel