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Sample records for basin chinook salmon

  1. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

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    Bobbi M Johnson

    Full Text Available The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's": habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins

  2. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bobbi M; Kemp, Brian M; Thorgaard, Gary H

    2018-01-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's": habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins may have divergent

  3. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2018-01-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed “the four H’s”: habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins may have

  4. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

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    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

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    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  7. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  8. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

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    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    The Grande Ronde Basin once supported large runs of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and estimated peak escapements in excess of 10,000 occurred as recently as the late 1950's (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1975). Natural escapement declines in the Grande Ronde Basin have been severe and parallel those of other Snake River populations. Reduced productivity has primarily been attributed to increased mortality associated with downstream and upstream migration past eight dams and reservoirs in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reduced spawner numbers, combined with human manipulation of previously important spawning and rearing habitat in the Grande Ronde Basin, have resulted in decreased spawning distribution and population fragmentation of chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde Basin (Figure 1; Table 1). Escapement of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin included 1,799 adults in 1995, less than half of the previous record low of 3,913 adults in 1994. Catherine Creek, Grande Ronde River and Lostine River were historically three of the most productive populations in the Grande Ronde Basin (Carmichael and Boyce 1986). However, productivity of these populations has been poor for recent brood years. Escapement (based on total redd counts) in Catherine Creek and Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers dropped to alarmingly low levels in 1994 and 1995. A total of 11, 3 and 16 redds were observed in 1994 in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River, respectively, and 14, 6 and 11 redds were observed in those same streams in 1995. In contrast, the maximum number of redds observed in the past was 505 in Catherine Creek (1971), 304 in the Grande Ronde River (1968) and 261 in 1956 in the Lostine River (Tranquilli et al 2003). Redd counts for index count areas (a standardized portion of the total stream) have also decreased dramatically for most Grande Ronde Basin streams from 1964-2002, dropping to as low as 37 redds in the 119.5 km in the index

  9. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

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    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  10. Grande Ronde Basin endemic spring chinook salmon supplementation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must mitigate the loss of fish, wildlife, and related spawning grounds and habitat attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The federal dams have been identified as a major source of mortality for the listed Snake River salmon stocks. BPA also has responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 to operate in a way that does not jeopardize the continued existence of listed species and to use its agency resources to conserve listed species

  11. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

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    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation (U.S.)

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  12. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  13. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1998 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next years work.

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1999 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish And Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next year's work.

  16. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

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    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  17. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

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    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  18. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  19. Early migration and estuary stopover of introduced chinook salmon population in the Lapataia River Basin, southern Tierra del Fuego Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalde, T.; Fernández, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Established populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have recently been reported in South America, at both Atlantic and Pacific basins. Several studies have evaluated different aspects of their life histories; however, little is known about the use of the estuaries by the juveniles of these populations. We examined spawning time, seaward migration timing, growth rate, scale patterns, diet, and geometric morphometric, contrasting the early life history during freshwater and estuary residence of a chinook population established in Lapataia Basin. Fall run spawning took place in March-April and the parr emerged in September. Two distinct seaward migration patterns were identified from sein net fishing records: one population segment migrating earlier to the estuary in October and a second group migrating later in February. The growth rate of fish captured at the estuary was significantly higher than the fish captured in freshwater. In addition, higher scale intercirculi distances were observed in estuary fish showing differences in growth rate. The feeding habitat in fish captured in both environments changed through time from bottom feeding to surface feeding and from significant diet overlap to no overlap. The morphology of the fish captured at the estuary was associated with the elongation of the caudal peduncle and a decrease in the condition factor index, both changes related to smolt transformation. The earlier migration and the higher growth rate of juveniles in the estuary together with fish of 1 + yo captured in this environment reveal that the estuary of Lapataia Basin is not only a stopover for the chinook salmon, but also a key habitat to reside and feed previous to the final seaward migration.

  20. Fish research project -- Oregon: Investigations into the early life history of naturally produced spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin. Annual progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonasson, B.C.; Carmichael, R.W.; Keefe, M.

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek

  1. Identification of a genetic marker that discriminates ocean-type and stream-type chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C.; Ostberg, C.O.; Clifton, D.R.; Holloway, J.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A marker based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), OT-38, was discovered that nonlethally discriminates between stream-type and ocean-type populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin, including the threatened fall-run (ocean-type) and spring-run (stream-type) Snake River populations. This marker was developed by amplifying chinook salmon genomic DNA with a single RAPD primer, sequencing the termini of the polymorphic products, and designing primer pairs for allele-specific amplification. It was used to assay 18-80 individuals from several wild and hatchery populations differing in year-class, freshwater life history, and location along the Columbia River OT-38 unambiguously distinguished ocean-type from stream-type populations in 93.1% of the chinook salmon sampled.

  2. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Select ecological interactions and spring chinook salmon residual/precocial abundance were monitored in 1998 as part of the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's supplementation monitoring program. Monitoring these variables is part of an effort to help evaluate the factors that contribute to, or limit supplementation success. The ecological interactions that were monitored were prey consumption, competition for food, and competition for space. The abundance of spring chinook salmon life-history forms that have the potential to be influenced by supplementation and that have important ecological and genetic roles were monitored (residuals and precocials). Residual spring chinook salmon do not migrate to the ocean during the normal emigration period and continue to rear in freshwater. Precocials are those salmon that precocially mature in freshwater. The purpose of sampling during 1998 was to collect baseline data one year prior to the release of hatchery spring chinook salmon which occurred during the spring of 1999. All sampling that the authors report on here was conducted in upper Yakima River during summer and fall 1998. The stomach fullness of juvenile spring chinook salmon during the summer and fall averaged 12%. The food competition index suggested that mountain whitefish (0.59), rainbow trout (0.55), and redside shiner (0.55) were competing for food with spring chinook salmon. The space competition index suggested that rainbow trout (0.31) and redside shiner (0.39) were competing for space with spring chinook salmon but mountain whitefish (0.05) were not. Age-0 spring chinook salmon selected a fairly narrow range of microhabitat parameters in the summer and fall relative to what was available. Mean focal depths and velocities for age 0 spring chinook salmon during the summer were 0.5 m ± 0.2 m and 0.26 m/s ± 0.19 m/s, and during the fall 0.5 m ± 0.2 m and 0.24 m/s ± 0.18 m/s. Among potential competitors, age 1+ rainbow trout exhibited the greatest degree

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

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    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  5. Interactive effects of water diversion and climate change for juvenile chinook salmon in the lemhi river basin (USA.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W; Bartz, Krista K; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The combined effects of water diversion and climate change are a major conservation challenge for freshwater ecosystems. In the Lemhi Basin, Idaho (U.S.A.), water diversion causes changes in streamflow, and climate change will further affect streamflow and temperature. Shifts in streamflow and temperature regimes can affect juvenile salmon growth, movement, and survival. We examined the potential effects of water diversion and climate change on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). To examine the effects for juvenile survival, we created a model relating 19 years of juvenile survival data to streamflow and temperature and found spring streamflow and summer temperature were good predictors of juvenile survival. We used these models to project juvenile survival for 15 diversion and climate-change scenarios. Projected survival was 42-58% lower when streamflows were diverted than when streamflows were undiverted. For diverted streamflows, 2040 climate-change scenarios (ECHO-G and CGCM3.1 T47) resulted in an additional 11-39% decrease in survival. We also created models relating habitat carrying capacity to streamflow and made projections for diversion and climate-change scenarios. Habitat carrying capacity estimated for diverted streamflows was 17-58% lower than for undiverted streamflows. Climate-change scenarios resulted in additional decreases in carrying capacity for the dry (ECHO-G) climate model. Our results indicate climate change will likely pose an additional stressor that should be considered when evaluating the effects of anthropogenic actions on salmon population status. Thus, this type of analysis will be especially important for evaluating effects of specific actions on a particular species. Efectos Interactivos de la Desviación del Agua y el Cambio Climático en Individuos Juveniles de Salmón Chinook en la Cuenca del Río Lemhi (E.U.A.). Conservation Biology

  6. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  7. Migratory Patterns of Wild Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-Flowing River Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Eiler

    Full Text Available Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002-2004. Most (97.5% of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28-40 km d-1 compared to upper basin stocks (52-62 km d-1. Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between "hares" (faster fish becoming slower and "tortoises" (slow but steady fish explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  8. Migratory Patterns of Wild Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-Flowing River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, John H.; Evans, Allison N.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002–2004. Most (97.5%) of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28–40 km d-1) compared to upper basin stocks (52–62 km d-1). Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between “hares” (faster fish becoming slower) and “tortoises” (slow but steady fish) explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  9. Chemical data for 7 streams in Salmon River Basin - Importance of biotic and abiotic features of salmon habitat implications for juvenile Chinook and steelhead growth and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a large-scale, long-term comparative study that includes many streams (20+ streams in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, including a few non-salmon streams for...

  10. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  11. 76 FR 20302 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... present new genetic evidence to suggest the spring-run Chinook salmon populations in the Upper Klamath and... a Petition To List Chinook Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Upper Klamath and Trinity Rivers Basin as threatened or...

  12. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with

  13. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals

  14. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); James, Brenda B. (Cascade Aquatics, Ellensburg, WA)

    2005-05-01

    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997; James et al. 1999; Pearsons et al., 2003; Pearsons et al. 2004). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Supplemented Spring Chinook Salmon and Life Histories of Wild Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde Basin, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Crump, Carrie A.; Weldert, Rey L. [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-04-10

    This is the ninth annual report for a multi-year project designed to monitor and evaluate supplementation of endemic spring Chinook salmon in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. These two streams historically supported anadromous fish populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries, but in recent years, have experienced severe declines in abundance. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation methods are being used to restore these spring Chinook salmon populations. Spring Chinook salmon populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, and other streams in the Snake River Basin have experienced severe declines in abundance over the past two decades (Nehlsen et al. 1991). A supplementation program was initiated in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, incorporating the use of both captive and conventional broodstock methods, in order to prevent extinction in the short term and eventually rebuild populations. The captive broodstock component of the program (BPA Project 199801001) uses natural-origin parr collected by seining and reared to maturity at facilities near Seattle, Washington (Manchester Marine Laboratory) and Hood River, Oregon (Bonneville Hatchery). Spawning occurs at Bonneville Hatchery, and resulting progeny are reared in hatcheries. Shortly before outmigration in the spring, juveniles are transferred to acclimation facilities. After an acclimation period of about 2-4 weeks, volitional release begins. Any juveniles remaining after the volitional release period are forced out. The conventional broodstock component uses returning adults collected at traps near the spawning areas, transported to Lookingglass Hatchery near Elgin, Oregon, held, and later spawned. The resulting progeny are reared, acclimated, and released similar to the captive broodstock component. All progeny released receive one or more marks including a fin (adipose) clip, codedwire tag, PIT tag, or visual implant

  16. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  17. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 5 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997; James et al. 1999; Pearsons et al., 2003). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation

  18. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook...

  19. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  20. Investigations into the early life history of naturally produced spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : annual report 2000 : project period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzyk, Fred R.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Environment, Fish and Wildlife.

    2002-01-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring

  1. Comparison of SNPs and microsatellites for fine-scale application of genetic stock identification of Chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J E; Matala, A P; Narum, S R

    2011-03-01

    Genetic stock identification (GSI) is an important tool in fisheries management. Microsatellites (μSATs) have been the dominant genetic marker for GSI; however, increasing availability and numerous advantages of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers make them an appealing alternative. We tested performance of 13 μSAT vs. 92 SNP loci in a fine-scale application of GSI, using a new baseline for Chinook salmon consisting of 49 collections (n = 4014) distributed across the Columbia River Basin. In GSI, baseline genotypes for both marker sets were used independently to analyse a real fishery mixture (n = 2731) representing the total run of Chinook salmon passing Bonneville Dam in the Columbia River. Marker sets were evaluated using three criteria: (i) ability to differentiate reporting groups, (ii) proportion of correct assignment in mixture simulation tests and baseline leave-one-out analyses and (iii) individual assignment and confidence intervals around estimated stock proportions of a real fishery mixture. The μSATs outperformed the SNPs in resolving fine-scale relationships, but all 105 markers combined provided greatest power for GSI. SNPs were ranked by relative information content based on both an iterative procedure that optimized correct assignment to the baseline and ranking by minor allele frequency. For both methods, we identified a subset of the top 50 ranked loci, which were similar in assignment accuracy, and both reached maximum available power of the total 92 SNP loci (correct assignment = 73%). Our estimates indicate that between 100 and 200 highly informative SNP loci are required to meet management standards (correct assignment > 90%) for resolving stocks in finer-scale GSI applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Juvenile Chinook Salmon mortality in a Snake River Reservoir: Smallmouth Bass predation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2018-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes has been identified as a contributing factor in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. We examined the diet composition of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and estimated the consumption and predation loss of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River. We examined 4,852 Smallmouth Bass stomachs collected from shoreline habitats during April–September 2013–2015. Chinook Salmon were the second most commonly consumed fish by all size‐classes of Smallmouth Bass (≥150 mm TL) throughout the study. Over the 3 years studied, we estimated that a total of 300,373 Chinook Salmon were consumed by Smallmouth Bass in our 22‐km study area, of which 97% (291,884) were subyearlings (age 0) based on length frequency data. A majority of the loss (61%) occurred during June, which coincided with the timing of hatchery releases of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon. Compared to an earlier study, mean annual predation loss increased more than 15‐fold from 2,670 Chinook Salmon during 1996–1997 to 41,145 Chinook Salmon during 2013–2015 (in reaches that could be compared), despite lower contemporary Smallmouth Bass abundances. This increase can be explained in part by increases in Smallmouth Bass consumption rates, which paralleled increases in subyearling Chinook Salmon densities—an expected functional response by an opportunistic consumer. Smallmouth Bass are currently significant predators of subyearling Chinook Salmon in Lower Granite Reservoir and could potentially be a large source of unexplained mortality.

  3. Distribution, stock composition and timing, and tagging response of wild Chinook Salmon returning to a large, free-flowing river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, John H.; Masuda, Michele; Spencer, Ted R.; Driscoll, Richard J.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returns to the Yukon River basin have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and detailed information on the spawning distribution, stock structure, and stock timing is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio-tagged in the lower basin during 2002–2004 and tracked upriver. Fish traveled to spawning areas throughout the basin, ranging from several hundred to over 3,000 km from the tagging site. Similar distribution patterns were observed across years, suggesting that the major components of the run were identified. Daily and seasonal composition estimates were calculated for the component stocks. The run was dominated by two regional components comprising over 70% of the return. Substantially fewer fish returned to other areas, ranging from 2% to 9% of the return, but their collective contribution was appreciable. Most regional components consisted of several principal stocks and a number of small, spatially isolated populations. Regional and stock composition estimates were similar across years even though differences in run abundance were reported, suggesting that the differences in abundance were not related to regional or stock-specific variability. Run timing was relatively compressed compared with that in rivers in the southern portion of the species’ range. Most stocks passed through the lower river over a 6-week period, ranging in duration from 16 to 38 d. Run timing was similar for middle- and upper-basin stocks, limiting the use of timing information for management. The lower-basin stocks were primarily later-run fish. Although differences were observed, there was general agreement between our composition and timing estimates and those from other assessment projects within the basin, suggesting that the telemetry-based estimates provided a plausible approximation of the return. However, the short duration of the run, complex stock structure, and

  4. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, Annual Report 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Connor, William P.; Burge, Howard L.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted primarily in 1997 and 1998. This report communicates significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  5. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  6. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  7. Investigations into the early life history of naturally produced spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin: annual progress report project period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  8. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  10. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999 and years previous. In an effort to provide this information to a wider audience, the individual chapters in this report have been submitted as manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. These chapters communicate significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Abundance and timing of seaward migration of Snake River fall chinook salmon was indexed using passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam for five years. We used genetic analyses to determine the lineage of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam that had been previously PIT tagged. We then used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured to enable us to calculate annual run composition and to compared early life history attributes of wild subyearling fall and spring chinook salmon. Because spring chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam, subyearling passage data at Lower Granite Dam can only be used to index fall chinook salmon smolt abundance and passage timing if genetic samples are taken to identify run membership of smolts. Otherwise, fall chinook salmon smolt abundance would be overestimated and timing of fall chinook salmon smolt passage would appear to be earlier and more protracted than is the case.

  11. Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts, 1995. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achord, S.; Eppard, M.B.; Sandford, B.P.; Matthews, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing

  12. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  13. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  14. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Division, Seattle, WA)

    1994-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

  15. Physiological development and vulnerability to Ceratomyxa shasta of fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Upper Klamath River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alec G.; Vanderkooi, Scott P.; Hamilton, John B; Stocking , Richard; Bartholomew, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated a stock for restoring runs of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Upper Klamath River basin by monitoring its development in Iron Gate Hatchery and in net-pens in the Williamson River and Upper Klamath Lake in Oregon. We transferred age-1 hatchery fall Chinook salmon to net-pens in October 2005 and age-0 fall Chinook salmon in May 2006. Indices of smolt development were assessed in the hatchery and after 3 and 14 d in net-pens. Based on gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration, age-1 Chinook salmon were not developing smolt characteristics in the hatchery during October. Fish transferred to the river or lake had increased plasma cortisol in response to stress and increased T4 accompanying the change in water, but they did not have altered development. Variables in the age-0 Chinook salmon indicated that the fish in the hatchery were smolting. The fish in the river net-pens lost mass and had gill ATPase activity similar to that of the fish in the hatchery, whereas the fish transferred to the lake gained mass and length, had reduced condition factor, and had higher gill ATPase than the fish in the river. These results, along with environmental variables, suggest that the conditions in the lake were more conducive to smoltification than those in the river and thus accelerated the development of Chinook salmon. No Chinook salmon in the hatchery or either net-pen became infected with the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta (the presence of which in the river and lake was confirmed) during either trial or when held for 90 d after a 10-d exposure in net-pens (2006 group). We concluded that that there is little evidence of physiological impairment or significant upriver vulnerability to C. shasta among this stock of fall Chinook salmon that would preclude them from being reintroduced into the Upper Klamath River basin.

  16. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes is one factor that has been implicated in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Impoundment of much of the Snake and Columbia rivers has altered food webs and created habitat favorable for species such as Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Smallmouth Bass are common throughout the Columbia River basin and have become the most abundant predator in lower Snake River reservoirs (Zimmerman and Parker 1995). This is a concern for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (hereafter, subyearlings) that may be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively small size and because their main-stem rearing habitats often overlap or are in close proximity to habitats used by Smallmouth Bass (Curet 1993; Tabor et al. 1993). Concern over juvenile salmon predation spawned a number of large-scale studies to quantify its effect in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s (Poe et al. 1991; Rieman et al. 1991; Vigg et al. 1991; Fritts and Pearsons 2004; Naughton et al. 2004). Smallmouth Bass predation represented 9% of total salmon consumption by predatory fishes in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, from 1983 through 1986 (Rieman et al. 1991). In transitional habitat between the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and McNary Reservoir, juvenile salmon (presumably subyearlings) were found in 65% of Smallmouth Bass (>200 mm) stomachs and comprised 59% of the diet by weight (Tabor et al. 1993). Within Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River, Naughton et al. (2004) showed that monthly consumption (based on weight) ranged from 5% in the upper reaches of the reservoir to 11% in the forebay. However, studies in the Snake River were conducted soon after Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (NMFS 1992). During this time, Fall Chinook Salmon abundance was at an historic low, which may explain why consumption rates were relatively low compared to those from studies conducted in the

  17. Fish Research Project, Oregon, Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Progress Report, Project Period: September 1, 1996 - August 31, 1997; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian C. Jonasson; J. Vincent Tranquilli; MaryLouise Keefe; Richard W. Carmichael

    1998-01-01

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool

  18. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  19. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  20. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  1. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Migratory characteristics of spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelling, J.C.; Schreck, C.B.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.; Beck, M.T.; Ewing, S.K.

    1993-05-01

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na + /K + gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  4. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dales Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  5. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-12

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  6. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  7. Establishment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Pacific basins of southern South America and its potential ecosystem implications Establecimiento del salmón Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha en cuencas del Pacífico sur de Sudamérica y sus potenciales implicancias ecosistémicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORIS SOTO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and trout species are not native to the southern hemisphere, however rainbow and brown trout have been established a century in southern South America. Yet most attempts to introduce anadromous salmon failed until the onset of aquaculture by 1980. Escapes of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon from aquaculture after 1990 have apparently produced increasingly important reproductive returns "naturalized", to upper basins in Chile and Argentina south of 39º S. In this paper we show data on the historic and spatial occurrence of chinook salmon in four Pacific basins during the past decade. Our objective is to establish the progress of the settlement forecasting some ecosystem disruptions in order to project and manage potential impacts. In Chile, sampling took place from 1995 to 2005 including rivers Petrohué, Poicas, and Río Negro-Hornopiren, and Lake Puyehue, in the X Region. In Argentina sampled rivers were Futaleufú, Carrenleufú and Pico. In Chile and Argentina reproductive Chinooks ranged in size between 73 and 130 cm total length, being the smallest sizes those of Lake Puyehue where the population is apparently landlocked. In Río Petrohué, the size of the runs varied from year to year reaching in the peak season of 1996 and 2004 up to 500 kg of fish along 100 m of riverbank. Temporal distribution of juvenile Chinooks suggested mainly a typical ocean type as they are gone to sea within the first year of age. As seen in Petrohue, reproductive populations could import significant quantities of marine derived nutrients as they do in their original habitats thus disturbing natural cycles and balances. Chinook establishment in these pristine watersheds in southern South America poses new challenges for decision makers and fishermen since they may develop a fishery in the Pacific Ocean with consequences to other fishery resources. Additionally they also become a resource for sport fishing. Therefore there is the need of developing

  8. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  9. Behavioral thermoregulation by juvenile spring and fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during smoltification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, S.T.; Crawshaw, L.I.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon evolved to emigrate during the summer months. The shift in the temperature preference we observed in smolting fall chinook but not spring chinook salmon may reflect a phylogenetic adaptation to summer emigration by (1) providing directional orientation as fall chinook salmon move into the marine environment, (2) maintaining optimal gill function during emigration and seawater entry, and/or (3) resetting thermoregulatory set-points to support physiological homeostasis once smolted fish enter the marine environment. Phylogenetically determined temperature adaptations and responses to thermal stress may not protect fall chinook salmon from the recent higher summer water temperatures, altered annual thermal regimes, and degraded cold water refugia that result from hydropower regulation of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The long-term survival of fall chinook salmon will likely require restoration of normal annual thermographs and rigorous changes in land use practices to protect critical thermal refugia and control maximum summer water temperatures in reservoirs.

  10. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  11. Cedar River Chinook genotypes - Estimate relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall Chinook salmon in the Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic pedigree information to estimate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall-run Chinook salmon spawning in the Cedar River, Washington....

  12. Wenatchee Chinook Parentage - Evaluate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic parentage analysis to measure the relative fitness of hatchery and wild spring run Chinook salmon that spawn in the Wenatchee River. In addition...

  13. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon

  14. 75 FR 14015 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... distribution to economically disadvantaged individuals through tax-exempt hunger relief organizations. The BS... Chinook salmon and 47,591 Chinook salmon). For each PSC limit, NMFS would issue Chinook salmon PSC...-delivery transfers''). If NMFS approves an IPA, NMFS would issue transferable allocations of the 60,000...

  15. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  16. Spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River: Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-01-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999

  17. Color photographic index of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development and accumulated thermal units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0 degrees C (range; 3.9-11.7 degrees C during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9-11.7 degrees C (mean=8 degrees C to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8 degrees C water temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index

  18. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Short Project Overview of Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation in the Upper Yakima Basin; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.; Bosch, William J.

    2005-09-01

    were outside of containment objectives were not caused by supplementation activities. Some fish and bird piscivores have been estimated to consume large numbers of salmonids in the Yakima Basin. Natural production of Chinook salmon in the upper Yakima Basin appears to be density dependent under current conditions and may constrain the benefits of supplementation. However, such constraints (if they exist) could be countered by YKFP habitat actions that have resulted in: the protection of over 900 acres of prime floodplain habitat, reconnection and screening of over 15 miles of tributary habitat, substantial water savings through irrigation improvements, and restoration of over 80 acres of floodplain and side channels. Harvest opportunities for tribal and non-tribal fishers have also been enhanced, but are variable among years. The YKFP is still in the early stages of evaluation, and as such the data and findings presented in this report should be considered preliminary until further data is collected and analyses completed. Nonetheless, the YKFP has produced significant findings, and produced methodologies that can be used to evaluate and improve supplementation. A summary table of topical area performance is presented.

  19. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  20. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  1. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RH Visser

    2000-01-01

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities

  3. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  4. Nocardiosis in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnahan, C L; Humphrey, S; Knowles, G; Ha, H J; Pande, A; Jones, J B

    2017-07-01

    An investigation was conducted to identify the cause of mortalities in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Mortalities occurred in juvenile salmon, at a salmon rearing facility in the South Island of New Zealand. The affected fish were from a pen inside the facility with no surrounding pens or other year classes affected. Clinically affected fish presented with skin lesions. The majority of skin lesions were unruptured, boil-like, raised circular masses up to 4 cm in diameter, particularly on the dorsolateral aspects and the flank. A number of fish presented with large ulcers resulting from rupturing of the raised lesions described above. This clinical presentation showed similarities to that of furunculosis caused by typical Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterium exotic to New Zealand. Samples were taken from two representative fish in the field for histopathology, bacterial culture and molecular testing. Histopathological findings included granulomatous lesions in the kidney, liver, spleen and muscle. When stained with Fite-Faraco modified acid fast stain filamentous branching rods were identified within these granulomas. Following bacterial culture of kidney swabs pure growth of small white matt adherent colonies was observed. This isolate was identified as a Nocardia species by biochemical testing and nucleotide sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene. All samples were negative for A. salmonicida based on bacterial culture and PCR testing. Nocardiosis caused by a Nocardia species. Nocardiosis in these fish was caused by a previously undescribed Nocardia species that differs from the species known to be pathogenic to fish: N. asteroides, N. salmonicida and N. seriole. This bacterium is likely to be a new or unnamed environmental species of Nocardia that has the potential to cause disease in Chinook salmon under certain conditions. The clinical presentation of this Nocardia species manifested as raised, boil-like skin lesions which has

  5. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  6. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon in the Chehalis River, southwestern Washington, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Hurst, William R.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Kock, Tobias J.; Zimmerman, Mara S.

    2017-01-30

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. A preliminary evaluation of the movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River was conducted using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors. A total of 12 spring Chinook salmon were captured, radio-tagged, and released in the main-stem Chehalis River between May and late June 2014. Tagged fish were monitored from freshwater entry through the spawning period using a combination of fixedsite monitoring locations and mobile tracking.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2014 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and August 2014 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean monthly discharge was 90–206 percent of the discharge in previous years. Overall, 92 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 102 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Seven tagged fish (58 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (5–8 d, 57 percent), or within about a month (34–35 d, 29 percent). One fish (14 percent) remained near the release location for 98 d before moving upstream. The final fates for the seven fish that moved upstream following release included six fish that were assigned a fate of

  8. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  9. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during the spring and summer outmigrations in 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 for spring migrants and greater than or equal to 0.93 for summer migrants, estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 3 km downstream of the dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords). A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam. The approach included releases of smolts, tagged with acoustic micro-transmitters, above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of John Day Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below John Day Dam. A total of 3376 yearling Chinook salmon, 5726 subyearling Chinook salmon, and 3239 steelhead smolts were used in the virtual releases. Sample sizes for the below-dam paired releases (R2 and R3, respectively) were 997 and 995 for yearling Chinook salmon smolts, 986 and 983 for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts, and 1000 and 1000 for steelhead smolts. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tags were manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Systems. Model SS300 tags, weighing 0.304 g in air, were surgically implanted in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon, and Model SS130 tag, weighing 0.438 g in air, were surgically implanted in juvenile steelhead for this investigation. The intent of the spring study was to estimate dam passage survival during both 30% and 40% spill conditions. The two

  10. Water Quality - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  11. PIT Tag data - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  12. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 91 Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2012 and forward for the Amendment 91 (A91) Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of...

  13. AFSC/ABL: Stock composition, timing, and spawning distribution of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio telemetry was used to determine the distribution, locate spawning sites, and evaluate the tagging response of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha...

  14. Network-scale spatial and temporal variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redd distributions: patterns inferred from spatially continuous replicate surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Russell F. Thurow

    2006-01-01

    Spatially continuous sampling designs, when temporally replicated, provide analytical flexibility and are unmatched in their ability to provide a dynamic system view. We have compiled such a data set by georeferencing the network-scale distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redds across a large wilderness basin (7330 km2) in...

  15. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  16. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  17. Passage survival of juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and Chinook salmon in Lake Scanewa and at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Cowlitz River, Washington, 2010–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hurst, William

    2018-04-03

    A multi-year evaluation was conducted during 2010–16 to evaluate passage survival of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Lake Scanewa, and at Cowlitz Falls Dam in the upper Cowlitz River Basin, Washington. Reservoir passage survival was evaluated in 2010, 2011, and 2016, and included the tagging and release of 1,127 juvenile salmonids. Tagged fish were released directly into the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers, 22.3 and 8.9 km, respectively, upstream of the reservoir, and were monitored as they moved downstream into, and through the reservoir. A single release-recapture survival model was used to analyze detection records and estimate reservoir passage survival, which was defined as successful passage from reservoir entry to arrival at Cowlitz Falls Dam. Tagged fish generally moved quickly downstream of the release sites and, on average, arrived in the dam forebay within 2 d of release. Median travel time from release to first detection at the dam ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 d for juvenile steelhead, from 0.15 to 1.11 d for juvenile coho salmon, and from 0.18 to 1.89 d for juvenile Chinook salmon. Minimum reservoir passage survival probabilities were 0.960 for steelhead, 0.855 for coho salmon and 0.900 for Chinook salmon.Dam passage survival was evaluated at the pilot-study level during 2013–16 and included the tagging and release of 2,512 juvenile salmonids. Juvenile Chinook salmon were evaluated during 2013–14, and juvenile steelhead and coho salmon were evaluated during 2015–16. A paired-release study design was used that included release sites located upstream and downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam. The downstream release site was positioned at the downstream margin of the dam’s tailrace, which allowed dam passage survival to be measured in a manner that included mortality that occurred in the passage route and in the dam tailrace. More than one-half of the tagged Chinook salmon (52 percent

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  19. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  20. Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; CH0) at John Day Dam (JDA) during summer 2010. This study was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and the University of Washington (UW). The study was designed to estimate the effects of 30% and 40% spill treatment levels on single release survival rates of CH0 passing through two reaches: (1) the dam, and 40 km of tailwater, (2) the forebay, dam, and 40 km of tailwater. The study also estimated additional passage performance measures which are stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  1. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... staff at NMFS and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. There are two basic eLandings report types... persons who conducted a Chinook salmon PSC transfer that was paid for with an exchange of money (called a... account for Chinook salmon PSC transfers and the amount of money exchanged for transfers between AFA...

  2. Vertebral column regionalisation in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, A; Perrott, M R; Davie, P S; Preece, M A; Wybourne, B; Ruff, N; Huysseune, A; Witten, P E

    2017-10-01

    Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle. Anatomy and composition of the skeletal tissues of the vertebral column were analysed using Alizarin red S whole-mount staining and histological sections. Six regions, termed I-VI, are recognised in the vertebral column of specimens of both temperature groups. Postcranial vertebrae (region I) carry neural arches and parapophyses but lack ribs. Abdominal vertebrae (region II) carry neural arches and ribs that articulate with parapophyses. Elastic- and fibrohyaline cartilage and Sharpey's fibres connect the bone of the parapophyses to the bone of the ribs. In the transitional region (III) vertebrae carry neural arches and parapophyses change stepwise into haemal arches. Ribs decrease in size, anterior to posterior. Vestigial ribs remain attached to the haemal arches with Sharpey's fibres. Caudal vertebrae (region IV) carry neural and haemal arches and spines. Basidorsals and basiventrals are small and surrounded by cancellous bone. Preural vertebrae (region V) carry neural and haemal arches with modified neural and haemal spines to support the caudal fin. Ural vertebrae (region VI) carry hypurals and epurals that represent modified haemal and neural arches and spines, respectively. The postcranial and transitional vertebrae and their respective characters are usually recognised, but should be considered as regions within the vertebral column of teleosts

  3. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  4. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  5. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  6. Validation of a freshwater Otolith microstructure pattern for Nisqually Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem has taken place to assist in recovery of the stock since estuary habitat is a critical transition zone for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith microstructure analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate microstructural analysis from the otoliths of juvenile Nisqually Chinook salmon collected at the downstream migrant trap within true freshwater (FW) habitat of the Nisqually River. The results from this analysis confirmed the previously documented Nisqually-specific FW microstructure pattern and revealed a Nisqually-specific microstructure pattern early in development (“developmental pattern”). No inter-annual variation in the microstructure pattern was visually observed when compared to samples from previous years. Furthermore, the Nisqually-specific “developmental pattern” and the FW microstructure pattern used in combination during analysis will allow us to recognize and separate with further confidence future unmarked Chinook salmon otolith collections into Nisqually-origin (natural or unmarked hatchery) and non-Nisqually origin categories. Freshwater mean increment width, growth rate and residence time were also calculated.

  7. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  8. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  9. Escapement monitoring of adult chinook salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  10. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia basin. Volume 8: A new model for estimating survival probabilities and residualization from a release-recapture study of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) smolts in the Snake River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowther, A.B.; Skalski, J.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake river fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging. These models do not utilize available capture history data from this second year and, thus, produce negatively biased estimates of survival probabilities. A new multinomial likelihood model was developed that results in biologically relevant, unbiased estimates of survival probabilities using the full two years of capture history data. This model was applied to 1995 Snake River fall chinook hatchery releases to estimate the true survival probability from one of three upstream release points (Asotin, Billy Creek, and Pittsburgh Landing) to Lower Granite Dam. In the data analyzed here, residualization is not a common physiological response and thus the use of CJS models did not result in appreciably different results than the true survival probability obtained using the new multinomial likelihood model

  11. Survival of juvenile chinook salmon and coho salmon in the Roza Dam fish bypass and in downstream reaches of the Yakima River, Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Hansen, Amy C.

    2016-12-22

    Estimates of juvenile salmon survival are important data for fishery managers in the Yakima River Basin. Radiotelemetry studies during 2012–14 showed that tagged juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that passed through the fish bypass at Roza Dam had lower survival than fish that passed through other routes at the dam. That study also identified flow-survival relationships in the reaches between the Roza Dam tailrace and Sunnyside Dam. During 2012–14, survival also was estimated through reaches downstream of Sunnyside Dam, but generally, sample sizes were low and the estimates were imprecise. In 2016, we conducted an evaluation using acoustic cameras and acoustic telemetry to build on information collected during the previous study. The goal of the 2016 research was to identify areas where mortality occurs in the fish bypass at Roza Dam, and to estimate reach-specific survival in reaches downstream of the dam. The 2016 study included juvenile Chinook salmon and coho salmon (O. kisutch).Three acoustic cameras were used to observe fish behavior (1) near the entrances to the fish bypass, (2) at a midway point in the fish bypass (convergence vault), and (3) at the bypass outfall. In total, 504 hours of acoustic camera footage was collected at these locations. We determined that smolt-sized fish (95–170 millimeters [mm]) were present in the highest proportions at each location, but predator-sized fish (greater than 250 mm) also were present at each site. Fish presence generally peaked during nighttime hours and crepuscular periods, and was low during daytime hours. In the convergence vault, smolt-sized fish exhibited holding behavior patterns, which may explain why some fish delayed while passing through the bypass.Some of the acoustic-tagged fish were delayed in the fish bypass following release, but there was no evidence to suggest that they experienced higher mortality than fish that were released at the bypass outfall or downstream of the dam

  12. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the

  13. Microsatellite variation reveals weak genetic structure and retention of genetic variability in threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) within a Snake River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen; Issacs, Frank B.; Thurow, Russel; Dunham, J.B.; Rieman, B.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have been central to the development of management concepts associated with evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), yet there are still relatively few studies of genetic diversity within threatened and endangered ESUs for salmon or other species. We analyzed genetic variation at 10 microsatellite loci to evaluate spatial population structure and genetic variability in indigenous Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) across a large wilderness basin within a Snake River ESU. Despite dramatic 20th century declines in abundance, these populations retained robust levels of genetic variability. No significant genetic bottlenecks were found, although the bottleneck metric (M ratio) was significantly correlated with average population size and variability. Weak but significant genetic structure existed among tributaries despite evidence of high levels of gene flow, with the strongest genetic differentiation mirroring the physical segregation of fish from two sub-basins. Despite the more recent colonization of one sub-basin and differences between sub-basins in the natural level of fragmentation, gene diversity and genetic differentiation were similar between sub-basins. Various factors, such as the (unknown) genetic contribution of precocial males, genetic compensation, lack of hatchery influence, and high levels of current gene flow may have contributed to the persistence of genetic variability in this system in spite of historical declines. This unique study of indigenous Chinook salmon underscores the importance of maintaining natural populations in interconnected and complex habitats to minimize losses of genetic diversity within ESUs.

  14. A comparison of single-suture and double-suture incision closures in seaward-migrating juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters: implications for research in river basins containing hydropower structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Cook, Katrina V.; Eppard, M. B.

    2013-07-15

    Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the ability to make shorter incisions that may warrant using only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known if one suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed, particularly when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site such as when migrating fish experience pressure changes associated with passage at hydroelectric dams. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Juvenile Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with a 2012 Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitter (0.30 g) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g) and incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. Mortality and tag retention were monitored and fish were examined after 7 and 14 days to evaluate tissue responses. In a separate experiment, surgically implanted fish were exposed to simulated turbine passage and then examined for expulsion of transmitters, expulsion of viscera through the incision, and mortal injury. With incisions closed using a single suture, there was no mortality or tag loss and similar or reduced tissue reaction compared to incisions closed with two sutures. Further, surgery time was significantly reduced when one suture was used, which leads to less handling and reduced stress. No tags were expelled during pressure scenarios and expulsion of viscera only occurred in two non-mortally injured fish (5%) with single sutures that were also exposed to very high pressure changes. No viscera expulsion was present in fish exposed to pressure scenarios likely representative of hydroturbine passage at many Columbia River dams (e.g. <2.7 ratio of pressure change; an acclimation pressure of 146.2 absolute kpa and a lowest exposure pressure of ~ 53.3 absolute kpa). Based on these results, we recommend the use of a

  15. Migratory Characteristics of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Annual Report 1991.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snelling, John C.

    1993-05-01

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na{sup +}/K{sup +} gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls.

  16. Discovery and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemento, A J; Abadía-Cardoso, A; Starks, H A; Garza, J C

    2011-03-01

    Molecular population genetics of non-model organisms has been dominated by the use of microsatellite loci over the last two decades. The availability of extensive genomic resources for many species is contributing to a transition to the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the study of many natural populations. Here we describe the discovery of a large number of SNPs in Chinook salmon, one of the world's most important fishery species, through large-scale Sanger sequencing of expressed sequence tag (EST) regions. More than 3 Mb of sequence was collected in a survey of variation in almost 132 kb of unique genic regions, from 225 separate ESTs, in a diverse ascertainment panel of 24 salmon. This survey yielded 117 TaqMan (5' nuclease) assays, almost all from separate ESTs, which were validated in population samples from five major stocks of salmon from the three largest basins on the Pacific coast of the contiguous United States: the Sacramento, Klamath and Columbia Rivers. The proportion of these loci that was variable in each of these stocks ranged from 86.3% to 90.6% and the mean minor allele frequency ranged from 0.194 to 0.236. There was substantial differentiation between populations with these markers, with a mean F(ST) estimate of 0.107, and values for individual loci ranging from 0 to 0.592. This substantial polymorphism and population-specific differentiation indicates that these markers will be broadly useful, including for both pedigree reconstruction and genetic stock identification applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Migratory characteristics of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. Completion report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, C.B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate

  18. Migratory Characteristics of Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Completion Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate.

  19. Coronary ligation reduces maximum sustained swimming speed in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...

  20. Movement and habitat studies of chinook salmon and white sturgeon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Acipenser transmontanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    Swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), in relation to hydroelectric dam created gas supersaturation levels in the Snake River, were evaluated using pressure-sensitive radiofrequency transmitters. Gas saturation levels in spring 1976 ranged from 120 to 130% and chinook salmon depth of travel averaged 6.4 m. In fall 1976 and spring 1977, when gas saturation levels were below 108%, average salmon depths of travel were 3.0 and 4.0 m, respectively. In all cases, average depth of travel was below the critical zone (110% effective saturation), but spring 1976 chinook salmon traveled significantly deeper than fall 1976 and spring 1977 salmon. Internal and external radio transmitter attachment techniques were compared and results indicated the methods are equally reliable given proper insertion and attachment procedures. Percent returning and travel times to upstream dams were compared between equal numbers of radiotagged and spaghetti-anchor tagged control salmon. There were no significant differences in percent return or travel times between control and externally tagged salmon, but procedural difficulties involving internally tagged salmon altered their behavior to preclude such comparisons. Presence and operation of hydroelectric dams delayed salmon passage through the river and appeared to alter upstream migratory behavior. Movements of radiotagged white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from 1975 through 1977 were highly seasonal, beginning in June and ending in October. River temperatures apparently influenced both seasonal and diurnal movement activities. Movements began in June after water temperatures passed 13/sup 0/C and ceased when temperatures reached 13/sup 0/C (again) in autumn each year. Information derived from sturgeon carrying temperature sensing transmitters, combined with position determinations, indicated apparent diurnal movement cycles for sturgeon.

  1. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  3. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  4. Wildfire may increase habitat quality for spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River subbasin, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Hessburg, Paul F.; McNyset, Kris M.; Benda, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest salmonids are adapted to natural disturbance regimes that create dynamic habitat patterns over space and through time. However, human land use, particularly long-term fire suppression, has altered the intensity and frequency of wildfire in forested upland and riparian areas. To examine the potential impacts of wildfire on aquatic systems, we developed stream-reach-scale models of freshwater habitat for three life stages (adult, egg/fry, and juvenile) of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wenatchee River subbasin, Washington. We used variables representing pre- and post-fire habitat conditions and employed novel techniques to capture changes in in-stream fine sediment, wood, and water temperature. Watershed-scale comparisons of high-quality habitat for each life stage of spring Chinook salmon habitat suggested that there are smaller quantities of high-quality juvenile overwinter habitat as compared to habitat for other life stages. We found that wildfire has the potential to increase quality of adult and overwintering juvenile habitat through increased delivery of wood, while decreasing the quality of egg and fry habitat due to the introduction of fine sediments. Model results showed the largest effect of fire on habitat quality associated with the juvenile life stage, resulting in increases in high-quality habitat in all watersheds. Due to the limited availability of pre-fire high-quality juvenile habitat, and increased habitat quality for this life stage post-fire, occurrence of characteristic wildfires would likely create a positive effect on spring Chinook salmon habitat in the Wenatchee River subbasin. We also compared pre- and post-fire model results of freshwater habitat for each life stage, and for the geometric mean of habitat quality across all life stages, using current compared to the historic distribution of spring Chinook salmon. We found that spring Chinook salmon are currently distributed in stream channels in

  5. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  6. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1984-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpe, Cameron; Li, Hiram W. (Oregon State University, Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Corvallis, OR)

    1985-09-21

    Fish were collected from 60 stocks of chinook salmon and 62 stocks of steelhead trout. Electrophoretic analyses were completed on 43 stocks of chinook salmon and 41 stocks of steelhead trout and meristic counts were completed on 43 stocks of chinook and 41 stocks of steelhead. Statistical comparisons between year classes of our electrophoretic data indicate that most enzyme systems are stable over time but some may be dynamic and should be used with caution in our analyses. We also compared neighboring stocks of both spring chinook and steelhead trout. These comparisons were between stocks of the same race from adjacent stream systems and/or hatcheries. Differences in isozyme gene frequencies can be used to estimate genetic segregation between pairs of stocks. Analysis of the chinook data suggests that, as expected, the number of statistically significant differences in isozyme gene frequencies increases as the geographic distance between stocks increases. The results from comparisons between adjacent steelhead stocks were inconclusive and must await final analysis with more data. Cluster analyses using either isozyme gene frequencies or meristic characters both tended to group the chinook and steelhead stocks by geographic areas and by race and both methods resulted in generally similar grouping patterns. However, cluster analyses using isozyme gene frequencies produced more clusters than the analyses using meristic characters probably because of the greater number of electrophoretic characters compared to the number of meristic characters. Heterozygosity values for each stock were computed using the isozyme gene frequencies. The highest heterozygosity values for chinook were observed in summer chinook and the hatchery stocks while the lowest values were observed in the spring chinook and wild stocks. The results of comparisons of heterozygosity values among areas were inconclusive. The steelhead heterozygosity values were higher in the winter stocks than in the

  7. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  8. Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off central California: An ecosystem model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, J.; Huff, D. D.; Martin, B. T.; Jackson, D. W.; Edwards, C. A.; Rose, K. A.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K. S.; Lindley, S. T.; Wells, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    A fully coupled ecosystem model is used to identify the effects of environmental conditions and upwelling variability on growth of juvenile Chinook salmon in central California coastal waters. The ecosystem model framework consists of an ocean circulation submodel, a biogeochemical submodel, and an individual-based submodel for salmon. Simulation results indicate that years favorable for juvenile salmon growth off central California are characterized by particularly intense early season upwelling (i.e., March through May), leading to enhanced krill concentrations during summer near the location of ocean entry (i.e., Gulf of the Farallones). Seasonally averaged growth rates in the model are generally consistent with observed values and suggest that juvenile salmon emigrating later in the season (i.e., late May and June) achieve higher weight gains during their first 90 days of ocean residency.

  9. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Ogburn, Parker N. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-03-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2001: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (4) Plan for data collection needs for bull trout. (5) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (6) Collect summer steelhead. (7) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (8) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (9) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations. (10) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (11) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (14) Communicate Project results to the scientific community.

  10. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-03-01

    This is the third annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2000: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan for recovery of endemic summer steelhead populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (4) Collect summer steelhead. (5) Collect adult endemic spring chinook salmon broodstock. (6) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (7) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agency. (8) Communicate project results to the scientific community. (9) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (10) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations and incidentally-caught summer steelhead and bull trout. (11) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program.

  11. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  12. Using a Genetic mixture model to study Phenotypic traits: Differential fecundity among Yukon river Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, J.F.; Evenson, D.F.; McLain, T.H.; Flannery, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecundity is a vital population characteristic that is directly linked to the productivity of fish populations. Historic data from Yukon River (Alaska) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha suggest that length-adjusted fecundity differs among populations within the drainage and either is temporally variable or has declined. Yukon River Chinook salmon have been harvested in large-mesh gill-net fisheries for decades, and a decline in fecundity was considered a potential evolutionary response to size-selective exploitation. The implications for fishery conservation and management led us to further investigate the fecundity of Yukon River Chinook salmon populations. Matched observations of fecundity, length, and genotype were collected from a sample of adult females captured from the multipopulation spawning migration near the mouth of the Yukon River in 2008. These data were modeled by using a new mixture model, which was developed by extending the conditional maximum likelihood mixture model that is commonly used to estimate the composition of multipopulation mixtures based on genetic data. The new model facilitates maximum likelihood estimation of stock-specific fecundity parameters without first using individual assignment to a putative population of origin, thus avoiding potential biases caused by assignment error.The hypothesis that fecundity of Chinook salmon has declined was not supported; this result implies that fecundity exhibits high interannual variability. However, length-adjusted fecundity estimates decreased as migratory distance increased, and fecundity was more strongly dependent on fish size for populations spawning in the middle and upper portions of the drainage. These findings provide insights into potential constraints on reproductive investment imposed by long migrations and warrant consideration in fisheries management and conservation. The new mixture model extends the utility of genetic markers to new applications and can be easily adapted

  13. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  14. Spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River : annual report 1998.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning

  15. The influence of hydrology and waterway distance on population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J B; Beacham, T D; Wetklo, M; Seeb, L W; Smith, C T; Flannery, B G; Wenburg, J K

    2010-04-01

    Adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha navigate in river systems using olfactory cues that may be influenced by hydrologic factors such as flow and the number, size and spatial distribution of tributaries. Thus, river hydrology may influence both homing success and the level of straying (gene flow), which in turn influences population structure. In this study, two methods of multivariate analysis were used to examine the extent to which four indicators of hydrology and waterway distance explained population structure of O. tshawytscha in the Yukon River. A partial Mantel test showed that the indicators of hydrology were positively associated with broad-scale (Yukon basin) population structure, when controlling for the influence of waterway distance. Multivariate multiple regression showed that waterway distance, supplemented with the number and flow of major drainage basins, explained more variation in broad-scale population structure than any single indicator. At an intermediate spatial scale, indicators of hydrology did not appear to influence population structure after accounting for waterway distance. These results suggest that habitat changes in the Yukon River, which alter hydrology, may influence the basin-wide pattern of population structure in O. tshawytscha. Further research is warranted on the role of hydrology in concert with waterway distance in influencing population structure in Pacific salmon.

  16. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  17. Self-reporting bias in Chinook salmon sport fisheries in Idaho: implications for roving creel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-reporting bias in sport fisheries of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho was quantified by comparing observed and angler-reported data. A total of 164 observed anglers fished for 541 h and caught 74 Chinook Salmon. Fifty-eight fish were harvested and 16 were released. Anglers reported fishing for 604 h, an overestimate of 63 h. Anglers reported catching 66 fish; four less harvested and four less released fish were reported than observed. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that when angler-reported data were used, total catch was underestimated by 14–15 fish (19–20%) using the ratio-of-means estimator to calculate mean catch rate. Negative bias was reduced to six fish (8%) when the means-of-ratio estimator was used. Multiple linear regression models to predict reporting bias in time fished had poor predictive value. However, actual time fished and a categorical covariate indicating whether the angler fished continuously during their fishing trip were two variables that were present in all of the top a priori models evaluated. Underreporting of catch and overreporting of time fished by anglers present challenges when managing Chinook Salmon sport fisheries. However, confidence intervals were near target levels and using more liberal definitions of angling when estimating effort in creel surveys may decrease sensitivity to bias in angler-reported data.

  18. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1985-02-01

    The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

  19. Re-estimating temperature-dependent consumption parameters in bioenergetics models for juvenile Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, John M.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have cautioned against the borrowing of consumption and growth parameters from other species and life stages in bioenergetics growth models. In particular, the function that dictates temperature dependence in maximum consumption (Cmax) within the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha produces estimates that are lower than those measured in published laboratory feeding trials. We used published and unpublished data from laboratory feeding trials with subyearling Chinook Salmon from three stocks (Snake, Nechako, and Big Qualicum rivers) to estimate and adjust the model parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax. The data included growth measures in fish ranging from 1.5 to 7.2 g that were held at temperatures from 14°C to 26°C. Parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax were estimated based on relative differences in food consumption, and bootstrapping techniques were then used to estimate the error about the parameters. We found that at temperatures between 17°C and 25°C, the current parameter values did not match the observed data, indicating that Cmax should be shifted by about 4°C relative to the current implementation under the bioenergetics model. We conclude that the adjusted parameters for Cmax should produce more accurate predictions from the bioenergetics model for subyearling Chinook Salmon.

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  1. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare dam passage survival, at two spill treatment levels, of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during spring 2010. The two treatments were 30% and 40% spill out of total project discharge. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. However, by agreement among the stakeholders, this study was not an official BiOp compliance test because the long-term passage measures at John Day Dam have yet to be finalized and another year of spill-treatment testing was desired.

  2. p,p'-DDE depresses the immune competence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Ichiro; Vella, Anthony T.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Schreck, Carl B.

    2005-01-01

    p,p′-DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, is still detected in aquatic environments throughout the world. Here, the effects and mechanisms by which p,p′-DDE exposure might affect the immune system of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was studied. Isolated salmon splenic and pronephric leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of p,p′-DDE, and cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and mitogenic responses were measured by flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assay. p,p′-DDE significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation and increased apoptosis. The effect of p,p′-DDE on pronephric leukocytes was more severe than on splenic leukocytes, likely because pronephric leukocytes had a higher proportion of granulocytes, cells that appear more sensitive to p,p′-DDE. The effect of p,p′-DDE on leukocytes appeared to vary between developmental stages or seasonal differences. The mitogenic response of leukocytes of chinook salmon exposed to p,p′-DDE in vivo exhibited a biphasic dose–response relationship. Only leukocytes isolated from salmon treated with 59 ppm p,p′-DDE had a significantly lower percentage of Ig+ blasting cells than controls, although the response was biphasic. These results support the theory that exposure to chemical contaminants could lead to an increase in disease susceptibility and mortality of fish due to immune suppression.

  3. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  4. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  6. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  7. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River: March 1, 1994--June 15, 1994; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, B.L.; Miller, A.C.; Kucera, P.A.; Blenden, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout

  8. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Williams

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.

  10. Assessing summer and fall chinook salmon restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberg, B.D.; Statler, D.P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  11. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  12. Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J; Anttila, Katja; Chen, Zhongqi; Heath, John W; Farrell, Anthony P; Neff, Bryan D

    2014-08-22

    With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic variation in offspring phenotype was mostly negligible, although these direct genetic effects explained 53% of the variation in resting heart rate (fH). Conversely, maternal effects had a significant influence on resting fH, scope for fH, cardiac arrhythmia temperature and CTmax. These maternal effects were associated with egg size, as indicated by strong relationships between the mean egg diameter of mothers and offspring thermal tolerance. Because egg size can be highly heritable in chinook salmon, our finding indicates that the maternal effects of egg size constitute an indirect genetic effect contributing to thermal tolerance. Such indirect genetic effects could accelerate evolutionary responses to the selection imposed by rising temperatures and could contribute to the population-specific thermal tolerance that has recently been uncovered among Pacific salmon populations. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  16. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  17. Coronary ligation reduces maximum sustained swimming speed in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...... a statistically significant 35.5% reduction in maximum swimming speed. We conclude that the coronary circulation is important for maximum aerobic swimming and implicit in this conclusion is that maximum cardiac performance is probably necessary for maximum aerobic swimming performance....

  18. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  19. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum and fall chinook salmon, Columbia River, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat

  20. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  1. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  2. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  3. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Fish Ecology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007

  4. Modeling Investigation of Spring Chinook Salmon Habitat in San Joaquin River Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Ramires, J.

    2013-12-01

    As the second longest river in California, the San Joaquin River (SJR) is a vital natural resource to numerous residents and industries and provides an array of activities within Central Valley, home to some of California's most productive agricultural areas. Originating in the high Sierra Nevada, mainly from snowmelt and runoff, and passing through the middle sections including Fresno and Madera counties, eventually the SJR conjoins with the Sacramento River, constructing the largest river delta on the west coast of North America. Along with human necessities, the river used to be crucial for the propagation and survivability of Chinook salmon and other aquatic and wildlife. However, the SJR has experienced hydraulic disconnection throughout certain reaches due to extensive water diversion. Indigenous salmon populations have been degraded over the years due to insufficient flows and anthropogenic activities. In 2006, to maintain salmon and other fish populations to a point of self-sustainment, the San Joaquin River Restoration Project (SJRRP) was established to restore flows along the SJR from Friant Dam to the confluence of the Merced River by routing the original SJR in different pathways. One of the major tasks of the SJRRP, so called 'Reach 4B Project', was to modify and improve channel capacity of reach 4B, east side bypass and Mariposa bypass of the SJR. Multiple scenarios for the alteration and modification of the SJR water pathway were designed to ensure fish passage by retrofitting existing channels and to provide adequate flow throughout the study area. The goal of the SJRRP project 4B was to provide an efficient passage for adult Chinook salmon to spawning beds further upstream and a safe route for yearling to the delta. The objective of this research project is to characterize the stream properties (current velocities, depth, etc.) of each proposed alternative in Project 4B2 under the same upstream conditions using a modeling method. A depth

  5. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  6. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 6, 1995--June 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenden, M.L.; Osborne, R.S.; Kucera, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June

  7. Bioamplification and the selective depletion of persistent organic pollutants in Chinook salmon larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Jennifer M; Leadley, Todd A; Pitcher, Trevor E; Drouillard, Ken G

    2012-02-21

    The maternal provisioning of yolk to eggs transfers significant quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). As yolk utilization progresses via metabolic activity, there is a potential to realize further increases in POP concentrations if yolk lipids are depleted at a faster rate than POPs, a condition referred to as bioamplification. This study investigated the bioamplification of POPs in Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) eggs and larvae. Chinook eggs were sampled from the Credit River, ON, Canada, and brought to an aquaculture facility where they were fertilized, incubated, and maintained posthatch until maternally derived lipid reserves became depleted (approximately 168 days). The loss of chemicals having an octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(OW)) greater than 5.8 was slow to negligible from days 0-135. However, during the increase in water temperatures in early spring, K(OW)-dependent elimination of POPs was observed. Bioamplification was maximized for the highest log K(OW) POPs, with an approximate 5-fold increase in lipid equivalents concentrations in 168 day old larvae as compared to newly fertilized eggs. This study demonstrates that later yolk-sac Chinook larvae (before exogenous feeding) are exposed to higher lipid equivalents POP concentrations than predicted by maternal deposition, which could lead to underestimates in the toxicity of critical life stages.

  8. Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream, Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

  9. Fall chinook salmon survival and supplementation studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River reservoirs: Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn, Theodore C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2)

  10. 77 FR 42629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... the PSC limits between the Central and Western Reporting Areas; and (4) a 25-percent buffer for the... Council considered the importance of equity among user groups in recommending Amendment 93. The Council... uncertainties about impacts to the Chinook salmon resource. The Council considered the importance of equity...

  11. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing.

  12. Central Valley Salmon: A Perspective on Chinook and Steelhead in the Central Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This monograph presents an extensive review of the biology and management of Chinook salmon and steelhead in the Central Valley of California. Relevant data and publications on these populations are summarized and discussed in the context of the wider professional literature, with emphasis on the importance of evolutionary considerations in the assessment of populations and in their management, the need to manage populations together with their environments, and the contradiction between maintaining a major hatchery program to support a mixed-stock ocean fishery and trying to maintain or restore populations adapted to natural or semi-natural habitats. Recommendations are presented for management and monitoring—for example for a thorough review of hatchery operations, for more emphasis on monitoring individual-based factors such the physiological condition and growth rates of juveniles, and for simulation of major restoration actions and monitoring programs. The 17 chapters cover major conceptsin salmon biology and conceptual foundations for management, and Central Valley Chinook and steelhead populations and their habitat, growth and migration, habitat use, harvest, hatcheries, modeling, monitoring, and management.

  13. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  14. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  15. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project, Treatment Definitions and Descriptions, and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, Final Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions)

  16. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; May, T.; Marty, G.D.; Easton, M.; Harper, D.D.; Little, E.E.; Cleveland, L.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0–266 μg l−1) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to 24 and 54 μg Cr l−1 for 105 days, neither growth nor survival of parr was affected. On day 105, concentrations were increased from 24 to 120 μg Cr l−1and from 54 to 266 μg Cr l−1 until the end of the experiment on day 134. Weight of parr was decreased in the 24/120 μg Cr l−1 treatment, and survival was decreased in the 54/266 μg Cr l−1 treatment. Fish health was significantly impaired in both the 24/120 and 54/266 μg Cr l−1 treatments. The kidney is the target organ during chromium exposures through the water column. The kidneys of fish exposed to the greatest concentrations of chromium had gross and microscopic lesions (e.g. necrosis of cells lining kidney tububules) and products of lipid peroxidation were elevated. These changes were associated with elevated concentrations of chromium in the kidney, and reduced growth and survival. Also, variations in DNA in the blood were associated with pathological changes in the kidney and spleen. These changes suggest that chromium accumulates and enters the lipid peroxidation pathway where fatty acid damage and DNA damage (expressed as chromosome changes) occur to cause cell death and tissue damage. While most of the physiological malfunctions occurred following parr exposures to concentrations ≥120 μg Cr l−1, nuclear DNA damage followed exposures to 24 μg Cr l−1, which was the smallest concentration tested. The abnormalities measured during this study are particularly important because they are associated with impaired growth and reduced survival at

  17. A spatial model to assess the effects of hydropower operations on Columbia River fall Chinook Salmon spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Anglin, Donald R.; Haeseker, Steven L.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Schaller, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Priest Rapids Dam on the Columbia River produces large daily and hourly streamflow fluctuations throughout the Hanford Reach during the period when fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are selecting spawning habitat, constructing redds, and actively engaged in spawning. Concern over the detrimental effects of these fluctuations prompted us to quantify the effects of variable flows on the amount and persistence of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach. Specifically, our goal was to develop a management tool capable of quantifying the effects of current and alternative hydrographs on predicted spawning habitat in a spatially explicit manner. Toward this goal, we modeled the water velocities and depths that fall Chinook salmon experienced during the 2004 spawning season, plus what they would probably have experienced under several alternative (i.e., synthetic) hydrographs, using both one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models. To estimate spawning habitat under existing or alternative hydrographs, we used cell-based modeling and logistic regression to construct and compare numerous spatial habitat models. We found that fall Chinook salmon were more likely to spawn at locations where velocities were persistently greater than 1 m/s and in areas where fluctuating water velocities were reduced. Simulations of alternative dam operations indicate that the quantity of spawning habitat is expected to increase as streamflow fluctuations are reduced during the spawning season. The spatial habitat models that we developed provide management agencies with a quantitative tool for predicting, in a spatially explicit manner, the effects of different flow regimes on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach. In addition to characterizing temporally varying habitat conditions, our research describes an analytical approach that could be applied in other highly variable aquatic systems.

  18. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 23--June 24, 1996. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendon, M.L.; Rocklage, S.J.; Kucera, P.A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts

  19. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 23--June 24, 1996. Annual report 1996; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendon, M.L.; Rocklage, S.J.; Kucera, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts

  20. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D. [Nez Perce Tribe

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  1. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program during the fall of 2001. The objective was to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with either surgically implanted electromyogram (EMG) transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters and were monitored with mobile and stationary receivers. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted passage of three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat River and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between, below, and above the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat River, 40% passed the first falls, 24% passed the second falls, and 20% made it to Lyle Falls. None of the EMG-tagged fish were able to pass Lyle Falls, either over the falls or via a fishway at Lyle Falls. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 centimeters per second (cm s{sup -1}) between falls to as high as 189 (cm s{sup -1}) at falls passage. Fish swam above critical swimming speeds while passing the falls more often than while swimming between the falls (58.9% versus 1.7% of the transmitter signals). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (100.7 to 128.2 kilocalories [kcals] to traverse areas between or below falls versus 0.3 to 1.0 kcals to pass falls). Relationships between sex, length, and time of day on the success of falls passage were also examined. Average swimming speeds were highest during the day in all areas except at some waterfalls. There was no apparent relationship between either fish condition or length and successful passage of waterfalls in the lower Klickitat River. Female fall chinook salmon, however, had a much lower likelihood of

  3. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2014-08-01

    High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.

  4. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. Spawning ground surveys for spring (stream-type) Chinook salmon were conducted in four main spawning areas (Mainstem, Middle Fork, North Fork, and Granite Creek System) and seven minor spawning areas (South Fork, Camas Creek, Desolation Creek, Trail Creek, Deardorff Creek, Clear Creek, and Big Creek) in the John Day River basin during August and September of 2005. Census surveys included 298.2 river kilometers (88.2 rkm within index, 192.4 rkm additional within census, and 17.6 rkm within random survey areas) of spawning habitat. We observed 902 redds and 701 carcasses including 227 redds in the Mainstem, 178 redds in the Middle Fork, 420 redds in the North Fork, 62 redds in the Granite Creek System, and 15 redds in Desolation Creek. Age composition of carcasses sampled for the entire basin was 1.6% age 3, 91.2% age 4, and 7.1% age 5. The sex ratio was 57.4% female and 42.6% male. Significantly more females than males were observed in the Granite Creek System. During 2005, 82.3% of female carcasses sampled had released all of their eggs. Significantly more pre-spawn mortalities were observed in Granite Creek. Nine (1.3%) of 701 carcasses were of hatchery origin. Of 298 carcasses examined, 4.0% were positive for the presence of lesions. A significantly higher incidence of gill lesions was found in the Granite Creek System when compared to the rest of the basin. Of 114 kidney samples tested, two (1.8%) had clinical BKD levels. Both infected fish were age-4 females in the Middle Fork. All samples tested for IHNV were negative. To estimate spring Chinook and summer steelhead smolt-to-adult survival (SAR) we PIT tagged 5,138 juvenile

  5. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  6. Tucannon River spring chinook salmon captive brood program, FY 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  7. Costs of living for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M.; Olden, Julian D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental change in freshwater ecosystems has created a need to understand the interactive effects of multiple stressors, with temperature and invasive predators identified as key threats to imperiled fish species. We tested the separate and interactive effects of water temperature and predation by non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) on the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (behavior, physiology, and growth) effects for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seminatural stream channel experiments. Over 48 h trials, there was no difference in direct predation with warmer temperatures, but significant interactive effects on sublethal responses of juvenile salmon. Warmer temperatures resulted in significantly stronger and more variable antipredator responses (surface shoaling and swimming activity), while physiological indicators (plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) suggested suppression of physiological mechanisms in response to the combined stressors. These patterns corresponded with additive negative growth in predation, temperature, and combined treatments. Our results suggest that chronic increases in temperature may not increase direct predation over short periods, but can result in significant sublethal costs with negative implications for long-term development, disease resistance, and subsequent size-selective mortality of Pacific salmon.

  8. Gauging resource exploitation by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in restoring estuarine habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Woo, Isa; Hodgson, Sayre; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Nakai, Glynnis

    2018-01-01

    In the context of delta restoration and its impact on salmonid rearing, success is best evaluated based on whether out-migrating juvenile salmon can access and benefit from suitable estuarine habitat. Here, we integrated 3 years of post-restoration monitoring data including habitat availability, invertebrate prey biomass, and juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) physiological condition to determine whether individuals profited from the addition of 364 ha of delta habitat in South Puget Sound, Washington, United States. Productivity in the restored mudflat was comparable to reference sites 3 years after dike removal, surpassing a mean total of 6 million kJ energy from invertebrate prey. This resulted from the development of a complex network of tidal channels and a resurgence in dipteran biomass that was unique to the restoration area. Consequently, a notable shift in invertebrate consumption occurred between 2010 and 2011, whereby individuals switched from eating primarily amphipods to dipteran flies; however, dietary similarity to the surrounding habitat did not change from year to year, suggesting that this shift was a result of a change in the surrounding prey communities. Growth rates did not differ between restored and reference sites, but catch weight was positively correlated with prey biomass, where greater prey productivity appeared to offset potential density-dependent effects. These results demonstrate how the realized function of restoring estuarine habitat is functionally dependent. High prey productivity in areas with greater connectivity may support healthy juvenile salmon that are more likely to reach the critical size class for offshore survival.

  9. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-01

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na 2 O 6 S 2 ) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment

  10. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  12. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  13. Using otolith chemical and structural analysis to investigate reservoir habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S L; Kennedy, B P; Caudill, C C; Chittaro, P M

    2014-11-01

    Isotopic composition of (87) Sr:(86) Sr and natural elemental tracers (Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn and Ca) were quantified from otoliths in juvenile and adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to assess the ability of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to reconstruct juvenile O. tshawytscha rearing habitat and growth. Daily increments were measured to assess relative growth between natal rearing habitats. Otolith microchemistry was able to resolve juvenile habitat use between reservoir and natal tributary rearing habitats (within headwater basins), but not among catchments. Results suggest that 90% (n = 18) of sampled non-hatchery adults returning to the Middle Fork Willamette River were reared in a reservoir and 10% (n = 2) in natal tributary habitat upstream from the reservoir. Juveniles collected in reservoirs had higher growth rates than juveniles reared in natal streams. The results demonstrate the utility of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to distinguish among rearing habitats, including habitats in highly altered systems. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Effects of a Novel Fish Transport System on the Health of Adult Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Linley, Timothy J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2016-12-01

    Movement past hydroelectric dams and related in-river structures has important implications for habitat connectivity and population persistence in migratory fish. A major problem is that many of these structures lack effective fish passage facilities, which can fragment spawning and rearing areas and negatively impact recruitment. While traditional fish passage facilities (e.g., ladders, trap and haul) can effectively enable fish to pass over barriers, their capital or operational costs can be significant. We evaluated the utility of a novel transport device that utilizes a flexible tube with differential internal air pressure to pass fish around in-river barriers. Three treatments and a control group were tested. In two of the treatments, adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation were transported through the device via two lengths of tube (12 or 77 m) and their injury, stress, and immune system responses and reproductive function were compared to a third treatment where fish were moved by a standard trap and haul method and also to a control group. We observed no significant differences among the treatment or control groups in post-treatment adult survival, injury or stress. Indicators of immune system response and reproductive readiness were also not significantly different among the four groups. Egg survival was significantly different among the groups, but the differences were highly variable within groups and not consistent with the duration of treatment or degree of handling. Taken together, the results suggest the device did not injure or alter normal physiological functioning of adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation and may provide an effective method for transporting such fish around in-river barriers during their spawning migration. Keywords: Whooshh, transport, in-stream barriers, hydropower

  15. Otolith analysis of pre-restoration habitat use by Chinook salmon in the delta-flats and nearshore regions of the Nisqually River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 salmon stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent on the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. Previously funded work on samples collected in 2004 (marked and unmarked) and 2005 (unmarked only) partially established a juvenile baseline on growth rates and length of residence associated with various habitats (freshwater, forested riverine tidal, emergent forested transition, estuarine emergent marsh, delta-flats and nearshore). However, residence times and growth rates for the delta-flats (DF) and nearshore (NS) habitats have been minimally documented due to small sample sizes. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate otolith microstructural analysis using otoliths from fish collected within the DF and NS habitats during sampling years 2004-08 to increase sample size and further evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this analysis indicated the delta-flats check (DFCK) on unmarked and marked Chinook samples in 2005-08 varied slightly in appearance from that seen on samples previously analyzed only from 2004. A fry migrant life history was observed on otoliths of unmarked Chinook collected in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Generally, freshwater mean increment width of unmarked fish, on average, was smaller compared to marked

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  17. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  18. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  19. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  20. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  1. Assessment of the flow-survival relationship obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic's chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts

  2. Assessment of the Flow-Survival Relationship Obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C.R. (Cleveland R.)

    1994-04-01

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic`s chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts.

  3. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  4. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  5. Sexual conflict inhibits female mate choice for major histocompatibility complex dissimilarity in Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shawn R; Bortoluzzi, Romina N; Heath, Daniel D; Neff, Bryan D

    2010-03-22

    In many species females prefer major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dissimilar mates, which may improve offspring resistance to pathogens. However, sexual conflict may interfere with female preference when males attempt to mate with all females, regardless of compatibility. Here we used semi-natural spawning channels to examine how mating behaviour and genetic similarity at the MHC class II peptide binding region affected parentage patterns in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that females directed aggression at more MHC-similar males than expected by chance, providing a possible mechanism of female MHC choice in salmon. Males also directed aggression towards MHC-similar females, which was consistent with males harassing unreceptive mates. Males' aggression was positively correlated with their reproductive success, and it appeared to overcome female aversion to mating with MHC-similar males, as females who were the target of high levels of male aggression had lower than expected MHC divergence in their offspring. Indeed, offspring MHC divergence was highest when the sex ratio was female-biased and male harassment was likely to be less intense. These data suggest that male harassment can reduce female effectiveness in selecting MHC-compatible mates, and sexual conflict can thus have an indirect cost to females.

  6. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at the Dalles Dam, Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    if applicable): Not applicable; this is a compliance study Fish: Implant Procedure: Species-race: yearling Chinook salmon (CH1), steelhead ( STH ...Surgical: Yes Injected: No Source: John Day Dam fish collection facility Size (median): CH1 STH Sample Size: CH1 STH Weight: 31.4 g 78.1 g...conditions and survival for downstream migrants. Survival and Passage Estimates (value & SE): CH1 STH Dam survival 0.9641 (SE = 0.0096) 0.9534

  7. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batton, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ingraham, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  8. Impact of stressors on transmission potential of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Winton, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) affecting several species of Pacific salmon.  The severity of BKD can range from a chronic infection to overt disease with high mortality as in the case of large losses of adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Great Lakes during late 1980s. The goal of this study was to empirically evaluate how environmental stressors relevant to the Great Lakes impact R. salmoninarum disease progression and bacterial shedding, the latter parameter being a proxy of horizontal transmission. In the first study (Aim 1), we focused on how endogenous host thiamine levels and dietary fatty acids impacted resistance of Chinook salmon to R. salmoninarum. Juvenile fish were fed one of four experimental diets, including a (1) thiamine replete diet formulated with fish oil, (2) thiamine deplete diet formulated with fish oil, (3) thiamine replete diet formulated with soybean oil, and (4) thiamine deplete diet formulated with soybean oil, before being challenged with buffer or R. salmoninarum. We observed significantly higher mortality in the R. salmoninarum infected groups relative to the corresponding mock controls in only the thiamine replete diet groups. We also observed a significant effect of time and diet on kidney bacterial load and bacterial shedding, with a significant trend towards higher shedding and bacterial load in the fish oil – thiamine replete diet group. However, during the course of the study, unexpected mortality occurred in all groups attributed to the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta. Since the fish were dually-infected with C. shasta, we evaluated parasite DNA levels (parasitic load) in the kidney of sampled fish. We found that parasite load varied across time points but there was no significant effect of diet. However, parasite load did differ significantly between the mock and R. salmoninarum challenge groups with a trend towards longer persistence of C. shasta

  9. Survival estimates for the passage of juvenile chinook salmon through Snake River dams and reservoirs. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, R.N.; Muir, W.D.; Sandford, B.P.; McIntyre, K.W.; Frost, D.A.; Williams, J.G.; Smith, S.G.; Skalski, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

  10. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  11. Testing advances in molecular discrimination among Chinook salmon life histories: evidence from a blind test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, David P; Meusnier, Isabelle; Greig, Carolyn A; Rashbrook, Vanessa K; Ardren, William R; Smith, Christian T; Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Van Sickle, John; O'Malley, Kathleen G

    2014-06-01

    The application of DNA-based markers toward the task of discriminating among alternate salmon runs has evolved in accordance with ongoing genomic developments and increasingly has enabled resolution of which genetic markers associate with important life-history differences. Accurate and efficient identification of the most likely origin for salmon encountered during ocean fisheries, or at salvage from fresh water diversion and monitoring facilities, has far-reaching consequences for improving measures for management, restoration and conservation. Near-real-time provision of high-resolution identity information enables prompt response to changes in encounter rates. We thus continue to develop new tools to provide the greatest statistical power for run identification. As a proof of concept for genetic identification improvements, we conducted simulation and blind tests for 623 known-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to compare and contrast the accuracy of different population sampling baselines and microsatellite loci panels. This test included 35 microsatellite loci (1266 alleles), some known to be associated with specific coding regions of functional significance, such as the circadian rhythm cryptochrome genes, and others not known to be associated with any functional importance. The identification of fall run with unprecedented accuracy was demonstrated. Overall, the top performing panel and baseline (HMSC21) were predicted to have a success rate of 98%, but the blind-test success rate was 84%. Findings for bias or non-bias are discussed to target primary areas for further research and resolution. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from

  13. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Device in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2010 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2012-09-10

    In 2010, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) conducted a compliance monitoring study—the Lower Columbia River Acoustic Transmitter Investigations of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics 2010 (Carlson et al. in preparation)—for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District. The purpose of the compliance study was to evaluate juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) passage routes and survival through the lower three Columbia River hydroelectric facilities as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp; NOAA Fisheries 2008) and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords; 3 Treaty Tribes and Action Agencies 2008).

  14. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  15. Using a laboratory-based growth model to estimate mass- and temperature-dependent growth parameters across populations of juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.; Huntington, Charles

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the parameters that govern mass- and temperature-dependent growth, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing growth data from juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were fed an ad libitum ration of a pelleted diet. Although the growth of juvenile Chinook Salmon has been well studied, research has focused on a single population, a narrow range of fish sizes, or a narrow range of temperatures. Therefore, we incorporated the Ratkowsky model for temperature-dependent growth into an allometric growth model; this model was then fitted to growth data from 11 data sources representing nine populations of juvenile Chinook Salmon. The model fit the growth data well, explaining 98% of the variation in final mass. The estimated allometric mass exponent (b) was 0.338 (SE = 0.025), similar to estimates reported for other salmonids. This estimate of b will be particularly useful for estimating mass-standardized growth rates of juvenile Chinook Salmon. In addition, the lower thermal limit, optimal temperature, and upper thermal limit for growth were estimated to be 1.8°C (SE = 0.63°C), 19.0°C (SE = 0.27°C), and 24.9°C (SE = 0.02°C), respectively. By taking a meta-analytical approach, we were able to provide a growth model that is applicable across populations of juvenile Chinook Salmon receiving an ad libitum ration of a pelleted diet.

  16. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis: An Additional Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent upon the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes characterization of life history types, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually Estuary. Previously funded work on wild samples collected in 2004 established the growth rate and length of residence associated with various habitats. The purpose of the current study is to build on the previous work by incorporating otolith microstructure analysis from 2005 (second sampling year), to verify findings from 2004, and to evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this second year of analysis indicated no inter-annual variation in the appearance of the tidal delta check (TDCK) and delta-flats check (DFCK). However, a new life history type (fry migrant) was observed on samples collected in 2005. Fish caught in the tidal delta regardless of capture date spent an average of 17 days in the tidal delta. There was a corresponding increase in growth rate as the fish migrated from freshwater (FW) to tidal delta to nearshore (NS) habitats. Fish grew 33 percent faster in the tidal delta than in FW habitat and slightly faster (14 percent) in the delta flats (DF) habitat compared to the tidal delta.

  17. Instream flow characterization of upper Salmon River Basin streams, Central Idaho, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream from the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the federally listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications, as a result of irrigation practices, have directly affected the quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include the collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts in the evaluation of potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing streamflow. Instream flow characterization studies were completed on Pole, Fourth of July, Elk, and Valley Creeks during 2003. Continuous streamflow data were collected upstream from all diversions on each stream. In addition, natural summer streamflows were estimated for each study site using regression

  18. Effects of sex steroids, sex, and sexual maturity on cortisol production: an in vitro comparison of chinook salmon and rainbow trout interrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H James; Lokman, P Mark; Young, Graham

    2003-08-01

    Sex steroids appear to be responsible for hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis that occurs in mature semelparous Pacific salmon as a prelude to post-spawning (programmed) death. This study was undertaken to examine the direct effects of sex steroids on interrenal activity of semelparous (chinook salmon) and iteroparous (rainbow trout) salmonids using an in vitro incubation system. In addition, phenotypic sex differences in cortisol production by interrenals of sexually mature (spawning) rainbow trout and chinook salmon were investigated. Interrenal tissue from juvenile and sexually mature chinook salmon and rainbow trout was incubated for 48 h in culture medium containing either no steroid (controls), 1 microM estradiol (E2) or 1 microM 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This tissue was then challenged for 3h with either pregnenolone, dibutyryladenosine 3('):5(')-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) or forskolin, or synthetic human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH(1-24)). Sex differences in in vitro interrenal cortisol production were assessed using separate tissue pools challenged with the same agents. Cortisol in media was measured by radioimmunoassay. E2 suppressed the ability of juvenile chinook salmon interrenals to utilize pregnenolone as substrate for cortisol synthesis. In mature female chinook salmon the suppressive effect of E2 was less pronounced, but was observed as a reduced response of interrenals to both pregnenolone and dbcAMP. E2 did not affect ACTH(1-24) stimulated cortisol production. Immature and mature rainbow trout interrenals were both relatively insensitive to E2. 11-KT did not affect cortisol production by juvenile chinook salmon and juvenile or mature rainbow trout, and had only minor effects in male and female spawning chinook salmon. In mature chinook salmon and rainbow trout, the interrenals of females were more responsive to ACTH stimulation and showed a greater utilization of pregnenolone as a substrate than

  19. The external phenotype-skeleton link in post-hatch farmed Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, A; Perrott, M R; Davie, P S; Preece, M A; Huysseune, A; Witten, P E

    2018-03-01

    Skeletal deformities in farmed fish are a recurrent problem. External malformations are easily recognized, but there is little information on how external malformations relate to malformations of the axial skeleton: the external phenotype-skeleton link. Here, this link is studied in post-hatch to first-feed life stages of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) raised at 4, 8 and 12°C. Specimens were whole-mount-stained for cartilage and bone, and analysed by histology. In all temperature groups, externally normal specimens can have internal malformations, predominantly fused vertebral centra. Conversely, externally malformed fish usually display internal malformations. Externally curled animals typically have malformed haemal and neural arches. External malformations affecting a single region (tail malformation and bent neck) relate to malformed notochords and early fusion of fused vertebral centra. The frequencies of internal malformations in both externally normal and malformed specimens show a U-shaped response, with lowest frequency in 8°C specimens. The fused vertebral centra that occur in externally normal specimens represent a malformation that can be contained and could be carried through into harvest size animals. This study highlights the relationship between external phenotype and axial skeleton and may help to set the framework for the early identification of skeletal malformations on fish farms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A genetic test of sexual size dimorphism in pre-emergent chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh W Mizzau

    Full Text Available Sex differences in early development may play an important role in the expression of sexual size dimorphism at the adult stage. To test whether sexual size dimorphism is present in pre-emergent chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, alevins were reared at two temperatures (10 °C and 15 °C and sexed using the OtY1 marker on the Y-chromosome. Linear mixed models were used to test for sex differences in alevin size within families while controlling for the random effects of sire and dam nested within sire. Males and females did not differ in weight at 10 °C but males were heavier than females at 15 °C. Sex accounted for 2% of the within-family variance in weight. In addition, at 15°C, the relationship between weight and sex was greater in families with larger eggs. Whereas male-biased sexual size dimorphism was present at the juvenile stage, female-biased sexual size dimorphism was present at sexual maturity. Males were also younger than females at sexual maturity. A head start on growth by males may underlie their earlier maturation at a smaller size, thus leading to female-biased SSD at the adult stage.

  1. The effects of electroshock on immune function and disease progression in juvenile spring chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the effects of electroshock on fish physiology, consequences to the immune system and disease progression have not received attention. Our objectives were to determine the effects of electroshock on selected immune function in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, the mechanism of any observed alteration, and the effects of electroshock on disease progression. We found that the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to generate antibody-producing cells (APC) was suppressed 3 h after a pulsed-DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8 ms pulse width) but recovered within 24 h. This response was similar in timing and magnitude to that of fish subjected to an acute handling stress. The mechanism of suppression is hypothesized to be via an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations in response to stress. Other monitored immune functions, skin mucous lysozyme levels, and respiratory burst activity were not affected by exposure to electroshock. The progression of a Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) infection may have been altered after exposure to an electroshock. The electroshock did not affect infection severity or the number of mortalities, but may have accelerated the time to death. The limited duration of APC suppression and lack of effects on lysozyme and respiratory burst, as well as infection severity and mortality levels in RS-infected fish, led us to conclude that electrofishing under the conditions we tested is a safe procedure in regards to immunity and disease.

  2. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  3. Immune and endocrine responses of adult spring Chinook salmon during freshwater migration and sexual maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, A.G.; Schrock, R.M.; Slater, C.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C. B.

    1996-01-01

    The immune –endocrine responses in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined during their freshwater migration and final maturation. In 1990, migrating fish had high plasma cortisol titres (means 200 ng ml−1) and generated relatively few antibody-producing cells (APC) from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (100 –200 per culture). After three weeks acclimation in constant environmental conditions, plasma cortisol was reduced and APC increased. There were no changes in number or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. Concentrations of several sex steroids correlated with APC in females, but there were no such correlations in males. In 1993, fish in a hatchery had significantly greater cortisol concentrations in primary circulation than in secondary circulation, but sex steroid concentrations did not differ between circulations. Mean lysozyme activity in the primary and secondary circulation did not differ in June. In August, activity in the primary circulation was significantly less than that of the secondary, perhaps the result of acute stress associated with sampling. While some sex steroids correlated with lysozyme activity, the fact that in both years all endocrine and immune variables that correlated with each other also correlated with the date of sample, raises the question as to whether or not these are cause-and-effect relations.

  4. Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-02-01

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

  5. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  6. Estuarine and marine diets of out-migrating Chinook Salmon smolts in relation to local zooplankton populations, including harmful blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, C. M.; Sweeting, R.; Neville, C. M.; Young, K.; Galbraith, M.; Carmack, E.; Vagle, S.; Dempsey, M.; Eert, J.; Beamish, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in food availability during the early marine phase of wild Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) are being investigated as a cause of their recent declines in the Salish Sea. The marine survival of hatchery smolts, in particular, has been poor. This part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project examined the diet of young out-migrating Chinook Salmon for four consecutive years in the Cowichan River estuary and in Cowichan Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Local zooplankton communities were monitored during the final year of the study in the Cowichan River estuary, Cowichan Bay, and eastward to the Salish Sea to better understand the bottom-up processes that may be affecting Chinook Salmon survival. Rearing environment affected body size, diet, and distribution in the study area. Clipped smolts (hatchery-reared) were larger than the unclipped smolts (primarily naturally-reared), ate larger prey, spent very little time in the estuary, and disappeared from the bay earlier, likely due to emigration or mortality. Their larger body size may be a disadvantage for hatchery smolts if it necessitates their leaving the estuary prematurely to meet energy needs; the onset of piscivory began at a forklength of approximately 74 mm, which was less than the average forklength of the clipped fish in this study. The primary zooplankton bloom occurred during the last week of April/first week of May 2013, whereas the main release of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon smolts occurs each year in mid-May-this timing mismatch may reduce their survival. Gut fullness was correlated with zooplankton biomass; however, both the clipped and unclipped smolts were not observed in the bay until the bloom of harmful Noctiluca was finished-20 days after the maximum recorded zooplankton abundance. Jellyfish medusa flourished in nearshore areas, becoming less prevalent towards the deeper waters of the Salish Sea. The sizable presence of Noctiluca and jellyfish in the zooplankton blooms may be repelling

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 14.1 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to McNary Dam ranged from 10.9 rkm/d for Big Canyon to 15.9 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median travel times from the FCAP facilities were about 9-12 days to Lower Granite Dam and 25-30 days to McNary Dam. Median arrival dates at Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearling groups from the FCAP facilities, ranged from April 20-28. Median arrival dates at McNary Dam for the FCAP groups were all May 11. The objectives of this project are to quantify and evaluate pre-release fish health, condition and mark retention as well as post-release survival, migration timing, migration rates, travel times and movement patterns of fall Chinook salmon from supplementation releases at the FCAP facilities, then provide feedback to co-managers for project specific and basin wide management decision-making.

  8. Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congleton, James L.

    1985-02-01

    Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, J.; Fazio, J.

    1993-01-01

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  10. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  11. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  12. Comparing effects of transmitters within and among populations: application to swimming performance of juvenile Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.; Fielding, Scott D.; Adams, Noah S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of fish to a transmitter depends on factors such as environmental conditions, fish morphology, life stage, rearing history, and tag design. However, synthesizing general trends across studies is difficult because each study focuses on a particular performance measure, species, life stage, and transmitter model. These differences motivated us to develop simple metrics that allow effects of transmitters to be compared among different species, populations, or studies. First, we describe how multiple regression analysis can be used to quantify the effect of tag burden (transmitter mass relative to fish mass) on measures of physiological performance. Next, we illustrate how the slope and intercept parameters can be used to calculate two summary statistics: θ, which estimates the tag burden threshold above which the performance of tagged fish begins to decline relative to untagged fish; and k, which measures the percentage change in performance per percentage point increase in tag burden. When θ = 0, k provides a single measure of the tag's effect that can be compared among species, populations, or studies. We apply this analysis to two different experiments that measure the critical swimming speed (U crit) of tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In both experiments, U crit declined as tag burden increased, but we found no significant threshold in swimming performance. Estimates of θ ranged from −0.6% to 2.1% among six unique treatment groups, indicating that swimming performance began to decline at a relatively low tag burden. Estimates of k revealed that U crit of tagged fish declined by −2.68% to −4.86% for each 1% increase in tag burden. Both θ and k varied with the tag's antenna configuration, tag implantation method, and posttagging recovery time. Our analytical approach can be used to gain insights across populations to better understand factors affecting the ability of fish to carry a transmitter.

  13. Feeding bionomics of juvenile chinook salmon relative to thermal discharges in the central Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford environs of the central Columbia River, Washington consumed almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The food organisms were dominated by midges (Diptera: Tendipedidae); by numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) were of secondary importance. Small fry fed almost exclusively on the small tendipedids. Over 95% of all food organisms originated within the river ecosystem. The distinctive features of food and feeding activity were fourfold: first, relatively few insect groups were utilized; second, the fish depended on drifting, floating, or swimming organisms; third, they visually selected living prey moving in or on the water; and fourth, they were habitat opportunists to a high degree. The 1969 data, were studied to reveal possible thermal effects of heated discharges from plutonium production reactors at Hanford on food and growth parameters. All data were characterized by considerable variation between and within stations. No discernable effects between coldwater and warmwater stations were revealed by analyses of: (1) groups of food organisms utilized, (2) food and feeding activity, (3) numbers of insects consumed, (4) seasonal increases in fish length, (5) fish length-weight relationships, (6) fish coefficients of condition, and (7) stomach biomass. The lack of detectable thermal effects was apparently due to the fact that the main effluent plumes discharge in midstream and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish groups at each station, influenced by changes in regulated river flows, and the availability of food organisms in the river drift were ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation in situ.

  14. Behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, K.F.; Kock, T.J.; Connor, W.P.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir on the Snake River, Washington, U.S.A. During the summer, temperatures in the reservoir varied from 23?? C on the surface to 11?? C at 14 m depth. Subyearlings implanted with temperature-sensing radio transmitters were released at the surface at temperatures >20?? C during three blocks of time in summer 2004. Vertical profiles were taken to measure temperature and depth use as the fish moved downstream over an average of 5??6-7??2 h and 6??0-13??8 km. The majority of the subyearlings maintained average body temperatures that differed from average vertical profile temperatures during most of the time they were tracked. The mean proportion of the time subyearlings tracked within the 16-20?? C temperature range was larger than the proportion of time this range was available, which confirmed temperature selection opposed to random use. The subyearlings selected a depth and temperature combination that allowed them to increase their exposure to temperatures of 16-20?? C when temperatures 20?? C were available at lower and higher positions in the water column. A portion of the subyearlings that selected a temperature c. 17??0?? C during the day, moved into warmer water at night coincident with an increase in downstream movement rate. Though subyearlings used temperatures outside of the 16-20?? C range part of the time, behavioural thermoregulation probably reduced the effects of intermittent exposure to suboptimal temperatures. By doing so, it might enhance growth opportunity and life-history diversity in the population of subyearlings studied.

  15. Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Transmission and Disease among Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed in Culture Compared to Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Foott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of IHNV infection and disease were followed in a juvenile Chinook salmon population both during hatchery rearing and for two weeks post-release. Cumulative weekly mortality increased from 0.03%–3.5% as the prevalence of viral infection increased from 2%–22% over the same four-week period. The majority of the infected salmon was asymptomatic. Salmon demonstrating clinical signs of infection shed 1000 pfu mL-1 of virus into the water during a 1 min observation period and had a mean concentration of 106 pfu mL-1 in their mucus. The high virus concentration detected in mucus suggests that it could act as an avenue of transmission in high density situations where dominance behavior results in nipping. Infected smolts that had migrated 295 km down river were collected at least two weeks after their release. The majority of the virus positive smolts was asymptomatic. A series of transmission experiments was conducted using oral application of the virus to simulate nipping, brief low dose waterborne challenges, and cohabitation with different ratios of infected to naïve fish. These studies showed that asymptomatic infections will occur when a salmon is exposed for as little as 1 min to >102 pfu mL-1, yet progression to clinical disease is infrequent unless the challenge dose is >104 pfu mL-1. Asymptomatic infections were detected up to 39 d post-challenge. No virus was detected by tissue culture in natural Chinook juveniles cohabitated with experimentally IHNV-infected hatchery Chinook at ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20 for either 5 min or 24 h. Horizontal transmission of the Sacramento River strain of IHNV from infected juvenile hatchery fish to wild cohorts would appear to be a low ecological risk. The study results demonstrate key differences between IHNV infections as present in a hatchery and the natural environment. These differences should be considered during risk assessments of the impact of IHNV infections on wild salmon and

  16. The potential for chromium to affect the fertilization process of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Harper, D.D.; Cleveland, L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Little, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation in south central Washington was claimed by the federal government as a site for the production of plutonium. During the course of production and operation of the facilities at Hanford, radionuclides and chromium were discharged directly into the river and also contaminated the groundwater. This study was designed to assess the effects of chromium (Cr) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fertilization under exposure conditions similar to those of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Chinook salmon gametes were exposed to aqueous Cr concentrations ranging from 0 to 266 μg Cr l−1. The current ambient water-quality criteria (AWQC) established for the protection of aquatic life (United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] 1986) is 11 μg Cr l−1. Cr has been measured in pore water from bottom sediments of the Columbia River at concentrations >600 μg Cr l−1. Under exposure conditions designed to closely mimic events that occur in the river, the fertilization of Chinook salmon eggs was not affected by concentrations of Cr ranging from 11 to 266 μg Cr l−1. Data suggest that the instantaneous nature of fertilization likely limits the potential effects of Cr on fertilization success. As a result, the current AWQC of 11 μg Cr l−1 is most likely protective of Chinook salmon fertilization.

  17. Assignment of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Linkage Groups to Specific Chromosomes Reveals a Karyotype with Multiple Rearrangements of the Chromosome Arms of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ruth B.; Park, Linda K.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinook salmon genetic linkage groups have been assigned to specific chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes containing genetic markers mapped to each linkage group in Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Comparison of the Chinook salmon chromosome map with that of rainbow trout provides strong evidence for conservation of large syntenic blocks in these species, corresponding to entire chromosome arms in the rainbow trout as expected. In almost every case, the markers were found at approximately the same location on the chromosome arm in each species, suggesting conservation of marker order on the chromosome arms of the two species in most cases. Although theoretically a few centric fissions could convert the karyotype of rainbow trout (2N = 58–64) into that of Chinook salmon (2N = 68) or vice versa, our data suggest that chromosome arms underwent multiple centric fissions and subsequent new centric fusions to form the current karyotypes. The morphology of only approximately one-third of the chromosome pairs have been conserved between the two species. PMID:24170739

  18. Performance assessment of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices in juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-07-02

    Acoustic transmitters used in survival and telemetry studies are often surgically implanted in fish. While this is a well-established method, it has the potential to affect health, behavior, and survival, thus affecting study results. Much research has been done to try to minimize the harmful effects caused by the transmitter and tagging process. In 2009, we first investigated the use of a bi-directional knotless (barbed) suture material in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that it resulted in higher tag retention than the simple interrupted suture pattern; however, the occurrence of ulceration and redness increased. The objective of this study was to refine the suturing patterns of the bi-directional knotless suture and retest suture performance in juvenile Chinook salmon. We tested the bi-directional suture using 3 different suture patterns and two needle types: 6-Point (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” Knot 12 (12-mm needle circumference), and Wide “N” Knot 18 (18-mm needle circumference).

  19. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Smallmouth bass predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon was examined in the upper portion of Lower Granite Reservoir during 2013. During the time subyearlings were present in the reservoir, smallmouth bass were collected, their stomach contents removed for diet analysis, and their abundance estimated with mark-recapture techniques. In 2013, the greatest consumption of subyearlings by smallmouth bass occurred in late May and early June—as much as 50% of their diet by weight. Sand rollers were the most common non-salmonid fish consumed by smallmouth bass. In the section of the reservoir above the confluence with the Clearwater River, the abundance of bass was higher in non-riprap habitat than in riprap, but the opposite was true in the section below the confluence. We estimated that over 168,000 subyearlings were lost to smallmouth bass predation in 2013. Given the predominance of sand rollers in the diet of smallmouth bass, we believe this species reduces predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon. A complete report of our findings is provided in the Appendix.

  20. Evaluation of fast green FCF dye for non-lethal detection of integumental injuries in juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Conway, C.M.; Applegate, L.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid staining procedure for detection of recent skin and fin injuries was tested in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Immersion of anesthetized fish for 1 min in aerated aqueous solutions of the synthetic food dye fast green FCF (Food Green 3) at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.5% produced consistent and visible staining of integumental injuries. A 0.1% fast green concentration was satisfactory for visual evaluation of injuries, whereas a 0.5% concentration was preferable for digital photography. A rinsing procedure comprised of two 30 s rinses in fresh water was most effective for removal of excess stain after exposure of fish. Survival studies in fresh water and seawater and histopathological analyses indicated that short exposures to aqueous solutions of fast green were non-toxic to juvenile Chinook salmon. In comparisons of the gross and microscopic appearance of fish exposed to fast green at various times after injury, the dye was observed only in areas of the body where epidermal disruption was present as determined by scanning electron microscopy. No dye was observed in areas where epidermal integrity had been restored. Further comparisons showed that fast green exposure produced more consistent and intense staining of skin injury sites than a previously published procedure using trypan blue. Because of its relatively low cost, ease of use and the rapid and specific staining of integumental injuries, fast green may find widespread application in fish health and surface injury evaluations. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  1. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be

  2. Instream flow characterization of upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing streamflow. In 2004, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Salmon River and Beaver, Pole, Champion, Iron, Thompson, and Squaw Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Salmon River and Pole, Iron, Thompson, and Squaw Creeks. In addition, natural summer streamflows were

  3. Quantification of the probable effects of alternative in-river harvest regulations on recovery of Snake River fall chinook salmon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.P.; Vigg, S.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the probable effects that alternative strategies for managing in-river harvest would have on recovery of Snake River fall chinook salmon. This report presents the analysis of existing data to quantify the way in which various in-river harvest strategies catch Snake River bright (SRB) fall chinook. Because there has been disagreement among experts regarding the magnitude of in-river harvest impacts on Snake River fall chinook, the authors compared the results from using the following three different methods to estimate in-river harvest rates: (1) use of run reconstruction through stock accounting of escapement and landings data to estimate harvest rate of SRB chinook in Zone 6 alone; (2) use of Coded Wire Tag (CWT) recoveries of fall chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in a cohort analysis to estimate age and sex specific harvest rates for Zone 6 and for below Bonneville Dam; (3) comparison of harvest rates estimated for SRB chinook by the above methods to those estimated by the same methods for Upriver Bright (URB) fall chinook

  4. Echolocation signals of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) and modeling of foraging for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Ford, John K. B.; Horne, John K.; Allman, Kelly A. Newman

    2004-02-01

    Fish-eating ``resident''-type killer whales (Orcinus orca) that frequent the coastal waters off northeastern Vancouver Island, Canada have a strong preference for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The whales in this region often forage along steep cliffs that extend into the water, echolocating their prey. Echolocation signals of resident killer whales were measured with a four-hydrophone symmetrical star array and the signals were simultaneously digitized at a sample rate of 500 kHz using a lunch-box PC. A portable VCR recorded the images from an underwater camera located adjacent to the array center. Only signals emanating from close to the beam axis (1185 total) were chosen for a detailed analysis. Killer whales project very broadband echolocation signals (Q equal 0.9 to 1.4) that tend to have bimodal frequency structure. Ninety-seven percent of the signals had center frequencies between 45 and 80 kHz with bandwidths between 35 and 50 kHz. The peak-to-peak source level of the echolocation signals decreased as a function of the one-way transmission loss to the array. Source levels varied between 195 and 224 dB re:1 μPa. Using a model of target strength for chinook salmon, the echo levels from the echolocation signals are estimated for different horizontal ranges between a whale and a salmon. At a horizontal range of 100 m, the echo level should exceed an Orcinus hearing threshold at 50 kHz by over 29 dB and should be greater than sea state 4 noise by at least 9 dB. In moderately heavy rain conditions, the detection range will be reduced substantially and the echo level at a horizontal range of 40 m would be close to the level of the rain noise.

  5. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  6. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  7. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  8. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to runs. We explored whether low densities (how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  9. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale A L Goertler

    Full Text Available Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010-2012. We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity.

  10. Avoidance of thermal effluent by juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshowytscha) and its implications in waste heat management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1977-03-01

    Knowledge of behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to thermal discharges at power plants is essential to evaluate thermal exposure and subsequent effects on survival and ecological success. Instantaneous responses of juvenile salmon that encountered a simulated river-thermal plume interface were assessed in a model raceway with a thermal discharge. Fish movement and response to the discharge were recorded on videotape. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tested under three discharge conditions (no plume, ambient plume and heated plume) avoided plume temperatures greater than 9 to 11 0 C above ambient. Fish occasionally oriented to the discharge current, but were not attracted to the thermal component of the plume when plume ΔT's were below the avoidance level of 11 0 C. Fish did not pass to the lower end of the raceway when plume ΔT exceeded 9 to 11 0 C. The responses noted in our experiments suggest organismic behavior may prevent juvenile salmon in nature from experiencing lethal conditions from thermal discharges and have application in waste heat management and utilization

  11. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Columbia River Section, John Day, OR)

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence

  12. 1998-1999 evaluation of fall chinook and chum salmon spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naald, W.D. van der

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  13. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    1999-12-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in

  14. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  15. Preliminary examination of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of wild origin sampled from transport barges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, T L; Congleton, J L

    2009-11-01

    Migrating juvenile wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, collected and loaded onto transport barges at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, were sampled from barges at John Day Dam, 348 km downstream, at 5 day intervals beginning in late April and ending in late May. An increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in vitamin E in liver were observed from early to late in the barge transportation season. These changes seemed unrelated to changes in plasma cortisol or corresponding glucose levels, which declined from early to late in the season, or the concentration of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) concentrations in tissue but may be related to water temperature, which increased during the transport season, or other changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation.

  16. Losses of Sacramento River Chinook Salmon and Delta Smelt to Entrainment in Water Diversions in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim J. Kimmerer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumping at the water export facilities in the southern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta kills fish at and near the associated fish-salvage facilities. Correlative analyses of salvage counts with population indices have failed to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of this mortality. I estimated the proportional losses of Sacramento River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus to place these losses in a population context. The estimate for salmon was based on recoveries of tagged smolts released in the upper Sacramento River basin, and recovered at the fish-salvage facilities in the south Delta and in a trawling program in the western Delta. The proportion of fish salvaged increased with export flow, with a mean value around 10% at the highest export flows recorded. Mortality was around 10% if pre-salvage losses were about 80%, but this value is nearly unconstrained. Losses of adult delta smelt in winter and young delta smelt in spring were estimated from salvage data (adults corrected for estimated pre-salvage survival, or from trawl data in the southern Delta (young. These losses were divided by population size and accumulated over the respective seasons. Losses of adult delta smelt were 1–50% (median 15% although the highest value may have been biased upward. Daily losses of larvae and juveniles were 0–8%, and seasonal losses accumulated were 0–25% (median 13%. The effect of these losses on population abundance was obscured by subsequent 50-fold variability in survival from summer to fall.

  17. Neutral genetic variation in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affects brain-to-body trade-off and brain laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel D.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of heterozygosity can have detrimental effects on life history and growth characteristics of organisms but more subtle effects such as those on trade-offs of expensive tissues and morphological laterality, especially of the brain, have not been explicitly tested. The objective of the current study was to investigate how estimated differences in heterozygosity may potentially affect brain-to-body trade-offs and to explore how these heterozygosity differences may affect differential brain growth, focusing on directional asymmetry in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using the laterality and absolute laterality indices. Level of inbreeding was estimated as mean microsatellite heterozygosity resulting in four ‘inbreeding level groups’ (Very High, High, Medium, Low). A higher inbreeding level corresponded with a decreased brain-to-body ratio, thus a decrease in investment in brain tissue, and also showed a decrease in the laterality index for the cerebellum, where the left hemisphere was larger than the right across all groups. These results begin to show the role that differences in heterozygosity may play in differential tissue investment and in morphological laterality, and may be useful in two ways. Firstly, the results may be valuable for restocking programmes that wish to emphasize brain or body growth when crossing adults to generate individuals for release, as we show that genetic variation does affect these trade-offs. Secondly, this study is one of the first examinations to test the hypothesized relationship between genetic variation and laterality, finding that in Chinook salmon there is potential for an effect of inbreeding on lateralized morphology, but not in the expected direction. PMID:29308240

  18. Applying a two-dimensional morphodynamic model to assess impacts to Chinook salmon spawning habitat from dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. A.; Crosato, A.; Omer, A. Y. A.; Bregoli, F.

    2017-12-01

    The need for accurate and robust predictive methods of assessing fluvial ecosystems is highlighted by the accelerating practice of dam removal. Dam removal can be a restorative measure, but the sudden release of impounded sediment and change in flow regime may negatively impact aquatic biota and their habitat. This study assesses the performance of a quasi-three-dimensional morphodynamic numerical model, coupled with habitat suitability indices, to predict short-term impacts to Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat from dam removal. The 2007 removal of Marmot Dam on the Sandy River (Oregon, U.S.A.) is used as a case study. Delft3D-FLOW is employed to simulate changes in river channel topography, sediment composition and hydrodynamic conditions for a 20-kilometer reach of the Sandy River. The transport of non-uniform sediment and three-dimensional flow effects are included in the model. Output parameters such as flow depth, velocity and substrate are processed to evaluate habitat quality in the year following the Marmot Dam removal. Impacts are evaluated across four life-stages of Chinook salmon. As a hindcast analysis, the morphodynamic model sufficiently reproduces the evolution of river morphology at the reach-scale while requiring only a low level of calibration. The model performs well in predicting impacts to fish passage, but carries more uncertainty for developing life stages. By coupling flow-sediment-biota interactions, this method shows strong potential for habitat assessment in unsteady and non-uniform environments. Computation time is a primary constraint, as it limits grid-cell resolution, modelling of suspended sediment and capacity to characterize the sediment grain size distribution. Research on the effects of suspended sediment on habitat quality is ongoing, and further research is recommended for modelling reservoir erosion processes numerically.

  19. Instream flow characterization of Upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model simulation results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing or decreasing streamflow. In 2005, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Big Boulder, Challis, Bear, Mill, and Morgan Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Big Boulder. Instantaneous measurements of discharge were also made at selected sites. In

  20. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-28

    male fitness. For both sexes, run time had a smaller but still significant effect on fitness, with earlier returning fish favored. Spawning location within the river had a significant effect on fitness for both males and females, and for females explained most of the reduced fitness observed for hatchery fish in this population. While differences have been reported in the relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced salmonids Oncorhynchus spp., factors explaining the differences are often confounded. We examined the spawning site habitat and redd structure variables of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha of known size that spawned in two tributaries of the Wenatchee River. We controlled for variability in spawning habitat by limiting our analysis to redds found within four selected reaches. No difference in the instantaneous spawner density or location of the redd in the stream channel was detected between reaches. Within each reach, no difference in the fork length or weight of hatchery and naturally produced fish was detected. While most variables differed between reaches, we found no difference in redd characteristics within a reach between hatchery and naturally produced females. Correlation analysis of fish size and redd characteristics found several weak but significant relationships suggesting larger fish contract larger redds in deeper water. Spawner density was inversely related to several redd structure variables suggesting redd size may decrease as spawner density increases. Results should be considered preliminary until samples size and statistical power goals are reached in future years. Trends in relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wenatchee Basins suggest females that spawn in the upper reaches of the tributaries produced a great number of offspring compared to females that spawn in the lower reaches of the tributaries

  1. Summary of Temperature Data Collected to Improve Emergence Timing Estimates for Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River, 1998-2004 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, E.; Geist, D.; Hanrahan, T.

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 through 2004, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected temperature data from within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning gravels and the overlying river at 21 locations in the Ives Island area approximately 5 km downstream from Bonneville Dam. Sample locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. The study objectives were to (1) collect riverbed and river temperature data each year from the onset of spawning (October) to the end of emergence (June) and (2) provide those data in-season to fisheries management agencies to assist with fall Chinook and chum salmon emergence timing estimates. Three systems were used over the life of the study. The first consisted of temperature sensors deployed inside piezometers that were screened to the riverbed or the river within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. These sensors required direct access by staff to download data and were difficult to recover during high river discharge. The second system consisted of a similar arrangement but with a wire connecting the thermistor to a data logger attached to a buoy at the water surface. This system allowed for data retrieval at high river discharge but proved relatively unreliable. The third system consisted of temperature sensors installed in piezometers such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely via radio telemetry. After being downloaded, data were posted hourly on the Internet. Several times during the emergence season of each year, temperature data were downloaded manually and provided to management agencies. During 2003 and 2004, the real-time data were made available on the Internet to assist with emergence timing estimates. Examination of temperature data reveals several important patterns. Piezometer sites differ in the direction of vertical flow between surface and subsurface water. Bed temperatures in upwelling areas are more stable during salmon

  2. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Spellman, Bryant; Clark, Roy (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2000. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates.

  3. Genetic effects of ELISA-based segregation for control of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, J.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.M.; Park, L.K.; Winton, J.R.; Campton, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated genetic variation in ability of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to resist two bacterial pathogens: Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and Listonella anguillarum, an agent of vibriosis. After measuring R. salmoninarum antigen in 499 adults by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we mated each of 12 males with high or low antigen levels to two females with low to moderate levels and exposed subsets of their progeny to each pathogen separately. We found no correlation between R. salmoninarum antigen level in parents and survival of their progeny following pathogen exposure. We estimated high heritability for resistance to R. salmoninarum (survival h2 = 0.890 ?? 0.256 (mean ?? standard error)) independent of parental antigen level, but low heritability for resistance to L. anguillarum (h2 = 0.128 ?? 0.078). The genetic correlation between these survivals (rA = -0.204 ?? 0.309) was near zero. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between survival and antigen levels among surviving progeny exposed to R. salmoninarum were both negative (rA = -0.716 ?? 0.140; rP = -0.378 ?? 0.041), indicating that variation in antigen level is linked to survival. These results suggest that selective culling of female broodstock with high antigen titers, which is effective in controlling BKD in salmon hatcheries, will not affect resistance of their progeny. ?? 2006 NRC.

  4. Effects of disturbance on contribution of energy sources to growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.W.; Bradford, M.J.; Grout, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We used stable isotopes of carbon in a growth-dependent tissue-turnover model to quantify the relative contribution of autochthonous and terrestrial energy sources to juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in five small boreal streams tributary to the upper Yukon River. We used a tissue-turnover model because fish did not grow enough to come into isotopic equilibrium with their diet. In two streams, autochthonous energy sources contributed 23 and 41% to the growth of juvenile salmon. In the other three, fish growth was largely due to terrestrial (i.e., allochthonous) energy sources. This low contribution of autochthonous energy appeared to be related to stream-specific disturbances: a recent forest fire impacted two of the streams and the third was affected by a large midsummer spate during the study. These disturbances reduced the relative abundance of herbivorous macroinvertebrates, the contribution of autochthonous material to other invertebrates, and ultimately, the energy flow between stream algae and fish. Our findings suggest that disturbances to streams can be an important mechanism affecting transfer of primary energy sources to higher trophic levels.

  5. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-03-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health.

  6. Comparison of electronarcosis and carbon dioxide sedation effects on travel time in adult Chinook and Coho Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Shane G; Allen, M. Brady; Zendt, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    The immobilization of fish during handling is crucial in avoiding injury to fish and is thought to reduce handling stress. Chemical sedatives have been a primary choice for fish immobilization. However, most chemical sedatives accumulate in tissues, and often food fishes must be held until accumulations degrade to levels safe for human consumption. Historically, there have been few options for nonchemical sedation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used for decades as a sedative, and while it does not require a degradation period, it does have drawbacks. The use of electronarcosis is another nonchemical option that does not require degradation time. However, little is known about the latent and delayed effects on migration rates of adult salmonids that have been immobilized with electricity. We compared the travel times of adult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch through a fishway at river kilometer (rkm) 4, and to rkm 16 and rkm 32 after being immobilized with either CO2 or electronarcosis. Travel times of fish treated with either CO2 or electronarcosis were similar within species. Because of the nearly instantaneous induction of and recovery from electronarcosis, we recommend it as an alternative to CO2 for handling large adult salmonids.

  7. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Incision Lengths, Suture Retention, and Growth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panther, Jennifer L.; Brown, Richard S.; Gaulke, Greggory L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2010-05-11

    In this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, we measured differences in survival and growth, incision openness, transmitter loss, wound healing, and erythema among abdominal incisions on the linea alba, lateral and parallel to the linea alba (muscle-cutting), and following the underlying muscle fibers (muscle-sparing). A total of 936 juvenile Chinook salmon were implanted with both Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Tracking System transmitters (0.43 g dry) and passive integrated transponder tags. Fish were held at 12°C (n = 468) or 20°C (n = 468) and examined once weekly over 98 days. We found survival and growth did not differ among incision groups or between temperature treatment groups. Incisions on the linea alba had less openness than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions during the first 14 days when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. Transmitter loss was not different among incision locations by day 28 when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. However, incisions on the linea alba had greater transmitter loss than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions by day 98 at 12°C. Results for wound closure and erythema differed among temperature groups. Results from our study will be used to improve fish-tagging procedures for future studies using acoustic or radio transmitters.

  8. Management of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook Salmon hatcheries based on broodstock testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: A multiyear study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, A. Douglas; Elliott, Diane G.; Johnson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    From the mid-1980s through the early 1990s, outbreaks of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum continued in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) hatcheries despite the use of three control methods: (1) injection of returning adult fish with erythromycin to reduce prespawning BKD mortality and limit vertical transmission of R. salmoninarum, (2) topical disinfection of green eggs with iodophor, and (3) prophylactic treatments of juvenile fish with erythromycin-medicated feed. In addition, programs to manage BKD through measurement of R. salmoninarum antigen levels in kidney tissues from spawning female Chinook salmon by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were tested over 13–15 brood years at three IDFG hatcheries. The ELISA results were used for either (1) segregated rearing of progeny from females with high ELISA optical density (OD) values (usually ≥0.25), which are indicative of high R. salmoninarum antigen levels, or (2) culling of eggs from females with high ELISA OD values. The ELISA-based culling program had the most profound positive effects on the study populations. Mortality of juvenile fish during rearing was significantly lower at each hatchery for brood years derived from culling compared with brood years for which culling was not practiced. The prevalence of R. salmoninarum in juvenile fish, as evidenced by detection of the bacterium in kidney smears by the direct fluorescent antibody test, also decreased significantly at each hatchery. In addition, the proportions of returning adult females with kidney ELISA OD values of 0.25 or more decreased 56–85% for fish reared in brood years during which culling was practiced, whereas the proportions of ELISA-negative adults increased 55–58%. This management strategy may allow IDFG Chinook salmon hatcheries to reduce or eliminate prophylactic erythromycin-medicated feed treatments. We recommend using ELISA

  9. Controls on the entrainment of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha into large water diversions and estimates of population-level loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Zeug

    Full Text Available Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations.

  10. Using broad landscape level features to predict redd densities of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow River watershed, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    We used broad-scale landscape feature variables to model redd densities of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Methow River watershed. Redd densities were estimated from redd counts conducted from 2005 to 2007 and 2009 for steelhead trout and 2005 to 2009 for spring Chinook salmon. These densities were modeled using generalized linear mixed models. Variables examined included primary and secondary geology type, habitat type, flow type, sinuosity, and slope of stream channel. In addition, we included spring effect and hatchery effect variables to account for high densities of redds near known springs and hatchery outflows. Variables were associated with National Hydrography Database reach designations for modeling redd densities within each reach. Reaches were assigned a dominant habitat type, geology, mean slope, and sinuosity. The best fit model for spring Chinook salmon included sinuosity, critical slope, habitat type, flow type, and hatchery effect. Flow type, slope, and habitat type variables accounted for most of the variation in the data. The best fit model for steelhead trout included year, habitat type, flow type, hatchery effect, and spring effect. The spring effect, flow type, and hatchery effect variables explained most of the variation in the data. Our models illustrate how broad-scale landscape features may be used to predict spawning habitat over large areas where fine-scale data may be lacking.

  11. Geo-Referenced, Abundance Calibrated Ocean Distribution of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Stocks across the West Coast of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Renee Bellinger

    Full Text Available Understanding seasonal migration and localized persistence of populations is critical for effective species harvest and conservation management. Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus forecasting models predict stock composition, abundance, and distribution during annual assessments of proposed fisheries impacts. Most models, however, fail to account for the influence of biophysical factors on year-to-year fluctuations in migratory distributions and stock-specific survival. In this study, the ocean distribution and relative abundance of Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha stocks encountered in the California Current large marine ecosystem, U.S.A were inferred using catch-per-unit effort (CPUE fisheries and genetic stock identification data. In contrast to stock distributions estimated through coded-wire-tag recoveries (typically limited to hatchery salmon, stock-specific CPUE provides information for both wild and hatchery fish. Furthermore, in contrast to stock composition results, the stock-specific CPUE metric is independent of other stocks and is easily interpreted over multiple temporal or spatial scales. Tests for correlations between stock-specific CPUE and stock composition estimates revealed these measures diverged once proportional contributions of locally rare stocks were excluded from data sets. A novel aspect of this study was collection of data both in areas closed to commercial fisheries and during normal, open commercial fisheries. Because fishing fleet efficiency influences catch rates, we tested whether CPUE differed between closed area (non-retention and open area (retention data sets. A weak effect was indicated for some, but not all, analyzed cases. Novel visualizations produced from stock-specific CPUE-based ocean abundance facilitates consideration of how highly refined, spatial and genetic information could be incorporated in ocean fisheries management systems and for investigations of biogeographic factors that influence

  12. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  13. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  14. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes studies of juvenile-salmon dam passage and apparent survival at Cougar Dam, Oregon, during two operating conditions in 2012. Cougar Dam is a 158-meter tall rock-fill dam used primarily for flood control, and passes water through a temperature control tower to either a powerhouse penstock or to a regulating outlet (RO). The temperature control tower has moveable weir gates to enable water of different elevations and temperatures to be drawn through the dam to control water temperatures downstream. A series of studies of downstream dam passage of juvenile salmonids were begun after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration determined that Cougar Dam was impacting the viability of anadromous fish stocks. The primary objectives of the studies described in this report were to estimate the route-specific fish passage probabilities at the dam and to estimate the survival probabilities of fish passing through the RO. The first set of dam operating conditions, studied in November, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,589 feet, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the weir gates, (3) most water routed through the turbines during the day and through the RO during the night, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 1.2 feet during the day and 3.2 feet during the night. The second set of dam operating conditions, studied in December, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,507 ft, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the RO bypass, (3) all water passing through the RO, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 7.3 feet during the day and 7.5 feet during the night. The studies were based on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Inferences about general dam passage percentage and timing of volitional migrants were based on surface-acclimated fish released in the reservoir. Dam passage and apparent

  15. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; McMichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-08-21

    In 2007, we used radio and acoustic telemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, survival, mortality, and delay of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. Monthly releases of radio-tagged fish ({approx}95/month) were made from May through October and releases of 122-149/month acoustic-tagged fish per month were made from August through October. We compared the size at release of our tagged fish to that which could have been obtained at the same time from in-river, beach seine collections made by the Nez Perce Tribe. Had we relied on in-river collections to obtain our fish, we would have obtained very few in June from the free-flowing river but by late July and August over 90% of collected fish in the transition zone were large enough for tagging. Detection probabilities of radio-tagged subyearlings were generally high ranging from 0.60 (SE=0.22) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the different study reaches and months. Lower detection probabilities were observed in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches where fewer fish were detected. Detection probabilities of acoustic-tagged subyearlings were also high and ranged from 0.86 (SE=0.09) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches during August through October. Estimates of the joint probability of migration and survival generally declined in a downstream direction for fish released from June through August. Estimates were lowest in the transition zone (the lower 7 km of the Clearwater River) for the June release and lowest in the confluence area for July and August releases. The joint probability of migration and survival in these reaches was higher for the September and October releases, and were similar to those of fish released in May. Both fish weight and length at tagging were significantly correlated with the joint probability of migrating and surviving for both radio-tagged and acoustic-tagged fish. For both tag types, fish that were heavier at tagging had a

  16. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile

  17. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure

  18. Surgically Implanted JSATS Micro-Acoustic Transmitters Effects on Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tag Expulsion and Survival, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Royer, Ida M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Kim, Jin A.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-09-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival model assumptions associated with a concurrent study - Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics at John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2010 by Thomas Carlson and others in 2010 - in which the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The micro-acoustic transmitter used in these studies is the smallest acoustic transmitter model to date (12 mm long x 5 mm wide x 4 mm high, and weighing 0.43 g in air). This study and the 2010 study by Carlson and others were conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet requirements set forth by the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion. In 2010, we compared survival, tag burden, and tag expulsion in five spring groups of yearling Chinook salmon (YCH) and steelhead (STH) and five summer groups of subyearling Chinook salmon (SYC) to evaluate survival model assumptions described in the concurrent study. Each tagging group consisted of approximately 120 fish/species, which were collected and implanted on a weekly basis, yielding approximately 600 fish total/species. YCH and STH were collected and implanted from late April to late May (5 weeks) and SYC were collected and implanted from mid-June to mid-July (5 weeks) at the John Day Dam Smolt Monitoring Facility. The fish were collected once a week, separated by species, and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) Control (no surgical treatment), (2) Sham (surgical implantation of only a passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag), and (3) Tagged (surgical implantation of JSATS micro-acoustic transmitter [AT] and PIT tags). The test fish were held for 30 days in indoor

  19. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  20. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

  1. Growth and physiological responses to surgical and gastric radio transmitter implantation techniques in subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Theresa L.; Hansel, H.C.; Shively, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effects of surgical and gastric transmitter implantation techniques on the growth, general physiology and behavior of 230 subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Walbaum) (100 mm-154 mm fork length). The transmitter weighed 1.3 g in air (0.9 g in water) and comprised, on average, 6% of the body weight of the fish (in air). Individuals were randomly assigned to an experimental group (control, surgical or gastric) and a sampling period (day 5 or day 21). Relative growth rate was expressed as% body weight gained/day. General condition was assessed by necropsy. Physiological response variables included hematocrit, leucocrit and plasma protein concentration. The mean relative growth rates of control, surgical and gastric fish were not significantly different at day 5. By day 21, the gastric group had a significantly lower relative growth rate (1.3%) as compared to the surgical group (1.8%) and the control group (1.9%) (P = 0.0001). Mean hematocrit values were significantly lower in the surgical (41.8%) and gastric (42.2%) groups as compared to controls (47.3%) at day 5 (P = 0.01), but all were within normal range for salmonids. No significant differences in hematocrit values were detected at day 21. Leucocrit values for all groups were ??? 1% in 99% of the fish. Both tagged groups had significantly lower mean plasma protein levels as compared to controls at day 5 (P = 0.001) and day 21 (P = 0.0001). At day 21 the gastric group (64.4 g 100 m1-1) had significantly lower mean plasma protein levels than the surgical group (68.8 g 100 ml-1) (P = 0.0001). Necropsies showed decreasing condition of gastrically tagged fish over time, and increasing condition of surgical fish. Paired releases of surgically and gastrically implanted yearling chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River in spring, 1996 revealed few significant differences in migration behavior through two reservoirs. We conclude that gastrically implanted fish show decreased growth and

  2. Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Madilyn M.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Chamberlin, Joshua W.; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Puget Sound, previous research reported a strong positive relationship between marine survival and body mass during midsummer in epipelagic habitats within Puget Sound, suggesting that early marine growth drives survival. However, a fine‐scale analysis of size‐selective mortality is needed to identify specific critical growth periods and habitats. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe occupancy patterns across estuarine delta, nearshore marine, and offshore epipelagic habitats in Puget Sound; (2) describe changes in FL and weight observed across habitats and time; (3) evaluate evidence for size‐selective mortality; and (4) illustrate how marine survival of the stocks studied may be affected by variation in July weight. In 2014 and 2015, we sampled FLs, weights, and scales from seven hatchery‐origin and two natural‐origin stocks of subyearling Chinook Salmon captured every 2 weeks during out‐migration and rearing in estuary, nearshore, and offshore habitats within Puget Sound. Natural‐origin stocks had more protracted habitat occupancy patterns than hatchery‐origin stocks and were smaller than hatchery‐origin stocks in both years. Regardless of origin, subyearlings were longer and heavier and grew faster in offshore habitats compared to estuary and nearshore habitats. For all stocks, we found little evidence of size‐selective mortality among habitats in Puget Sound. These patterns were consistent in both years. Finally, the weights of subyearlings sampled during July in the offshore habitat predicted Puget Sound‐wide marine

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24

  4. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sturrock

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87Sr/(86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000 and drier (2003 year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10% and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%. These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  5. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  6. Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

  7. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    2000-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  8. Migratory Behavior and Physiological Development as Potential Determinants of Life History Diversity in Fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-03-09

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio-tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were highest in the free-flowing Clearwater River compared to impounded reaches. This provided support for our hypothesis that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish’s physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches where velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lower-most reach of Lower Granite Reservoir suggesting that behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings in spite of hydrodynamic conditions being similar. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater river migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr-like in their development and never showed an increase in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity as did smolts from the Snake River. The later emergence timing and cooler rearing temperatures in the Clearwater River may suppress normal physiological development that causes many fish to delay downstream movement and adopt a yearling life history strategy.

  9. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  10. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin, Annual Report 2008 : Project Period 1 February 2008 to 31 January 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanke, Jeffrey A.; Alfonse, Brian M.; Bratcher, Kyle W. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-31

    This study was designed to document and describe the status and life history strategies of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin. We determined migration timing, abundance, and life-stage survival rates for juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer steelhead O. mykiss in four streams during migratory year 2008 from 1 July 2007 through 30 June 2008. As observed in previous years of this study, spring Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibited fall and spring movements out of natal rearing areas, but did not begin their smolt migration through the Snake and lower Columbia River hydrosystem until spring. In this report we provide estimates of migrant abundance and migration timing for each study stream, and their survival and timing to Lower Granite Dam. We also document aquatic habitat conditions using water temperature and stream flow in four study streams in the subbasin.

  11. Radio telemetry data - Characterizing migration and survival for juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin and Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project estimates survival and characterizes the migration of juvenile sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin in central Idaho and Lower Granite...

  12. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batten, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  13. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  14. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  15. Potential responses to climate change in organisms with complex life histories: evolution and plasticity in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.G. Crozier; A.P. Hendry; P.W. Lawson; T.P. Quinn; N.J. Mantua; J. Battin; R.G. Shaw; R.B. Huey

    2008-01-01

    Salmon life histories are finely tuned to local environmental conditions, which are intimately linked to climate. We summarize the likely impacts of climate change on the physical environment of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of these changes, with particular reference to Columbia River Basin spring/summer Chinook (...

  16. Genetic diversity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from Feather River and Lake Oroville, California, and virulence of selected isolates for Chinook salmon and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, C.M.; Kelley, G.O.; Yun, S.C.; Kurath, G.; Andree, K.B.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a significant pathogen of young salmonid fishes worldwide but particularly within the historical range of the Pacific Northwest and California. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River drainages of California, IHNV outbreaks in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha have been observed regularly at large production hatcheries, including Coleman National Fish Hatchery (established in 1941) and Feather River State Fish Hatchery (FRH; established in 1967), since facility operations began. Recent severe epidemics at the FRH in 1998 and 2000-2002 prompted investigations into the characteristics and potential sources of virus at this facility. Both phylogenetic analyses of a variable portion of the glycoprotein gene and serologic comparisons based on neutralization with three polyclonal rabbit sera were used to characterize 82 IHNV isolates from the Feather River watershed between 1969 and 2004. All isolates examined were in the L genogroup and belonged to one of three serologic groups typical of IHNV from California. The IHNV isolates from the Feather River area demonstrated a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 4.0%, and new isolates appeared to emerge from previous isolates rather than by the introduction of more diverse subgroups from exogenous sources. The earliest isolates examined from the watershed formed the subgroup LI, which disappeared coincidently with a temporal shift to new genetic and serologic types of the larger subgroup LII. Experimental challenges demonstrated no significant differences in the virulence for juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout O. mykiss from selected isolates representing the principal types of IHNV found historically and from recent epidemics at FRH. While most isolates were equally virulent for both host species, one isolate was found to be more virulent for Chinook salmon than for rainbow trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  17. Genetic variation in bacterial kidney disease (BKD) susceptibility in Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon and its progenitor population from the Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Hard, Jeffrey J.; Neely, Kathleen G.; Park, Linda K.; Winton, James R.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Mass mortality events in wild fish due to infectious diseases are troubling, especially given the potential for long-term, population-level consequences. Evolutionary theory predicts that populations with sufficient genetic variation will adapt in response to pathogen pressure. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were introduced into Lake Michigan in the late 1960s from a Washington State hatchery population. In the late 1980s, collapse of the forage base and nutritional stress in Lake Michigan were thought to contribute to die-offs of Chinook Salmon due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously, we demonstrated that Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon from a Wisconsin hatchery have greater survival following BKD challenge relative to their progenitor population. Here, we evaluated whether the phenotypic divergence of these populations in BKD susceptibility was due to selection rather than genetic drift. Comparison of the overall magnitude of quantitative trait to neutral marker divergence between the populations suggested selection had occurred but a direct test of quantitative trait divergence was not significant, preventing the rejection of the null hypothesis of differentiation through genetic drift. Estimates of phenotypic variation (VP), additive genetic variation (VA) and narrow-sense heritability (h2) were consistently higher in the Wisconsin relative to the Washington population. If selection had acted on the Wisconsin population there was no evidence of a concomitant loss of genetic variation in BKD susceptibility. The Renibacterium salmoninarum exposures were conducted at both 14°C and 9°C; the warmer temperature accelerated time to death in both populations and there was no evidence of phenotypic plasticity or a genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction. High h2 estimates for BKD susceptibility in the Wisconsin population, combined with a lack of phenotypic plasticity, predicts that future adaptive gains in BKD resistance are still possible and

  18. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-06-17

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  19. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn N.

    2015-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  20. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chinook Excluder Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project genetically analyzed 1,620 chinook salmon samples from the 2009 spring salmon excluder device test. These samples were collected over a short period of...

  1. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Klett, Ryan S.; Li, Huidong; Seaburg, Adam; Eppard, M. B.

    2014-04-15

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with a 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.

  2. A cohabitation challenge to compare the efficacies of vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, S.; Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Varney, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relative efficacies of 1 commercial and 5 experimental vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were compared through a cohabitation waterborne challenge. Groups of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were vaccinated with one of the following: (1) killed Renibacterium salmoninarum ATCC 33209 (Rs 33209) cells; (2) killed Rs 33209 cells which had been heated to 37??C for 48 h, a process that destroys the p57 protein; (3) killed R. salmoninarum MT239 (Rs MT239) cells; (4) heated Rs MT239 cells; (5) a recombinant version of the p57 protein (r-p57) emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA); (6) the commercial BKD vaccine Renogen; (7) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) emulsified with an equal volume of FIA; or (8) PBS alone. Following injection, each fish was marked with a subcutaneous fluorescent latex tag denoting its treatment group and the vaccinated fish were combined into sham and disease challenge tanks. Two weeks after these fish were vaccinated, separate groups of fish were injected with either PBS or live R. salmoninarum GL64 and were placed inside coated-wire mesh cylinders (liveboxes) in the sham and disease challenge tanks, respectively. Mortalities in both tanks were recorded for 285 d. Any mortalities among the livebox fish were replaced with an appropriate cohort (infected with R. salmoninarum or healthy) fish. None of the bacterins evaluated in this study induced protective immunity against the R. salmoninarum shed from the infected livebox fish. The percentage survival within the test groups in the R. salmoninarum challenge tank ranged from 59% (heated Rs MT239 bacterin) to 81 % (PBS emulsified with FIA). There were no differences in the percentage survival among the PBS-, PBS/FIA-, r-p57-and Renogen-injected groups. There also were no differences in survival among the bacterin groups, regardless of whether the bacterial cells had been heated or left untreated prior to injection. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  3. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  4. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  5. Primary and secondary sexual characters in alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon: Associations with androgens and the maturation-inducing steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Ian A E; Love, Oliver P; Farwell, Michelle; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2012-02-01

    The proximate mechanisms that underlie the evolution of within-sex variation in mating behavior, sexual characters and reproductive investment patterns are still poorly understood. Species exhibiting alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are ideal model systems to examine these mechanisms. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibits two distinct ARTs: hooknoses, which are large males that establish spawning dominance hierarchies via intense male-male competition and jacks, which are smaller precocious sneaking males that steal fertilizations via sperm competition. In this study, we examine plasma testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS; 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) profiles of spawning hooknoses and jacks. Furthermore, we examine relationships between androgens and primary (gonad mass, gonadosomatic index and sperm traits) and secondary (total mass, body size, hump depth and kype length) sexual characters. Relationships between MIS and sperm traits are also examined. We found that hooknoses and jacks did not significantly differ in terms of plasma T, 11-KT or MIS concentrations. Moreover, we found significant positive relationships between levels of both androgens within each ART. There were no significant relationships between androgens, MIS and sperm traits. T and 11-KT concentrations co-varied positively with gonad investment and kype length in jacks. In hooknoses, 11-KT concentration was positively related to total mass, hump depth and condition factor. Overall, these findings suggest that there are differential androgen effects for each of the ARTs in Chinook salmon. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  7. In-reservoir behavior, dam passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead from Detroit Reservoir and Dam to Portland, Oregon, February 2013-February 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    In the second year of 2 years of study, the movements of juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through Detroit Reservoir, passing Detroit Dam, and migrating downstream to Portland, Oregon, were studied during a 1-year-long period beginning in February 2013. The primary purpose of the study was to provide empirical data to inform decisions about future alternatives for improving downstream passage of salmonids at Detroit Dam. A secondary purpose was to design and assess the performance of a system to detect juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic transmitters migrating in the Willamette River. Inferences about fish migration were made from detections of juvenile fish of hatchery origin at least 95 millimeters in fork length surgically implanted with an acoustic transmitter and released during the spring (March–May) and fall (September–November) of 2013. Detection sites were placed throughout the reservoir, near the dam, and at two sites in the North Santiam River and at three sites in the Willamette River culminating at Portland, Oregon. We based most inferences on an analysis period up to the 90th percentile of tag life (68–78 days after release, depending on species and season), although a small number of fish passed after that period as late as April 8, 2014. Chinook salmon migrated from the tributaries of release to the reservoir in greater proportion than steelhead, particularly in the fall. The in-reservoir migration behaviors and dam passage of the two species were similar during the spring study, but during the fall study, few steelhead reached the reservoir and none passed the dam within the analysis period. Migrations in the reservoir were directed and non-random, except in the forebay. Depths of fish within 25 meters of the dam were deeper in the day than at night for Chinook salmon and similar in the day and night for steelhead; steelhead generally were at shallower depths

  8. Potential responses to climate change in organisms with complex life histories: evolution and plasticity in Pacific salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, L G; Hendry, A P; Lawson, P W; Quinn, T P; Mantua, N J; Battin, J; Shaw, R G; Huey, R B

    2008-01-01

    Salmon life histories are finely tuned to local environmental conditions, which are intimately linked to climate. We summarize the likely impacts of climate change on the physical environment of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of these changes, with particular reference to Columbia River Basin spring/summer Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon. We discuss the possible evolutionary responses in migration ...

  9. Geochemical signatures in fin rays provide a nonlethal method to distinguish the natal rearing streams of endangered juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wenatchee River, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linley, Timothy J.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Nims, Megan K.; Langshaw, Russell B.

    2016-09-01

    Rebuilding fish populations that have undergone a major decline is a challenging task that can be made more complicated when estimates of abundance obtained from physical tags are biased or imprecise. Abundance estimates based on natural tags where each fish in the population is marked can help address these problems, but generally requires that the samples be obtained in a nonlethal manner. We evaluated the potential of using geochemical signatures in fin rays as a nonlethal method to determine the natal tributaries of endangered juvenile spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Archived samples of anal fin clips collected from yearling smolt in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were analyzed for Ba/Ca, Mn/Ba, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Water samples collected from these same streams in 2012 were also quantified for geochemical composition. Fin ray and water Ba/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr were highly correlated despite the samples having been collected in different years. Fin ray Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios differed significantly among the natal streams, but also among years within streams. A linear discriminant model that included Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr correctly classified 95% of the salmon to their natal stream. Our results suggest that fin ray geochemistry may provide an effective, nonlethal method to identify mixtures of Wenatchee River spring Chinook Salmon for recovery efforts when these involve the capture of juvenile fish to estimate population abundance.

  10. Metabolic effects of dinoseb, diazinon and esfenvalerate in eyed eggs and alevins of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) determined by 1H NMR metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viant, Mark R.; Pincetich, Christopher A.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticide pulses in the Sacramento River, California, originate from storm-water discharges and non-point source aquatic pollution that can last from a few days to weeks. The Sacramento River and its tributaries have historically supported the majority of California's Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning grounds. Three pesticides currently used in the Sacramento Valley - dinoseb, diazinon, and esfenvalerate - were chosen to model the exposure of salmon embryos to storm-water discharges. Static-renewal (96 h) exposures to eyed eggs and alevins resulted in both toxicity and significant changes in metabolism assessed in whole-embryo extracts by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based metabolomics and HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The 96-h LC 5 values of eyed eggs and alevins exposed to dinoseb were 335 and 70.6 ppb, respectively, and the corresponding values for diazinon were 545 and 29.5 ppm for eyed eggs and alevins, respectively. The 96-h LC 5 of eyed eggs exposed to esfenvalerate could not be determined due to lack of mortality at the highest exposure concentration, but in alevins was 16.7 ppb. All esfenvalerate exposed alevins developed some degree of lordosis or myoskeletal abnormality and did not respond to stimulus or exhibit normal swimming behavior. ATP concentrations measured by HPLC-UV decreased significantly in eyed eggs due to 250 ppb dinoseb and 10 and 100 ppb esfenvalerate (p 1 H NMR metabolite fingerprints of eyed egg and alevin extracts revealed both dose-dependent and mechanism of action-specific metabolic effects induced by the pesticides. Furthermore, NMR based metabolomics proved to be more sensitive than HPLC-UV in identifying significant changes in sublethal metabolism of pesticide exposed alevins. In conclusion, we have demonstrated several benefits of a metabolomics approach for chemical risk assessment, when used in conjunction with a fish embryo assay, and have identified significant metabolic perturbations

  11. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  12. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  13. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of post-seasonal analyses including timing and relative magnitude of the outmigration, travel time for marked hatchery releases, and survival in mid-Columbia and lower Snake River index reaches. Travel time of marked yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) is measured between specific sampling points in the system. Marked groups usually represent major hatchery production stocks. Survival estimates are computed for specific spring chinook and steelhead marked groups. Arrival time and duration of outmigration of the chinook, sockeye, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead runs are reported at key sampling points. Hatchery and brand release information for 1986 is also listed.

  14. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  15. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River basin. The objectives were to: (1) determine the abundance, distribution and survival of naturally produced fry and smolts in the Yakima River; (2) evaluate different methods of fry and smolt supplementation into the natural rearing environment while maintaining as much as possible the gentic integrity of naturally produced stocks; (3) locate and define areas in the watershed which may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; (4) define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and (5) determine physical and biological limitations for production within the system.

  16. Examining the Causes and Consequences of Hybridization During Chinook Salmon Reintroductions: Using the San Joaquin River as a Restoration Case Study of Management Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Tomalty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful salmonid restoration efforts depend upon an understanding of the evolutionary processes that historically shaped population diversity, as well as the realities of currently available, altered river systems. Habitat alterations over the past century have dramatically changed the ecological forces that shaped salmonid speciation and evolution, bringing formerly separate and distinct populations into contact and in some cases leading to hybridization. Hybridization can threaten the genetic diversity within salmonid species and may affect the outcomes of restoration efforts. Here we use the San Joaquin River Restoration as a case study to discuss some of the genetic challenges of Chinook salmon restoration in a newly reopened habitat. We discuss a range of genetic management strategies—from passive reintroduction to tightly managed, active reintroduction—and the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. 

  17. Nearshore circulation and water-column properties in the Skagit River Delta, northern Puget Sound, Washington: juvenile Chinook Salmon habitat availability in the Swinomish Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Curran, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Time-series and spatial measurements of nearshore hydrodynamic processes and water properties were made in the Swinomish Channel to quantify the net direction and rates of surface water transport that influence habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon along their primary migratory corridor between the Skagit River and Padilla Bay in northern Puget Sound, Washington. During the spring outmigration of Skagit River Chinook between March and June 2007, currents measured with fixed acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) at the south and north end of the Swinomish Channel and with roving ADCP revealed that the currents are highly asymmetric with a dominant flow to the north (toward Padilla Bay). Maximum surface current velocities reached 1.5 m/s and were generally uniform across the channel near McGlinn Island Causeway. Transport times for surface water to travel the 11 km from the southern end of Swinomish Channel at McGlinn Island to Padilla Bay ranged from 2.1 hours to 5.5 days. The mean travel time was ~1 day, while 17 percent of the time, transport of water and passive particles occurred within 3.75 hours. Surface water in the Swinomish Channel during this time was generally very saline 20-27 psu, except south of the Rainbow Bridge in the town of La Conner where it ranged 0-15 psu depending on tide and Skagit River discharge. This salinity regime restricts suitable low salinity (

  18. Food and feeding of juvenile chinook salmon in the central Columbia River in relation to thermal discharges and other environmental features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States). Ecosystems Dept.

    1970-08-01

    The relationship of thermal discharges from operating Hanford reactors to food and feeding of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the central Columbia River, Washington was studied in 1968 and 1969. The primary objectives were to (1) evaluate the food composition and feeding activities of the fish and (2) determine if heated effluents influenced their welfare. Environmental conditions (seasonal changes in river temperatures and flow volumes) in relation to thermal requirements of young chinook are detailed. Data on food organisms utilized by the fish in 1968 and 1969 are presented, whereas analyses for possible thermal effects are based on the more extensive 1969 data. No consistent differences attributable to thermal increments were evident. The lack of detectable effects apparently results from the fact that the main discharge plumes occur in midriver and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish at each sampling site and the availability of food organisms in the river drift are ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation.

  19. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  20. Conservation of Native Fishes of the San Francisco Estuary: Considerations for Artificial Propagation of Chinook Salmon, Delta Smelt, and Green Sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Israel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary and its watersheds have reached all-time low abundances. Some of these declining species (e.g., Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha have been under artificial propagation for decades. For others (e.g., delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, and green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, this management option is just beginning to be discussed and implemented. Propagation strategies, in which organisms spend some portion of their lives in captivity, pose well-documented genetic and ecological threats to natural populations. Negative impacts of propagation have been documented for all Central Valley Chinook salmon runs, but limited efforts have been made to adapt hatchery operations to minimize the genetic and ecological threats caused by propagated fishes. A delta smelt propagation program is undergoing intensive design and review for operations and monitoring. However, if limiting factors facing this species in its estuarine habitat are not effectively addressed, captive propagation may not be a useful conservation approach, regardless of how carefully the propagation activity is designed or monitored. Scientifically defensible, ecologically based restoration programs that include monitoring and research aimed at quantifying natural population vital rates should be fully implemented before there is any attempt to supplement natural populations of delta smelt. Green sturgeon are also likely to face risks from artificial propagation if a large–scale program is implemented before this species’ limiting factors are better understood. In each of these cases, restoring habitats, and reducing loss from human actions, are likely to be the best strategy for rebuilding and supporting self–sustaining populations.

  1. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol + ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary ??-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five levels for a total of fifteen dietary combinations (diets). Oxidative damage in liver and kidney (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls) and erythrocytes (erythrocyte resistance to peroxidative lysis, ERPL) was determined after feeding experimental diets for 16 (early December) and 28 (early March) weeks. Only TOCAA influenced oxidative stress in this study, with most measures of oxidative damage decreasing (liver lipid peroxidation in December and March; ERPL in December; liver protein carbonyl in March) with increasing levels of TOCAA. We also observed a TOCAA-stimulated increase in susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidative lysis in March at the highest levels of TOCAA. The data suggest that under most circumstances a progressive decrease in oxidative stress occurs as dietary TOCAA increases, but higher TOCAA concentrations can stimulate oxidative damage in some situations. Higher levels of TOCAA in the diet were required in March than in December to achieve comparable levels of protection against oxidative damage, which may have been due to physiological changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation. Erythrocytes appeared to be more sensitive to variation in dietary levels of TOCAA than liver and kidney tissues. Using the March ERPL assay results as a baseline, a TOCAA level of approximately 350-600 mg/kg diet would provide adequate protection against lipid peroxidation under most circumstances in juvenile Chinook salmon. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  3. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  4. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities

  5. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to provide information to aid with decisions about potential alternatives for improving downstream passage conditions for juvenile salmonids in this flood-control reservoir. In 2011, a total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 356 hatchery fish and 117 wild fish were released during a 3-month period in the fall. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones throughout the reservoir and 12 hydrophones in a collective system near the dam outlet were used to determine general movements and dam passage of the fish over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be about 3 months. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back to the head of the reservoir. Most fish were detected near the temperature control tower at least once. The median time from release near the head of the reservoir to detection within about 100 meters of the dam outlet at the temperature control tower was between 5.7 and 10.8 days, depending on season and fish origin. Dam passage events occurred over a wider range of dates in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, but dam passage numbers were greatest during the fall and winter. A total of 10.5 percent (43 of 411) of the hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (4 of 26) of the wild fish released in the spring are assumed to have passed the dam, whereas a total of 25.3 percent (90 of 356) of the hatchery fish and 16.9 percent (30 of 117) of the wild fish released in the fall are assumed to have passed the dam. A small number of fish passed the dam after their transmitters had stopped working and were detected at

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  7. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  8. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  9. Effects of a Novel Acoustic Transmitter on Swimming Performance and Predator Avoidance of Juvenile Chinook Salmon: Determination of a Size Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Ricardo W.; Ashton, Neil K.; Brown, Richard S.; Liss, Stephanie A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Do Vale Beirao, Bernardo; Townsend, Richard L.; Deng, Zhiqun; Eppard, M. B.

    2016-01-04

    Abstract Telemetry studies are used worldwide to investigate the behavior and migration of fishes. The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters enables researchers to tag smaller fish, such as the juvenile life stages of salmon, thus representing a greater proportion of the population of interest. The development of an injectable acoustic transmitter has led to research determining the least invasive and quickest method of tag implantation. Swimming performance and predator avoidance were examined. To quantify critical swimming speed (Ucrit; an index of prolonged swimming performance) and predator avoidance for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), fish were split into three groups: (1) fish implanted with a dummy injectable acoustic transmitter (IAT treatment), (2) fish implanted with a dummy injectable acoustic transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag (IAT+PIT treatment), and (3) an untagged control group. The Ucrits and predator avoidance capability of tagged fish were compared with untagged fish to determine if carrying an IAT adversely affected swimming performance or predator avoidance. Fish implanted with only an IAT had lower Ucrit values than untagged fish and a size threshold at 79 mm fork length was found. Conversely, Ucrit values for fish implanted with an IAT+PIT were not significantly different from untagged controls and no size threshold was found. Predator avoidance testing showed no significant difference for fish implanted with an IAT compared to untagged individuals, nor was there a significant difference for IAT+PIT fish compared to untagged fish.

  10. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  11. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2001. This was the sixth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 318,932 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,503 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,499 from Big Canyon and 2,518 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 991 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 155.4 mm (154.7-156.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 171.6 mm (170.7-172.5 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.02 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.4% (73.2-75.5%) for Big Canyon to 85.2% (83.5-87.0%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2000. This was the fifth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 397,339 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,477 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,421 from Big Canyon and 2,488 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 980 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 157.7 mm (157.3-158.1 mm) at Big Canyon to 172.9 mm (172.2-173.6 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.12 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 87.0% (84.7-89.4%) for Pittsburg Landing to 95.2% (91.5-98.9%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to

  14. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1999. This was the fourth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 453,117 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities not only slightly exceeded the 450,000 fish quota, but a second release of 76,386 yearlings (hereafter called Surplus) were acclimated at the Big Canyon facility and released about two weeks after the primary releases. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 9,941 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 9,583 from Big Canyon, 2,511 Big Canyon Surplus and 2,494 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 983 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low and did not appear to increase after transport to the acclimation facilities. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery and relatively high at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the release groups ranged from 147.4 mm (146.7-148.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 163.7 mm (163.3-164.1 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.04 at

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2003. This was the eighth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 437,633 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,492 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,494 from Big Canyon and 2,497 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium with 37-83% of the fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 153.7 mm (153.2-154.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.2 mm (163.9-164.5 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.22 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 83.1% (80.7-85.5%) for Big Canyon to 91.7% (87.7-95.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 59.9% (54.6-65.2%) for Big Canyon to 69.4% (60.5-78.4%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.8 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  17. Status and restoration of salmon (Salmo salar L. stocks in the Nemunas River Basin, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Kesminas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of salmon resources is of a great importance to most countries in the Baltic Sea region, including Lithuania. Currently, human activity is the main cause of negative impact on salmon stocks status mainly through habitat loss. Salmon restocking program started in 1998 with the aim to recover stocks in the Nemunas River basin. The program involved artificial rearing, construction of fish ladders, protection of spawning grounds, stock monitoring, fishery regulation in the sea and rivers. Our study presents data on salmon stocks status and productivity in Lithuania, including abundance of fry and smolts, age composition and genetic structure of the populations. In total, 12 rivers in Lithuania have salmon populations, but the status of the populations varies. Despite the many measures taken, smolt production in Nemunas basin is increasing slowly. Notable increase in production was observed only in recent years. Production increased substantially during 2007- 2010 period, from 13 thousand individuals to over 47 thousand. Salmon parr density in studied rivers varied from 0.3 – 33.7 per 100 m² (mean value 9.8 individuals per 100 m². Mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP DNA markers were used to investigate genetic structure of salmon populations. MtDNA was subjected to RFLP analysis, 17 microsatellite loci were used as markers, also samples genotyped with 5568 SNPs. Salmon population from the Nemunas basin was fixed at one haplotype for mtDNA and fell into the same group as the populations from Latvia, Estonia, Russia and Southern Sweden. Microsatellite DNA and SNPs demonstrated distinctiveness from other neighboring populations, however it also indicated lower genetic variability, which could be caused by bottleneck event.

  18. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal (Nez Perce Tribe)

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major

  19. Brood stock segregation for the control of bacterial kidney disease can affect mortality of progeny chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Pascho, Ronald J.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    1995-01-01

    Segregation of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) brood stock based on the measurement of maternal Renibacterium salmoninarum infection levels by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) was previously shown to affect the prevalence and levels of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in progeny fish during hatchery rearing. Smolts from that study were subjected to standardized fish health and condition evaluation procedures 2 weeks before the conclusion of hatchery rearing and release of the fish for migration to the Pacific Ocean. The results suggested that the general health of the smolts in the progeny group from parents that had low R. salmoninarum infection levels or tested negative for R. salmoninarum (low-BKD group) was better than that of the smolts in the progeny group from female parents with high R. salmoninarum infection levels (high-BKD group). Testing by the ELISA showed that the overall severity of R. salmoninarum infection also was lower in the smolts from the low-BKD group. Subgroups of smolts from the study were acclimated to tanks of seawater for extended holding. After a 22-day acclimation period and 98 days in full-strength (29 ppt salinity) seawater, total mortality was 12% in the low-BKD group and 44% in the high-BKD group. All of the mortality in the low-BKD group and 85% of the mortality in the high-BKD group occurred after the fish were transferred to full-strength seawater. Testing of kidney tissues from all dead fish by the FAT revealed that 85% of the fish that died in the high-BKD group had high R. salmoninarum numbers, indicating that BKD was the cause of death. In contrast, none of the fish that died in the low-BKD group had detectable numbers of R. salmoninarum. We concluded that brood stock segregation by use of the ELISA and the FAT can affect mortality and the R. salmoninarum status of progeny chinook salmon for as long as 21 months after hatching, even after the fish have

  20. Assessing Water Temperature Zones in Idealized Holding Pools for Chinook Salmon: A Hypothetical Study Based on the Regulated Lower San Joaquin River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, K.; Villamizar, S. R.; Pai, H.; Aguilar, A.; Harmon, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    In regulated rivers such as the Lower San Joaquin River (LSJR) in California, environmental policy requires releasing adequate flows to maintain habitat quality for flora and fauna. The prescribed reservoir releases on the LSJR are tied to water year classifications in order to help satisfy competing water demands in dry years. The question remains as to whether relatively low releases will be adequate to maintain habitat quality for key aquatic species under current and projected climate conditions. This work examines one critical determinant of anadromous fish habitat suitability, water temperature, as a function of reservoir release conditions. More specifically, we study idealized pools subject to the conditions of the LSJR using an established 2D (longitudinal and vertical) flow and heat transport model (CE-QUAL-W2). We assessed the releases in the context of the spring run Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) life cycle (the key species in an ongoing restoration effort), focusing on summer holding conditions. Our objective was to determine the conditions under which pools provide sufficiently cool havens for the holding salmon under current and projected climate conditions. Using river bathymetry from measured cross-sections and a high-resolution DEM lidar product, we created a range of ideal pool size representative of LSJR conditions. After calibrating hydraulic and heat transfer parameters using available temperature profiles, we simulated temperature profiles in the pools for scheduled flow releases, at different downstream locations from the reservoir. Results include modeled temperature profiles in holding pools, and derived estimates of suitable holding capacity under a range of pool, releases and climate conditions. Potential engineering modifications are explored as potential mitigation strategies, such as modified flow schedules, riparian shading, pool sizes and pool relocations.

  1. Using a non-physical behavioural barrier to alter migration routing of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.W.; Romine, J.G.; Adams, N.S.; Blake, A.R.; Burau, J.R.; Johnston, S.V.; Liedtke, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic alterations to river systems, such as irrigation and hydroelectric development, can negatively affect fish populations by reducing survival when fish are routed through potentially dangerous locations. Non-physical barriers using behavioural stimuli are one means of guiding fish away from such locations without obstructing water flow. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, we evaluated a bio-acoustic fish fence (BAFF) composed of strobe lights, sound and a bubble curtain, which was intended to divert juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) away from Georgiana Slough, a low-survival migration route that branches off the Sacramento River. To quantify fish response to the BAFF, we estimated individual entrainment probabilities from two-dimensional movement paths of juvenile salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters. Overall, 7.7% of the fish were entrained into Georgiana Slough when the BAFF was on, and 22.3% were entrained when the BAFF was off, but a number of other factors influenced the performance of the BAFF. The effectiveness of the BAFF declined with increasing river discharge, likely because increased water velocities reduced the ability of fish to avoid being swept across the BAFF into Georgiana Slough. The BAFF reduced entrainment probability by up to 40 percentage points near the critical streakline, which defined the streamwise division of flow vectors entering each channel. However, the effect of the BAFF declined moving in either direction away from the critical streakline. Our study shows how fish behaviour and the environment interacted to influence the performance of a non-physical behavioural barrier in an applied setting.

  2. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  3. AFSC/ABL: Chinook allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozyme variation was used to examine population genetic structure of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, collected between 1988 and 1993 from 22...

  4. Strait of Georgia chinook and coho fishery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argue, A. W

    1983-01-01

    The chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon fishery in the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, is a valuble sport and commercial resource...

  5. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... the member vessels' pollock catch history from 1995 through 1997, as required under section 210(b) of... various users. The State of Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) manages the salmon commercial... requirement that the video monitor display the ``activities within the tank,'' and clarified in the final rule...

  6. Shiraz model - All-H modeling spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines the factors influencing fish populations including habitat, harvest, hatcheries, hydropower system operations, and climate change. It seeks to...

  7. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  8. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2012 – 12/31/2013: Annual report, 1991-029-00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn N.

    2014-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  9. Guidelines for monitoring and adaptively managing restoration of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Pess, G.R.; Zimmerman, M.; Crain, P.; Hughes, Z.; Wilson, A.; Liermann, M.C.; Morley, S.A.; McMillan, J.; Denton, K.; Warheit, K.

    2014-01-01

    As of January, 2014, the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams on the Elwha River, Washington, represents the largest dam decommissioning to date in the United States. Dam removal is the single largest step in meeting the goals of the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act of 1992 (The Elwha Act) — full restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem and its native anadromous fisheries (Section 3(a)). However, there is uncertainty about project outcomes with regards to salmon populations, as well as what the ‘best’ management strategy is to fully restore each salmon stock. This uncertainty is due to the magnitude of the action, the large volumes of sediment expected to be released during dam removal, and the duration of the sediment impact period following dam removal. Our task is further complicated by the depleted state of the native salmonid populations remaining in the Elwha, including four federally listed species. This situation lends itself to a monitoring and adaptive management approach to resource management, which allows for flexibility in decision-making processes in the face of uncertain outcomes.

  10. Science Advancements Key to Increasing Management Value of Life Stage Monitoring Networks for Endangered Sacramento River Winter-Run Chinook Salmon in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Johnson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art1A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage and where (geographic domain chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1 incorporate genetic run identification; (2 develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3 collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4 expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5 collect fish condition data; and

  11. Salmon-mediated nutrient flux in selected streams of the Columbia River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Copeland, Timothy; Venditti, David A.; Denny, Lytle; Gable, Josh; Lewis, Bert; Kinzer, Ryan; Barnett, Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmon provide an important resource subsidy and linkage between marine and land-based ecosystems. This flow of energy and nutrients is not uni-directional (i.e., upstream only); in addition to passive nutrient export via stream flow, juvenile emigrants actively export nutrients from freshwater environments. In some cases, nutrient export can exceed import. We evaluated nutrient fluxes in streams across central Idaho, USA using Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) adult escapement and juvenile production data from 1998 to 2008. We found in the majority of stream-years evaluated, adults imported more nutrients than progeny exported; however, in 3% of the years, juveniles exported more nutrients than their parents imported. On average, juvenile emigrants exported 22 ± 3% of the nitrogen and 30 ± 4% of the phosphorus their parents imported. This relationship was density dependent and nonlinear; during periods of low adult abundance juveniles were larger and exported up to 194% and 268% of parental nitrogen and phosphorus inputs, respectively. We highlight minimum escapement thresholds that appear to 1) maintain consistently positive net nutrient flux and 2) reduce the average proportional rate of export across study streams. Our results suggest a state-shift occurs when adult spawner abundance falls below a threshold to a point where the probability of juvenile nutrient exports exceeding adult imports becomes increasingly likely.

  12. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea’s potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state’s vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska’s first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish (Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040–2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.

  13. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea's potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew W.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state's vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska's first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish ( Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040-2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.

  14. Diel activity patterns of juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon with implications for operation of a gated water diversion in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.; Perry, Russell W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Romine, Jason G.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out-migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night-time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night-time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night-time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta.

  15. Mechanisms of drift-feeding behavior in juvenile Chinook salmon and the role of inedible debris in a clear water Alaskan stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuswanger, Jason R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.

    2014-01-01

    Drift-feeding fish are challenged to discriminate between prey and similar-sized particles of debris, which are ubiquitous even in clear-water streams. Spending time and energy pursuing debris mistaken as prey could affect fish growth and the fitness potential of different foraging strategies. Our goal was to determine the extent to which debris influences drift-feeding fish in clear water under low-flow conditions when the distracting effect of debris should be at a minimum. We used high-definition video to measure the reactions of drift-feeding juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to natural debris and prey in situ in the Chena River, Alaska. Among all potential food items fish pursued, 52 % were captured and quickly expelled from the mouth, 39 % were visually inspected but not captured, and only 9 % were ingested. Foraging attempt rate was only moderately correlated with ingestion rate (Kendall’s τ = 0.55), raising concerns about the common use of foraging attempts as a presumed index of foraging success. The total time fish spent handling debris increased linearly with foraging attempt rate and ranged between 4 and 25 % of total foraging time among observed groups. Our results help motivate a revised theoretical view of drift feeding that emphasizes prey detection and discrimination, incorporating ideas from signal detection theory and the study of visual attention in cognitive ecology. We discuss how these ideas could lead to better explanations and predictions of the spatial behavior, prey selection, and energy intake of drift-feeding fish.

  16. Increased CYP1A1 and ribosomal protein L5 gene expression in a teleost: the response of juvenile chinook salmon to coal dust exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.M.; Devlin, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular studies on the sublethal physiological effects of coal dust exposure in vertebrates are sparse. Coal dust contamination of the marine environment occurs, for example, around coal loading and storage terminals. To determine the potential impact of coal dust exposure on juvenile chinook salmon, fish were exposed for an 8 day period to 60 mg L -1 , 200 mg L -1 or 500 mg L -1 of coal dust in sea water and the levels of CYP1A1 mRNA quantitated using RT-cPCR. Two control groups were utilized; one 'negative' control group was maintained in sea water only, whilst the second 'positive' control group was i.p. injected with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF: 50 mg kg -1 ). There was a significant increase in CYP1A1 expression in fish exposed to coal dust (ANOVA; P< 0.001), and in fish injected with BNF (t-test; P< 0.001), relative to controls. In addition, RT-PCR analysis indicated increased expression of a second gene in the fish exposed to coal dust. Sequence analysis identified the second coal-dust inducible gene as ribosomal protein L5. Both of these genes, CYP1A1 and L5, encode proteins vital in cellular metabolism. The enzyme encoded by CYP1A1 (P4501A1) plays an important role in the metabolic activation of PAHs to carcinogenic and mutagenic metabolites. L5 plays a crucial role in ribosome biogenesis. At present, the significance of the increased hepatic expression of L5 in coal dust exposed fish is unclear and warrants further investigation

  17. Gas Supersaturation May Reduce the Survival of Yearling Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River and Ocean Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Ian; Welch, David; Scott, Melinda Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high flows in the Columbia River in 2011 raised total dissolved gas (TDG) levels in the river above the 120 percent legal limit imposed to prevent harmful impacts to aquatic organisms. This provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effect on smolt survival. In-river (IR) migrating juvenile yearling Chinook released at Bonneville Dam with acoustic tags during periods when TDG exceeded 120 percent received estimated maximum exposures of 134 TDG. Subsequent daily survival rates in the lower river and plume were reduced by 0.06 per day (SE equals 0.01) and 0.15 per day (SE equals 0.05) relative to IR migrant fish released when TDG was less than 120 percent. Transported smolts (T) released 10-13 kilometers below Bonneville Dam had lower maximum exposure levels (126 percent) and experienced no difference in daily survival rates relative to unexposed smolts. River temperature levels and trends in turbidity and disease prevalence between releases of high and low exposure smolts were not consistent with the observed effects on survival rates. We conclude that smolts may suffer from chronic effects of elevated TDG exposure while migrating through the Columbia River and plume. Consideration should be given to measuring these survival losses in an explicit experimental framework that isolates possible confounding factors.

  18. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  19. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  20. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  1. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-07

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutchsalmon from the north coast of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  3. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  4. Evidence for density-dependent changes in growth, downstream movement, and size of Chinook salmon subyearlings in a large-river landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Moffit, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the growth rate, downstream movement, and size of naturally produced fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings (age 0) for 20 years in an 8th-order river landscape with regulated riverine upstream rearing areas and an impounded downstream migration corridor. The population transitioned from low to high abundance in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act and other federally mandated recovery efforts. The mean growth rate of parr in the river did not decline with increasing abundance, but during the period of higher abundance the timing of dispersal from riverine habitat into the reservoir averaged 17 d earlier and the average size at the time of downstream dispersal was smaller by 10 mm and 1.8 g. Changes in apparent abundance, measured by catch per unit effort, largely explained the time of dispersal, measured by median day of capture, in riverine habitat. The growth rate of smolts in the reservoir declined from an average of 0.6 to 0.2 g/d between the abundance periods because the reduction in size at reservoir entry was accompanied by a tendency to migrate rather than linger and by increasing concentrations of smolts in the reservoir. The median date of passage through the reservoir was 14 d earlier on average, and average smolt size was smaller by 38 mm and 22.0 g, in accordance with density-dependent behavioral changes reflected by decreased smolt growth. Unexpectedly, smolts during the high-abundance period had begun to reexpress the migration timing and size phenotypes observed before the river was impounded, when abundance was relatively high. Our findings provide evidence for density-dependent phenotypic change in a large river that was influenced by the expansion of a recovery program. Thus, this study shows that efforts to recover native fishes can have detectable effects in large-river landscapes. The outcome of such phenotypic change, which will be an important area of future research, can only be fully judged by

  5. Economics of Fishery Failure: The Fall of the King-Analysis of U.S. West Coast Chinook Salmon (Oncorhyncus Tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    46 Figure 35. Total pounds of Atlantic Salmon imported by United States 1989–2009 (From: NMFS, 2009...47 Figure 36. Average price per pound of imported Atlantic Salmon 1989–2009 (From: NMFS, 2009... genetic distinctions and life-history strategies (NMFS-NWFSC-35, 1995). 15 Ricker (1980), studying British Columbia salmon , observed that the

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  8. Fall transport - A study to compare smolt-to-adult return rates (SARs) of Snake River fall Chinook salmon under alternative transport and dam operational strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)-funded study that began in 2005 compares the SARs of PIT tagged juvenile hatchery Snake River fall Chinook that are split...

  9. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2003-04-01

    In 2001 a total of 309 adult fall chinook and 264 chum were sampled in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 48. The peak redd count for chum was 181. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 16 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 26 November. There were estimated to be a total of 721 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2001. The 2001 chum population below Bonneville Dam was estimated to be 532 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2001 brood chinook emergence began on 11 March 2002 and ended 18 May 2002, with peak emergence occurring 26 April. 2001 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 29 January and continued through 31 March 2002. Peak chum emergence took place 25 February. A total of 5,487 juvenile chinook and 678 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 22 January and 30 July 2002 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place from mid June through early July 2002 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2001 and 2002 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration

  10. Survival and Passage of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011 - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Batten, G.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Hughes, James S.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Royer, Ida M.; Townsend, Richard L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Kim, Jeongkwon; Etherington, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Fisher, Erik J.; Greiner, Michael J.; Khan, Fenton; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.

    2012-10-01

    The study reported herein was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The PNNL and UW project managers were Drs. Thomas J. Carlson and John R. Skalski, respectively. The USACE technical lead was Mr. Brad Eppard. The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion (BiOp) and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study is being documented in two types of reports: compliance and technical. A compliance report is delivered within 6 months of the completion of the field season and focuses on results of the performance metrics outlined in the 2008 BiOp and Fish Accords. A technical report is produced within the 18 months after field work, providing comprehensive documentation of a given study and results on route-specific survival estimates and fish passage distributions, which are not included in compliance reports. This technical report concerns the 2011 acoustic telemetry study at The Dalles Dam.

  11. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  12. Microsatellite variation reveals weak genetic structure and retention of genetic variability in threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) within a Snake River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Neville; Daniel Isaak; Russell Thurow; Jason Dunham; Bruce Rieman

    2007-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have been central to the development of management concepts associated with evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), yet there are still relatively few studies of genetic diversity within threatened and endangered ESUs for salmon or other species. We analyzed genetic variation at 10 microsatellite loci to evaluate...

  13. Environmental monitoring of Chinook Salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.; Boreham, D.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of monitoring plants and animals in the environment as become increasingly important with recent developments over the past few years. New ICRP recommendations, coming into effect summer 2007, require the monitoring of non-human biota. There is increasing public concern for safety and general well-being of plants and animals near nuclear reactors and other nuclear facilities. However, most current monitoring techniques do not adequately address this concern. I will discuss several current biological techniques to address the radiation sensitivity animals in the environment, including their advantages and drawbacks. Our research has examined several aquatic animals to determine their sensitivity to radiation. (author)

  14. From salmon to shad: Shifting sources of marine-derived nutrients in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    Like Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), nonnative American shad (Alosa sapidissima) have the potential to convey large quantities of nutrients between the Pacific Ocean and freshwater spawning areas in the Columbia River Basin (CRB). American shad are now the most numerous anadromous fish in the CRB, yet the magnitude of the resulting nutrient flux owing to the shift from salmon to shad is unknown. Nutrient flux models revealed that American shad conveyed over 15,000 kg of nitrogen (N) and 3,000 kg of phosphorus (P) annually to John Day Reservoir, the largest mainstem reservoir in the lower Columbia River. Shad were net importers of N, with juveniles and postspawners exporting just 31% of the N imported by adults. Shad were usually net importers of P, with juveniles and postspawners exporting 46% of the P imported by adults on average. American shad contributed <0.2% of the total annual P load into John Day Reservoir, but during June when most adult shad are migrating into John Day Reservoir, they contributed as much as 2.0% of the P load. Nutrient inputs by American shad were similar to current but far less than historical inputs of Pacific salmon owing to their smaller size. Given the relatively high background P levels and low retention times in lower Columbia River reservoirs, it is unlikely that shad marine-derived nutrients affect nutrient balances or food web productivity through autotrophic pathways. However, a better understanding of shad spawning aggregations in the CRB is needed.

  15. Hatchery evaluation report: Lyons Ferry Hatchery - fall chinook. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ''Strategy for Salmon'' and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  16. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS... 660—Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) USGS HUC State(s) Hydrologic Unit... 18010206 CA/OR Upper Klamath River Chinook and coho salmon Iron Gate Dam 18010207 CA Shasta River Chinook...

  17. Estuarine chinook capacity - Estimating changes in juvenile Chinook rearing area and carrying capacity in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project has two objectives: 1. Estimate the amount of rearing habitat available to juvenile Chinook salmon currently and historically (i.e., ~1850s) throughout...

  18. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  19. Otolith output - Project to study alternative life history types of fall Chinook based on otoliths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The life-history complexity of Snake River fall Chinook salmon has hindered efforts to manage the ESU. In particular, the existence of an overwintering behavior in a...

  20. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  1. 75 FR 52309 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Tule Chinook Workgroup Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... management approach for Columbia River natural tule chinook . This meeting of the TCW is open to the public... approach as a formal conservation objective in the Salmon FMP. Although nonemergency issues not contained... Fishery Management Council; Tule Chinook Workgroup Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  2. Linking physical monitoring to coho and Chinook salmon populations in the Redwood Creek Watershed, California—Summary of May 3–4, 2012 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday, May 3, 2012, a science workshop was held at the Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) office in Arcata, California, with researchers and resource managers working in RNSP to share data and expert opinions concerning salmon populations and habitat in the Redwood Creek watershed. The focus of the workshop was to discuss how best to synthesize physical and biological data related to the freshwater and estuarine phases of salmon life cycles in order to increase the understanding of constraints on salmon populations. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends (S&T) Program National Park Monitoring Project (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/brdscience/ParkMonitoring.htm), which supports USGS research on priority topics (themes) identified by the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) and S&T. The NPS has organized more than 270 parks with significant natural resources into 32 Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Networks (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/networks.cfm) that share funding and core professional staff to monitor the status and long-term trends of selected natural resources (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor). All 32 networks have completed vital signs monitoring plans (available at http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/MonitoringPlans.cfm), containing background information on the important resources of each park, conceptual models behind the selection of vital signs for monitoring the condition of natural resources, and the selection of high priority vital signs for monitoring. Vital signs are particular physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems that represent the overall health or condition of the park, known or hypothesized effects of stressors, or elements that have important human values (Fancy and others, 2009). Beginning in 2009, the I&M program funded projects to analyze and synthesize the biotic and abiotic data generated by vital signs

  3. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

  4. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J. (National Marine Fishereis Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

  5. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  6. Can stream and riparian restoration offset climate change impacts to salmon populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Casey; White, Seth M; McCullough, Dale A; Graves, David S; Blanchard, Monica R

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how stream temperature responds to restoration of riparian vegetation and channel morphology in context of future climate change is critical for prioritizing restoration actions and recovering imperiled salmon populations. We used a deterministic water temperature model to investigate potential thermal benefits of riparian reforestation and channel narrowing to Chinook Salmon populations in the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek basins in Northeast Oregon, USA. A legacy of intensive land use practices in these basins has significantly reduced streamside vegetation and increased channel width across most of the stream network, resulting in water temperatures that far exceed the optimal range for salmon growth and survival. By combining restoration scenarios with climate change projections, we were able to evaluate whether future climate impacts could be offset by restoration actions. A combination of riparian restoration and channel narrowing was predicted to reduce peak summer water temperatures by 6.5 °C on average in the Upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0 °C in Catherine Creek in the absence of other perturbations. These results translated to increases in Chinook Salmon parr abundance of 590% and 67% respectively. Although projected climate change impacts on water temperature for the 2080s time period were substantial (i.e., median increase of 2.7 °C in the Upper Grande Ronde and 1.5 °C in Catherine Creek), we predicted that basin-wide restoration of riparian vegetation and channel width could offset these impacts, reducing peak summer water temperatures by about 3.5 °C in the Upper Grande Ronde and 1.8 °C in Catherine Creek. These results underscore the potential for riparian and stream channel restoration to mitigate climate change impacts to threatened salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  8. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

    2012-11-09

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide “N”, Wide “N” Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2×2×2×2 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (“Second Skin”).

  9. Isolation and characterization of the fall Chinook aquareovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhsous, Negar; Jensen, Nicole L.; Haman, Katherine H.; Batts, William N.; Jerome, Keith R.; Winton, James; Greninger, Alexander L.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundSalmon are paramount to the economy, ecology, and history of the Pacific Northwest. Viruses constitute one of the major threats to salmon health and well-being, with more than twenty known virus species that infect salmon. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the fall Chinook aquareovirus, a divergent member of the species Aquareovirus B within the family Reoviridae.MethodsThe virus was first found in 2014 as part of a routine adult broodstock screening program in which kidney and spleen tissue samples from healthy-appearing, adult fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to a hatchery in Washington State produced cytopathic effects when inoculated onto a Chinook salmon embryo cell line (CHSE-214). The virus was not able to be confirmed by an RT-PCR assay using existing aquareovirus pan-species primers, and instead was identified by metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing was used to recover the full genome and completed using 3′ RACE.ResultsThe genome of the fall Chinook aquareovirus contains 11 segments of double-stranded RNA totaling 23.3 kb, with each segment flanked by the canonical sequence termini found in the aquareoviruses. Sequence comparisons and a phylogenetic analysis revealed a nucleotide identity of 63.2% in the VP7 gene with the Green River Chinook virus, placing the new isolate in the species Aquareovirus B. A qRT-PCR assay was developed targeting the VP2, which showed rapid growth of the isolate during the initial 5 days in culture using CHSE-214 cells.ConclusionsThis sequence represents the first complete genome of an Aquareovirus B species. Future studies will be required to understand the potential pathogenicity and epidemiology of the fall Chinook aquareovirus.

  10. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predators on stream-rearing salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Butcher, Don P.; Crown, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory non-native smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and non-native species on stream-rearing salmon, and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin; we compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing Chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of Chinook salmon rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing Chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (2-4-fold increase) and greater abundance of bass. We

  11. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a nonnative predator on stream-rearing salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D; Ruesch, Aaron S; Torgersen, Christian E; Lawler, Joshua J; Butcher, Don P; Crown, Julia K

    2014-06-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use-related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory, nonnative smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams, and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and nonnative species on stream-rearing salmon and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin. We compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of chinook salmon-rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (two- to fourfold increase) and greater abundance of

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume IX : Evaluation of the 2001 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Migrant Salmon and Steelhead Trout Migrating to Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-12-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2001 inseason outmigration via the internet for eighteen PIT-tagged stocks of wild salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams and eleven passage-indexed stocks to Rock Island, McNary, or John Day dams. Nine of the PIT-tagged stocks tracked this year were new to the project. Thirteen ESUs of wild subyearling and yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and one ESU of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon were tracked and forecasted to Lower Granite Dam. Eight wild ESUs of subyearling and yearling chinook salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead were tracked to McNary Dam for the first time this year. Wild PIT-tagged ESUs tracked to Lower Granite Dam included yearling spring/summer chinook salmon release-recovery stocks (from Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek, Lostine River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, and Valley Creek), PIT-tagged wild runs-at-large of yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and a PIT-tagged stock of subyearling fall chinook salmon. The stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon smolts outmigrating to Lower Granite Dam, consisted this year of a new stock of fish from Alturas Lake Creek, Redfish Lake Creek Trap and Sawtooth Trap. The passage-indexed stocks, counted using FPC passage indices, included combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead migrating to Rock Island and McNary dams, and, new this year, combined wild and hatchery subyearling chinook salmon to John Day Dam. Unusual run-timing and fish passage characteristics were observed in this low-flow, negligible-spill migration year. The period for the middle 80% of fish passage (i.e., progress from the 10th to the 90th percentiles) was unusually short for nine out of ten PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook salmon stocks tracked to Lower Granite Dam. It was the

  13. Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Axel, Gordon A.; Smith, Steven G. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-12-01

    We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from a large number of PIT-tagged fish released upstream from Lower Granite Dam to evaluate transportation from Snake River Dams. During late May and early June 2003, 68,572 hatchery-reared subyearling fall Chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released at Couse Creek and Pittsburg Landing in the free-flowing Snake River. We estimated survival for these fish from release to Lower Granite Dam tailrace. In comparison to wild subyearling fall Chinook salmon PIT tagged and released in the free-flowing Snake River, the hatchery fish we released traveled faster and had higher survival to Lower Granite Dam, likely because of their larger size at release. For fish left in the river to migrate we estimated survival from Lower Granite Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace. Each year, a small proportion of fish released are not detected until the following spring. However, the number of fish released in 2003 that overwintered in the river and were detected as they migrated seaward as yearlings in 2004 was small (<1.0%) and had minimal effect on survival estimates. We evaluated a prototype floating PIT-tag detector deployed upstream from Lower Granite reservoir to collect data for use in partitioning travel time and survival between free-flowing and reservoir habitats. The floating detector performed poorly, detecting only 27 PIT tags in 340 h of operation from a targeted release of 68,572; far too few to partition travel time and survival between habitats. We collected river-run subyearling Chinook salmon (mostly wild fish from the Hanford Reach) at Mc

  14. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XV : Evaluation of the 2007 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead Smolts to Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, Jim; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-12-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2007 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 26 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU Chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, one PIT-tagged wild stock of sockeye salmon to McNary Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams. Nineteen stocks are of wild yearling Chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2007 and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2007 migration. These stocks originate in 19 tributaries of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. Seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and the steelhead runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams.

  16. The relationship between survival of Columbia River fall chinook salmon and in-river environmental factors -- Analysis of historic data for juvenile and adult salmonid production: Phase 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Townsend, R.L.; Donnelly, R.F.; Hilborn, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    This project analyzes in greater detail the coded-wire-tag (CWT) returns of Priest Rapids Hatchery fall chinook for the years 1976--1989 initially begun by Hilborn et al. (1993a). These additional analyses were prompted by suggestions made by peer reviews of the initial draft report. The initial draft and the peer review comments are included in this final report (Appendices A and B). The statistical analyses paired Priest Rapids stock with potential downriver reference stocks to isolate in-river survival rates. Thirty-three potential reference stocks were initially examined for similar ocean recovery rates; the five stocks with the most similar recovery patterns (i.e., Bonneville Brights, Cowlitz, Gray's River, Tanner Creek, and Washougal) to the Priest Rapids stock were used in the subsequent analysis of in-river survival. Three alternate forms of multiple regression models were used to investigate the relationship between predicted in-river survival and ambient conditions. Analyses were conducted with and without attempts to adjust for smolt transportation at McNary Dam. Independent variables examined in the analysis included river flows, temperature, turbidity, and spill along with the total biomass of hatchery releases in the Columbia-Snake River Basin

  17. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  18. A single Alal 39-to-Glu substitution in the Renibacterium salmoninarum virulence-associated protein p57 results in antigenic variation and is associated with enhanced p57 binding to Chinook salmon leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Gregory D.; Pascho, Ron; Winton, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum produces relatively large amounts of a 57-kDa protein (p57) implicated in the pathogenesis of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Antigenic variation in p57 was identified by using monoclonal antibody 4C11, which exhibited severely decreased binding to R. salmoninarum strain 684 p57 and bound robustly to the p57 proteins of seven other R. salmoninarum strains. This difference in binding was not due to alterations in p57 synthesis, secretion, or bacterial cell association. The molecular basis of the 4C11 epitope loss was determined by amplifying and sequencing the two identical genes encoding p57, msa1 and msa2. The 5′ and coding sequences of the 684 msa1 and msa2 genes were identical to those of the ATCC 33209 msa1and msa2 genes except for a single C-to-A nucleotide mutation. This mutation was identified in both the msa1 and msa2 genes of strain 684 and resulted in an Ala139-to-Glu substitution in the amino-terminal region of p57. We examined whether this mutation in p57 altered salmonid leukocyte and rabbit erythrocyte binding activities. R. salmoninarum strain 684 extracellular protein exhibited a twofold increase in agglutinating activity for chinook salmon leukocytes and rabbit erythrocytes compared to the activity of the ATCC 33209 extracellular protein. A specific and quantitative p57 binding assay confirmed the increased binding activity of 684 p57. Monoclonal antibody 4C11 blocked the agglutinating activity of the ATCC 33209 extracellular protein but not the agglutinating activity of the 684 extracellular protein. These results indicate that the Ala139-to-Glu substitution altered immune recognition and was associated with enhanced biological activity of R. salmoninarum 684 p57.

  19. Diel variation in summer habitat use, feeding periodicity, and diet of subyearling Atlantic salmon in the Salmon River Basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The habitat use, diet composition, and feeding periodicity of subyearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during both day and night periods during summer in tributaries of Lake Ontario. The amount of cover used was the major habitat variable that differed between day and night periods in both streams. At night subyearling Atlantic salmon were associated with significantly less cover than during the day. Principal Component Analysis showed that habitat selection of subyearling Atlantic salmon was more pronounced during the day in both streams and that salmon in Orwell Brook exhibited more diel variability in habitat use than salmon in Trout Brook. Subyearling salmon fed primarily from the benthic substrate on baetids, chironomids, and leptocerids. There was a substantial amount of diel variation in diet composition with peak feeding occurring from 0400 h to 0800 h on July 21–22, 2008.

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Evaluation of 2006 Prediction of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead at Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams using Program Real Time, Technical Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2006 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 32 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. Twenty-four stocks are of wild yearling chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2006, and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2006 migration. These stocks originate in drainages of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through the tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling chinook salmon and the steelhead trout runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams.

  1. Resource implications of listing Columbia River Basin salmon stocks under the endangered species act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velehradsky, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River and Snake River dams and reservoirs provide substantial benefits in the Northwest through their operation for hydropower, flood control, irrigation, navigation, and fish and wildlife. The listing of certain Snake River salmon stocks as endangered and threatened, under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, has surfaced major public policy issues. Protection and enhancement of these salmon stocks has resulted in proposals to significantly modify the operation of the reservoir projects. Implementation of these proposals could have significant economic, environmental and social impacts in the region

  2. Effects of the proposed California WaterFix North Delta Diversion on flow reversals and entrainment of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Georgiana Slough and the Delta Cross Channel, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Romine, Jason G.; Pope, Adam C.; Evans, Scott D.

    2018-02-27

    The California Department of Water Resources and Bureau of Reclamation propose new water intake facilities on the Sacramento River in northern California that would convey some of the water for export to areas south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereinafter referred to as the Delta) through tunnels rather than through the Delta. The collection of water intakes, tunnels, pumping facilities, associated structures, and proposed operations are collectively referred to as California WaterFix. The water intake facilities, hereinafter referred to as the North Delta Diversion (NDD), are proposed to be located on the Sacramento River downstream of the city of Sacramento and upstream of the first major river junction where Sutter Slough branches from the Sacramento River. The NDD can divert a maximum discharge of 9,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) from the Sacramento River, which reduces the amount of Sacramento River inflow into the Delta.In this report, we conducted three analyses to investigate the effect of the NDD and its proposed operation on entrainment of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Georgiana Slough and the Delta Cross Channel (DCC). Fish that enter the interior Delta (the network of channels to the south of the Sacramento River) through Georgiana Slough and the DCC survive at lower rates than fish that use other migration routes (Sacramento River, Sutter Slough, and Steamboat Slough). Therefore, fisheries managers were concerned about the extent to which operation of the NDD would increase the proportion of the population entering the interior Delta, which, all else being equal, would lower overall survival through the Delta by increasing the fraction of the population subject to lower survival rates. Operation of the NDD would reduce flow in the Sacramento River, which has the potential to increase the magnitude and duration of reverse flows of the Sacramento River downstream of Georgiana Slough.In the first analysis, we

  3. Return to the river: strategies for salmon restoration in the Columbia River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Williams; Jack A. Standford; James A. Lichatowich; William J. Liss; Charles C. Coutant; Willis E. McConnaha; Richard R. Whitney; Phillip R. Mundy; Peter A. Bisson; Madison S. Powell

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia River today is a great "organic machine" (White 1995) that dominates the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Even though natural attributes remain—for example, salmon production in Washington State's Hanford Reach, the only unimpounded reach of the mainstem Columbia River—the Columbia and Snake River mainstems are dominated...

  4. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass.2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river’s water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales.3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22% of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23

  6. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  7. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  8. StreamNet: Report on the status of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin -- 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.A.; Christofferson, G.; Beamesderfer, R.; Woodard, B.; Rowe, M.; Hansen, J.

    1996-04-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data types and sources into a single comprehensive report on the status of anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin and the environmental conditions that may affect that status. Brief summaries are provided to identify the type and scope of available information. This synopsis is intended to complement other more detailed reports to which readers are referred for comprehensive treatment of specific subjects. This first report focuses mainly on anadromous salmon and steelhead (primarily through 1994) but the authors intend to expand the scope of future issues to include resident species. This is the first of what the authors intend to be an annual report. They welcome constructive suggestions for improvements. This report is a product of the StreamNet (formerly Coordinated Information System and Northwest Environmental Data Base) project which is a part of the Bonneville Power Administration's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The project is called for in the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The project's objective is to promote exchange and dissemination of information in a standardized electronic format throughout the basin. This project is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission with active participation by tribal, state, and federal fish and wildlife agencies

  9. Diet affects body composition of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, B.

    1994-01-01

    Hatchery-reared salmonids often contain proportionally greater amounts of body lipid (storage fat) and proportionally lesser amounts of body protein (muscle) and ash (bone) than do their wild counterparts of equal size. The effect of body composition on postrelease survival and subsequent return of mature adults is presently unknown. High lipid deposits may benefit the fish by providing reserve energy during adaptation to the wild, or may hinder the fish by delaying

  10. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory

  11. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  12. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (Oceanography data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  13. AFSC/ABL: Origins of salmon seized from the F/V Arctic Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) seized from the F/V Arctic Wind were analyzed to determine their region...

  14. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  15. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (TSG-thermosalinigraph data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  16. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande Ronde...

  17. Comparative injury, adipose fin mark quality, and tag retention of spring Chinook Salmon marked and coded wire tagged by an automated trailer and manual trailer at Carson National Fish Hatchery: October 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service’s Columbia River Fisheries Program Office has been marking and tagging salmon with automated trailers consistently since...

  18. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  19. Fall Chinook Aclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, and will ultimately work towards achieving

  20. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass

  1. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  2. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Biodiversity and the Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Salmon Species in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report of 8 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C. R. (Cleveland R.)

    1993-06-01

    The stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to provide a means whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved. Conservation of the Columbia River ecosystem and the diversity of gene pools, life histories, species, and communities that comprise it, should become a major objective of species recovery and fish and wildlife management programs in the Columbia River Basin. Biodiversity is important to both species and ecosystem health, and is a prerequisite to long-term sustainability of biological resources. In this paper, I provide an overview of various approaches to defining, measuring, monitoring, and protecting biodiversity. A holistic approach is stressed that simultaneously considers diverse species and resource management needs. Emphasis is on threatened and endangered species of salmon and their associated habitat.

  4. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program

  5. Alternative barging strategies to improve survival of salmonids transported from Lower Granite Dam: Final report from the 2006-2008 spring/summer Chinook salmon and Steelhead juvenile migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Tiffani M.; Muir, William D.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Smith, Steven G.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the final year class of adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. returned from smolt groups released for a multi-year study to evaluate an alternate release site for transported fish. Smolts were collected and tagged at Lower Granite Dam, transported, and released at the alternate site near Astoria, Oregon (river kilometer 10) or at the traditional release site near Skamania Landing (rkm 225) just downstream of Bonneville Dam.

  6. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Miller

    Full Text Available Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE and a copepod community index (CCI accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70. However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value compared with

  7. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of PIT-Tagged Spring/Summer Chinook and Summer Steelhead : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comparative Survival Study Oversight Committee and Fish Passage Cent