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Sample records for basin brazil analise

  1. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

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    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  2. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

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    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  3. Multi thematic geoprocessing and structural analysis on Irati - Rio Bonito Petroleum System, Parana Basin, Brazil; Geoprocessamento multitematico e analise estrutural no Sistema Petrolifero Irati - Rio Bonito, Bacia do Parana

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    Freitas, Rafael Correia de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Analise de Bacias e Petrofisica], E-mail: rcdfreitas@click21.com.br; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca

    2005-11-15

    Structural features associated with aspects like migration routes, fluid convergence and/or barriers and seal integrity, among others, may be evaluated with the aid of information obtained by remote sensing and field data. This work is focused on the analysis of the geometry of tectonic structures and their relationship with essential elements of the Irati-Rio Bonito Petroleum System, inserted in the Parana Basin. The structural framework was outlined with satellite imagery, digital elevation models and geophysical maps. Several techniques relative to lineament analysis were reviewed and implemented by software programming. The description of structural styles, and kinematic and dynamic analysis were performed using field data obtained in key-areas. Another software was developed in order to calculate paleostress components. It computes maximum, intermediary and minor principal stress position based on Mohr-Coulomb criteria, for each fault individually. That aspect showed to be particularly important in this study due the several tectonic episodes that occurred in the Parana Basin. The relationships among features of different magnitudes and structural levels, interpreted by integrating several remote sensors, provided the understanding of the structural envelopment in the studied area. Based on the mapped structural elements, some accumulation controls were pointed out, such as the observed potential for the development of structural traps near regional structures, and the possibility of greater seals integrity associated with NE-SW oriented structural trends. Furthermore, N-S trending elements, generated in an extensional regime, could be associated with the rupture of the upper section, thus allowing leakage of hydrocarbon accumulations. (author)

  4. Preliminary constraints on paleotemperature and landscape evolution in and around Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, using apatite fission track analysis; Abordagem preliminar sobre paleotemperatura e evolucao do relevo da Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil, a partir da analise de tracos de fissao em apatita

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    Morais Neto, Joao Marinho de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Interpretacao e Avaliacao da Margem Equatorial], E-mail: marinho@uq.edu.au; Hegarty, Kerry; Karner, Garry David

    2005-11-15

    The Araripe Basin, located in the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, developed through a sequence of distinct events related to the opening of the South Atlantic. Its geological history is recorded in the preserved stratigraphy, which ranges in age from Paleozoic to Middle Cretaceous. The most conspicuous feature associated with the Araripe Basin is the Araripe Plateau, a large mesa capped by Cenomanian- Albian non-marine sandstones (Exu Formation). At the plateau base, gray to black shales ('Batateiras layers') represent deposition in a large lake system covering part of northeastern Brazil during Early Aptian. Previous researchers have used the preserved geological section in the basin to infer the landscape evolution of the Araripe Plateau, and they have suggested that its uplift and exhumation were caused by widespread epeirogenic movements associated with post-break-up events in the Borborema Province. Independent constraints on the timing and magnitude of uplift in the Araripe Plateau area can now be introduced by this preliminary study using apatite fission track analysis. A series of samples along a N-S transect of the Araripe Basin and its neighboring basement provide clear evidence of heating in the past. Results from all samples also show evidence of Late Cenozoic cooling commencing sometime in the last 40 Ma. Maximum paleotemperature associated with this event are very similar (70 deg - 90 deg C) between samples, consistent with little differential movement across the sampled region. Fission track results from the Aptian sandstone sample (Rio da Batateira Formation) indicate an earlier event (pre-40 Ma). However, interpretation of data suggests that any paleo-heating between sediment deposition (112 Ma) and 40 Ma must be associated with paleotemperature less than {approx}100 deg C, pointing to minor paleo burial during the Late Cretaceous in this area. The timing of these various events are broadly consistent with the timing of events

  5. Multivariate analysis of calcareous nanno fossils and stable isotopic ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) in the upper Campanian - lower Maastrichtian of the Campos Basin, Brazil; Analise multivariada em nanofosseis calcarios e isotopos estaveis ({delta}{sup 18}O e {delta}{sup 13}C) do Campaniano superior - Maastrichtiano inferior na Bacia de Campos

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    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Veiga de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: lcveiga@petrobras.com.br; Rodrigues, Rene; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2005-05-01

    Qualitative analysis in calcareous nanno fossils is a powerful tool for bio stratigraphic uses, principally in identification of bio zones and determination of relative age. But quantitative studies must be applied for pale oceanographic applications and high resolution bio stratigraphy. In order to better understand the relationships between the different species of nanno fossils, new methodologies and non-traditional correlation tools were tested on a 18 m upper Campanian - lower Maastrichtian core from Campos Basin. Multiple regression helped to determine the best counting method. Watznaueria barnesae and Micula decussata dominate the fossil assemblage and have inverse abundances to each other. Both were opportunist species in competition for nutrients. Q mode factorial analysis (57 samples, 19 variables) was applied to the same core and shows that two factors explain 99.2% of the total variance of the micro fossil assemblage. The first factor represents 83.6% and the second factor only 15.6% of the total variance. The former is associated with Watznaueria barnesae, Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii and Stradneria crenulata, which represent the original population of nano plankton. The latter factor is associated with Micula decussata, which is believed to represent the effect of solution at the sediment water interface. Both factors were used to develop a dissolution-sea level curve for nanno fossils. When combined with oxygen and carbon isotopes, this curve clearly shows that higher dissolution occurred during the late Campanian - early Maastrichtian time when {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 13} C and TOC all had lower values. These correlations indicate a strong link between high sea levels, high temperatures and lower amount of continental organic debris. (author)

  6. Analysis of a hydrogen-solar system for the Brazil; Analise de um sistema hidrogenio-solar para o Brasil

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    Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Mendes, Nathan; Lima, Lutero C. de [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Veziroglu, T.N. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In this article it is proposed the study of technical aspects and costs of the implantation of a system of solar hydrogen utilization in Brazil. Forecasts are made of the total photovoltaic cell, water demand for the production of electrolytic hydrogen, investments, benefits and comparative price between fossil fuel and hydrogen. (author)

  7. Bioenergy in Brazil and Europe: a comparative analysis; Bioenergia no Brasil e na Europa: uma analise comparativa

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    Castro, Nivalde Jose de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia], e-mail: nivalde@ie.ufrj.br; Dantas, Guilherme de Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (GESEL/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos do Setor Eletrico], e-mail: guilhermecrvg@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    A higher application of bioenergy is one of the existing ways to adequate the necessity of an expansion in the energy supply with the mitigation of global warming. The consumption of biofuel in the transport sector is the most usual and important use of biomass, however, bioenergy may also have a relevant contribution to the world electrical matrix. A comparative analysis shows that Brazil has consolidate the usage of biofuel while Europe is having problems to accomplish the biofuels levels established in the European Union guidelines. However, some european countries are developing their bioelectrical generation potential in a much more efficient way than Brazil. Therefore , brazilian policies to support bioelectricity should observe the successful instruments applied in Europe. (author)

  8. Analysis of public policies for new renewable energy in Brazil; Analise de politicas publicas para novas energias renovaveis no Brasil

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    Furtado, M.C.; Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Baitelo, R.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy have a prominent place among the solutions to combat global warming, but its potential is still untapped in Brazil. Without long-term policies with clear rules, you can not attract entrepreneurs and ensure stability of operation of this market. The main tools of government to promote renewable energy generation have not been efficient - the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources of Energy (Proinfa) was implemented in 2002 but put into operation just over two thirds of the energy proposal. The low success rate in repeated auctions focused on renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to discuss the prospects of the expansion of electricity generation by renewable energies in Brazil and some fundamental requirements for effective structuring of this market in the country. This argument is supported by the analysis of the proposed mechanisms used internationally and in the country, under a new law for renewable energies. As a practical demonstration of the analysis, we present a simulation of conditions of formation of the final price of renewable resources in different conditions as varied market rate of return, cost of transmission, and sale of carbon credits.

  9. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

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    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  10. Analysis of records of external occupational dose records in Brazil; Analise dos registros de dose ocupacional externa no Brasil

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    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Herica L.R. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: herica@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Claudio Ribeiro da, E-mail: claudio@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Brazil, a continental country, with actually more than 150,000 workers under individual monitoring for ionizing radiation, has implemented in 1987 a centralized system for storage of external occupational dose. This database has been improved over the years and is now a web-based information system called Brazilian External Occupational Dose Management Database System - GDOSE. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian external occupational dose over the years. The estimated annual average effective dose shows a decrease from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, having been a marked reduction from 1987 to 1990. Analyzing by type of controlled practice, one sees that the medical and dental radiology is the area with the largest number of users of individual monitors (70%); followed by education practices (8%) and the industrial radiography (7%). Additionally to photon whole body monitoring; neutron monitors are used in maintenance (36%), reactor (30%) and education (27%); and extremity monitors, in education (27%), nuclear medicine (22%) and radiology (19%). In terms of collective dose, the highest values are also found in conventional radiology, but the highest average dose values are those of interventional radiology. Nuclear medicine, R and D and radiotherapy also have average annual effective dose higher than 1 mSv. However, there is some very high dose values registered in GDOSE that give false information. This should be better analyzed in the future. Annual doses above 500 are certainly not realistic. (author)

  11. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  12. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraiba Basin, Brazil

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    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Marcio M., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto; Goes, Ana M.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Ochoa, Felipe L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Departamento de Geologia

    2012-06-15

    Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraiba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono- sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraiba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic-rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraiba Basin. (author)

  13. Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera from Alto Paranapanema Basin, southeastern Brazil

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    Kathia Sonoda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the community of Chironomidae from three rivers belonging to the same river basin in Southern Brazil. Our objective was to analyze if the Chironomidae communities from rivers of the same basin were similar and relate this to land-use and water quality variables. Samples of insects were taken using artificial substrate baskets and left 44 days in the field for colonization during the dry season in 2002. Study reaches with the relevant land-use category present for at least 500 m along both river banks above and alongside the study reach were selected and land-use, terrain slope of the river basin and chemical and physical variables of the water were analysed. Faunal data were analyzed by number of individuals, richness of genera and community indices. Statistical analyses were performed in order to investigate the relationship between abiotic variables and the Chironomidae communities. Twenty-two genera were identified; Rheotanytarsus (Thienemann & Bause was the most abundant in all assemblages. Some genera showed preferences in their distribution, and were observed in only one of the rivers. Land-use and slope of the terrain were similar for all rivers, while the water quality variables were different for the Taquari River compared to the two other sites. This may explain the differences in the Chironomidae community observed for this locality

  14. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Sediments of Afonso Bezerra belt-Macaiba (meridional border of Potiguar basin, RN, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogy of sediments from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, is investigated and its origin is determined. Usual sedimentologic methods and X-ray diffraction were used. (M.C.K.)

  16. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  17. Igneous pyrometamorphism in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil

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    Larissa dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazil, cretaceous rocks (sandstones, siltstones, shales, limestones are intruded by Paleogene to Neogene basic bodies. As a result, were formed buchites, pyrometamorphic rocks indicating very low pressures and very high temperatures. Field descriptions permitted distinguishing light buchites (LB and dark buchites (DB, which were investigated throughout petrographic, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction studies. LBs contain abundant clasts of quartz surrounded by radial tridymite needles, besides phenocrysts of sanidine and clinopyroxene included in a vitreous groundmass. DBs have mainly microcrystals of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite, mullite, armalcolite, ilmenite and spinel, dispersed within a black cryptocrystalline matrix. Chemically, LBs are richer in SiO2 (~76.7% and K2O (~5.7% and poorer in Al2O3 (~12.8% when compared to DBs (respectively ~51.5, ~0.2 and ~42.7%. Based on phase diagrams published in the literature, the habit of crystals (acicular, elongated sometimes hollow crystals and the significant content of glassy material we consider that the liquid formed by melting at ~1100 – 1150o C of sedimentary material cooled quickly at very high temperatures and pressures below 1 kbar. The results obtained are relevant in petrological terms, and may also have economic implications since a large number of basic bodies intrude rocks with hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil: analysis and discussion; O etanol de cana-de-acucar no Brasil: analise e discussoes

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    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Polasse, Belisa Athayde; Simao, Nathalia Machado [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao Stricto Sensu em Energia

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, the intense investment in renewable energy reflects the search for alternative solutions to politician-economic and socio-environment originated by energy' source predominance of fossil origin in the global energy matrix. In this case, the ethanol from Brazil's sugar cane is more and more writing your history on the International bio fuels market. That's mainly due to Brazil's commercial maturity, agricultural, technological achieved in last decades. However, some negatives socio environments, such as deforestation, fires and precarious job conditions, among others are a discredit for a probable future hegemony of Brazilian ethanol. In this way, it is important to set guide-line discussions about this topic, analyzing and overcoming problems that avoid a better sustainable posture. (author)

  19. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  20. Analysis of the natural gas market in Fortaleza metropolitan region (Brazil); Analise do mercado de gas natural na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Carlos Andre M.; Rabelo, Clarice A.C.; Santana, Lana L.P.; Sucupira, Marcos L.L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas has become one of the most important energy sources, as we can observe in most countries' energy sector, where its presence is very significant. In Brazil, natural gas corresponds to 7,5% of all energy Also available, and the government has plans to increase this number to 12% until 2010. However, in order to reach this goal, it is important to understand how market works, evaluating all the aspects that have some influence on it. This paper goal is to analyze the natural gas market in Fortaleza metropolitan region, emphasizing the industrial sector, the biggest consumer in Ceara State. The main aspects are characterized here, like professionals qualification in the area, service quality, from equipment and maintenance suppliers until gas distributors, legal aspects, and other factors that are also relevant to a possible future expansion of different natural gas market segments (industry, residence, commerce and transport). (author)

  1. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  2. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques; Caracterizacao, analise e datacao de ceramicas arqueologicas da Bacia Amazonica atraves de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  3. Chemotaxonomical aspects of lower Cretaceous amber from Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition of Lower Cretaceous amber samples from Reconcavo Basin (Salvador, Bahia) was performed by GC-MS to characterize possible botanical sources. The compounds identified were hydrocarbonic and polar diterpenoids, such as abietane, dehydroabietane, tetrahydroretene, dehydroabietol, dehydroabietic acid, ferruginol and sugiol. Other diterpenoid classes were not detected as well as triterpenoids. The composition of the extracts and chemosystematic data allows relating the samples to conifers of Podocarpaceae or Cheirolepidiaceae families due to detection of ferruginol, a specific biomarker to these families. The data concerning Cretaceous amber in the Reconcavo Basin provided information concerning the presence of a resinous flora in the Maracangalha Formation sediments during the Lower Cretaceous. (author)

  4. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws.

  5. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  6. A taphonomic model for the Mesosauride assemblage of the Irati Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M B

    2003-01-01

    The Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil) is made up of a succession of black bituminous and nonbituminous shales and mudstones with interbedded carbonate layers, which record deposition in marine environments. Mesosaur remains are abundant at several sites in this formation, where they occur preserved in centimetre- thick beds and displaying various degrees of skeletal disarticulation. This paper seeks to establish a model to explain the processes that generated the mesosaurian tap...

  7. Ituglanis agreste, a new catfish from the rio de Contas basin, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio M. Q. Lima; Cinara P. Neves; Rafael M. Campos-Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Ituglanis agreste, a new species of catfish, is described from a tributary stream of the rio Gongogi drainage, rio de Contas basin, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, from a transition area between the Atlantic Rain Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga savanna. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: elongate interopercle plate with high number of odontodes (26-30), high number of ribs (5-6), fewer vertebrae (36), number of branchiostegal rays (7), number of ...

  8. Analysis of the technical potential for carbon capture and geological sequestration in the oil sector of Brazil; Analise do potencial tecnico do sequestro geologico de CO{sub 2} no setor petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Isabella Vaz Leal da

    2009-02-15

    This thesis focuses on the technologies related to CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage. The main objective of this study is to perform an analysis of the technical potential of geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the oil and gas sector in Brazil. Climate changes are directly related to emissions of greenhouse gases. Mainly, are related to increased carbon dioxide emissions due to the use of fossil fuels. To mitigate climate changes there are technologies that have the purpose of promoting the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases such as the Geological Sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Thus, the study presents a description of the stages of the geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} and the state of the art of the technology in Brazil and worldwide. In addition, is presented the capacity for storage of the Brazilian sedimentary basins. Finally, this thesis analyzes the application of the described technologies in two stationary sources of great importance: refineries and oil and gas production fields. (author)

  9. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins in Brazil and Angola/Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, P. A.; Strozyk, F.; Back, S.

    2013-12-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  10. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  11. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  12. The Marlin and Albacora giant fields, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, J.M.; Scarton, J.C.; Candido, A.; Cora, C.A.G. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    The Albacore and Marlim giant fields are located in the province of Campos basin, about 110 km (68 mi) offshore Cape Sao Tome, in water depths ranging from 200 m (656 ft) to 2,000 m (6562 ft). The Albacora field was discovered in September 1984 by the wildcat 1-RJS-297, drilled in 293 m (961 ft) of water. Subsequently, the wildcats 1-RJS-305 and 1-RJS-342 extended the field limits to deeper waters. The Albacora field is approximately 235 km{sup 2} (90 mi{sup 2}) in area, with an estimated volume of 4.5 billion bbl of oil in place. The Marlim field was discovered in February 1985 by the wildcat 1-RJS-219A, in a water depth of 853 m (2,800 ft). The Marlim field area is about 152 km{sup 2} (58 mi{sup 2}), and the latest estimate of oil in place is about 8.2 billion bbl. The Marlim complex encompasses Marlim field itself and the surrounding proved and potential areas known as East-of-, West-of-, and South-of-Marlim, respectively. The current estimated volume of oil in place in the Marlim complex is close to 13.9 billion bbl, with a total surface of about 350 km{sup 2} (135 mi{sup 2}). Oil production in the Albacora field comes from Lower Cretaceous (Albian) and Tertiary (Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene) turbidite reservoirs. Oligocene turbidite sandstones are the potential reservoirs in the Marlim field. These deposits are genetically associated with sea level variations and are mainly composed of massive sandstones and, subordinately, of contourites. Both fields are structurally and stratigraphically controlled accumulations. Hydrocarbons are trapped in anticlines and/or faulted blocks associated with salt tectonics. Stratigraphic contributions result from sandstone bodies pinching out against shales and marls. The development of these fields has been supported by three-dimensional seismic data. The Albacora field is being gradually put on stream from shallower to deeper waters.

  13. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the upper rio Tocantins basin in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius A. Bertaco; Fernando C Jerep; Fernando R Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Moenkhausia dasalmas is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros region, Goiás State, Central Brazil. The new species differs from all congeners by the presence of iii,9 rays in the dorsal fin. It can also be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of two humeral spots (first one vertically elongate and second one faint), by the number of branched anal-fin rays (17-19), lateral line scales (36-37), maxillary teeth (4-5), and a vertical dark spot in t...

  14. A new Hyphessobrycon (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle Amazon basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávio C T; Coutinho, Daniel P; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2014-10-08

    Hyphessobrycon montagi, new species, is described from tributaries of the Rio Arapiuns, a left margin affluent of the lower Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners by the possession of a combination of two well-defined humeral blotches, connected by a narrow stripe, and a caudal peduncle blotch. A putatively monophyletic Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, restricted to H. heterorhabdus, H. amapaensis, and H. eschwartzae, is herein proposed based on shared derived features of color pattern. Alternative proposals of a "Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus group" presented in the recent literature are evaluated and criticized.

  15. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos

  16. AMS-{sup 14}C measurements for the carbonate platform of the offshore Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Melayne M. E-mail: melayne@onda.com.br; Barbosa, Catia F.; Soares-Gomes, Abilio; Silva, Cleverson G.; Rios-Netto, Aristoteles; Mueller, Ken A

    2000-10-01

    As part of our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) program in Brazil we prepared and measured some red algae carbonate crust samples from Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The measurements were performed at Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab), Purdue University, IN, USA. This carbonate material is interlaminated with foraminiferal lime mud reflecting recurrent intervals of carbonate development, which might be linked to outer-shelf oceanographic circulation.

  17. Cassiopidae gastropods, influence of Tethys Sea of the Romualdo Formation (Aptian-Albian), Araripe Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Cassab, Rita de Cassia Tardin; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2016-10-01

    The Cassiopidae family belongs to a group of gastropods of the Tethyan Realm, whose origin and dispersion are related a transgression of the Tethys Sea during the Early Cretaceous. The Romualdo Formation in the Araripe Basin, located in Northeast Brazil, presents fossil assemblages with echinoids, bivalves and cassiopid gastropods, indicating a marine sedimentation at the top of the formation. This research reveals three new species of this fauna: Gymnentome (Craginia) beurleni sp. nov., 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') mennessieri sp. nov and 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') santanensis sp. nov. We also review two other species: Craginia araripensisBeurlen, 1964 and Gymnentome romualdoiBeurlen, 1964, which we reclassify taxonomically as Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) araripensis and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) romualdoi, respectively; Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) lyrica Maury, 1936 and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) carregozica Maury, 1936 were the first recorded species in the Araripe Basin. The occurrence of these cassiopid gastropod fauna in other basins, such as Sergipe, Potiguar and Parnaíba, indicate the influence of waters coming from the north through the Tethys Sea in the Aptian-Albian and in the marginal continental basins of the Brazilian Northeast.

  18. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  19. Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonadi, Leandro; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Zavattini, João Afonso

    2016-02-01

    This research was aimed at addressing aspects related to variation in the amount of precipitation during the period from 1986 to 2011 in the Paraná River Hydrographical Basin, Brazil, for 32 meteorological stations using 11 climate indices created by the ETCCDI (Expert Team, ET, on Climate Change Detection and Indices, ETCCDI). The daily rainfall data were organized in spreadsheets, which were subjected to an intense quality control and an accurate historical research. For each pluviometric index, we have estimated the trends and the statistical significant of the slopes have been calculated. The results confirm that an increase in total precipitation in almost all analyzed stations was registered, and the extreme precipitations were the main contributors to such additions. In fact, the significant increase in total annual rainfall in north-central sector of the basin are related to higher rates of heavy rain, mainly above 95th percentile, as well as to the highest event of rainfall above 10 mm. Instead the northern part of the region, showed declining trends of extreme rainfall, caused mainly by the reduction in the rainfall occurrences over 95th percentile. In order to evaluate the impact that the increasing extreme rainfall may cause in large urban centers, we have investigated the data of two municipalities (Curitiba, PR and Goiânia, GO-Brazil), where the positive trend can cause inconvenience to the population (floods and inundations) suggesting, at least, the need of implementation of more effective urban planning for the future.

  20. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  1. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  3. Verification of inflow into hydropower reservoirs using ensemble forecasts of the TIGGE database for large scale basins in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainardi Fan, F.; Schwanenberg, D.; Collischonn, W.; Weerts, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Study region This paper describes a major ensemble-forecasts verification effort for inflows of three large-scale river basins of Brazil: Upper São Francisco, Doce, and Tocantins Rivers. Study focus In experimental scenarios, inflow forecasts were generated forcing one hydrological model with quanti

  4. Moenkhausia celibela: a new species from the Amazon basin, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M M F; Langeani, F

    2010-09-01

    A new species of Characidae, Moenkhausia celibela, is described from the Rio Amazonas at Santarém, Rio Maraú, several localities in the Rio Tapajós, Rio Curuá-Una, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari, all from the Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except species included in Géry's 1992 Moenkhausia lepidura group, by presenting a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, and the lower lobe is hyaline or light grey. Moenkhausia celibela is distinguished from the species of the M. lepidura group by the absence of a humeral spot and the presence of a roughly triangular and dark spot at the caudal-fin base, extending posteriorly along the middle caudal-fin rays, and distinctly separate from the spot on the upper caudal-fin lobe. PMID:20840617

  5. OSL dating results of post-Barreiras sediments in the Paraiba basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: drtudela@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H., E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP/CEETEPS), Laboratorio de Datacao e Luminescencia de Cristais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rossetti, Dilce F., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Observacao da Terra, Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto - DSR

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we show ages of 39 sediments samples of two sedimentary units (PB1 and PB2) collected from Paraiba Basin, northeastern Brazil, obtained by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) making use of standardized growth curve (SGC) and applying single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol in 15 randomly selected samples to validate the equivalent Dose (D{sub e}). Environmental radiation dosimetry of the area was performed to evaluate the natural concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and in this way annual dose rates of the locations were evaluated. The results showed natural radioisotopes concentrations between 0.542-4.879 ppm for U, 1.314-26.098 ppm for Th and 0.141-1.12% for K and annual dose rates between 439-4172{mu}Gy/yr. The ages ranged from 1.8-178.3 kyr were obtained, and they are in agreements with the geological considerations. (author)

  6. Strontium isotopic signature of groundwater from Adamantina aquifer, Bauru Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldaner, Carlos [Centre for Applied Groundwater Research, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Martins, Veridiana; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Hirata, Ricardo [Centro de Pesquisas de Aguas Subterraneas do Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Using {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and the geochemistry of groundwater we were able to identify different hydrochemical facies in the Adamantina aquifer, Bauru Basin (Brazil). Samples from shallow wells show Cl-NO{sub 3}-Ca-Mg water with low pH due to natural and anthropogenic recharge. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios are greatest in the shallower parts of the aquifer (0.7134) and decrease with increasing well screen interval depth. The nitrate concentration gradually decreases with depth and aquifer pH increases, HCO{sub 3} predominates as the main anion, and the groundwater becomes saturated with respect to calcite, with average {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.708694 at depth. (authors)

  7. Estimation of Phosphorus Emissions in the Upper Iguazu Basin (brazil) Using GIS and the More Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; Fuchs, S.; Hilgert, S.

    2016-06-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of pollution control policies to achieve the desired water quality. Consequently, it helps avoiding problems such as eutrophication of water bodies. The focus of the research described in this study is related to phosphorus emissions into river basins. The study area is the upper Iguazu basin that lies in the northeast region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, covering about 2,965 km2 and around 4 million inhabitants live concentrated on just 16% of its area. The MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) model was used to estimate phosphorus emissions. MoRE is a model that uses empirical approaches to model processes in analytical units, capable of using spatially distributed parameters, covering both, emissions from point sources as well as non-point sources. In order to model the processes, the basin was divided into 152 analytical units with an average size of 20 km2. Available data was organized in a GIS environment. Using e.g. layers of precipitation, the Digital Terrain Model from a 1:10000 scale map as well as soils and land cover, which were derived from remote sensing imagery. Further data is used, such as point pollution discharges and statistical socio-economic data. The model shows that one of the main pollution sources in the upper Iguazu basin is the domestic sewage that enters the river as point source (effluents of treatment stations) and/or as diffuse pollution, caused by failures of sanitary sewer systems or clandestine sewer discharges, accounting for about 56% of the

  8. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  9. Astyanax ajuricaba: a new species from the Amazon basin in Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Astyanax species is described from several localities in the rio Negro, rio Solimões and lower rio Tapajós basins, Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all remaining characids by its unique color pattern consisting of the combination of presence of a conspicuous, narrow dark midlateral stripe, a well-developed vertically-elongated dark humeral spot, and upper caudal-fin lobe and middle caudal-fin rays dark, with a rounded clear ocellated spot present at anterior third of caudal-fin lobe.Uma nova espécie de Astyanax é descrita de diversas localidades nas bacias dos rios Negro, Solimões e baixo Tapajós, bacia Amazônica, Brasil. A nova espécie pode ser distinguida de todos os demais Characidae por um padrão de colorido único, que consiste na combinação da presença de uma linha médio-lateral estreita e escura, uma mácula umeral escura bem desenvolvida e verticalmente alongada e o lobo superior da nadadeira caudal e raios medianos escuros, com uma mancha ocelada clara presente no terço anterior do lobo.

  10. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 n.cm-2.s-1. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  11. The microbial nature of laminated limestones: Lessons from the Upper Aptian, Araripe Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Bruno; Jahnert, Ricardo Jorge; Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Varejao, Filipe Giovanini; Assine, Mario Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Araripe Basin, located in northeastern Brazil, originated during the Gondwana continental break-up responsible for the opening of the South Atlantic during the Early Cretaceous. In the Araripe Basin, the post-rift Aptian sequence corresponds to the Santana Group, which is composed, in upward succession, of mostly clastic continental and rare carbonate layers of the Barbalha, Crato, Ipubi and Romualdo Formations. The laminated limestones of the Crato Formation were deposited in a lacustrine environment preceding the deposition of the Ipubi Formation evaporites. They are age-equivalent to the limestones of the pre-salt interval of the east coast of Brazil, which contains large petroleum reserves. The excellent preservation of its macrofossils has made the Crato Formation known worldwide as a Fossil Lagerstätte. The limestones are macroscopically homogeneous, and their deposition has been previously attributed to chemical precipitation. Although the carbonate laminites are macroscopically undifferentiated, mineralogical variations, microscopic texture and distinctive biotic aspects supported the characterization of four microfacies: planar laminated, crustiform, nodular and rhythmic. The microfacies analysis indicated a strong and pervasive biological activity in the Crato limestone morphogenesis. Organominerals precipitated by the metabolic action of cyanobacteria and/or sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic-oxidizing archea are represented by calcite and pyrite. Calcified coccoid and filaments are common, furthermore, the presence of calcified biofilms composed of exopolymeric substances (EPS) is ubiquitous. The presence of amorphous organic matter (AOM) and gypsum, particularly in the rhythmic microfacies, indicates anoxic/dysoxic conditions and stressful environments during periods of drought and low lake levels which favored the development and preservation of microbial biofilms. Phytoclasts and miospores when present in the succession indicate an

  12. Uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Nóbrega

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We quantify uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on the discharge of Rio Grande, a major tributary of the Paraná River in South America and one of the most important basins in Brazil for water supply and hydro-electric power generation. We consider uncertainty in climate projections associated with the greenhouse-gas emission scenarios (A1b, A2, B1, B2 and increases in global mean air temperature of 1 to 6° C for the HadCM3 GCM (Global Circulation Model as well as uncertainties related to GCM structure. For the latter, multimodel runs using 6 GCMs (CCCMA CGCM31, CSIRO Mk30, IPSL CM4, MPI ECHAM5, NCAR CCSM30, UKMO HadGEM1 and HadCM3 as baseline, for a +2° C increase in global mean temperature. Pattern-scaled GCM-outputs are applied to a large-scale hydrological model (MGB-IPH of Rio Grande Basin. Based on simulations using HadCM3, mean annual river discharge increases, relative to the baseline or control run period (1961–1990, by +5% to +10% under the SRES emissions scenarios and from +8% to +51% with prescribed increases in global mean air temperature of between 1 and 6° C. Substantial uncertainty in projected changes to mean river discharge (−28% to +13% under the 2° C warming scenario is, however, associated with the choice of GCM. We conclude that, in the case of Rio Grande Basin, the most important source of uncertainty derives from the GCM rather than the emission scenario or the magnitude of rise in mean global temperature.

  13. Uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Nóbrega

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantify uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on the discharge of the Rio Grande, a major tributary of the River Paraná in South America and one of the most important basins in Brazil for water supply and hydro-electric power generation. We consider uncertainty in climate projections associated with the SRES (greenhouse-gas emission scenarios (A1b, A2, B1, B2 and increases in global mean air temperature of 1 to 6 °C for the HadCM3 GCM as well as uncertainties related to GCM structure. For the latter, multimodel runs using 6 GCMs (CCCMA CGCM31, CSIRO Mk30, IPSL CM4, MPI ECHAM5, NCAR CCSM30, UKMO HadGEM1 and HadCM3 as baseline, for a + 2 °C increase in global mean temperature. Pattern-scaled GCM-outputs are applied to a large-scale hydrological model (MGB-IPH of the Rio Grande Basin. Based on simulations using HadCM3, mean annual river discharge increases, relative to the baseline period (1961–1990, by + 5% to + 10% under the SRES emissions scenarios and from + 8% to + 51% with prescribed increases in global mean air temperature of between 1 and 6 °C. Substantial uncertainty in projected changes to mean river discharge (− 28% to + 13% under the 2 °C warming scenario is, however, associated with the choice of GCM. We conclude that, in the case of the Rio Grande Basin, the most important source of uncertainty derives from the GCM rather than the emission scenario or the magnitude of rise in mean global temperature.

  14. Well successfully drilled with high performance water-based fluid: Santos Basins, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, Frank C.; Luzardo, Juan P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Bishnoi, M.L. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Santos Basin is a 352,260 square kilometers (136,010 sq mi) offshore pre-salt basin. It is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, some 300 kilometers (190 mi) South East of Sao Paulo, Brazil. One of the largest Brazilian sedimentary basins, it is the site of several recent significant oil fields, including Tupi and Jupiter. The criteria for drilling fluid selection is based upon the following factors: maximum cost efficiency, environmental friendliness, optimum borehole stability, and ease of use. The recommended drilling fluid formulation takes into consideration the experience gained during the drilling of wells in the Santos Basin area. The operator wanted to use a high-performance water-based fluid (HPWBF) that could provide shale inhibition, wellbore stability, lubricity and improved rate of penetration (ROP) as an alternative to synthetic-based drilling fluids to present value in terms of economics and environmental friendliness. The HPWBF consists of three synergistic products: a hydration suppressant, a dispersion suppressant, and an accretion suppressant. The system is formulated based on customized solutions for managing the clay reactivity. High logistics costs require drilling fluids that can be prepared with sea water and discharged to the sea without environmental impact. The HPWBF is a clay-free system designed for maximum shale inhibition in highly reactive formations. The system can provide wellbore stability, high rates of penetration, and acceptable rheological properties over a wide range of temperatures, with the added benefit of allowing cuttings discharge based upon water base environmental restrictions. Since no oil is used in the formulation, the HPWBF eliminates the need for cuttings processing and monitoring equipment, and exceeds the environmental requirements by achieving an LC50 value of 345,478.22 ppm in comparison with the minimum requirement (LC50 > 30,000 ppm in 96 hr), permitting use and discharge to the sea. The HPWBF selected

  15. Palynofacies patterns of the Devonian of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil: Paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Viviane Segundo Faria; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    To help describe the paleoenvironmental interpretation of one the most extensive marine Devonian successions in Brazil, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 46 samples from the Itaim (Pragian-Givetian), Pimenteira (Givetian-Frasnian) and Cabeças (Famennian) formations of the Parnaíba Basin in north-central Brazil. For the palynofacies analyses, kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Five palynofacies associations were identified for three studied sections: PseudoAOM palynofacies, which consists of amorphous organic matter (AOM), pseudoamorphous and coenobial algae Quadrisporites; Transl/Nbiostr. palynofacies, which consists of translucent non-biostructured phytoclasts (well-preserved and degraded), cuticles (well-preserved and degraded), Spongiophyton and Botryococcus; Marine microplankton palynofacies, which consists of acritarchs, prasinophytes and translucent biostructured phytoclasts; Opaque palynofacies, which consists of opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); and Sporomorphs palynofacies, which consists of zoomorphs (e.g., Chitinozoa) and sporomorphs (e.g., spores). The stratigraphic distribution of the five palynofacies associations reflects a continuous terrestrial influx throughout marine succession. At the Pragian-Emsian age, the woody material of Transl/Nbioestr. palynofacies prevails, suggesting a marine depositional paleoenvironment (presence of marine palynomorphs), but under deltaic influence due to the input of terrigenous material. An increasing trend of marine elements of Marine microplankton palynofacies is recorded for the Givetian, which suggests a progressive marine influence. However, during the Frasnian, the highest abundance of marine elements was recorded (Marine microplankton palynofacies). Moreover, a bloom of Maranhites spp. and prasinophytes (e.g., Tasmanites and Cymatiosphaera) was also recorded. The abrupt increase of marine palynomorphs in the Frasnian - here termed the "Maranhites

  16. Ensemble Streamflow Predictions in the Três Marias Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Kuwajima, Julio; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Collischonn, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the main electricity source of Brazil. The related hydropower reservoirs are multi-purpose thus besides efficient and reliable energy production, they are relevant for flood control. In this context, the present study shows results of an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) for supporting the operational decision making implemented at Três Marias hydroelectric power project located in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. It is a large tropical river basin with approximately 55,000km² up to the Três Marias dam. The hydrological model used in the study is the MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias from Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas), a large scale distributed hydrological model. Applied in an operational forecasting mode, it uses an empirical data assimilation method to take into account real time streamflow observations to update its state variables. We present results of a hindcast experiment with observed precipitation and streamflow data from the local energy utility, CEMIG (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais), and from the Brazilian water agency, ANA (Agencia Nacional de Água),. Probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) from CPTEC (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are used to generate the ESP. The data products and the MGB-IPH model are integrated into an open shell forecasting platform based on the software package Delft-FEWS. Inside the forecasting platform a hindcast mode over a forecast lead time of 10-16 days in recent rainfall periods is applied in. The ESP results are compared to deterministic forecasts of the Três Marias reservoir inflow. The results assessment verifies the added value of the ESP in general in comparison to the use of deterministic forecasts by means of different performance indicators. The ESP derived from the ECMWP ensemble shows the best performance. A future

  17. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  18. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  19. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Ostariophysi: Characidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius A Bertaco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Moenkhausia dasalmas is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros region, Goiás State, Central Brazil. The new species differs from all congeners by the presence of iii,9 rays in the dorsal fin. It can also be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of two humeral spots (first one vertically elongate and second one faint, by the number of branched anal-fin rays (17-19, lateral line scales (36-37, maxillary teeth (4-5, and a vertical dark spot in the caudal peduncle end.Moenkhausia dasalmas é descrita da bacia do alto rio Tocantins, Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brasil Central. A espécie nova difere de todas as suas congêneres pela presença de iii,9 raios na nadadeira dorsal. Ela também se distingue das suas congêneres por apresentar duas manchas umerais (a primeira verticalmente alongada e a segunda tênue, 17-19 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal, 36-37 escamas na linha lateral, quatro a cinco dentes no maxilar e uma mancha vertical e escura no final do pedúnculo caudal.

  20. Depositional, diagenetic and stratigraphic aspects of microfacies from Riachuelo Formation, Albian, Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinícius Gabrig Turbay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rocks of the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, represent an example of carbonate sedimentation related to the drift phase during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The Carapeba and Brejo quarries exhibit the best onshore outcrops of the drift carbonate section along the Brazilian continental edge. Field studies and microfacies analysis of the outcropped sedimentary section showed six sedimentary deposits related to the physiography of a carbonate shelf. Proximal mixed deposits are represented by the rich-terrigenous dolostone. Levels with alternate layers of fine grained sandstones and siltstones are here related to distal facies of submarine fans deposits. Mudstones with miliolids and textularids represent a lagoonal environment in a semi-restricted middle shelf. Packstones, grainstones and occasionally wackestones with oncoids, intraclasts and peloids represent sedimentary deposits related to the back of shallow sandy bars and environments at the interface with the lagoon. Grainstones whit ooliths, oncoids, intraclasts and bioclasts, with trough cross-bedding, represent a shallower shoreface environment over the shallow carbonate back on outer shelf. Cements and other post- depositional features suggest four different diagenetic environments: a marine phreatic diagenetic environment with active water circulation; b marine phreatic diagenetic environment with stagnant water; c freshwater phreatic diagenetic environment; d burial diagenetic environment. The sedimentary succession is formed by shallowing upward cycles overlain by a possible transgressive surface, which may indicate the passage of a lowstand to a transgressive system tract.

  1. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  2. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraíba Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraíba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraíba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraíba Basin.Várias publicações têm contribuído para melhorar a estratigrafia da Bacia Paraíba no nordeste do Brasil. Entretanto, a caracterização e distribuição das unidades sedimentares em áreas continentais desta bacia são ainda incompletas, apesar de sua importância para reconstruir a evolução tectono-sedimentar da margem passiva sulamericana. Este trabalho fornece novas informações para diferenciar entre estratos litologicamente similares que, por outro lado, não são relacionados no tempo. Esta

  3. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  4. Impact of the flex-fuel vehicle on the prices formation and regulation in Brazil; Analise do impacto dos veiculos flex-fuel na formacao e regulacao de precos de combustiveis veiculares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscarini, Rodolfo Jose Galvao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Economia; Cesca, Igor Gimenes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The main fuels for vehicles in Brazil are the gasoline type C - which is a mixture of gasoline, resulting from the fractional distillation of oil and anhydrous ethanol - and hydrated ethanol. For this importance, has been created an institutional framework to guide and regulate the activities of the fuel sector, initially for gasoline, hydrated ethanol was contemplated by such device in 2011. Since 2003, there has been manufactured in Brazil the flex-fuel vehicles. With this, the possibility of activation of an additional factor for the regulation of vehicle fuel prices, increasing consumer power to define which of the fuels could be used as the disposition of their prices. One of the effects of growth flex-fuel sales has been increased production and investment in ethanol (especially sugar cane) as a suitable alternative to the. The hope was that the formation of fuel prices was less dependent on their cost of production and distribution and more influenced by a pressure of consumer demand. However, the increase in the sales of the flex-fuel vehicle in Brazil in the last years was not the determining factor in the price of fuels, as it was expected. The explanation of this is on external factors to the automotive industry, linked to the structures of the production chain of oil and ethanol, especially the question of the great increase in international prices of oil and hydrated ethanol in the international market in recent years. (author)

  5. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  6. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  7. Environmental law in Brazil: analysis of environmental licensing of wind power plants in permanently preserved areas; Direito ambiental no Brasil: analise do licenciamento ambiental de usinas eolicas de preservacao permante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Cristiano Abijaode; Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Bleil, Julia Rechia [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@abiape.com.br, adriana@abiape.com.br, julia@abiape.com.br

    2011-04-15

    The Brazilian electric energy matrix is mostly renewable. According to the Generation Information Base (BIG) of the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), hydroelectricity is responsible for 67.31% of the country's energy. The additional generation comes mostly from fossil fuels, whose use is questioned when it comes to environmental quality and climate change. Despite its abundance, hydroelectric power generation has physical, socioeconomic and environmental limitations. Thus, it is essential to develop alternative technologies, providing security in the supply of electric energy and the maintenance of a clean matrix. Among the alternative technologies available, wind power is the one that has been gaining prominence, domestically and internationally speaking. In the last auction of renewable sources held in August 2010 in Brazil, the energy produced by the plants of sugarcane bagasse (biomass) was traded at an average of R$ 144.20 MWh; wind energy, which was the cheapest, was traded at R$ 130.86, and the energy from small hydropower plants (PCH), at R$ 141.93 MWh. The wind power plants accounted for 70% of the auction, which resulted in a plan for increasing its installed capacity by fivefold, by the year 2013. Brazil has great potential to be explored (estimated 143,000 MW), yet despite being appealing, wind energy still face some challenges. One of them is due to the fact that most potential areas for such energy are found in permanently preservation areas and areas considered national assets, subject to special protection measures. This study aims to investigate whether the regulatory, legal and environmental issues are considered an obstacle to an effective inclusion of wind power generation in Brazil. The study examines the process of environmental licensing of wind power plants, especially those established in permanently preservation areas (APPs) and Coastal Areas. The research methodology consisted of normative framework, judicial decisions

  8. Automatic Estimation of the Seafloor Geomorphology of the Santos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, B. R.; Fonseca, L.; Francolin, J. B.

    2002-12-01

    The bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of Santos Basin, Brazil were mapped using a SeaBeam 2112 (12 kHz, 151 beam) Multibeam Echosounder (MBES) aboard the R/V Falcon Explorer. This MBES data was acquired from January-November, 2000, during a high-resolution multi-channel 3D seismic survey, resulting in 380 parallel lines of 90 km length, spaced 250 m apart. The final survey mapped an area of 5,000 km{}2 in water depths of 900--2000 m. These closely spaced multibeam tracks resulted in an average overlap between swaths of 1000%, thereby ensonifying most areas of the seafloor at least ten times. Traditional (hand) processing of a dataset this dense is time-consuming and tedious, and is prone to subjective decisions and operator fatigue. However, the density of the survey makes it ideal for automatic processing methods. Recently, we have developed an algorithm called CUBE that addresses the twin concerns of robustness and reliability that are often raised about automatic processing methods. Based on a very robust multiple hypothesis Bayesian estimator, CUBE processes MBES bathymetry directly into a set of gridded products representing the best estimate of probable depth, and a measure of the uncertainty associated with this estimate. We apply CUBE to the Santos Basin data, illustrating in terms of processing time and human effort the advantages of processing such data automatically. We compare the automatically generated data with a hand-processed set, showing that the results agree to within the estimated experimental uncertainty. We next illustrate the use of CUBE as a data quality measure, indicating areas of concern in the data. Finally, we utilize the bathymetric grid resulting from CUBE to investigate the seafloor morphology, which includes a set of linear depressions parallel and perpendicular to the Shelf break. These linear depressions are the surface expression of fault planes related to subsurface salt walls. In the shallowest part, the detailed bathymetry

  9. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.

    1981-03-01

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (8 μmad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (containing P and S may be

  10. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui, Brazil; Identificacao e analise dos impactos locais e regionais da introducao da producao de biodiesel no estado do Piaui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Omar Inacio Benedetti; Rathmann, Regis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Padula, Antonio Domingos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. This study aims at understanding the mechanisms taking place within a production system geared towards biodiesel production. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is the development and validation of an analytical structure capable of characterizing the biodiesel productive arrangements and identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, Our theoretical basis comprises elements from the regional economy, biorefineries, local production arrangements and innovation. For the analyses, we employed the methods of input-output, local quotient and shift-share. It can be said that a new social-economic dynamics is taking place in Piaui; however, the company needs to assess its interaction with local institutions as well as its castor bean production strategies. (author)

  11. CO{sub 2} emissions generated by the economic activity in Brazil: a decomposition analysis; Emissoes de CO{sub 2} gerados pela atividade economica no Brasil: uma analise de decomposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Hercules Souza de; Dezidera, Daniela Arduino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mails: hercules.medeiros@bg-group.com; danidezidera@igmail.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The present article intends to estimate the direct and indirect emissions of carbon dioxide through of the Brazilian economy official data (IBGE) and data from the National Energy Balance (BEN), trying to correlate the results. For this, the decomposition methodology was used by indexes (IDA). In that sense, evaluations were made in the temporary variations of indicators as: pollution coefficient, energy intensity, effect structures and economical activity. Besides the evaluation of the results consolidated for the period 1970 - 2004, it was compared such results with the one of other countries, whose savings have relative similarity with the Brazilian economy. The results demonstrated that in Brazil and in the countries where the methodology was applied was obtained, as main indicator in the alterations of the emissions of CO{sub 2}, the level of economical growth, which is also reality to Brazil. However, it should be emphasized that each case is considered by other factors. Another contribution of the present study refers the comparison of the intensity of present carbon in the two analysed savings. It identified, still, that the Brazilian energy outlook, for being 'cleaner', propitiates positive impact on carbon emissions results. It was also demonstrated that the increase of the participation of the natural gas in the energy matrix could minimize the carbon intensity effect, mainly as alternative for the power generation and transportation. (author)

  12. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  13. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  14. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  15. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Analise de conformidades as normas tecnicas de protecao radiologica dos servicos de radioterapia no Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Epidemiologica; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: mbpeduardo@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  16. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  17. Challenges for environmental risk assessment application in offshore E and P activities in Brazil; Desafios para a aplicacao de analise de risco ecologico nas atividades de E e P offshore no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Chame, Luciana Moreira [DNV Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves [BP Brasil, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although the Brazilian Legislation does not clearly specify the requirements and the need to elaborate and apply the Environmental Risk Analysis, the Term of Reference to submit studies to Environmental Entities for E and P offshore activities has required the presentation of an {sup E}nvironment Risk Analysis{sup .} Nevertheless, the interactions or possible effects of these accidents as well as possible chronic discharges are not focused. The Environment Risk Analysis programs used world wide for offshore petroleum activities are very sophisticated and need intense research, specially by universities to be adequate and applicable in Brazil. The studies briefly described in this work, when developed may give the characteristics of Brazilian offshore, important information on the potential of the environment impact of the E and P activities, reducing significantly today's subjectivity on evaluation of impacts and environmental risks. (author)

  18. Moenkhausia rubra, a new species from rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo N. L. Pastana; Fernando C. P. Dagosta

    2014-01-01

    Moenkhausia rubra, new species, is described from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except M. hemigrammoidesand M. nigromarginata, by the dark pigmentation on the anteriormost rays of both dorsal and anal fins. Moenkhausia rubrais distinguished from the aforementioned species by the number of branched anal-fin rays 17-20 (vs. 20-25), presence of a dark blotch on the caudal peduncle extending to middle caudal-fin...

  19. Moenkhausia rubra, a new species from rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo N. L. Pastana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Moenkhausia rubra, new species, is described from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except M. hemigrammoidesand M. nigromarginata, by the dark pigmentation on the anteriormost rays of both dorsal and anal fins. Moenkhausia rubrais distinguished from the aforementioned species by the number of branched anal-fin rays 17-20 (vs. 20-25, presence of a dark blotch on the caudal peduncle extending to middle caudal-fin rays, absence of longitudinal black zigzag stripes between longitudinal rows of scales on body, and other details of coloration.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides in Piracicaba river basin (São Paulo/Brazil: a survey of sediment, bivalve and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the level of occurrence of the organochlorine compounds in samples of sediments, bivalves and two fish species collected in the Piracicaba River basin (São Paulo, Brazil. The isomers alpha and gamma of HCH and Heptachlor were most frequently detected in samples of sediments and specimens of bivalve and fish. Therefore, although the levels of these compounds found were not critically high, they are still found in the environment. This fact suggests that they are still being used, despite the fact that the use of these compounds was outlawed more than twenty years ago.

  1. A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes: Characidae) from rio Aripuanã, rio Madeira basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastana, Murilo N L; Ohara, Willian M

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the rio Aripuanã, rio Madeira basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon procyon can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following features: elongation of the dorsal fin in mature males, absence of dark blotches on the dorsal fin, and presence of two humeral blotches. The possibility of a relationship of the new species within H. elachys, H. heliacus, H. loweae, H. moniliger, and H. peugeoti is discussed based on the sharing of characteristics related to the sexual dimorphism and tooth morphology. PMID:27615938

  2. Mammal assemblage of the agroecosystem constituents of the Várzea River Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide recent information on the richness of mammals along the agroecosystems of the Rio da Várzea Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used different field techniques to confirm the occurrence of 46 mammal species in this area. Nine species are threatened in at least one of the three “red lists” at state, national and global levels. Adding the up-to-date results obtained in the field to available data, mainly for conservation units, we present a richness of 85 species recorded for the basin. This number represents about 50% of mammals documented for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results suggest the importance of maintaining protected areas in altered regions, confirming the relevance of inventories of local fauna as a first approach to specific studies addressed to distribution, systematics, cytogenetics, physiology, population and community ecology.

  3. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy review of Ponta Grossa formation, Parana Basin - emphasis on the Tibagi Member sandstones; Analise de facies e revisao da estratigrafia de sequencias da Formacao Ponta Grossa, Bacia do Parana - enfase nos arenitos do Membro Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Ary Gustavo [PETROBRAS, Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio Exploracao e Producao da Bacia de Campos. Gerencia de Avaliacao de Blocos e Interpretacao Geologica e Geofisica]. E-mail: ary.candido@petrobras.com.br; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires

    2006-11-15

    Lithostratigraphic studies of Ponta Grossa Formation (Devonian - Parana Basin) suggest the recognition of three members, denominated: Jaguariaiva Member, Tibagi Member and Sao Domingos Member. This work studies the formation as a whole, but predominantly the Tibagi Member, the most controversial, regarding its stratigraphic genesis. Differing from the other members, that are predominantly pelitic, the Tibagi Member has a sandy composition with the facies; distal storm, proximal storm, deltaic outlet bars and littoral drift currents. The disposition of these facies, formed in marine transitional environment, reveals deposition with a pro gradational array, beginning in shallow platformal environment, with strong storm influence, and covered by deltaic outlet bar deposits. Finally, the coastal drift currents process prevailed. Based on the facies analysis and the comparison between gamma-ray profiles of outcrops and geophysical profiles of wells, the formation was divided in two depositional sequences. In the upper sequence, where it is suggested that Tibagi Member sandstones represent deposits formed in a tract similar to a shelf edge systems tract. This system tract was used (elaborated for passive margin basins, and not for ramp type basins, as the Parana Basin), to have the possibility of obtaining good explanations to understand the deltaic progradation associated with the deposition of that interval, clarifying issues referring to the relative sea level behavior, to the sedimentary contribution, and to the stratigraphic pile up. Finally, comparisons were made with existing stratigraphic models, with the aim to establish a discussion on this important subject in order to promote new debate on the Ponta Grossa Formation stratigraphic sequences. (author)

  4. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  5. Assessing the spatial and temporal water quality in the sub-basin of the Poxim river, Sergipe state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Nogueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the land use and cover in the Poxim river basin, in Sergipe, Brazil, is a determinant factor for reducing the superficial water quality. This study aimed to identify aspects of water quality related to the land use and cover in four different monitoring stations, in the rainy and dry season. The monitored parameters were pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, between July 2009 and June 2010. Water samples were collected at four monitoring stations (E1, in the Poxim-Mirim River; E2, in the Poxim-Açu River; E3, in the main river, near the confluence of the two tributaries; and E4, at the Sanitation Company of Sergipe State water supply intake and analyzed at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the Federal University of Sergipe State. The results were compared with Brazilian standards for fresh water quality (Class 2, according to CONAMA Resolution nº 357/2005. BOD and COD showed a higher input of organic matter in the monitoring station E3. OD values were critical in all four stations. The nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus had higher concentrations at stations E1 and E2 (upper basin, with agricultural practices. In the lower basin, there is a considerable deterioration of water quality, possibly due to the urbanization process. The studied parameters indicate the low quality of water in the Poxim River basin and the need to adopt appropriate mitigation measures.

  6. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  7. Peru and Brazil: a comparative analysis of E and P licensing models adopted by these countries; Peru e Brasil: um analise comparativa dos modelos de licitacao de E and P adotados por esses paises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Luciana P.; Ferreira, Sabrina S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the concession process of Oil and Gas Exploratory Blocks adopted in two countries of Latin America: Peru and Brazil, according to the rules of the Bidding Rounds occurred in 2007 (Peru's Bidding Round and 9th Bidding Round, respectively). In order to analyze the two models chosen, we considered, among others, the rules and proceedings adopted, the legal framework, the criteria used to qualify the companies, the number of blocks offered, the number of participating companies, the infra-structure of the event and the offer selection system. Through this analysis it was possible to verify the points which could be improved in each concession process model and it showed significant differences between them, despite the fact of each one is suitable to the reality of each country. It is important to highlight that the exchange of experience between agents of oil and gas sector, in this specific case Perupetro and ANP, contributes a lot to the continued improvement of bidding processes and other practices adopted. (author)

  8. Analyzing natural gas distribution in Brazil through EVA (Economic Value Added); Analise economico-financeira da industria de distribuicao de gas natural brasileiro sob a otica da geracao de valor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando Rodrigues; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    Although the Brazilian gas market has been showing steady growth and positive news regarding new discoveries, it is not immune to be questioned about its capacity of value generation, and, in particular, if the new companies, operating in distribution have generated it. Value creation, and its management, has become one of the main activities of the modern corporation in order to align the management and shareholders interests. Despite its advancements, the Brazilian NG industry can be considered at its early stages when compared to those of other countries whose industry is more traditional and mature. The process of unbundling of the gas industry, as well as of the public utilities, has become one of the icons of the Brazilian government policies since the mid 90's. Taking into account regulatory change which had only allowed in the last couple of decades the participation of private ownership into the domestic gas market, a follow up of these companies' performances is of interest. Following the concept of value generation, the present study examines the Brazilian gas distribution sector. Based on a detailed analysis of the financial statements of some of the main companies in the sector, that together represent around 68% of the total Brazilian market, this paper verifies whether the gas distribution sector have presented a positive or negative EVA{sup R}, in other words, if, during the period from 2002 to 2007, these newly companies in the gas industry have created or destroyed value in Brazil. (author)

  9. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Teixeira, de, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is marked by socio-eco¬nomic disparities and environmental vulnerabilities. Water managers in the semi-arid region of the basin are faced with several challenges, such as competition among different wate...

  10. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2...

  11. Water politics in Brazil subsidiarity and humanity aspects for the semi-arid sustainable river basin management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencarr [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Direito Publico

    2010-02-15

    This paper examines Brazilian national constitutional law interpretation about water resources management, environmental protection and sustainable development principles. Institutional scenario is characterized under an economical format, important to conciliate human rights guaranties, national development and water protection. We provide subsidies for legal and institutional analysis considering human rights and an equity desirable scenario. Institutional context in Brazil assumes that Federal Law No. 9433/97 determined that water management must improve its multiple uses, decentralization and social participation. Water resources management in Brazil is legally and institutionally marked by the presence of the subsidiarity principle. We analyze the case in current national scene, with its consequent conflict in Sao Francisco River Basin, a semi arid Northeastern River Basin. This work also reflects some aspects of water pricing as defined by State politics. Some parameters are discussed as an elementary presupposition for water regulatory instruments that will define respective water management policy. Therefore, when defining criteria water fees, laws must comply with constitutional principles and the parameters established by the Brazilian Water Law (Law 9.433/97). The lack of reasonability and proportionality in dealing with the formal aspects and, specially, in defining water allocation, can obstruct the subsidiary principle application as determined by the Law 9433/97 and National Water Resources Policy. The question is observed in a more detailed focus over Northeastern Brazilian semi-arid region, where scarcity and traditional relations on politics are difficult to deal with, according to a renewed vision of the State and sustainable development principles. (author)

  12. Checklist of Ephemeroptera (Insecta from São Mateus River Basin, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Batista Angeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn order to expand the knowledge on the composition of Ephemeroptera from large rivers, we present, herein, the first survey of mayflies from the São Mateus River Basin, Espírito Santo State. Adults were collected biannually in 2012 and 2013 with the aid of Pennsylvania light trap in eleven points distributed in the main river of the river basin, São Mateus River and its two main tributaries, Cotaxé River (Braço Norte and Cricaré River (Braço Sul. Thirty-three species were identified (22 nominal and 11 morphospecies in 24 genera and five families. One genus and one species are reported for the first time from Brazil, three species from Southeastern Region of Brazil, and two species from the state. Five species and one genus not previously described were also found. Moreover, around 20% of the known species of mayfly registered from the state were found. This work reinforces the need to give more attention to research on large rivers due to the high potential for diversity, not only for Ephemeroptera, but also for other aquatic insects.

  13. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.O recurso pesqueiro da bacia do rio Cuiabá, um dos mais importantes tributários da bacia do Alto Paraguai, formadora do Pantanal, foi estudado a partir dos dados de desembarque de pescado obtidos no Mercado do Porto de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. São descritas a composição e procedência das capturas para os anos de 2000 e 2001. O rio Cuiabá é a fonte dominante de pescado para a cidade de Cuiabá, mas uma parte do

  14. Analysis of the reliability of the centrifugal pumping system on the Northeast pole platforms in the Campos basin; Analise de confiabilidade do sistema de bombeio centrifugo das plataformas do polo nordeste da bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz; Bardy, Mariana [Principia Engenharia de Informatica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Simoes Filho, Salvador [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Div. de Engenharia Basica Industrial; Neves, Edinei [PETROBRAS, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao

    1999-12-01

    The results of the statistical analysis of useful life data for the Submersible Centrifugal Pumping (BCS) sets installed in the wells in the Northeast Pole of the Campos Basin are given in this work. The objective is to analyze the data compiled with a view to determine the failure rate distributions for the various system components. These are important for the reliability analysis of the BCS systems and to predict the expected number of equipment acquisitions over a yearly period. In addition, suggestions are made aimed at improving the operational reliability of the systems analyzed. (author)

  15. Analysis of the physico-chemical quality Enalapril and Simvastatin drugs manipulated in magistral pharmacies from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Analise da qualidade fisico-quimica dos medicamentos Enalapril e Sinvastatina manipulados em farmacias magistrais de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim

    2013-07-01

    The increasing expansion of compounding pharmacy associated with several reports on variances in the quality of compounded drugs demonstrates the need for verification of quality, safety and efficacy of these products. In this work, physical and chemical analyzes were performed to evaluate the quality of some capsules manipulated enalapril and simvastatin, acquired in five pharmacies in Belo Horizonte /Brazil. Among the analyzes are pharmacopoeial tests for appearance, identification, determination of weight, content, related compounds and uniformity of dosage units, and was also performed neutron activation analysis for the determination of inorganic impurities in drugs sampled. The results showed that 60% of the samples were unsatisfactory for pharmacopoeial tests. The contents of the capsules sampled for individual testing unit dose uniformity between 0% and 136.2%. This test is important in evaluating the quality, which influences the safety and efficacy of drug treatment, since it allows you to check if the product contains the proper dosage and necessary for successful pharmacotherapy. On the other hand, underdosing can lead to reduced or absent desired therapeutic response, and overdoses can provide an undesirable effects and even toxic. The concentration of inorganic impurities was considered to be relatively small. However, no specific limits for some chemical elements in medicine hamper a better thread. In addition, further studies must be performed to assess chronic exposure to low concentrations of inorganic impurities, since drugs can be continuously used, and other sources of exposure must also be considered in order to evaluate the risk. The problems related to the quality and safety of compounded drugs are still reality in the country and reveal a serious public health problem, especially regarding the lack of uniformity between the unit doses of medications. It is suggested that the competent authorities to sanitary products, propose changes in

  16. The Quantification and Identification of Land Use Change Impacts to Hydrology in Brazil from Headwater to Large Basin Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.; Lopes, A. V.; Cohn, A.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid agricultural expansion and intensification has characterized the land use/cover change (LUCC) dynamics of a large region spanning the southern rainforest and savanna biomes of Brazil. Despite a plethora of modeling analyses and small-scale investigations, the cumulative effects of this transformation on hydrological processes at multiple scales remain unclear. Yet quantifying the links between LUCC and hydrological response is essential to support evidence-based sustainable development of industry, society, and environment, particularly in this region, which includes the headwaters of Brazil's major rivers, the climatically-crucial Amazon transition region, and Brazil's agricultural breadbasket. Empirical analyses that can inform land use policy in this region and are sensitive to climate, agriculture and hydrological outcomes are critically needed. This study leverages the increased availability of remotely-sensed data products and a spatially dispersed gauging network to investigate the effects of a decade of LUCC on streamflow in over 150 river basins. Using a collection of statistical techniques to identify causal relationships and isolate LUCC effects from confounding variables such as climate, we quantify the sensitivity of hydrological dynamics to LUCC from small watersheds to regional scales.

  17. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  18. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is m

  19. Mechanical Erosion in a Tropical River Basin in Southeastern Brazil: Chemical Characteristics and Annual Fluvial Transport Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the mechanical erosion processes that occur in a tropical river basin, located in the São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, through the chemical characterization of fine suspended sediments and the transport mechanisms near the river mouth, from March 2009 to September 2010. The chemical characterization indicated the predominance of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 and showed no significant seasonal influences on the major element concentrations, expressed as oxides. The concentration variations observed were related to the mobility of chemical species. The evaluation of the rock-alteration degree indicated that the physical weathering was intense in the drainage basin. The fine suspended sediments charge was influenced by the variation discharges throughout the study period. The solid charge estimate of the surface runoff discharge was four times higher in the rainy season than the dry season. The transport of fine suspended sediments at the Sorocaba River mouth was 55.70 t km−2 a−1, corresponding to a specific physical degradation of 37.88 m Ma−1, a value associated with the mechanical erosion rate that corresponds to the soil thickness reduction in the drainage basin.

  20. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  1. Impact of climate change and agricultural developments in the Taquari River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Jonker, R.N.J.; Padovani, C.; Soriano, B.; Galdino, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Pantanal wetland is part of the Upper Paraguay River basin. The major driving force of the wetland system is the annual oscillation between dry and wet seasons. This study focussed on the Taquari basin, a tributary of the Paraguay River, where erosion takes place and parts of the river silt up,

  2. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g‑1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g‑1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g‑1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g‑1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however

  3. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  4. The zooplankton biodiversity of some freshwater environments in Parnaíba basin (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, J D N; Almeida, V L S; Silva Filho, J P; Paranaguá, M N; Melo, M; Neumann-Leitão, S

    2013-02-01

    The plankton fauna of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, especially in the Parnaíba basin, is still poorly known; the results of most studies of the subject have not been published and can only be found in grey literature (unpublished scientific works), such as course completion work and consulting reports. Thus, this paper presents data from samples taken recently from different water bodies in Piauí and represents the second study to be published on the region's zooplankton since the pioneering work of Spandl (1926). A total of 38 species were recorded, including 23 new occurrences of rotifers, 10 of cladocerans and 2 of copepods for the state of Piauí. The greatest richness was observed for the rotifers, of which the genus Brachionus must be highlighted, especially at the Joana reservoir. Among the crustaceans, the greatest richness was observed at the Bezerra reservoir, where cladocerans of the genus Bosmina were prominent. The rotifers Brachionus havanaensis Rousselet, 1911 and Filinia longiseta (Ehrenberg, 1834); the cladocerans Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1874; and the copepods Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1927 occurred in all or in most environments in which the respective groups were studied. The results presented here expand the taxonomic list of zooplankton for the state of Piauí, including a total fauna of 30 species of rotifers, 15 of cladocerans and 3 of copepods. The zooplankton richness was considered low in the studied reservoirs compared to other freshwater ecosystems from Northeastern Brazil; however, the few studies developed in the Parnaíba basin suggest that the diversity for these organisms should be higher. PMID:23644795

  5. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  6. The zooplankton biodiversity of some freshwater environments in Parnaíba basin (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, J D N; Almeida, V L S; Silva Filho, J P; Paranaguá, M N; Melo, M; Neumann-Leitão, S

    2013-02-01

    The plankton fauna of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, especially in the Parnaíba basin, is still poorly known; the results of most studies of the subject have not been published and can only be found in grey literature (unpublished scientific works), such as course completion work and consulting reports. Thus, this paper presents data from samples taken recently from different water bodies in Piauí and represents the second study to be published on the region's zooplankton since the pioneering work of Spandl (1926). A total of 38 species were recorded, including 23 new occurrences of rotifers, 10 of cladocerans and 2 of copepods for the state of Piauí. The greatest richness was observed for the rotifers, of which the genus Brachionus must be highlighted, especially at the Joana reservoir. Among the crustaceans, the greatest richness was observed at the Bezerra reservoir, where cladocerans of the genus Bosmina were prominent. The rotifers Brachionus havanaensis Rousselet, 1911 and Filinia longiseta (Ehrenberg, 1834); the cladocerans Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1874; and the copepods Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1927 occurred in all or in most environments in which the respective groups were studied. The results presented here expand the taxonomic list of zooplankton for the state of Piauí, including a total fauna of 30 species of rotifers, 15 of cladocerans and 3 of copepods. The zooplankton richness was considered low in the studied reservoirs compared to other freshwater ecosystems from Northeastern Brazil; however, the few studies developed in the Parnaíba basin suggest that the diversity for these organisms should be higher.

  7. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORUS EMISSIONS IN THE UPPER IGUAZU BASIN (BRAZIL) USING GIS AND THE MORE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; Fuchs, S.; S. Hilgert

    2016-01-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of...

  8. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  9. The role of environmental land use conflicts in soil fertility: A study on the Uberaba River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, C A; Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2016-08-15

    In the Uberaba River basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), pastures for livestock production have invaded areas of native vegetation (Cerrado biome), while already existing pastures were invaded by crop agriculture, with an expansion of sugar cane plantations in the most recent years. In some areas of the basin, these land use changes were classified as environmental land use conflicts because the new uses were not conforming to land capability, i.e. the soil's natural use. Where the areas in conflict became dense, some soil properties have changed significantly, namely the organic matter content and the exchangeable potassium concentration, which have decreased drastically (5kg/m(3) per 10% increase in the conflict area) threatening the fertility of soil. Besides, these changes may have triggered a cascade of other environmental damages, specifically the increase of soil erosion and the degradation of water quality with negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity, related to a disruption of soil organic matter structural functions. Because half the Uberaba catchment has been considered is a state of accentuated environmental degradation, not only caused by environmental land use conflicts, conservation measures have been proposed and requested for immediate implementation across the watershed. PMID:27107645

  10. Characidium heirmostigmata, a new characidiin fish (Characiformes: Crenuchidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weferson J. da Graça

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Characidium heirmostigmata new species is described from the rio Ivaí drainage, upper rio Paraná basin, Paraná State, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed among its congeners by the possession of eight to 11 incomplete oblique dark bars on the body sides, extending upwards and downwards from the lateral line, independently of the eight or nine dorsal transverse bars usually present in species of Characidium. The new species is similar to Characidium serrano from the upper rio Uruguay basin, but differs by meristic and morphometric traits.Characidium heirmostigmata espécie nova é descrita da drenagem do rio Ivaí, bacia do alto rio Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A nova espécie é diagnosticada de suas congêneres por apresentar oito a 11 barras escuras, oblíquas e incompletas nas laterais do corpo, para cima e para baixo da linha lateral, independentemente das oito ou nove barras transversais que geralmente estão presentes nas espécies de Characidium. A nova espécie é similar a Characidium serrano, da bacia do alto rio Uruguai, porém difere em caracteres merísticos e morfométricos.

  11. Water budget comparison of global climate models and experimental data in Onça Creek basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, D. C. D.; Marin, I. S. P.; Wendland, E.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the hydrological cycle, accounting for more than 25% of human needs on the global scale. As a result of aquifer overexploitation associated with climate change, even in the most conservative future climate scenarios, mean water-table levels can experience drastic drops. Although there are efforts to include groundwater dynamics in global climate models (GCMs), its influence is still not taken into full account in GCM water budgets, although it is as important as the other water sources considered. To assess the role of percolation in the water balance, we compared the water budget from climate forcing scenarios using 10 GCMs with the water budget from experimental data of a basin in São Paulo state, Brazil. We used the delta factor approach to correct the bias of the model's temperature and precipitation for a control period from 1970 to 1999, and calculated evapotranspiration using the Thornthwaite method. Experimental data for runoff and interception were derived for the basin's representative crops (sugar cane and pasture) for both water budgets. As the GCMs ignore subsurface flow and the only input considered is precipitation and snow melt, the excess surface water is assumed to be redistributed among the other water budget components. The experimental data shows that there is enough available water for infiltration, indicating that recharge cannot be ignored in the water balance. This leads to the possibility of the models' overestimating the other components to compensate for the ignored recharge.

  12. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  13. Jurassic–cretaceous deformational phases in the Paraná intracratonic basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Strieder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the domes and basins, regional arcs and synclines, and brittle structures of the Paraná Basin flood volcanism to characterize the deformational phases in its Jurassic to Cretaceous history. First-stage fieldwork revealed brittle structures, extensional joints, and strike-slip faults, and second-stage fieldwork investigated the connections of the brittle structures to both open folds and dome-and-basin features. Fault-slip data inversion was performed using two different techniques to distinguish local and remote stress/strain. Geometric and kinematic analyses completed the investigations of the deformation, which characterized two deformational phases for the Jurassic to Cretaceous periods in the Paraná Basin. Both developed under regional bi-directional constrictional (σ1 ≥ σ2 ≫ σ3 stress regimes that produced a number of non-cylindrical folds. A D1 deformational phase produced the N–S and E–W orthogonally oriented domes and basins. The D2 arcs and synclines are oriented towards the NW and NE and indicate a clockwise rotation (35–40° of both horizontal principal stress tensors. The extensional joints and strike-slip faults characterize the local stress field in the outer rim of the orthogonally buckled single volcanic flow, whereas the inner rim of the buckled single flow supported constriction and thus, developed the local arcuate folds.

  14. Monte Carlo approach to assess the uncertainty of wide-angle layered models: Application to the Santos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Afonso; Afilhado, Alexandra; Matias, Luís; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    In the Santos Basin (Brazil), two parallel wide-angle refraction profiles show different crustal structures. One shows moderate crustal velocity gradient, and a clear Moho with topography. The other has an anomalous velocity zone, and no clear Moho reflections. This has large implications on the geological and geodynamical interpretation of the basin. Model uncertainties must be excluded as a source of these differences. We developed VMONTECARLO, a tool to assess model uncertainty of layered velocity models using a Monte Carlo approach and simultaneous parameter perturbation using all picked refracted and reflected arrivals. It gives insights into the acceptable geological interpretations allowed by data and model uncertainty through velocity-depth plots that provide: a) the velocity-depth profile range that is consistent with the travel times; b) the random model that provides the best fit, keeping most of the observations covered by ray-tracing; c) insight into valid models dispersion; d) main model features unequivocally required by the travel times, e.g., first-order versus second-order discontinuities, and velocity gradient magnitudes; e) parameter value probability distribution histograms. VMONTECARLO is seamlessly integrated into a RAYINVR-based modelling work-flow, and can be used to assess final models or sound the solution space for alternate models, and is also capable of evaluating forward models without the need for inversion, thus avoiding local minima that may trap the inversion algorithms and providing information for models still not well-parametrised. Results for the Brazilian models show that the imaged structures are indeed geologically different and are not due to different interpretations of the same features within the model uncertainty bounds. These differences highlight the strong heterogeneity of the crust in the middle of the Santos Basin, where the rift is supposed to have failed.

  15. Actual stage of organic geochemical knowledge from Campos and Espirito Santo basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos and Espirito Santo basins display several similar geochemical aspects. The microbial and other degradation processes caused changes in the composition of the oils in the reservoir rocks. The oils are biodegraded in different degrees, with the reservoir temperature developing an important role in the control of the biodegradation process. The migration pathway model is similar for Campos and Espirito Santo basins, involving the upward secondary migration through a window in the evaporitic seals. The oils passed to the marine sequence where migration and accumulation were controlled by faults, regional unconformities and by reservoirs. The geochemical correlation of oils are realized by gaseous and liquid chromatography analysis, carbon isotopes and biolabelled compounds. (author)

  16. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evain, M.; Afilhado, A; Rigoti, C; Loureiro, A.; D. Alves; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P; Feld, A.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; de Lima, M. Vinicius; Corela, C.; L. Matias; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.

    2015-01-01

    International audience The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, are discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the Santos Basin (SanBa) experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS...

  17. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  18. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  19. Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

    2011-01-01

    Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments. PMID:22095604

  20. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  1. Soil loss prediction in Guaraíra river experimental basin, Paraíba, Brazil based on two erosion simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Flávio Cazé B. da Costa Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two hydrological models to estimate soil losses and sediment yield due to sheet and channel erosion, at the basin outlet, are applied to Guaraíra River Experimental Basin, located in Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. The soil erosion models are (a the classical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, which is used to simulate annual and monthly soil losses; and (b Kineros model, which is used to simulate the sediment yield within the basin. Kineros model is a physically-based distributed model that uses a cascade of planes and channels to represent the basin and to describe the processes of interception, infiltration, surface runoff and erosion within the basin. The USLE is computed using land use, soil erodibility, topographic digital maps, as well as observed rainfall data. It was found that Guaraíra river experimental basin has a low potential for soil losses; however, specific areas which are susceptible to the erosion process in the basin could be detected by the modeling techniques coupled to a GIS (Geographic Information System.

  2. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    William M. Ohara; Manoela M. F. Marinho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new species of Moenkhausia is described from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Among congeners, the new species is similar to Moenkhausia chlorophthalma, M. cotinho , M. lineomaculata , M. plumbea, and M. petymbuaba by having dark blotches on the anterior portion of the body scales, which are absent in the remaining species of the genus. The new speciesdiffers from aforementioned species by possessing blue eyes in life, 15-18 b...

  3. Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiero, Laurent; Furquim, S.A.C.; Vallès, Vincent; Furian, S.; Sakamoto, Arnaldo; Rezende Filho, A.,; Fort, Monique

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive feature of Nhecolândia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, is the presence of both saline (alkaline) and freshwater lakes. Saline lakes were attributed to a past arid phase during the Pleistocene, but recent studies have shown that the geochemistry of the saline lakes arises from the current concentration process of fresh waters that is supplied to the Pantanal every year. The region is mainly used for cattle farming, more recently eco-tourism is becoming widespread...

  4. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  5. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  6. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

  7. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel da Costa e Silva; Roxo, Fábio F; Claudio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pseudancistrus , a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistrus kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrus asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners ( Pseudancistrus barbatus , Pseudancistrus corantijniensis , Pseudancistrus depressus , Pseudancistrus nigrescens , Pseudancistrus ...

  8. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT) BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares; Ynglea Georgina de Freitas Goch; José Reinaldo Pacheco Peleja; Bruce Rider Forsberg; Edivaldo Júnior de Souza Lemos; Otávio Peleja de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg) in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were d...

  9. Microhabitat preferences of six Drosera (Droseraceae) from Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Panayotis Saridakis; José Marcelo Domingues Torezan; Galdino Andrade

    2004-01-01

    We studied the microhabitats and the climatic requirements of six Drosera taxa, which occur in the subtropical grasslands of the Tibagi river basin. They are annual,or most communly, perennial herbs known as carnivorous plants, whose leaves are transformed into traps for the capture and digestion of small insects as an adaptation for supplying nutricional deficiencies. They usually occur in distrophic substrata. In order to contribute to conservation plans for the species of the genus, threat...

  10. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  11. The Neo-Alagoas in the Ceara, Araripe and Potiguar basins (Brazil): stratigraphic and paleoecologycal caracterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stratigraphic analysis of the Alagoas Stage (local stage) in Ceara Basin allows the investigated interval to be divided into two parts, with distictive tectono-sedimentary and paleobiological features. The lower part shows non-marine environmental character and the upper part, informally named Aptian-Albian transition, contains marine organisms in certain levels. These records would represent the first phases of a primitive equatorial Atlantic Ocean in the area. The Trairi Beds at the top of the continental section were deposited in an environmental complex which includes a marginal sabkha, reflecting cyclical conditions of extreme aridity or humidity. Similar events have ocurred in the Potiguar Basin with the Ponta do Tubarao Beds and in Araripe Basin with the deposition of thinny calcareous and shale layers, here informally named ''Batateria Beds''. These environmental conditions provided an excellent setting for preservation of organic matter due to cyclical anoxic processes. The observation that the organic extracts from shales of all these strata are similar supports the hypothesis of correspondence of these events. (author)

  12. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  13. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  14. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; ten Brink, U.; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353-865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  15. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais State, 'Steel Valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  16. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais state, 'steel valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  17. Delimitation and analysis of environmental protection areas in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Rosim, Sergio; Jimenez Ortiz, Manoel; de Freitas Oliveira, João. R.; Morais, Rodolfo; Siqueira, Fernando R.

    2014-10-01

    This work establishes a semi-automatic methodology to define and evaluate the Environmental Protection Areas (EPA), in the Paraíba River Basin, Brazil, taking account the land use and the water quality. The development of this work started from the water capitation point of Guaratingueta city located on the stream that runs through the city. From ASTER GDEM data the drainage network and the basin catchment was automatically extracted. Landsat images for the dates of 1989, 2001 and 2014 were digitally classified and the land uses were mapped, considering the area of permanent protection (APP) for drainage, respecting the limits indicated by Brazilian forest code. Scenes from the RapidEye satellite were used to answer questions of classification, due to good image definition. The study showed that in 1989, the total area classified as APP, 37.59% were anthropized, reaching 37.98% in 2001 and 36.98% in 2014. In a few years it was possible to associate data from water quality, measured directly at the capitation. In 2001 the water quality data showed that the intensive use of fertilizers drained into the Guaratingueta stream by rice paddies was seriously affecting the water supply of the municipality. In 2008 measures for water quality at the capitation point showed that the water resources were still impacted by agricultural activities from the rice fields. So, this work indicates the need for revitalization of the APP inside the EPA Guaratingueta in order to meet the law, protect watersheds and also avoid large investments in water treatment arriving for public consumption.

  18. New petrified forest in Maranhão, Permian (Cisuralian) of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Domingas Maria; de Andrade, Luiz Saturnino; Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Iannuzzi, Roberto; Pereira, Agostinha Araújo; Machado, Francisco Carlos

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a new fossil plant-bearing area located in the municipalities of Duque Bacelar and Coelho Neto, Maranhão State, Brazil, recovered from lower Permian (Cisuralian) strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, northeastern portion of the Parnaíba Basin. The area comprises more than five exposures with assemblages formed mostly of large gymnosperm woods, a number of them in life-position (reaching up to ∼2.30 m in height and 1.15 m in diameter) and, in lesser degree, of horizontal tree-fern stems (up to 5 m in length), some of them being referable to Psaronius sp. The fossils are recorded in sedimentary beds of continental origin that accumulated in shallow, nearshore areas of large lakes, which eventually were affected by rapid burial episodes generated by non-channelized, high energy fluvial systems. The new fossil assemblages are included within lacustrine rocks placed at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, i.e., Sílex Basal Member, near the contact with the underlying Piauí Formation (Pennsylvanian). This observation contrasts with previous studies at the southwestern portion of the basin, where the stratigraphic position of plant fossils is referred to the upper Pedra de Fogo Formation (Trisidela Member) or even to the overlying Motuca Formation. The new sites currently suffer damage from human activities and require urgent actions in order to protect them. Based on the current laws, some measures of protection for these sites are discussed and proposed herein. xml:lang="pt"

  19. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom

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    J. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  20. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Xingu basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Moenkhausia from the upper rio Xingu basin is described. Moenkhausia eurystaenia is distinguished from all congeners, except M. heikoi and M. phaeonota, by the presence of a dark, broad longitudinal stripe from the opercle to the end of caudal peduncle. The new species is distinguished from M. heikoi mainly by having 18-21 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 24-26) and the absence of a round blotch at the end of the caudal peduncle (vs. present). Moenkhausia eurystaenia can be distin...

  1. Cytherellid species (Ostracoda) and their significance to the Late Quaternary events in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergue, C.T.; Coimbra, J.C.; Cronin, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Four autochthonous cytherellid species (Cytherella serratula (BRADY, 1880), C. hermargentina WHATLEY et al. 1998, C. pleistocenica sp. nov. and C. santosensis sp. nov.) have been identified from two offshore cores (44 samples) within the Santos Basin. The distribution of these ostracodes is controlled by local hydrological conditions such as the temperature and, possibly, the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, these factors cannot explain completely the species occurrence in the analysed cores, and relative sea level changes and productivity variation driven by climatic changes are proposed as additional explanations for the faunal distribution pattern. ?? E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Na??gele u. Obermiller), 2007.

  2. Results of the marine biota monitoring during drilling activity on Campos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petta, Claudia Brigagao de; Bastos, Fabio; Danielski, Monica; Ferreira, Mariana; Gama, Mariana; Coelho, Ana Paula Athanazio; Maia, Decio [Aecom do Brasil Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Project (PMA) aims to report environmental changes arising from drilling activity, in relation to the marine fauna. This project can also help in the monitoring of accidental spills. Since the professionals spend six hours of the day monitoring the ocean around the rigs, they can locate and identify oil stains, notify the responsible onboard, and also help in the monitoring of the oil stain. Such Project has been developed onboard a drilling unit working in Campos Basin. The results presented here were collected during the drilling activity in Bijupira and Salema fields, by Shell Brasil Petroleo Ltda, from July 13th to October 8th, 2011.

  3. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio Amazonas basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo D; Marinho, Manoela M F

    2016-01-01

    Moenkhausia abyss is herein described from the rio Amazonas basin lowlands. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by presenting the combination of the following characters: a dark blotch located on the upper caudal-fin lobe and the lower lobe hyaline, 25-29 branched anal-fin rays, humeral spot rectangular, vertically oriented, extending horizontally through two or two and a half scales and located over the third to the fifth lateral line scales, five longitudinal scale rows above the lateral line, predorsal scales arranged in a single not interrupted median row and 30-34 perforated lateral line scales. Brief comments on Moenkhausia megalops are provided. PMID:27394514

  4. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistruskayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrusasurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrusbarbatus, Pseudancistruscorantijniensis, Pseudancistrusdepressus, Pseudancistrusnigrescens, Pseudancistrusreus, and Pseudancistruszawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistruskayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrusreus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrusasurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  5. The influence of oceanic basins on drought and ecosystem dynamics in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2012 drought in Northeast Brazil was the harshest in decades, with potentially significant impacts on the vegetation of the unique semi-arid caatinga biome and on local livelihoods. Here, we use a coupled climate–vegetation model (CCM3-IBIS) to: (1) investigate the role of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the 2012 drought, and; (2) evaluate the response of the caatinga vegetation to the 2012 climate extreme. Our results indicate that anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean were the primary factor forcing the 2012 drought, with Pacific Ocean SST having a larger role in sustaining typical climatic conditions in the region. The drought strongly influenced net primary production in the caatinga, causing a reduction in annual net ecosystem exchange indicating a reduction in amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. (letter)

  6. New insights into Gondwana paleography based on palinological data from Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Garcia, Gustavo; Vasconcellos Garcia, Antônio Jorge; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    The Sergipe-Alagoas basin (NE Brazil) has been widely studied in the frame of oil exploration, because it displays the most complete exposition of the stratigraphic sequences from the basins of the Brazilian continental margin. In this context, the aim of this workis to present the results of the bio-stratigraphic and paleo-environmental analysis of Morro do Chaves Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in Alagoas Sub-basin, part of the transitional section situated between the rift phase and restricted marine environment associated with the South Atlantic ocean opening. The material was analyzed from the palynological point of view and was collected in the InterCement quarry, located in São Miguel dos Campos, State of Alagoas. From 17 outcrop rock samples collected, nine had palynological content; among these only six were considered for biostratigraphic analysis purposes. In addition to outcrop samples, 28 samples were processed from four core drill. The paleoenvironmental analysis was based on the palynological content of the collected samples and on the paleontological and geological information available. The studied sedimentary package corresponds to carbonate and fine siliciclastic deposits, with approximately 70.0 m in thickness. The unit in question is formed by carbonatic "coquinóides" rocks interspersed with shale levels of dark green color. Palinofloristic assemblages were recuperated between 5.0 m and 70.0 m of the outcropping section. In the recovered material it was possible to identify 9 kinds of spores and 8 kinds of pollen grains, and two genera of fungi. Due to the degree of preservation of the material, age was established by the occurrence of Dicheiropollis etruscus specimens, which has enabled the recognition of the Dicheiropollis etruscus palinozone (upper Barremian). In microscopic observations under fluorescent light some algalic vesicles components were also recognized and classified as possible algae of the Prasinophyceae class, indicating

  7. Ichthyofauna of two streams (silted and reference) in the Upper Paraná river basin, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casatti, L

    2004-11-01

    In this study the fish assemblages of the silted Aguas Claras stream (AC) was compared with that of a reference, the São Carlos stream (SC), so as to identify potential fish indicators of integrity or degradation. Both streams, located about 5 km from one another, are part of the Upper Paraná river basin, Brazil, and present similar physiographical features. Twenty-one species were collected in AC (1,271 specimens) and 18 in SC (940 specimens). In AC, dominant species e.g., Corydoras aeneus (sandy pools), Serrapinnus notomelas, and Pyrrhulina australis (warm marginal shallow pools) were those favored by new microhabitats linked to siltation and removal of the riparian vegetation. Changes in the composition of the marginal vegetation resulted in dominance of species such as Hisonotus francirochai (marginal grasses). In SC the dominant species was Phalloceros caudimacultus, abundant in marginal shallow pools, and Trichomycterus diabolus. and Hypostomus nigromaculatus, exclusively riffle-dwelling species, which were absent in AC. Fish assemblage monitoring is recommended for use in riparian management programs in order to evaluate negative instream sedimentation effects.

  8. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  9. Structural styles of the intracratonic reactivation of the Perimbó fault zone, Paraná basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Rigoti, Augustinho; Kraft, Ronaldo Paulo

    2003-08-01

    The style and origin of intracratonic deformation along the Perimbó fault zone (PFZ) in the Paraná basin, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, is defined by the integration of outcrop, borehole, aerial photography, and digital terrain modeling data. Typical structures are high-angle strike-slip and oblique-slip normal faults in the Permian sedimentary cover that propagate upward from medium-angle reverse faults in the underlying Precambrian basement. Regional and minor structures suggest blind transtensional faulting and tilting of the overlying strata controlled by the basement heritage. A hypothesis linking deformation between the cover and the basement is proposed on the basis of a structural analysis of a branched fault pattern striking N40-50E and N70-80E. Semi-detailed scale mapping shows that the PFZ has a complex history of polyphase reactivation and is characterized as a plate margin fault in the Proterozoic, evolving to an intracratonic fault in the Phanerozoic, with a main period of reactivation in Permian or Permian-Triassic transition times. The reported data imply that fault reactivation is characterized by normal to left-lateral strike-slip faulting produced by strain propagation from the La Ventana orogenic belt toward the continental interior.

  10. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  11. Water quality and diversity of yeasts from tropical lakes and rivers from the Rio Doce basin in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana O. Medeiros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeast communities were assessed in 14 rivers and four lakes from the Doce River basin in Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons of the years 2000 and 2001. Water samples were collected at the subsurface in all sites. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, ortho-phosphate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and total nitrogen and the counts of faecal coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were carried out to characterize the aquatic environmental sampled. The yeast counts were higher in aquatic environments with the highest counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. These environments receive a high influx of domestic and industrial waste. A total of 317 isolates identified in forty eight yeast species were recorded in the sites sampled and the specie Aureobasidium pullulans were found in eleven out of eighteen sites sampled and some opportunistic pathogens such as the yeast species Candida krusei were isolated only in the polluted rivers with a positive correlation with the biotic and abiotic parameters that indicate sewage contamination.

  12. Biochronostratigraphy and paleoenvironment analysis of Neogene deposits from the Pelotas Basin (well 2-TG-96-RS, Southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAGNER G. SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the integration of micropaleontological (palynology and foraminifera and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr analysis of a selected interval from the well 2-TG-96-RS, drilled on the onshore portion of the Pelotas Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of eight samples of the section between 140.20 and 73.50 m in depth was selected for palynological analysis, revealing diversified and abundant palynomorph associations. Species of spores, pollen grains and dinoflagellate cysts are the most common palynomorphs found. Planktic and benthic calcareous foraminifera were recovered from the lowest two levels of the section (140.20 and 134.30 m. Based on the stratigraphic range of the species of dinoflagellate cysts and sporomorphs, a span age from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene is assigned. The relative age obtained from the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in shells of calcareous foraminifers indicates a Late Miocene (Messinian correspondence, corroborating the biostratigraphic positioning performed with palynomorphs. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on the quantitative distribution of organic components (palynomorphs, phytoclasts and amorphous organic matter throughout the section and on foraminiferal associations indicate a shallow marine depositional environment for the section. Two palynologicals intervals were recognized based on palynofacies analysis, related to middle to outer shelf (140.20 to 128.90 m and inner shelf (115.75 to 73.50 m conditions.

  13. Pedogenic calcretes within fracture systems and beddings in Neoproterozoic limestones of the Irecê Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S. V. F.; Balsamo, F.; Vieira, M. M.; Iacumin, P.; Srivastava, N. K.; Storti, F.; Bezerra, F. H. R.

    2016-07-01

    Calcretes or caliches are continental limestones developed by surficial weathering process that takes place mostly in arid and semi-arid regions. In the Irecê Basin, northeastern Brazil, in addition to the regular occurrence of pedogenic calcretes, a peculiar type of structurally controlled calcretes occurs on Neoproterozoic limestones. These peculiar calcretes developed near the surface and occur (1) between layers, (2) inside fractures and (3) within major thrust faults. Fieldwork on selected outcrops was integrated with petrographic, mineralogic, geochemical, density and mercury intrusion porosity analyses to constrain the environment of formation and their petrophysical properties. The results revealed that this type of calcrete is the product of multiepisodic events of dissolution and precipitation occurring during the wet and dry seasons in the region along fractures and beddings. Based on the petrophysical results, we suggest that these calcretes may have an important role in the migration of fluids through the impermeable host carbonate rock and that they act as a conduit for fluid flow, as revealed by their high porosity (mean value = 26%) and remarkable pore connectivity.

  14. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin.

  15. Thermal history from Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, SP/MG , Brazil and dyke rich margins using apatite fission track analysis; Historia termica do macico alcalino de Pocos de Caldas (SP/MG) e adjacencias atraves da analise de datacao por tracos de fissao em apatitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail: aobf@rc.unesp.br; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Ribeiro, Luis Felipe Brandini [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia; Guedes, Sandro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2005-09-15

    The South American Platform in southeastern Brazil records a long history of tectonic magmatic and uplift events, which resulted from the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Cretaceous reactivation and epirogeneic processes. Specific manifestations include the basic magmatism of the Serra Geral Formation of the Parana Basin and alkaline magmatism of Pocos de Caldas - Cabo Frio Lineament, as well as the uplift of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar mountain ranges. Thermo tectonic and geochronological studies using the K-Ar method and apatite fission track analysis in samples of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif show an initial evolution beginning 89 Ma related to a tectonic uplift, interpreted as related to the intrusion's doming. This was followed by an important episode of rapid cooling related to the formation of the massif. At the same time, the mountains that surround the massif record heating events in response to the alkaline intrusion, between 70 and 50 Ma. Periods of slow uplift, probably related to the South American Erosion Cycle (between 50 and 30 Ma) and Velhas Erosion Cycle (from 25 Ma), indicate a strong manifestation of denudation in this area. (author)

  16. Biodiversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  18. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were distributed in the basin of the Negro river during the period of high water. After the fisheries specimens were identified, measured and weighed. Then muscle samples were taken and subjected to acid digestion and analyzed by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer - CVAFS. To research data was used analysis of variance and linear regression. A total of 264 specimens distributed into 10 species were analyzed, and the THg of the concentrations ranged from 0.030 for 1,670 mg.kg-1. The species Hoplias malabaricus, Serrasalmus rhombeus, Hemiodus immaculatus and Cichla temensis showed bioaccumulation. High concentrations of THg were found in carnivorous, piscivorous, planctívos and omnivores fish. No specimen showed mean concentrations of THg in violation to ANVISA, but this occurred in relation to FAO and WHO. keywords: Brazilian Amazon; biomonitoring; high waters; Hg.

  19. DEVELOPING SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN TIETÊ-JACARÉ BASIN, BRAZIL

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    Michele de Almeida Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a tool to assist in developing water resources management, focusing on the sustainability concept, by a Basin Committee. This tool consists of a set of sustainability indicators for water resources management denominated CISGRH, which was identified by a conceptual and empirical review to meet the specific needs of the study herein - the basin committee of Tietê-J acaré Rivers (CBH-TJ. The framework of CISGRH came about through consecutive consultation processes. In the first consultation, the priority problems were identified for the study objectives, listing some possible management sustainability indicators. These preliminary indicators were also submitted to academic specialists and technicians working in CBH-TJ for a new consultation process. After these consultation stages, the CISGRH analysis and structuring were introduced. To verify the indicators’ adaptation and to compose a group as proposed by the study, these were classified according to specific sustainability principles for water resources management. The objective of the CISGRH implementation is to diagnose current conditions of water resources and its management, as well as to evaluate future conditions evidenced by tendencies and interventions undertaken by the committee.

  20. Tectonics and paleogeography of the Marajó Basin, northern Brazil

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    JOÃO B. S. COSTA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marajó Basin area presents geologic and geomorphologic features chiefly due to the Mesozoic extension and post-Miocene neotectonics. The extension event with an Early and a Late Cretaceous phases originated four sub-basins that constitutes the Marajó Basin, with a thick continental clastic sequence showing marine influence. NW and NNW normal faults and NE and ENE strike-slip faults controlled the basin geometry. The extension, related to the Equatorial Atlantic opening, propagated into the continent along crustal weakness zones of the Precambrian Tumucumaque, Amapá and Araguaia orogenic belts. The neotectonic event is a strike-slip regime which developed transtensional basins filled in by Upper Tertiary shallow marine (Pirabas Formation and transitional sequences (Barreiras Group, followed by Quaternary fluvial deposits and transitional sequences derived from the Amazon and Tocantins rivers and the Marajoara estuary. The current landscape has a typical estuarine morphology. The coast morphology presents sea-cliffs on transitional Upper Tertiary sequences, while inwards dominate hills sustained by Mid-Pleistocene lateritic crust, with a flat erosive surface at 70 m. In the eastern Marajó Island several generations of paleochannels associated with fluvial-estuarine sequences are recognized, while a fluvial-marine plain is widespread on its western side.A área da Bacia do Marajó apresenta feições geológicas e geomorfológicas devidas principamente à distensão Mesozóica e à neotectônica pós-miocênica. O evento de distensão, com fases do Cretáceo Inferior e Superior, originou quatro sub-bacias que contituem a Bacia do Marajó, com uma espessa seqüência clástica continental mostrando influência marinha. Falhas normais NW e NNW e direcionais NE e ENE controlaram a geometria da bacia. A distensão, relacionada com a abertura do Atlântico Equatorial, propagou-se continente adentro ao longo de zonas de fraqueza crustal dos

  1. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

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    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  2. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    elements provide a hint at a prevailing subsidence regime and effective sediment supply into the basin that clearly contrast with the conveyed idea of a sediment-starved and tectonic stable shelf. They naturally raise questions about the nature and origin of sediment supply, since no significant point siliciclastic fluvial source flows directly into the shelf. Stemming from that, we are forced to speculate about: (A) the role of neotectonic movements involving the Serra do Mar coastal mountain ranges to potentially source clastic influx into the basin during the Quaternary, or about the real importance of secondary drainage basins debouching today; and (B) the mechanical nature of a supposed subsidence during the Pliocene and the Quaternary time span (overloading ? sediment compaction ? thermal cooling ?). The interpretation of industrial seismic lines can provide the answers of many of these questions. The next step of this work is to make a stratigraphy model of the sedimentary systems of Santos basin to understand how the ancient creation of accommodation space can influence the recent sedimentary architecture and how is the change in sedimentary influx and the sedimentary records of different orders of cyclicity.

  3. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

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    Gabriel da Costa e Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: P. kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin and P. asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus, P. nigrescens, P. reus, and P. zawadzkii by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of P. reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  4. Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carmen Baur; de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Kay, David; Vargha, Marta; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-03-01

    The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment of Manaus under different hydrological scenarios. Water samples were collected along Negro River and in small streams known as igarapés. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation method and detected by quantitative PCR. From 272 samples analysed, HAdV was detected in 91.9%, followed by JCPyV (69.5%), RVA (23.9%) and NoV GII (7.4%). Viral concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) GC L(-1) and viruses were more likely to be detected during the flood season, with the exception of NoV GII, which was detected only during the dry season. Statistically significant differences on virus concentrations between dry and flood seasons were observed only for RVA. The HAdV data provides a useful complement to faecal indicator bacteria in the monitoring of aquatic environments. Overall results demonstrated that the hydrological cycle of the Negro River in the Amazon Basin affects the dynamics of viruses in aquatic environments and, consequently, the exposure of citizens to these waterborne pathogens.

  5. 210Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350 km sector of the river. The 210Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess 210Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess 210Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the 210Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. - Highlights: • Gold mining activities. • Madeira River basin at Amazon area. • Pb-210 chronological method. • Models for evaluating sedimentation rates

  6. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  7. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  8. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  9. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  10. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  11. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  12. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (mCSEM) detects hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Santos Basin - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonora, Marco Polo Pereira; Rodrigues, Luiz Felipe [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zerilli, Andrea; Labruzzo, Tiziano [WesternGeco, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) has driven the attention of an increasing number of operators due to its sensitivity to map resistive structures, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath the ocean floor and successful case histories have been reported. The Santos basin mCSEM survey was performed as part of a technical co-operation project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger to assess the integration of selected deep reading electromagnetic technologies into the full cycle of oil field exploration and development. The survey design was based on an in-depth sensitivity study, built on known reservoirs parameters, such as thickness, lateral extent, overburden and resistivities derived from seismic and well data. In this context, the mCSEM data were acquired to calibrate the technology over the area's known reservoirs, quantify the resistivity anomalies associated with those reservoirs, with the expectation that new prospective locations could be found. We show that the mCSEM response of the known reservoirs yields signatures that can be clearly imaged and accurately quantified and there are evident correlations between the mCSEM anomalies and the reservoirs. (author)

  13. Ra-226 concentrations in the hydrographic basins near uranium mining and milling in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of the 226Ra concentrations in river waters in the vicinity of the mining area and future milling facilities in the Pocos de Caldas region began in January 1977. The objective of the monitoring survey is to establish a baseline to allow future comparisons between the 226Ra concentrations in waters of the hydrographic basins of the Pocos de Caldas plateau before and after the beginning of full scale commercial operations. Open pit mining started in July 1977 in the uranium deposits of Campo do Cercado, but the main uranium body has not been reached yet. Seasonal variations in riverflow are apparently accompanied by little variations in the 226Ra concentrations in river waters. A crude calculational dosimetric model is in the process of being developed to estimate annual dose equivalent to an individual from 226Ra via drinking water and irrigation patterns as a first step to calculate the collective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the Pocos de Caldas plateau and surroundings

  14. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  15. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  16. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  17. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively, lower

  18. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  19. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  20. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Xingu basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia from the upper rio Xingu basin is described. Moenkhausia eurystaenia is distinguished from all congeners, except M. heikoi and M. phaeonota, by the presence of a dark, broad longitudinal stripe from the opercle to the end of caudal peduncle. The new species is distinguished from M. heikoi mainly by having 18-21 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 24-26 and the absence of a round blotch at the end of the caudal peduncle (vs. present. Moenkhausia eurystaenia can be distinguished from M. phaeonota mainly by the anterior portion of longitudinal band darker at horizontal septum (vs. darker below horizontal septum, the deep dark pigmentation along horizontal septum extending anteriorly up to humeral region (vs. extending up to vertical through pelvic-fin origin, number of vertebrae 34 (vs. 36-37, and others additional measurements.Uma espécie nova de Moenkhausia da bacia do alto rio Xingu é descrita. Moenkhausia eurystaenia distingue-se de todas as congêneres, exceto M. heikoi e M. phaeonota, pela presença de uma faixa longitudinal larga e escura que se estende do opérculo ao pedúnculo caudal. A espécie nova distingue-se de Moenkhausia heikoi principalmente por apresentar 18-21 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal (vs. 24-26, e ausência de uma mácula circular no final do pedúnculo caudal (vs. presença. Moenkhausia eurystaenia distingue-se de M. phaeonota principalmente pela porção anterior da faixa longitudinal ser mais escura no septo horizontal (vs. mais escura abaixo do septo horizontal, pigmentação profunda e escura ao longo do septo horizontal se estendendo até a região umeral (vs. se estendendo até a vertical que passa pela origem da nadadeira pélvica, 34 vértebras (vs. 36-37, e outras medidas adicionais.

  1. Microhabitat preferences of six Drosera (Droseraceae from Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Panayotis Saridakis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microhabitats and the climatic requirements of six Drosera taxa, which occur in the subtropical grasslands of the Tibagi river basin. They are annual,or most communly, perennial herbs known as carnivorous plants, whose leaves are transformed into traps for the capture and digestion of small insects as an adaptation for supplying nutricional deficiencies. They usually occur in distrophic substrata. In order to contribute to conservation plans for the species of the genus, threatened by the conversion of the natural grasslands into pastures, we tried to define their preferential habitats and climatic requirements. We verified that the variables of microhabitat and altitude presented significant correlation at 5% probability level, while the variables in annual average relative humidity, annual average temperature and type of substratum types did not show significant correlation.Nós estudamos os microhabitats e as exigências climáticas de seis taxa de Drosera (Droseraceae, que ocorrem nos campos subtropicais da bacia do rio Tibagi. São ervas perenes, conhecidas como plantas carnívoras, cujas folhas são transformadas em armadilhas para a captura e digestão de pequenos animais, o que tem sido referido como adaptação para suprir deficiências nutricionais, já que geralmente ocorrem em substratos distróficos. Para auxiliar na elaboração de planos de conservação para as espécies do gênero, ameaçadas pela conversão dos campos em pastagens, nós procuramos definir os habitats preferenciais e as exigências climáticas. Verificou-se que as variáveis: tipo de microhabitat e altitude apresentam correlação significativa no nível de 5%, enquanto as variáveis: umidade relativa média anual, temperatura média anual e tipo de substrato, não apresentaram correlação significativa. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a distribuição dos taxa de Drosera estudados está relacionada principalmente com a variação de altitude e

  2. Diversity and habitat preference of aquatic insects along the longitudinal gradient of the Macaé River basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, D.F.; D. F. BUSS; L. F. M. DORVILLÉ; NESSIMIAN J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Diversity and habitat preference of macroinvertebrates were studied in Macaé River basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, along its longitudinal gradient. We selected stream reaches corresponding to 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th orders. A Surber sampler was used to collect four macroinvertebrates samples of each substrate (sand, litter in pool areas, stones, and litter in riffle areas) during the three sampling periods, defined based on the rain regime: April (end of the rainy season), July (dry s...

  3. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  4. A new long-finned Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from the lower rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Corydoras is described from the lower rio Paraná basin, just downstream from Itaipu Dam, Brazil, close to Paraguay boundary. The new species can be distinguished from most of its congeners by the infraorbital 2 with a posterior laminar expansion conspicuously reduced, first and second dorsal-fin branched rays conspicuously elongated in males, mesethmoid entirely covered by skin, and by the presence of four to six irregular black or brownish blotches on the midline of the flank. The probable occurrence of the new species in the floodplain of the upper portion of the rio Paraná drainage is discussed.

  5. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  6. Parotocinclus halbothi, a new species of small armored catfish (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, from the Trombetas and Marowijne River basins, in Brazil and Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pablo Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parotocinclus halbothiis described as a new species from the Trombetas and Marowijne river basins, in Brazil and Suriname. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in the Guianas, Orinoco, and Amazon basins by details of color pattern, form and arrangement of bony plates, body shape, and morphometric features. It is distinguished from all other species of Parotocinclusby the elongation of the canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of head posteriorly to contact the cleithrum. The new species is differentiated from Parotocinclus collinsae, the most similar species in terms of color pattern, by the small, circular, median abdominal plates, the poorly developed preanal shield with two or three plates, and by having the adipose fin rudimentary. This new species is one of the smallest loricariid catfishes known to date.

  7. Presence of the walking catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell (Siluriformes, Clariidae in Minas Gerais state hydrographie basins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The first official occurrence of the exotic species Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 in the Rio Paraopeba (São Francisco river basin, the Rio Grande (Paraná river basin, and the Rio Doce (Doce river basin, is reported, with comments on the possible ecological consequences and on the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity due to non-native species introductions.

  8. Presence of the walking catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) (Siluriformes, Clariidae) in Minas Gerais state hydrographie basins, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves; Volney Vono; Fábio Vieira

    1999-01-01

    The first official occurrence of the exotic species Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in the Rio Paraopeba (São Francisco river basin), the Rio Grande (Paraná river basin), and the Rio Doce (Doce river basin), is reported, with comments on the possible ecological consequences and on the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity due to non-native species introductions.

  9. Santa Bárbara Formation (Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): depositional sequences and evolution of an Early Paleozoic postcollisional basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borba, André Weissheimer; Pimentel Mizusaki, Ana Maria

    2003-10-01

    The Santa Bárbara Formation, located in southernmost Brazil, comprises red-colored conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. It was deposited in the Early Paleozoic under continental conditions in a restricted, strike-slip basin (Santa Bárbara basin) in response to the postcollisional stresses of the Brasiliano/Pan-African cycle (900-500 Ma). Five facies associations are recognized: alluvial fans, fan-delta front, lacustrine, sandy braided, and gravel bed braided river deposits. The application of sequence stratigraphy enables the recognition of three depositional sequences. The two basal sequences (I and II) represent a coherent depositional pattern, with axial fluvial and fan-delta systems that deposit northeastward and lateral contribution from alluvial fans. Such coarse deposits are composed mainly of metamorphic clasts derived from the erosion of 'Caçapava high', the eastern steep margin of the Santa Bárbara basin. Sequence III lies unconformably over the basal subunits and reflects the inversion of the axial systems, in that the paleocurrents of the gravel bed deposits systematically point south/southwestward. The alluvial fan deposits of Sequence III also suggest a tectonic rearrangement of the basin, with partial erosion of the basal sequences and the presence of granitoid fragments, which reflects a deeper denudation stage for the Caçapava high and possibly a significant hiatus at the base of Sequence III.

  10. A river basin as a common-pool resource: a case study for the Jaguaribe basin in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oel, van Pieter R.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies 'common-pool resource' concepts to analyse to which extent the physical characteristics of a river basin facilitate or impede good management of water in different parts of a river basin. In addition, we compare the apparent manageability of water in the different parts of the bas

  11. The use of chemical and isotopic data as indicators of the origin of waters and dissolved salts in the Bambui calcareous aquifer (Bahia-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of 25 wells located in the Bambui limestone aquifer in the region of Irece - Bahia, have been analised for the isotopic ratio 18O/16O and the major chemical species Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4 and bicarbonate. The oxygen-18 data have been found to range between -2,62/00(in a thousand) to -6,66/00(in a thousand) relative to the universal Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) and are compared with the values of the precipitation in the localities of Jacobina and Lencois (meteorological stations nearby) and with the values of the groundwater in sedimentary basins in northeastern Brazil. The comparison suggests that aquifer system is recharged by precipitation originated in northeastern Brazil, instead of originating on coast of Bahia, east of the area. Furthermore, the waters in aquifer are not found homogenized, having widely varying 18O and chemical composition and being of different ages. The strong correlation between the observations Ca, Mg, Na, Cl and TDS (total dissolved solids) suggests an aerosol origin of salts, not excluding the hypothesis of dissolution of rock, which concentrations. The comparison of characteristic ratios Mg/Ca, SO4/Cl and (Cl-Na)/Cl, a Piper diagrama and a dendrogram established by cluster analysis, indicates that the wells may be separated in to two groups according to the isotopic or geochemical environment to which they belong. These groups may represent the differents sources of salt proposed, one being from the limestone, the other having come from aerosols. (Author)

  12. Erosion rates and landscape evolution of the lowlands of the Upper Paraguay river basin (Brazil) from cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; Bierman, Paul R.; Assine, Mario Luis; Rood, Dylan H.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Merino, Eder Renato

    2015-04-01

    The importance of Earth's low sloping areas in regard to global erosion and sediment fluxes has been widely and vigorously debated. It is a crucial area of research to elucidate geologically meaningful rates of land-surface change and thus the speed of element cycling on Earth. However, there are large portions of Earth where erosion rates have not been well or extensively measured, for example, the tropical lowlands. The Cuiabana lowlands are an extensive low-altitude and low-relief dissected metamorphic terrain situated in the Upper Paraguay river basin, central-west Brazil. Besides exposures of highly variable dissected metamorphic rocks, flat residual lateritic caps related to a Late Cenozoic planation surface dominate interfluves of the Cuiabana lowlands. The timescale over which the lowlands evolved and the planation surface developed, and the rate at which they have been modified by erosion, are poorly known. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in outcropping metamorphic bedrock and clastic-lateritic caps to quantify rates of erosion of the surface and associated landforms in order to better understand the Quaternary landscape evolution of these lowlands. Overall, slow erosion rates (mean 10 m/Ma) suggest a stable tectonic environment in these lowlands. Erosion rates vary widely between different lithologies (range 0.57 to 28.3 m/Ma) consistent with differential erosion driving regional landform evolution. The lowest erosion rates are associated with the low-relief area (irregular plains), where clastic-laterite (mean 0.67 m/Ma) and quartzite (mean 2.6 m/Ma) crop out, whereas the highest erosion rates are associated with dissection of residual hills, dominated by metasandstone (mean 11.6 m/Ma) and phyllite (mean 27.6 m/Ma). These data imply that the Cuiabana lowland is comprised of two dominant landform sets with distinct and different dynamics. Because the planation surface (mostly lowlands) is lowering and losing mass more

  13. Age of the Serra do Martins Formation, Borborema Plateau, northeastern Brazil: constraints from apatite and zircon fission track analysis; Idade da Formacao da Serra dos Martins, Planalto da Borborema, nordeste do Brasil: analise de tracos de fissao em apatia e zircao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais Neto, Joao Marinho de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Interpretacao], e-mail: jmarinho@PETROBRAS.com.br; Green, Paul Frank [Geotrack International Pty. Ltd., Brunswick West, Victoria (Australia)], e-mail: mail@geotrack.com.au; Karner, Garry David [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston TX (United States)], e-mail: garry.d.karner@exxonmobil.com; Alkmin, Fernando Flecha de [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas], e-mail: alkmin@degeo.ufop.br

    2007-11-15

    Results of apatite and zircon fission track analysis of samples from the Serra de Santana mesa provide quantitative constraints on the depositional age of the nonfossiliferous Serra do Martins Formation. This unit consists of sedimentary remnants preserved at high elevations on the Borborema Plateau and its distributions and age are considered important in understanding the geomorphological evolution and denudation history of northeastern Brazil following the early Cretaceous breakup. We also report apatite fission track results from post-rift units of the Potiguar Basin (Acu and Tibau formations). Apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) of samples from the Serra do Martins Formation suggests that they reached maximum paleotemperatures around 60 deg C, from which they began to cool some time between 30 and 0 Ma. Due to the high thermal gradients related to the prolonged Cenozoic volcanism in the study area, we hypothesize that the paleotemperatures modeled for those samples may be related dominantly to an anomalous heat flow, rather than to significant burial. Zircon fission track analysis (ZFTA) in two samples of the Serra do Martins Formation yields ages of 135 {+-}18 Ma and 165{+-}40 Ma, but both samples show a significant spread in the data, and the youngest population of grains in these samples are characterized by ages of 83{+-} Ma and 65{+-} Ma, respectively. As the AFTA data show that these ages have not been reset after deposition, the zircon fission track ages must represent inherited provenance ages, demonstrating that those sediments can be no older than Paleocene. Independent lithological observations provide additional support to reject a stratigraphic correlation between the Serra do Martins and Acu formations. Combining the AFTA and ZFTA results, and integrating available geological evidence, we suggest that the Serra do Martins Formation was deposited some time between 64 and 25 Ma (Paleocene-Oligocene). Modeled thermal history solutions from AFTA in

  14. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  15. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  16. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  17. Diagnostic of ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin using two methods of rapid environmental assessment, Federal District, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Joveli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid environmental assessments have been used to describe the quality and semi-quantitative attributes of the ecosystems along an environmental gradient using visual observations and few measurements. The aim of this study was to identify and measure anthropogenic impacts on ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin, Federal District, Central Brazil, and to propose its environmental zoning. This study was performed using two methods based on rapid environmental assessment: a rapid river assessment protocol, to evaluate in an integrated form the features of a lotic system section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment; and the Leopold matrix, to identify and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts. The environmental zoning of this sub-basin detected three areas: preserved, transition and urban areas. The environmental assessment revealed, the preserved area had lotic stretches with natural features under low magnitude of impacts, except on burned areas. In the transition area, there was a predominance of lotic stretches with altered features, due to agriculture and livestock activities of intermediate level of impacts. Finally, the urban area had altered and impacted lotic stretches of higher magnitude due to anthropogenic impacts. Thus, this study revealed large differences among the areas detected by environmental zoning, according to the methods used. These methods were considered complementary in relation to environmental diagnostic of the ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin.

  18. Depositional tracts and stratigraphic architecture of the Itajaí Basin sedimentary sucessions (Neoproterozoic, northeastern Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Silva Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of the Itajaí Basin show depositional trends and a stratigraphic framework characteristics of foreland basin system. The sedimentary environments have developed in basin conditions ranging from deep marine context, transitional shallow marine, to continental. Stratigraphic architecture comprises three depositional tracts (DT: DTI - submarine fans system that records the initial basin sedimentation and involves frontal and distal turbiditic deposits; DTII - transitional to shallow marine depositional system that represents the efective infill fase of basin, and includes deltaic succession with braided channels dominated plain; and DTIII - fluvial braided and alluvial fan depositional system that comprises the final stage of basin sedimentation. Arkoses and greywacke of the DTI present paleocurrent unimodals patterns and general trend to south-southeast, suggesting source area from Santa Catarina Granulitic Complex. The sandstones and conglomerates of DTII and DTIII have opposite paleocurrent pattern, indicating source area from both Metamorphic Brusque Complex and Florianópolis Batolith. Integration of paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic data, with previous information (U-Pb in detrital zircon, allowed a consistent interpretation on the sedimentary evolution and detrital sources of the basin and represent a progress on the discussions on the knowledge of the Itajaí Basin and its significance in the evolutionary context of the Dom Feliciano Belt.

  19. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  20. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Swanepoel

    1984-01-01

    In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  1. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  2. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Brazil

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    William M. Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Moenkhausia is described from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Among congeners, the new species is similar to Moenkhausia chlorophthalma, M. cotinho , M. lineomaculata , M. plumbea, and M. petymbuaba by having dark blotches on the anterior portion of the body scales, which are absent in the remaining species of the genus. The new speciesdiffers from aforementioned species by possessing blue eyes in life, 15-18 branched anal-fin rays, and a well-defined, round caudal-peduncle spot that does not reach the upper and lower margins of the caudal peduncle and does not extend to the tip of the middle caudal-fin rays.

  3. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Alves, Max Moreira; Rocha, Tatiana Carneiro; Gomes, Eliane Carneiro; Menoncin, Fabiana; Batista, Paulo Mira; Silva, Lineu Roberto da; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Hilst, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Passos, Fernando de Camargo; Souza Jr, Júlio Cesar de; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

  4. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl SVOBODA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112 of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75 of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37 of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

  5. Study of weathering velocity of rocks with uranium as a natural tracer. Application to two drainage basins of the north-east of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on rock weathering rate, i.e. rock-soil interface formation, by measuring the elements dissolved in river waters. These elements are used as natural tracers. This work has been carried out in the drainage basin of Preto and Salgado Rivers, in Brazil. Conventional elements, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been utilized first and all dissolved salts have been used as natural tracers to allow comparison with other scientific works. Then, uranium has been used because it is not found in rain waters so that corrections are not necessary and because its abundance can be measured by α and γ spectrometry, and the 234U/238U ratio obtained, 234U being more rapidly dissolved during weathering. Another reason is that no interaction occurs between uranium and the biomass. It is then possible to find a geochemical balance for this area

  6. Uncovering spatial patterns in the natural and human history of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Thomas; C. Alcázar Caicedo; C.H. McMichael; R. Corvera; J. Loo

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our goal was to test the hypothesis that ancient humans substantially contributed to shaping the current distribution of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an Amazonian tree species that has been important for human livelihoods since pre-Columbian times. We scrutinized the putative association b

  7. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as ...

  8. Natural gas energy efficiency potential: assessment of useful energy balance and opportunities for ESCOs in Brazil; Potencial de eficiencia energetica para gas natural: analise do balanco de energia util e oportunidades para ESCOs (Empresas de Servico de Conservacao de Energia) no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The market for ESCOs in Brazil has a great opportunity, by offering energy efficiency services related to natural gas use. The article presents a revision of ESCO concept and analyses the market potential for this specific segment, based upon data from the Useful Energy Balance. (author)

  9. Moist forest restoration in Brazil: a locally based project of CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection in Corumbatai River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfrinato, W.; Azevedo, T. [Imaflora (Brazil); Viana, V. [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    This project is a multidisciplinary effort to restore gallery forests in a most degraded Atlantic Moist Forest, recovering the forest fragments in the river basin will (i) establish a pilot project for carbon sequestration, targeting a zero balance for carbon emissions in the region; (ii) improve the watershed quality, thereby decreasing costs of water treatment; (ii) link forest fragments in order to increase biodiversity in the entire basin; (iv) create community involvement with local implementation of environmental education programs. The project is funded by FUNBIO (Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity) and by each participating organization, and is coordinated by Imaflora (Institute for Forest and Agriculture Management and Certification). The Corumbatai Project will be significant as it establishes a new collaborative effort with the alcohol industry which is known to be a promising alternative to fossil fuel. It has the potential to revert a process of many centuries of environmental degradation. It is also a landmark in the process of environmental restoration using a multidisciplinary approach, combining CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection. This experience, in a heavily populated area of Brazil, will generate important information on potential solutions to the problems of Global Change in local initiatives. (author)

  10. Managing Waters of the Paraíba do Sul River Basin, Brazil: a Case Study in Institutional Change and Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori M. Kumler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the implementation of integrated water-management institutions in the Paraíba do Sul River basin in southeast Brazil. It argues that social learning has been critical in facilitating reform implementation so far, and will likely continue to be an important factor for the future sustainability of the new management system. There has been a synergistic relationship between social learning and Brazil’s water-reform hybrid governance institutions, in which social learning facilitated the implementation of the reform’s new institutions, which in turn enabled further learning in the context of the river basin committee's decision-making process. Through interviews, surveys, and observations, we identified social-learning capacities, including trust, an ability to work together, and the committee’s shared understanding of the institution’s problems, possibilities, and mission. Effective management through social learning was demonstrated by the institution’s adaptive capacity in the face of a severe drought.

  11. Epilithic diatoms in headwater areas of the hydrographical sub-basin of the Andreas Stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giselda Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to study the composition of epilithic diatom flora in headwater areas of the sub-basin of the Andreas stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes. METHODS: Quarterly excursions (March, June, September, December 2012 and Mach 2013 were performed in ten sampling points selected in the sub-basin, to collect samples for the identification and counting the organisms in the group of diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae. RESULTS: The results indicated the occurrence of 243 taxa, distributed in 53 genera. Of these, 59 were considered abundant, being distributed in 29 genera. Seven species showed elevated tolerance levels to organic pollution and eutrophication: Adlafia drouetiana (R. M. Patrick Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow; Fallacia monoculata (Hustedt D. G. Mann, Navicula cryptotenella Lange-Bertalot, Navicula symmetrica R. M. Patrick, Nitzschia palea (Kützing W. Smith and Sellaphora auldreekie D. G. Mann & S. M. McDonald in Mann et al. CONCLUSION: Although this research has been conducted in headwater areas, the occurrence of these seven species could be explained by considering the use of these areas for agricultural and livestock purposes, compromising the stability of these aquatic ecosystems, due to the significant contribution of fertilizer and organic matter, a condition that characterizes a process of eutrophication.

  12. A new species of Lycengraulis Günther, 1868 (Clupeiformes: Engraulinae) from the Amazon basin, Brazil, with comments on Lycengraulis batesii (Günther, 1868).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Marina Vianna; Alcântara, Ayda Vera

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Lycengraulis from the Amazon basin is described. Lycengraulis figueiredoi can be distinguished from L. grossidens by a short upper maxilla, its posterior margin not reaching the lower maxilla joint (vs. upper maxilla longer, its posterior margin reaching to or a little past of mandible joint). Lycengraulis figueiredoi can be distinguished also from L. poeyi by 26 to 31 anal-fin rays (vs. 21 to 23 anal-fin rays) and by 44 to 46 vertebrae (vs. 42 vertebrae), and from L. batesii by having the anal-fin origin at vertical through base of second to fifth dorsal-fin ray (vs. anal-fin origin at vertical through base of sixth to 10th dorsal-fin ray) and by 17-21 gill rakers on the lower branch of first gill arch (vs. 12-15 gill rakers on the lower branch of first gill arch). The new species occurs in the rio Purus, Negro, Trombetas and Solimões, in the Amazon basin, Brazil.

  13. Calibration of hydrodynamic model MIKE 11 for the sub-basin of the Piauitinga river, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Folegatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Piauitinga river sub-basin the environment has been suffering from negative actions by humans such as deforestation around springs, inadequate use of the uptaken water, inappropriate use in domestic activities, siltation and sand exploitation, and contamination by domestic, industrial and agricultural residuals. The present study presents the one-dimensional hydrodynamic MIKE 11 model calibration that simulates the water flow in estuary, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. The aim of this work was to fit the MIKE 11 model to available discharge data for this sub-basin. Data from the period of 1994 to 1995 were used for calibration and data from 1996 to 2006 for validation, except the 1997 year, from which data were not available. Manning’s roughness coefficient was the main parameter used for the Piauitinga river sub-basin discharge calibration and other parameters were heat balance, water stratification and groundwater leakage. Results showed that the model had an excellent performance for the Piauitinga basin and had an efficiency coefficient of 0.9 for both periods. This demonstrates that this model can be used to estimate the water quantity in Piauitinga river sub-basin.

  14. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  15. Facies and depositional model of Almada Canyon, Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Facies e modelo deposicional do Canyon de Almada, Bacia de Almada, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Avila, Roberto Salvador Francisco; Souza Cruz, Carlos Emanoel de; Oliveira Filho, Jose Souto; Jesus, Candida Menezes de; Cesero, Pedro de; Dias Filho, Dorval Carvalho; Lima, Claudio Coelho de; Queiroz, Claudia Lima de; Santos, Saulo Ferreira; Ferreira, Eduardo Araripe [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao]. E-mail: rdavila@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the continental portion of the Almada Basin outcrops of canyon filling deposits are represented by turbidite channels and associated facies from Urucutuca Formation. The canyon - semi-exhumated - eroded basement and pre-Cenomanian sedimentary rocks. The field study of the outcrops and cores obtained in adjacent perforations lead to the understanding of the facies and processes that controlled the deposition of these channeled turbidite that can be compared to the reservoirs of many oil fields in Brazil. The Almada canyon is a submarine conduct of tectonic origin that was enlarged by the repeated passing of turbidity currents. During the rift phase and the Albian period, compressive events reactivated old N E and N W faults in the basement as trans current fault systems. The continuation of these stresses, from the Cenomanian to the Maastrichtian, developed normal faults that controlled a submarine canyon that connected the continent, where an estuary was formed between the mountains, to the deep marine region of the basin. The canyon has received sediments brought by catastrophic fluvial floods coming from the surrounding mountains, which formed hyperpicnal flows that have evolved as turbidity currents, thus causing erosion of the substrate and carrying a huge volume of sediments to the basin. A part of that load was deposited in the canyon and formed turbidite channels filled by conglomerates, sandstones and shales. These moderately to highly efficient turbidite are intercalated to pro delta pelites and low density turbid plumes deposits, which have mostly been re mobilized as slump and debris flows (chaotic deposits). Pelites were accumulated mainly in the normal fluvial sedimentation phases, when the sandy sediment was retained next to the canyon head and were reworked by the tides on the upper part of the estuary. (author)

  16. Description of Muscotabanus gen. nov. and Muscotabanus rafaeli sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini from Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Tabanidae mimetic of flies is described: Muscotabanus new genus, Muscotabanus rafaeli new species, based on 12 females collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It is presented a discussion for separating the new genus from Diachlorini species which resemblance with sarcophagids flies. It is characterised by striped thorax, banded abdomen, long slender palpus subequal antenna length, labella predominantly membranous, except for a narrow sclerotised plate, basicosta bare, wing hyaline and stigma brown.

  17. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Claudia De Oliveira; Renato Pariz Maluta; Ariel Eurides Stella; Everlon Cid Rigobelo; José Moacir Marin; Fernando Antonio Ávila

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated b...

  18. Viability analysis of energy generation from a thermoelectric power plant in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using combined cycle; Analise da viabilidade de geracao de energia de uma central termeletrica na cidade do Rio de Janeiro operando em ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Garritano Monteiro; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: tgguima@hotmail.com, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a modeling on the economic and energetic viability of a electric power system generation in a thermoelectric plant placed at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, using a combined cycle and cogeneration using the software Thermoflow 17.0.0 (academic version). This paper intends to know which is the better alternative of configuration of thermal electric plant among the various possible scenarios and also evaluate the time of return invested capital.

  19. Deciphering the depositional environment of the laminated Crato fossil beds (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, North-eastern Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ariztegui, Daniel; Lenniger, Marc;

    2010-01-01

    bedded, pale to dark lamination. To obtain information on palaeoenvironmental conditions, sample slabs derived from three local stratigraphic sections within the Araripe Basin were studied using high-resolution multiproxy techniques including detailed logging, petrography, mu-XRF scanning and stable...

  20. Heavy metal contamination in Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) (Testudines: Chelidae) in a River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, C I; Lance, V A; Ferronato, B O; Guardia, I; Marques, T S; Verdade, L M

    2009-12-01

    The Piracicaba River basin is considered the most disturbed river basin in the state of São Paulo. Considerable amounts of agricultural residues are seasonally drained into the river, and the region is also highly urbanized and industrialized with an incipient sewage treatment system. The presence of heavy metals has been previously reported for the water and riverbed in Piracicaba river basin. In this study we evaluated 13 heavy metals in the blood of 37 Geoffroy's side-necked turtles, Phrynops geoffroanus, from Piracicaba River and Piracicamirim Creek, one of its tributaries. Blood levels of As, Co, Cr, Se and Pb varied among sites, whereas Sn varied between males and females. However, no obvious pathology was detected. Serum level of Cu (2,194 ng g(-1)) and Pb (1,150 ng g(-1)) found in this study are the highest ever described for any reptile; however, no clinical symptoms have been detected in the present study. There is no information about the time scale of such contamination, which could be currently subclinical and yet lead to a breakdown in the population reproductive success in a few years. Based on the present study, legal enforcement is urged in order to locate and extirpate heavy metal sources in the Piracicaba River basin. In addition, monitoring should include humans and commercial fish consumed in local markets.

  1. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajos River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Dirce Torres Khoury

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01. When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age-mercury-exposed and non-exposed-the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all

  2. A conservationist approach on environmental diagnosis of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9001

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Gomes Souto

    2012-01-01

    Landscape Ecology is a contemporary approach in conservation studies in which, coupled to the development and use of GIS-based tools, provides new methods for the analysis of forest fragments. Based on these new approaches, the environmental assessment of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil is provided through conservation-based flora and ecology aspects. A regional map of ground use with field-collected data using Rapid Ecological Assessment methodology an...

  3. A new Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) from Chapada Diamantina, rio Paraguaçu Basin, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo C. Benine; Ricardo M. C. Castro; Alexandre C. A. Santos

    2007-01-01

    Moenkhausia diamantina, new species, is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguaçu, BA, northeastern Brazil. This species is distinguished from all congeners by features of body color pattern, the presence of scales on the predorsal median line and the number of anal-fin rays.Moenkhausia diamantina, nova espécie, é descrita de tributário do rio Paraguaçu, BA, nordeste do Brasil. Esta espécie é distinguida das demais congêneres por caracteres relacionados ao padrão de coloração do corpo, ...

  4. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado) environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders an...

  5. Vegetation coverage in hydrographic basins in the central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, M A; Fushita, A T; Lima, M I S

    2015-08-01

    Vegetation coverage can be inappropriately used, especially in the absence of proper planning, and can result in a reduction of the occupied area. Demographic and economic alterations are factors that contribute to the degradation of vegetation coverage in landscape units. In addition, because vegetation is essential for protection of recharge areas in aquifers, the fragmentation of habitats in hydrographic basins causes changes in climate temperature, soil erosion, eutrophication, and siltation of watercourses. This study analyzed the vegetation coverage from the municipality of São Carlos, State of São Paulo (SP) to assess the environmental quality of water resources in the hydrographic basins and sub-basins, in the Guarani Aquifer System. The vegetation coverage was analyzed in three scales: municipality, Hydric Resource Management Units (UGRHIs), and hydrographic sub-basins based on map overlapping from the LAPA/UFSCar Digital Cartographic Collection and visual interpretation of LANDSAT 5, TM sensor, Path 220, row 075 on satellite images. The municipality of São Carlos has vegetation coverage of 31,776.4 hectares, in which 57% is classified as preserved vegetation typology, and 58% is over the Guarani aquifer recharge area. The vegetation coverage with savannas, riparian forests, and mesophyll forests represented 28% of the total studied area and is located over 28.3% of the Guarani aquifer recharge area extension. The Permanent preservation areas (PPAs) represent 21.6% of the total vegetation coverage with 51% of it being vegetated. The municipality has a total of 686 springs (Topographic maps of IBGE, escale 1:50,000) distributed on an average of 60 springs per km2; 40% of these are protected by vegetation.

  6. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  7. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  8. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River BasinBrazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a hydroclimatic variability, (b investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (−45.3% and irrigation (−78.0% by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader

  9. Technical and economical analysis for the implementation of small scale GTL (Gas-to-liquids) technology to monetizing the associated remote offshore stranded natural gas in Brazil; Analise tecnica e economica da aplicacao da tecnologia GTL de pequena escala para a monetizacao do gas natural associado remoto offshore no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo Branco, David Alves

    2008-02-15

    The volume of stranded natural gas global reserves is substantial and represents more than a third of the world's proven natural gas reserves. In Brazil, recent discoveries operated by PETROBRAS, with participation of other companies, show trend of stranded gas reserves incorporation, associated gas or not. This dissertation's main objective is to make a technical and economic analysis of the implementation of small-scale GTL technology for the exploitation of stranded associated natural gas offshore in Brazil. Thus, the dissertation held, initially, a survey of the processes of gasification and the manufacturers with technologies and projects based on these processes, for specific offshore applications. In a second stage, the conditions of the offshore environment were examined. After the confrontation of the technologies available and the operation conditions, a technological alternative has been chosen to be used in an illustrative economic analysis. The results show that GTL offshore option becomes viable at a minimum price of about US $ 40.00 / barrel. Although this value is greater than the robustness price adopted by PETROBRAS, there are prospects for the reduction of GTL technology costs. (author)

  10. Paleoenvironmental reconstitution of Motuca and Sambaíba formations, Permian-Triassic of the Parnaíba Basin in southwest Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Romério Abrantes Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interval between the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic was marked by paleogeographic and paleoclimatic global changes, partly attributed to catastrophic events. The intense continentalization of the supercontinent Pangaea of End-Permian propitiated the development of extensive deserts that succeeded the coastal and platform environments of Early Permian. The records of these events in northern Brazil are found in intracratonic basins, particularly in the Permo-triassic succession of the Parnaíba Basin. The facies and stratigraphic outcrops analysis of this succession allowed the individualization of 14 sedimentary facies grouped into four facies associations (FA: FA1 and FA2 related to deposits of Motuca Formation and, FA3 and FA4, representative of the base of Sambaíba Formation. The FA1 – Shallow lake/Mudflat consists of red laminated mudstone with lenses of gypsum, calcite and marl, besides lobes of sigmoidal sandstones. The FA2 – Saline pan consists of lenticular bodies of laminated gypsum, nodular gypsum and gypsarenite, overlapped by greenish mudstones with dolomite nodules and palygorskite. The FA3 – sand sheet and FA4 – dunes field are formed, respectively, for orange cream sandstones with even parallel stratification and medium- to large-scale cross-bedding. In the contact between Motuca and Sambaíba formations occurs a deformed interval, laterally continuous for hundreds of kilometers. Brecciated and contorted bedded siltstones and mudstone (Motuca Formation and sandstone with sinsedimentary faults/microfaults, convolute lamination and mud-filled injection dykes (Sambaíba Formation are interpreted as seismites triggered by high magnitude earthquakes (> 8 according Richter scale.

  11. Permian paleogeography of west-central Pangea: Reconstruction using sabkha-type gypsum-bearing deposits of Parnaíba Basin, Northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Francisco R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Soares, Joelson L.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme aridity during Late Permian - Early Triassic period was the main factor for resetting the entire paleoclimate of the planet. Permian evaporite basins and lacustrine red beds were widely distributed along the supercontinent of Pangea. Sulphate deposits in Western Pangea, particularly in Northern Brazil, accumulated in an extensive playa lake system. Outcrop-based facies and stratigraphic analysis of up to 20 m thick evaporite-siliciclastic deposits reveal the predominance of laminated reddish mudstone with subordinate limestone, marl and lenses of gypsum. The succession was deposited in shallow lacustrine and inland sabkha environments associated with saline pans and mudflats. Gypsum deposits comprise six lithofacies: 1) bottom-growth gypsum, 2) nodular/micronodular gypsum, 3) mosaic gypsum, 4) fibrous/prismatic gypsum, 5) alabastrine gypsum, and 6) rosettes of gypsum. Gypsum types 1 and 2 are interpreted as primary deposition in saline pans. Bottom-growth gypsum forms grass-like crusts while nodular/micronodular gypsum indicates displacive precipitation of the crust in shallow water and the groundwater capillary zone. Types 3 and 4 are early diagenetic precipitates. Abundant inclusions of tiny lath-like anhydrite crystals suggest a primary origin of anhydrite. Alabastrine gypsum, fibrous gypsum (satinspar) and rosettes of gypsum probably derived from near-surface hydration of anhydrite. The gypsum-bearing deposits in the Parnaíba Basin contribute towards understanding paleogeographic changes in Western Pangea. A progressive uplift of East Pangea, culminated in the forced regression and retreat of epicontinental seas to the West. Restricted seas or large lakes were formed before the definitive onset of desert conditions in Pangea, leading to the development of extensive ergs.

  12. A new Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Ostariophysi: Characiformes from Chapada Diamantina, rio Paraguaçu Basin, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C. Benine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Moenkhausia diamantina, new species, is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguaçu, BA, northeastern Brazil. This species is distinguished from all congeners by features of body color pattern, the presence of scales on the predorsal median line and the number of anal-fin rays.Moenkhausia diamantina, nova espécie, é descrita de tributário do rio Paraguaçu, BA, nordeste do Brasil. Esta espécie é distinguida das demais congêneres por caracteres relacionados ao padrão de coloração do corpo, pela presença de escamas na linha mediana pré-dorsal e número de raios da nadadeira anal.

  13. Climate and Hydrological Data Analysis for hydrological and solute transport modelling purposes in the Muriaé River basin, Atlantic Forest Biome, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Künne, Annika; Kralisch, Sven; Fink, Manfred; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The Muriaé River basin in SE Brazil has been experiencing an increasing pressure on water resources, due to the population growth of the Rio de Janeiro urban area connected with the growth of the industrial and agricultural sector. This leads to water scarcity, riverine forest degradation, soil erosion and water quality problems among other impacts. Additionally the region has been suffering with seasonal precipitation variations leading to extreme events such as droughts, floods and landslides. Climate projections for the near future indicate a high inter-annual variability of rainfall with an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events combined with a statistically significant increase in the duration of dry periods and a reduced duration of wet periods. This may lead to increased soil erosion during the wet season, while the longer dry periods may reduce the vegetation cover, leaving the soil even more exposed and vulnerable to soil erosion. In consequence, it is crucial to understand how climate affects the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. In this context, physically-based hydrological modelling can contribute to a better understanding of spatial-temporal process dynamics in the Earth's system and support Integrated Water Resourses Management (IWRM) and adaptation strategies. The study area is the Muriaé river basin which has an area of approx. 8000 km² in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States. The basin is representative of a region of domain of hillslopes areas with the predominancy of pasture for livestock production. This study will present some of the relevant analyses which have been carried out on data (climate and streamflow) prior to using them for hydrological modelling, including consistency checks, homogeneity, pattern and statistical analyses, or annual and seasonal trends detection. Several inconsistencies on the raw data were

  14. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V., E-mail: madelaide@fumec.br [Universidade Fundacao Mineira de Educacao e Cultura (FUMEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Construcao Civil, Meio Ambiente; Barbosa, Ana Flavia S.; Ruckert, Gabriela V., E-mail: mariavasc@unilestemg.br [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  15. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil, with comments on a putative case of polymorphic Batesian mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanata, A M; Birindelli, J L O; Moreira, C R

    2009-12-01

    A new species of Moenkhausia is described from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except from Moenkhausia moisae, by having more scales in the lateral series, 43-47 (v. 23-41 in the remaining congeners). The new species is distinguished from M. moisae by its colour pattern, which consists of a dark midlateral stripe, and an asymmetrical caudal blotch (inconspicuous or faded in specimens from the Rio Arinos) continuous with the midlateral stripe (v. narrow dark midlateral line and conspicuous, regularly rounded and symmetrical blotch not continuous with the midlateral line). The new species is putatively assumed to be mimetic to Jupiaba apenima, in the Rio Xingu and Rio Teles Pires drainages, and to Jupiaba yarina in the Rio Arinos. The two species of Jupiaba are sympatric and remarkably similar in size, general external morphology and colouration to the new species. A small difference occurs in the colouration between the two species of Jupiaba and is also observed in the two respectively sympatric morphotypes of the new species of Moenkhausia. The occurrence of polymorphic Batesian mimicry is therefore discussed for neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:20738511

  16. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE TREE COMPONENT OF TWO SEASONAL EVERGREEN FOREST AREAS, RIO DAS PACAS BASIN, QUERÊNCIA, MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813317This study aimed to describe the tree component structure of two patches of Evergreen Seasonal Forest in Pacas River Basin in Querência municipality in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The point-centered quarter method was applied to systematically distribute 200 points in pristine forest and 100 points in managed forest. In each quarter, the nearest tree to the sampling point with diameter at breast height equal or greater than 10 cm was included. Estimates of local species richness were obtained with the Jackknife 1 and the Jaccard index was used to determinate floristic similarity between the patches. Although the two forest patches have had distinct historical uses, with tree component structure distinct, the areas presented high floristic similarity (Cj=0.67, the local species richness was alike (57 species in pristine forest and 52 in managed forest and the species with the highest importance value was the same in the both patches - Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw. Laness. Despite the anthropogenic disturbances in the past, it is possible to conclude that the managed forest is in an advanced stage of regeneration as expected for the evergreen seasonal forests pattern since this forest is naturally less diverse than the Amazon ombrophilous forests.

  17. A new side-neck turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Early Paleocene (Danian) Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Anny Rafaela De Araújo; Ghilardi, Aline Marcele; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2016-01-01

    Limestone and marl from Maria Farinha Formation (Paraíba Basin, NE Brazil) accumulated in a shallow continental shelf environment during the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean in early Paleocene (Danian). It contains a rich paleontological record, which comprises many marine invertebrates, several species of bony and cartilaginous fishes, a crocodyliform and turtle remains. Here, we describe a new genus and species of pleurodire turtle from Maria Farinha Formation, based on a nearly complete plastron, an incomplete left pelvic girdle, and four dermal plates of the carapace. We tested the phylogenetic position of Inaechelys pernambucensis gen. et sp. nov. by including it in a comprehensive cladistic analysis of pleurodires. The new species is included within Botrhemydidae, with affinities to Bothremydini, positioned as sister group of Rosasia soutoi. Inaechelys pernambucensis gen. et sp. nov. differs from R. soutoi for the almost straight anterior lobe cranial edge of its plastron, as well as for its pentagonal shaped entoplastron and its abdominal shield midline, which is considerably smaller than the respective femoral shield midline. Inaechelys pernambucensis is the first turtle species formally described from Brazilian Paleocene strata. Within Bothremydidae, it is also the first conclusively fully marine species described for this country. This new record contributes to the understanding of the ecology and paleobiogeographical distribution of Bothremydidae family. PMID:27395602

  18. Green line fracturing systems fluids in Campos Basin, Brazil; Sistemas de fluidos de fraturamento na Bacia de Campos: evolucao em beneficio do meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alexandre B. de; Araujo, Cosme J.C. de; Martinho, Flavio M.; Gaspar, Fernando [BJ Services do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The constant demand for Services Companies in Oil and Gas Industry to reduce the environmental impacts has led to a race in search of new cleaner technologies. Fluids with low toxicity are the target of research and development by the companies which are committed to ensure the aspects of quality, health, safety and environment from manufacturing up to the use in the final destination of these products. The replacement of these fluids is happening at a larger speed than in the past on the based in two factors: greater awareness on the part of these companies in relation to the environmental and by new environmental laws. The fluids systems used in fracturing operations are not an exception to this rule. Service companies today are in the process of replacing their formulations with systems less aggressive to the environment so-called 'green' systems. In this context the new technological developments of fracturing fluids are of fundamental importance to assist the new environmental requirements of both operators and government regulatory bodies and also to ensure better effectiveness of these products. This paper reports the research, development and application of new environmentally acceptable fracturing fluids technology, reviews the pioneering case histories in offshore operations and the benefits experienced in the Campos Basin - Brazil. (author)

  19. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40K>226Ra>232Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  20. Evidence of the color pattern variation in populations of Gymnotus pantanal (Gymnotiformes from three streams in the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor André Frana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Color pattern is an important character in the systematics and alpha-taxonomy of electric fishes of the genus Gymnotus. This paper presents evidence of color variation in populations of G. pantanal found in the streams Jacutinga and Pinheirinho, in the upper Paraná River basin, southern Brazil. Color variations were corroborated for morphological and cytogenetic data. Our results show the importance of integrating morphologic and cytogenetic data in the taxonomy of the Gymnotus species.O padrão de colorido é um caráter muito importante na sistemática e alfa taxonomia de espécies do gênero Gymnotus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar evidências de variação no padrão de colorido em populações locais de Gymnotus pantanal encontrados nos córregos Jacutinga e Pinheirinho, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. A variação no padrão de colorido foi corroborada por dados morfológicos e citogenéticos. Nossos resultados demonstram a importância da integração de dados morfológicos e citogenéticos na taxonomia de espécies de Gymnotus.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  2. Distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from an urban river basin at the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalicio Ferreira Leite; Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Marco Tadeu Grassi

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediment samples from nine sites located at the Iguacu River Basin in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil to evaluate their distribution and sources.The total concentration of the PAHs was greater for sediments from highly urbanized areas, while the sediments from the IraíEnvironmental Protection Area (IraíEPA) showed significantly low concentrations.The sediments from the Iguacu and Barigui rivers were classified as highly contaminated, while those from the Cercado and Curralinho rivers were classified as moderately contaminated.The predominance of PAHs containing two to four aromatic rings in most of the samples suggested the direct input of raw sewage into the water resources evaluated.Benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were predominant in sediments from the areas under the greatest urban and industrial development.The correlation between thermodynamic stability and the kinetics of evolution presented by the isomeric pairs indicated that combustion is the predominant source of PAHs in the sediments because the combustion of fossil fuels affected most of the points evaluated, followed by combustion of biomass and eventually combustion of oil product inputs.In general, the results showed that areas under strong urban influence, as well as the IraíEPA, receive contributions of PAils from similar sources.

  3. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

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    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  4. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

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    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  5. Palynological and sedimentary analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops of the Itapecuru Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Parnaíba Basin), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Neila N.; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2016-03-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Itapecuru Formation occur in a large area of the Parnaíba Basin and its deposits crop out along the Itapecuru River, in Maranhão State, northern Brazil. The palynological analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops strata yields a rich and diversified data. The presence of index-palynofloras in assemblages allows the identification of the Complicatisaccus cearensis Zone, of Late Aptian-Early Albian age. Terrestrial palynomorphs are abundant in the assemblages, being represented by bryophytes and pteridophytes, especially perisporate trilete spores (Crybelosporites and Perotrilites), and gymnosperms and angiosperms (Afropollis and Elaterosporites). The composition of palynological assemblages suggests the presence of moist soils for both outcrops. Acritarchs were recovered in the Querru 1 outcrop, which suggest a marine setting supporting a tidal flat environment indicated by facies associations. Furthermore, reworked Paleozoic palynomorphs were observed in the Querru 1 outcrop. The microflora from Igarapé Ipiranga outcrop suggests terrestrial environment corroborating with floodplain environment indicated by facies association.

  6. Modelling potential landscape sediment delivery due to projected soybean expansion: a scenario study of the Balsas sub-basin, Cerrado, Maranhão state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Larissa; Schoorl, Jeroen M; Kok, Kasper; Veldkamp, Tom; Hass, Adriani

    2013-01-30

    In Brazil, agriculture expansion is taking place primarily in the Cerrado ecosystems. With the aim of supporting policy development and protecting the natural environment at relevant hotspots, a scenario study was conducted that concerned not only land-use change, but also the resulting effects on erosion and deposition. This coupled approach helped to evaluate potential landscape impacts of the land-use scenarios. In the study area, the Balsas sub-basin in Maranhão State, a model chain was used to model plausible future soybean expansion locations (CLUE-S model) and resulting sediment mobilization patterns (LAPSUS model) for a business-as-usual scenario. In the scenario, more erosion occurred in areas where the conversion of natural vegetation into soybean cultivation is likely to take place, but the generated sediments tended to accumulate mainly within the conversion areas, thus limiting the offsite effects of the increased erosion. These results indicated that when agricultural expansion is kept away from rivers, Cerrado conversion will have only a limited impact on the sediment loads of local rivers. Where land-use changes are most concentrated are coincident with areas where more new sediments are generated (higher erosion) and where more sediments are re-deposited.

  7. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  8. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

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    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  9. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  10. Temporal characterization of Arsenic in das Velhas River hydrographic basin waters, MG, Brazil for one decade (1998 - 2007

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    Mônica Maria Diniz Leão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a metalloid with wide distribution in nature, can be found in natural environments in the forms of high toxicity. Monitoring conducted in the Basin of the das Velhas River, MG, demonstrates the occurrence of this metal in all sampling stations distributed over the water course and main tributaries. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the time trends of concentration of arsenic in water courses of the basin of das Velhas River, considering the data of twenty-nine monitoring stations from 1998 to 2007. The tests included the verification of seasonality, autocorrelation and temporal trend with the non-parametric tests of Mann-Kendall and Mann-Kendall seasonal. Eight sampling stations showed seasonality, with higher concentrations observed in rainy season. The autocorrelation was virtually nonexistent, which may be associated with low sample found in a monitoring program (three to six months. Only seven monitoring stations showed significant negative trend, indicating a reduction in the concentration of arsenic over the period studied. The results showed that the time trend studies have great relevance for the management of pollution of water resources from tracking data, providing subsidies for preventive and corrective measures differentiated between the stations and sampling periods of the year and also be used in evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.

  11. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation in forebulge grabens: An example from the Ediacaran Bambuí Group, São Francisco Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Humberto L. S.; Suss, João F.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic successions have been described in multiple Phanerozoic sedimentary settings recording the dynamic interplay of tectonics, eustasy, climate, in situ carbonate production, and variations in siliciclastic sediment supply. The Ediacaran Bambuí 1st-order sequence (i.e., Bambuí Group) covers most of the intracratonic São Francisco basin (southeast Brazil) and encompasses thick packages of carbonate and fine- to coarse-grained siliciclastic strata. Recording a marine foreland basin stage that developed in the São Francisco plate during the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic West Gondwana assembly, the Ediacaran deposits unconformably overlie Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic assemblages of the Sete Lagoas basement high and fill a series of kilometer-long grabens in the southern São Francisco basin. Seismic data reveal that these troughs developed through the extensional reactivation of ancient basement structures along with the tectonically driven forebulge uplift of the Sete Lagoas high, in the early evolutionary stages of the Bambuí basin cycle. Based on the detailed description of continuous drill cores of a well recently drilled during hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, we recognized two transgressive-regressive 2nd-order sequences preserved within one of the focused grabens: (i) Sequence 1 includes the glaciogenic deposits of the basal Carrancas Formation that grade upward into the carbonate ramp successions of the Sete Lagoas Formation; (ii) Sequence 2 contains the siliciclastic-dominated and deep water to deltaic strata of the Serra de Santa Helena Formation and passes upward into peritidal carbonates of the Lagoa do Jacaré Formation. These sedimentary successions encompass suites of retrogradational, aggradational, and progradational lower-rank cycles and are bounded by erosional surfaces. Regional seismic interpretation, well data, and the available literature indicate that most of these deposits and their correlatives are

  12. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Juruena basin, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagosta, Fernando C P; Marinho, Manoela M F; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-01-01

    Moenkhausia lineomaculata, new species, is described herein from the upper rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós basin. The new species seems to be part of a monophyletic group formed by M. cosmops, M. cotinho, M. diktyota, M. forestii, M. oligolepis, M. sanctaefilomenae, and M. pyrophthalma, the Moenkhausia oligolepis/M. sanctaefilomenae complex, by sharing a reticulated color pattern on body and the presence of a light area preceding a wide, dark caudal-peduncle blotch. The new species is distinguished from these species, except M. cotinho, by the presence of longitudinal series of dark dots on body, and from M. cotinho by the humeral blotch evenly pigmented along its length and by having the dark line along horizontal septum starting approximately at the vertical through dorsal-fin origin. The new species presents intraspecific variation in lateral-line scales perforation, a feature often present in species of the aforementioned group. PMID:26624377

  13. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  14. Application of the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) for established of energy efficiency standards: refrigerators sold in Brazil; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise do custo do ciclo de vida (ACCV) para o estabelicimento de padroes de eficiencia energetica: refrigeradores comercializados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Guilherme de Castilho [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens (CETEA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the work in the thesis developed by Silva Jr. (2005) who discusses the application of the methodologies of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) as a tool to propose energy efficiency standards, additional to the voluntary labels already existing in the one-door Brazilian refrigerators. Another objective is to study the role of these instruments (energy efficiency labels and standards and environmental labels) as means to supply technical subsidies for the establishment of maximum level of electric energy consumption and environmental quality impact for electrical equipment in Brazil. The LCCA methodology allows to evaluate the impacts of the energy efficiency increasing in electrical equipment, resulting in important saving (energy, financial, carbon dioxide emissions avoided etc.) for the country and its citizens. The results reached in this studies offer important data to subsidize deep discussions with manufacturers and the government to stipulate minimum energy efficiency standards for the Brazilian refrigerators. Thus, with increase of 28,1% on the energy efficiency of the one-door Brazilian refrigerators in 2008 to reach a values of savings that can be in order of 54,63 TWh (with respective reduction of demand power of 208 MW), of US$ 6,23 Billions of Dollar (R$ 17,2 Billions of Reais) of reduction in the account of electric energy for the population and of approximately 22 billions of tons of CO{sub 2} not emitted on the environment after 30 years of the implantation of standard. These values, that can not be despised by government, manufacturers and consumers. One other interest of this work is to start the discussion, the possibility of the creation of environmental labelling (e.g., Green Seal - USA, Eco-label - EU etc.) that is an additional program/methodology, which, it may be utilized as support for development of technologies and for the increase of energy and environmental efficiency of the electric equipment. These

  15. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  16. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  17. Trophic organization and fish assemblage structure as disturbance indicators in headwater streams of lower Sorocaba River basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Bruna Botti Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the relationship patterns between environmental structure complexity and fish fauna provide crucial information to stream restoration efforts. In order to test the hypothesis that streams with more complex environmental structure sustain more diverse and functionally more complex fish communities we sampled fish fauna from Sorocaba River headwater stream reaches (SE - Brazil. Reaches represented two distinct treatments: (1 a simplified reach, characterized by unstable fine substrate, clay, deeper channel and higher water velocity and (2 structurally complex reaches, characterized by coarse substrate, with gravel, pebble, rock, stems and branches and leaves inside the channel, producing a diverse pattern of microhabitat, associated with sequences of pools, runs, and riffles. Both trophic structure and taxonomic composition varied significantly between treatments. Invertivorous trophic group exclusively occurred in structurally complex reaches, which also presented greater diversity and species richness. We suggest enhancing in-stream environmental structure that suffered simplification processes due to human impacts in order to reestablish fish communities and ecossistemic functioning.

  18. Of the clean development mechanism to the program of activities: an analysis of the bio diesel and wind energy uses in Brazil; Do mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo ao programa de atividades: uma analise do uso do biodiesel e da energia eolica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Mayra Jupyara Braga

    2009-05-15

    The current actions of economic and industrial activities have resulted in increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since 1750. According to IPCC (2007) this alteration can increase the average temperature in the planet between 1,8 and 4,0 deg C up to 2100. The climate changes and the global warming are the most complicated environmental questions of our time and the actions took now will have effect on the future generations. In this context, a series of world-wide conferences and diverse scientific quarrels had occurred throughout the last decade, which culminated in the most important multilateral agreement firmed on climate changes, the Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997. The Protocol is a landmark in the attempts of mitigation of the climate changes, since it established the commitment of the industrialized countries with emissions reduction targets of 5,2% to the level of 1990 emissions. To achieve such targets these countries count on three flexibilization mechanisms provided by the Kyoto Protocol: Joint implementation, Emission Trading and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that it will be object of this study. The objective of this thesis is to carry through an evaluation of the CDM since its conception until the current days, searching to identify its dynamics and the main inherent gaps of this instrument and finally present two case studies of the bio diesel and wind energy uses in Brazil. (author)

  19. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  20. Preliminary analysis of the regolithic clay covers from the region of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate its use in the traditional ceramic industry; Analise preliminar das coberturas regoliticas argilosas da regiao de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, visando sua utilizacao na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia; Moreno, M.M.T. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    The region of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is predominantly constituted of Pre-Cambrian rocks with well developed alteration profiles in association with colluvial and alluvial sediments. No study to date has examined in detail its potential use in the ceramic industry. The scarce knowledge of its mineralogical and technological properties limits its value and consequently its industrial use. Until now, these clay materials have been used in a rudimental manner, in small scale in the fabrication of red tiles. The present study aimed at analyzing these clays mineralogically (X-ray diffraction), chemically (major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence and organic carbon analysis) and technologically (pressing granulometric distribution; mechanical resistance; water absorption, apparent porosity; linear firing shrinkage; color of firing and others) in order to better understand the raw material and develop adequate technological applications. The best results of ceramic properties were the samples with higher organic content (more plastic clays) and higher values of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (kaolinite and gibbsite) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well lower SiO{sub 2} content and finer grain size which contribute to a better sintering. (author)

  1. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  2. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, this research aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical rivers located in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-Açu Rivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results were compared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originally developed for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous, orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI values in all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verify that mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorus species that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, which were incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling, although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimum of 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, the high total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promote proportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like water temperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. In January, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density was higher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointed phytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  3. Geochemical characterization in karst basin tributaries of the San Franciscan depression: The Corrente River, western Bahia, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Karina L.; Bicalho, Cristina C.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2016-08-01

    Karst aquifers are important freshwater resources for the growing population in Brazil. The sandstones of Urucuia plateau and the limestone of Bambui Group constitute important aquifer systems in the western part of Bahia state. The Corrente River provides ∼30% of the total water flow of the São Francisco River and crosses karstified structures. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during the dry period, the beginning of the wet season, and the wet season. The main objective was to define sources and distribution of dissolved elements and to describe the geochemical processes that govern their mobility within the system. Water samples are classified into three groups, depending on the dominant weathering process. When carbonate dissolution governs, waters are bicarbonate-calcium-type; whereas when the atmospheric precipitation signal is present, the samples in siliciclastic terrain are more Cl- - Na+. Groundwaters reflect bicarbonate-mixed-type, with the highest dissolved concentrations. In contrast to the major elements, trace elements, including Rare Earth Elements (REE), show seasonal behavior: their concentrations increase with the beginning of the wet season, due to re-mobilization and release into the solution of adsorbed elements from the system and the atmospheric dust. The total dissolved REE concentration (800-7500 ng L-1) is one order of magnitude more concentrated in karsts than in siliciclastic rocks. Principal component analysis was performed, explaining >77% of the variance. First factor extracted (REE, Y, Th, Al, Fe) explain the washout and enhancement of atmospheric dust weathering throughout the beginning of the wet seasons. The second component comprises variables related to karsts lithology, representing calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  4. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data as paleoenvironmental indicators for limestones from the Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo Basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and oxygen isotope data of limestones from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo basins provided additional information on the sedimentation environments of these carbonates. The predominance of δ 13C values between + 1,0 per mille and - 1,0 per mille samples from the Tertiary and the middle section of the Jiquia Stage (Lower Cretaceous) could indiccate, for both carbonate sequences, deposition in a normal marine environment. However, the absence of marine fossils in the Jiquia Stage but not in the Tertiary allows to suggest a normal marine environment for the latter and saline lakes for the former. More positive δ 13C values in the upper portion of the Jiquia Stage and in the Alagoas Stage suggest a restricted marine environment, with a tendency to hypersalinity. During the Albian the carbonate sedimentation could have occurred in a marine enrironment with an above normal salinity, as indicated by values of δ 13C between + 3,0 per mille and + 4,0 per mille. According to δ 18O data, the surface waters were warm, with a tendency of becoming gradually cooler towards the top of the Tertiary. (Author)

  5. Description and relationships of Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from rio Tietê basin, southeastern Brazil

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    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species, is described based on specimens recently collected in a headwater stream of the middle stretch of the rio Tietê, a river from the upper rio Paraná basin in southeastern Brazil. The new taxon belongs to a clade also encompassing the genera Schizolecis, Otothyris and Pseudotothyris. Otothyropsis marapoama is hypothesized to be the sister-group of Pseudotothyris and Otothyris based mainly on the presence of several derived characters of the swimbladder capsule and associated bones. Several paedomorphic characters shared by Pseudotothyris and Otothyris and their significance for the phylogenetic position of the new genus are discussed.Otothyropsis marapoama, novo gênero e espécie, é descrito baseado em espécimes recentemente coletados em um riacho de cabeceira da porção media do rio Tietê, um rio da bacia do alto rio Paraná no sudeste do Brasil. O novo táxon pertence a um clado que inclui também os gêneros Schizolecis, Otothyris e Pseudotothyris. Otothyropsis marapoama é considerado o grupo-irmão de Pseudotothyris e Otothyris baseado principalmente na presença de vários caracteres derivados da cápsula da bexiga natatória e ossos associados. Vários caracteres pedomórficos compartilhados por Pseudotothyris e Otothyris e seu significado filogenético para a posição deste novo gênero são discutidos.

  6. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  7. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  8. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

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    Tiago Pinto Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched anal-fin rays. Hyphessobrycon notidanos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of an elongate dorsal fin in mature males, a vertically elongate humeral spot, 2-4 maxillary teeth, iii,8 dorsal-fin rays, and 16 to 21 branched anal-fin rays.Duas novas espécies do gênero Hyphessobrycon são descritas para a bacia do alto rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença de uma banda preta longitudinal larga entre a margem posterior da órbita até a ponta dos raios medianos da nadadeira caudal, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, e de 16 a 18 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal. Hyphessobrycon notidanos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença da nadadeira dorsal alongada nos machos maduros, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, 2-4 dentes no maxilar, iii,8 raios na nadadeira dorsal e 16 a 21 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal.

  9. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

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    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  10. 2 D seismic sections interpretation for the Xareu field in the Mundau sub-basin (Ceara basin, Northeastern Brazil); Interpretacao de secoes sismicas 2D para o Campo de Xareu na sub-bacia de Mundau (Bacia do Ceara, NE do Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alex Francisco [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: alex@geologia.ufrn.br; Jardim de Sa, Emanuel Ferraz [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Matos, Renato Marcos Darros de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Keller Filho, Odilon [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE; Lima Neto, Francisco Fontes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a reinterpretation of seismic sections of the Xareu Oil Field, located in the central portion of the Mundau Sub-basin (Ceara Basin, Northeast Brazil). These seismic sections were acquired during the 80's and the 90's. Their reinterpretation show that the field is structured by a main arrangement of N W-trending listric normal faults, with associated roll-over structures affecting the rocks of the rift (Mundau Formation) and transitional (Paracuru Formation) sections of the basin. Some of these faults also affect the basal and intermediate layers of the drift section (Ubarana Formation), what denotes their reactivation (or even the formation of new faults). the new interpretation allows a better understanding of the frequency, geometry, orientation, style and kinematic of the faults, important factors in the structural characterization of the Xareu Oil Field. (author)

  11. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  12. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

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    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a

  13. Determining Regional Actual Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Crops and Natural Vegetation in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil Using Remote Sensing and Penman-Monteith Equation

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    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainable development and to ensure water availability in hydrological basins, water managers need tools to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET on a large scale. Field energy balances from irrigated and natural ecosystems together with a net of agro-meteorological stations were used to develop two models for ET quantification at basin scale, based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The first model (PM1 uses the resistances to the latent heat fluxes estimated from satellite measurements, while the second one (PM2 is based on the ratio of ET to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and its relation to remote sensing parameters. The models were applied in the Low-Middle São Francisco river basin in Brazil and, after comparison against field results, showed good agreements with PM1 and PM2 explaining, respectively, 79% and 89% of the variances and mean square errors (RMSE of 0.44 and 0.34 mm d−1. Even though the PM1 model was not chosen for ET calculations, the equation for surface resistance (rs was applied to infer the soil moisture conditions in a simplified vegetation classification. The maximum values of rs were for natural vegetation—caatinga (average of 1,937 s m−1. Wine grape and mango orchard presented similar values around 130 s m−1, while table grape presented the lowest ones, averaging 74 s m−1. Petrolina and Juazeiro, in Pernambuco (PE and Bahia (BA states, respectively, were highlighted with the biggest irrigated areas. The highest increments are for vineyards and mango orchards. For the first crop the maximum increment was verified between 2003 and 2004 in Petrolina-PE, when the cultivated area increased 151%. In the case of mango orchards the most significant period was from 2005 to 2006 in Juazeiro-BA (129%. As the best performance was for PM2, it was selected and used to analyse the regional ET at daily and annual scales, making use of Landsat images and a geographic information system for different

  14. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) and Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernández-Yépez, 1948)(Characiformes, Curimatidae) from the Tibagi River basin (Paraná State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravena, W; Teribele, R; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Dias, A L

    2007-12-01

    We cytogenetically analyzed 18 individuals of Cyphocharax modestus, and 41 individuals of Steindachnerina insculpta from the Tibagi River basin (Paraná State, Brazil). All the specimens had 2n=54 chromosomes, all meta-submetacentric (M-SM). The presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes was seen in some individuals of C. modestus of the two sampled populations, showing inter- and intra individual variation. In S. insculpta, B chromosomes were also observed but only in one population, also showing inter- and intra individual variation. C-banding was used to show that the identified B chromosomes were totally heterochromatic in the two examined species. PMID:18278358

  15. Analysis of the pre-rift/rifte transition interval (Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations) from the Sergipe-Alagoas basin; Analise da secao de transicao pre-rifte/rifte (formacoes Serraria e Barra de Itiuba) da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, C.B.; Mizusaki, A.M.P. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: camilita@terra.com.br; ana.misuzaki@ufrgs.br; Garcia, A.J.V. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: garcia@euler.unisinos.br

    2003-07-01

    The pre-rift/rift transition is represented by the Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations. This interval was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative descriptions of cores, electric log analysis and studies of outcropping sections. The integration of surface and subsurface data allowed the stratigraphic characterization of sandstone bodies in the pre-rift/rift. These sandstones bodies were deposited by fluvial braided, lacustrine and deltaic systems (delta plain, delta front and pro delta). The sedimentary deposits characterized in the Serraria Formation are of channel, flooding of the fluvial system and eolic. The upper interval of this formation is characterized by to coarse medium-grained sandstones identified as the Caioba Sandstone. The Barra de Itiuba Formation contains lake, pro delta, frontal bar, distributary mouth, crevasse and distributary channel deposits. The sandstone units were specifically characterized in terms of their potential reservoir quality, and they were characterized the reservoirs R1 (good to medium quality) and Caioba (good quality) from the pre-rift phase, and reservoirs R2 (medium quality) and R3 (medium to good quality) from the rift phase. The reservoirs from pre-rift phase phase show the better reservoirs quality potential of the pre-rift/rift transition in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. (author)

  16. Dispersal Syndromes of fossil Seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Juliane M. Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological analysis of seeds has been an important subject in modern ecological studies, once it provides evidence about the biology and adaptations of the parent plant. However, this kind of study has been restricted to the ecology of modern plants and is rarely used in interpretations of Paleozoic data. From the understanding of dispersal syndromes analysis as an important tool to paleoecological reconstruction, this study provides a first approach using this tool with seeds from the Lower Permian strata of southern Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul. Based on previously classified seeds and using their biological and taphonomic data, the syndrome of dispersal was interpreted, and their placement in successional groups (pioneer, early-successional and later-successional was suggested. Seven morphospecies were analyzed: Samaropsis gigas, representing a later-successional species living in water bodies with hydrochory as its dispersal syndrome; Samaropsis kurtzii, typical of early-successional species showing anemochory as its dispersal syndrome and living in distal areas in relation to water bodies; Samaropsis aff. S. millaniana, Cordaicarpus aff. C. brasilianus, Cordaicarpus cerronegrensis and Cordaicarpus truncata have typical characteristics of pioneer plants, exhibiting barochory as their primary dispersal syndrome with other syndromes associated.A Análise morfológica das sementes tem sido um importante objeto em estudos ecológicos modernos, uma vez que fornece evidências sobre a biologia e as adaptações das plantas-mãe de sementes. Entretanto, este tipo de estudo tem sido restrito a ecologia de plantas modernas e é raramente utilizado em interpretações de dados paleozóicos. A partir do entendimento da análise das sindromes de dispersão como uma importante ferramenta para reconstruções paleoecológicas, este estudo oferece uma primeira abordagem utilizando essa ferramenta com sementes do Permiano Inferior do Sul da

  17. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  18. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.O córrego Paulicéia é um afluente direto do rio Mogi-Guaçu, situado no município de Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, Estado de S

  19. 0 Dizer-Verdadeiro: Analise Narrativa de"Desenredo.:conto de Guimaraes Rosa

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    Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Retoma-se, neste artigo, um exercicio de analise narrative do conto Desenredo l , de Guimaraas Rosa, realizado com a finalidade didatica de ilustrar, em s.ale de aula, passes, possibilidades e interesse do exame da organizacao narrative de textos da "grande literatura". A analise obedece aos principios da teoria semiotics do discurso, tal coma vem sendo desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Investigações Sêmio-Lingüísticas, sob a direç]aoo de A.J. Greimas. Da teoria, serão retomados aqui apenas dois principios gerais: o de percurso gerativo do sentido, necessário para situar o nível de análise da narrativa, e a definçãoo mesma da narratividade.

  20. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  1. Activity and habitat use of two species of stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Garrone Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The life history of freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae under natural conditions has been poorly documented. In this study, we investigated theperiod of activity and the habitat use of two species of the genus Potamotrygon in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil. Potamotrygon falkneri and P. motoro are similar to each other as far as the analyzed behavior is concerned. Individuals of both species segregate according to their size, and in function of the depth and period of the day. Younger individuals inhabit mostly sandy beaches and places that are no deeper than four meters throughout the whole day. Bigger stingrays realize bathymetric migrations, alternating their position between places deeper than eight meters during the day, and shallow areas at night. Individuals of intermediate size inhabit transition environments that have greater habitat diversity. Both species presented mostly nocturnal habits, especially regarding their feeding behavior. The behavioral patterns observed seem to go through ontogenetic variations and probably change throughout the year, between dry and wet seasons.Informações sobre o modo de vida das raias de água doce (Potamotrygonidae sob condições naturais são escassas. Neste trabalho, estudamos o período de atividade e as formas de uso do habitat de duas espécies do gênero Potamotrygon na bacia do alto rio Paraná, no Sudeste do Brasil. Potamotrygon falkneri e P. motoro apresentaram comportamento muito semelhante, com nítida segregação espacial dos indivíduos em função do seu tamanho, da profundidade e do período do dia. Juvenis estiveram associados a praias arenosas e locais com profundidades abaixo de quatro metros ao longo de todo o dia. Raias de grande porte realizaram migrações batimétricas, alternando sua posição entre locais com profundidade superior a oito metros durante o dia e áreas mais rasas à noite. Indivíduos com tamanho intermediário ocuparam ambientes de

  2. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  3. Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, studies on the ecology of host-parasite interactions are incipient and generally related to taxonomic aspects. The main objective of the present work was to analyze ecological aspects and identify the metazoan fauna of ectoparasites that infest the piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri. In May 2002, field samples were collected in the rio Araguaia basin, State of Goiás (Brazil. A total of 252 individuals of P. nattereri were caught with fishhooks and 32.14% were infested with ectoparasite crustaceans. The recorded ectoparasites were branchiurans, Argulus sp. and Dolops carvalhoi and the isopods Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis and Asotana sp. The prevalence and mean intensity of branchiurans (16.6% and 1.5, respectively and isopods (15.5% and 1.0, respectively were similar. Isopods were observed in the gills of the host; branchiurans were more frequent where the skin was thinner, and facilitated attachment and feeding. The ventral area, the base of the pectoral fin and the gular area were the most infested areas. The correlations between the standard length of the host and the variables intensity and prevalence of crustaceans parasitism, were significant only for branchiurans (rs = 0.2397, p = 0.0001; chi2 = 7.97; C = 0.19. These results suggest that both feeding sites and body size probably play an important role in the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites.Nos trópicos, os estudos sobre a ecologia de interações parasito-hospedeiro são incipientes, sendo a maioria de cunho taxonômico. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a fauna metazoária de ectoparasitas e analisar aspectos ecológicos da piranha Pygocentrus nattereri. As coletas foram realizadas em maio de 2002, na bacia do rio Araguaia, GO. Com o auxílio de linha e anzol foram capturados 252 exemplares de P. nattereri, dos quais 32,14% estavam infestados por crustáceos ectoparasitos. As espécies de ectoparasitas registradas foram Argulus sp

  4. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  5. Morphometric analysis of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The State of São Paulo Water Resources Policy established, in 1991, the Integrated Water Resources Management System (SIGRHI and defined the basic principles for water management, adopting the watershed as the basic unit for studies, integrated planning for sustainable development. This study characterized the morphology of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP. Morphometric analysis involved the characterization of geometric parameters, topography and drainage network, and the analysis of land use and land cover of the sub-basins. The morphometric characterization revealed that Perdizes sub-basin has an area of 12.70 km², a perimeter of 19.85 km, and a main channel length of 6.86 km, while Fojo sub-basin has a drainage area of 13.97 km ², a perimeter of 19.74 km, and a main channel length of 6.94 km. These results indicate similarities between the two sub-basins. The compactness coefficient (Kc for Perdizes was 1.56 and for Fojo 1.41. These values associated with the respective form factors, F = 0.27 and F = 0.29, indicate that these sub-basins, under a normal precipitation regime are not susceptible to flooding. The results of these indices are consisted with the circularity index (CI found: CI = 0.41 for Perdizes and CI = 0.45 for Fojo, respectively. As CI values found are far from one, they indicate that these sub-basins tend to have a more elongated shape and, therefore, lower flow concentration tendency. The results obtained for the maintenance coefficient indicate that in order to maintain the flow of each channel meter, Perdizes sub-basin needs 286.5 m² and Fojo sub-basin needs 243.9 m². Land cover and land use analysis revealed that among the four existing vegetation cover types, Forest is dominant in both sub-basins with 649 ha (51.1% in Perdizes, and 608.8 ha (43.6% in Fojo; Reforestation cover ranks second with similar areas in both sub-basins, Perdizes with 218 ha (17.2% and Fojo with approximately

  6. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira mountain in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning information and integration actions in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of support material for environmental education. Results has shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and regulated quantity. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the water supply for the city of Cruzeiro, SP.

  7. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira Mountain in the municipal district of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning and action integration in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira Mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of educational environmental material. Results have shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and quantity during the dry season. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the Cruzeiro, SP water supply.

  8. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO AZEVEDO ZOCCAL GARCIA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcia DAZ, Costa ADA, Leme GLA, Orsi ML. 2014. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Biodiversitas 15: 180-185. The dispersion of organisms by human actions has been the major source of changes in the natural distribution of species, making the introduction of non-native species a threat to biological diversity. Micropterus salmoides is a fish originating from North America, which was introduced in a lagoon in the Ecological Park of Fazenda Monte Alegre in southern Brazil over 50 years ago. The reproductive activity, weight-length relationship and relative condition factor were analyzed to evaluate the health parameters of the species. The result allows us to classify the reproductive activity of this population as moderate. It was found that the health condition patterns are identical to those theoretically expected. The occurrence of individuals downstream of the lagoon shows that the population has been presenting dispersion conditions to new environments, posing a threat to local biodiversity. Management measures, such as isolation or eradication of the population, are required to control the species within the studied site, and prevent its dispersion into natural watercourses.

  9. What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brazil flux network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Rocha, da H.R.; Hutyra, L.R.; Araujo, de A.C.; Borma, L.S.; Christoffersen, B.; Cabral, O.M.R.; Camargo, de P.B.; Cardoso, F.L.; Lola da Costa, A.C.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Kruijt, B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity, and the effects thereon of variations in climate and land-use, by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in A

  10. Facies and depositional architecture according to a jet efflux model of a late Paleozoic tidewater grounding-line system from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Carolina Danielski; Buso, Victoria Valdez; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio; Milana, Juan Pablo; Paim, Paulo Sergio Gomes

    2016-04-01

    During the Late Paleozoic, the Gondwana supercontinent was affected by multiple glacial and deglacial episodes known as "The Late Paleozoic Ice Age" (LPIA). In Brazil, the evidence of this episode is recorded mainly by widespread glacial deposits preserved in the Paraná Basin that contain the most extensive record of glaciation (Itararé Group) in Gondwana. The Pennsylvanian to early Permian glaciogenic deposits of the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin) are widely known and cover an extensive area in southern Brazil. In the Doutor Pedrinho area (Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil), three glacial cycles of glacier advance and retreat were described. The focus of this article is to detail the base of the second glacial episodes or Sequence II. The entire sequence records a deglacial system tract that is represented by a proximal glacial grounding-line system covered by marine mudstones and shales associated with a rapid flooding of the proglacial area. This study deals with the ice proximal grounding-line systems herein interpreted according to lab model named plane-wall jet with jump. Detailed facies analysis allowed the identification of several facies ranging from boulder-rich conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones. No fine-grained deposits such as siltstone or shale were recorded. According to this model, the deposits are a product of a supercritical plane-wall outflow jet that changes to a subcritical jet downflow from a hydraulic jump. The hydraulic jump forms an important energy boundary that is indicated by an abrupt change in grain size and cut-and-fill structures that occur at the middle-fan. The sedimentary facies and facies associations show a downflow trend that can be subdivided into three distinct stages of flow development: (1) a zone of flow establishment (ZFE), (2) a zone of transition (ZFT), and (3) an established zone (ZEF). The proximal discharge is characterized by hyperconcentrated-to-concentrated flow due to the high energy and sediment

  11. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  12. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  13. Sequence stratigraphy in Rift deposits: an example in the Membro Mucuri (Aptiano) of the Sao Mateus field, Espirito Santo basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencia em depositos de Rifte: um exemplo no membro Mucuri (Aptiano) do Campo de Sao Mateus, Bacia do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirro, Antonio Celso; Rey, Antonio Cosme Del [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    Sao Mateus field is located onshore Espirito Santo basin, Brazil eastern cost. Petroleum accumulations occur in Mucuri Member, Aptian, deposited at the end of basin rift phase. Vertical section of this member records a transition from a continental to a shallow marine environment. Three depositional sequences are recognized. Each sequence consists of lowstand fluvial deposits covered by transgressive deposits with delta estuarine fine grained sediments. The highly transgressive sedimentation pattern makes difficult to discern transgressive to highstand deposits. The reservoirs are fluvial and delta estuarine sandstones, and the seals are transgressive fine grained sediments. Normal faults promoted up-dip closures. (author)

  14. Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

    2010-11-01

    We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

  15. Project installation the large equipment in line system in Brazil. Gas export line valve P-40 FPSO-MLS. Field Marlim Sul, Campos Basin, Brazil; Operacao de instalacao do maior equipamento no sistema in line ja realizado no Brasil. Valvula do gasoduto P-40 X FPSO-MLS. Campo de Marlim Sul, Bacia de Campos, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcos Antonio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Paulo Tavares [PETROBRAS, Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    This work will approach the current level of development of the installation of connected underwater equipment to flexible lines in the underwater engineering operations in Campos' Basin. The project will show studies, analysis and simulations (through software developed by PETROBRAS) about the installation of the largest equipment laid in the 'in-line' system (connected to flexible lines) in Brazil - and one of the largest of the world: the ESDV (Emergency Shut Down Valve) of the gas pipeline P-40 x FPSO-MLS, in the South Marlim field, in Campos' Basin. This ESDV, of about 18.000 kg, 4 m height and 6,5 m length, has the purpose of assuring the safety conditions on the facilities, interrupting the gas flow exported for P-40 in case of emergency situations. Its installation opened a new alternative in releasing underwater equipment, using the ships that install the flexible lines. This operation occurred in June, 2004, and required the use of a second vessel for support and monitoring of the ESDV laying. The ESDV was installed at 400 m from FPSO-MLS, in a water depth of 1.137 m. This method shall be used broadly by the company in the implantation of the new units of Campos' Basin, and the upcoming studies must consider the gradual increase of the water depth in the new projects. This work will focus the technological development in this area, and one of its purposes is to foresee the future difficulties that can appear in the implantation of the production systems in deep and ultra-deep waters. (author)

  16. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Washington Franca Rocha; Antonio Jorge Vasconcellos Garcia; Daniela Dantas de Menezes Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology) using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Sy...

  17. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  18. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the marine sequence of the Tapajós Group, Early-Middle Pennsylvanian of Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the south and western regions of the Amazonas Basin to describe the conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group comprising the upper Monte Alegre, Itaituba, and lower Nova Olinda formations. The analyzed area includes one outcrop along the Tapajós river (TAP), two carbonate quarries (QI, QII), and 18 wells (dots 1-18). The conodont fauna is dominated by Idiognathoides sinuatus and Neognathodus symmetricus in the Monte Alegre Formation, followed by Idiognathodus incurvus, Diplognathodus coloradoensis and Neognathodus bassleri in the Itaituba and Nova Olinda formations. The conodont association suggests an Early to Middle Pennsylvanian age to the analyzed section. Relative ages attributed to the three lithostratigraphic units using conodonts, palynomorphs, and foraminifers are consistent. Herein are proposed one local taxon-range zone of Idiognathodus incurvus in the Itaituba and lower part of the Nova Olinda Formation and one local taxon-range subzone of Diplognathodus coloradoensis in the Itaituba Formation, suggesting a late Bashkirian - Moscovian (Atokan - early Desmoinesian) age to these strata. The Itaituba Formation marks the establishment of large Pennsylvanian marine conditions in the Amazonas Basin and is composed primarily of marine carbonates of abundant fossil content, tidal flat evaporites and siliciclastic thin intervals. Its lower limit, with the Monte Alegre Formation, is characterized by the predominant occurrence of fluvial-deltaic sandstones superimposed on an extensive sequence of aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales intercalated with the interdune and lakes. From the upper strata of Itaituba Formation the faunal and lithological characteristics indicate the occurrence of a regressive phase culminating in a restricted environment, arid which indicates the Nova Olinda Formation. This is characterized by the occurrence of evaporites

  19. Institutional aspects and groundwater allocation for industrial uses in low Paraíba river basin, Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Maria Rios Ribeiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an institutional study of groundwater regulation and industrial use in Paraiba, Brazil, with special emphasis on the interactions between the status quo and the current National Water Resources Policy which is based on Federal Law No 9.433/97 and some specific regulations in water rights concession issued by the environmental agencies and water legislation. Based on data from primary sources and information provided by water resources management institutes, detailed analyses of groundwater use in order to establish some parameters to facilitate implementation of national policies in an integrated manner were done. The data analysis and the results showed that water resources management processes need to be fostered for the region.

  20. Sediments in urban river basins: identification of sediment sources within the Lago Paranoá catchment, Brasilia DF, Brazil - using the fingerprint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Makeschin, F; Weiß, H; Lorz, C

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective sediment management strategies is a key requirement in tropical areas with fast urban development, like Brasilia DF, Brazil, because of the limited resources available. Accurate identification and management of sediment sources areas, however, is hampered by the dearth of reliable information on the primary sources of sediment. Few studies have attempted to quantify the source of sediment within fast urbanizing, mixed used, tropical catchments. In this study, statistically verified composite fingerprints and a multivariate mixing model have been used to identify the main land use specific sources of sediment deposited in the artificial Lago Paranoá, Central Brazil. Because of the variability of urban land use types within the Lago Paranoá sub-catchments, the fingerprinting approach was additionally undertaking for the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment. The main contributions from individual source types (i.e. surface materials from residential areas, constructions sites, road deposited sediment, cultivated areas, pasture, farm tracks, woodland and natural gullies) varied between the whole catchment and the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment, reflecting the different proportions of land uses. The sediments deposited in the silting zones of the Lago Paranoá originate largely from urban sources (85 ± 4%). Areas with (semi-) natural vegetation and natural gullies contribute 10 ± 2% of the sediment yield. Agricultural sites have only a minor sediment contribution of about 5 ± 4% within the whole catchment. Within the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment there is a significant contribution from urban (53 ± 4%) source, such as residential areas with semi-detached housings (42 ± 3%) with unpaved roads (12 ± 3%) and construction sites (20 ± 3%) and agricultural areas (31 ± 2%). The relative contribution from land use specific sources to the sediment deposition in the silting zone of the Lago Paranoá demonstrated that most of the sediment is derived from

  1. A new Permian bivalve-dominated assemblage in the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil: Faunal turnover driven by regional-scale environmental changes in a vast epeiric sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Rohn, Rosemarie; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; David, Juliana Machado

    2015-12-01

    The basal portion of the Permian Rio do Rasto Formation (Serrinha Member), Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil, records an entirely new bivalve fauna intercalated between the underlying Pinzonella neotropica assemblage (uppermost portion of the Teresina Formation) and the overlying Leinzia similis assemblage (Rio do Rasto Formation). Mollusks of these assemblages lived in marginal shallow-water habitats of an immense epeiric sea and were dominated by endemic bivalve species. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Terraia curvata (60.61%), Astartellopsis prosoclina (19.70%), Cowperesia emerita (10.61%), Leinzia curta (4.55%), Terraia bipleura (3.03%) and Beurlenella elongatella (1.52%), which are associated with conchostracans and plant remains. Species composition, abundance, and dominance in this novel assemblage differ notably from the preceding ones, suggesting a substantial evolutionary turnover. Regional-scale environmental changes recognized based on taphonomy, facies analysis, and geochemical data consist of progressive freshening of the marginal habitats of the Paraná Basin and taxic changes that include the following: (a) loss of genera, (b) decrease in bivalve abundance and ecological guilds, (c) disappearance of the dominant bivalve group (Pinzonellinae) and (d) diversification of Terrainae bivalves. The ecological signature also changed notably because only infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves are present, indicating a significant loss of functional diversity at the regional scale. Likely stressor factors (among others) are tied to freshening events, suggesting profound changes in (a) salinity, (b) primary productivity and (c) a lack of coarse, stable substrates coupled with high bioturbation rates. Hence, our regional example could offer valuable clues to benthic (bivalve) community responses in a habitat subjected to (a) rapid climate changes and (b) freshening events in shallow-water settings. Finally, the stratigraphic range of the

  2. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

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    Washington Franca Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.

  3. Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Daniel M. Limeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

  4. Eichhornia meyeri A. G. Schultz : a new citation for the Pantanal basin at the Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Luz Sanches, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a taxonomic review for the Pontederiaceae Kunth family at the Pantanal basin, at the Mato Grosso and Malo Grosso do Sul states, we cite for the first time the occurence of Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz in those states. For the identification of this species at the Pantanal basin, located at Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, we re-describe E. meyeri and present data on the species ecology and ethimology. In addition, we present illustrations and a geographical distribution map for E. meyeri

    Como resultado de la revisión taxonómica de la familia Pontederiaceae Kunth para el Pantanal, en los estados de Mato Grosso y Mato Grosso do Sul fue citada por primera vez la presencia de Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz. Para el reconocimiento de esta especie en el Pantanal Matogrossense fue redescrita y incluidos datos ecologicos, etimología, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución geográfica.

  5. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2014-12-01

    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  6. Contribution to the study of the weathering rate of minerals and rocks in the drainage basin of the Paraguacu river - Bahia - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of Na+, Mg++, Ca++, K+, SiO2, SO sup(=)4, alcalinity and pH have been determined for twenty-nine surface water samples of the Paraguacu river drainage basin, mainly in the Utinga River sub-basin. The stable isotope ratio of carbon 13C/12C as well as concentration of 14C was determined for some samples. The ion influence on local aerosol chemistry has also been subtracted from all samples. The analytical results were used to determine the current rate of weathering the rocks of this region and study the sources of dissolved carbon in this water. The analysis of the data shows that weathering processes are influenced by the local lithology. The data from them Utinga river suggests that dissolution of limestone contributes a large percentage of ions. The influence of groundwater in the river flow also brings high concentrations of Na+, Mg++ and Ca++ ions from aerosols, presumeably concentrated by evapo-transpiration. The presence of aerosols in the samples used is remarkable, the contribution of salts from silicate weathering is rather small. It is proposed that the dissolution of limestone and decomposition of organic matter might explain the origin of carbon in some of the samples but others appear to have suffered equilibration with atmospheric CO2. (Author)

  7. RAINFALL INDEX IN TWO MICRO BASINS ON MOGI-GUAÇU RIVER, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = ÍNDICES DE PLUVIOSIDADE EM DUAS MICROBACIAS DO RIO MOGI-GUAÇU, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Vito Laurino Junior

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of rainfall indexes is an important matter due to the interaction of several abiotic factors on natural and built ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the rainfall indexes of two micro basins of Mogi-Guaçu River basin, located in Pirassununga, São Paulo State, Brazil. They are very important due toits location and because the districts that includes them. One of them is Barrinha stream micro basin, located in the Research and Continental Fishing Management of Resorts Center (CEPTA IBAMA and other is the Potreiro stream, at the Air Force Academy (AFA. The study was accomplished in the humid/hot periods, being October/2000 to January/2001; October/2001 to January/2002, and October/2002 toJanuary/2003. The equipment used was a rainfall model - Ville of Paris, which possesses a circular reception hoop of 400 cm2, with a collection funnel of 5 liters, representing 125 mm of captured rain. It was also used a rain graphic model-PLG-5, with an reception area of 200 cm2, in agreement with effective international patterns.In the study period the largest annual average of rainfall index was 820 mm in to AFA and 550 mm in CEPTA, respectively showing differences in the total annual average of 197 mm, during the whole study period among the two micro basins. The results when statistically analyzed (a = 0.50%, however, showed not significant differences among these two studied micro basins. = A identificação do índice pluviométrico torna-se necessária dada à interação deste fator abiótico nos distintos ecossistemas naturais e construídos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os índices pluviométricos de duas microbacias da bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu, localizadas no município de Pirassununga, SP. Esta última é muito importante devido a sua localização e dos municípios que a compõem. Estas microbacias são a do córrego da Barrinha, no Centro de Pesquisa e Gestão de RecursosPesqueiros Continentais (CEPTA

  8. PETROBRAS and social responsibility: the artificial reefs project in Campos Basin, Brazil; PETROBRAS e responsabilidade social: a instalacao de recifes artificiais na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortegiano, Adriana de Santa Marinha Pastorino de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    This article focus on an innovative project launched by PETROBRAS with the main purpose of minimizing the impacts of drilling activities in Campos Basin, over the fishery industry in the northeast region of Rio de Janeiro. This project is seen as a relevant part of PETROBRAS' corporate social responsibility actions. In this sense, it is supposed to consider the interests of all parts directly and indirectly related and affected by the companies' intervention. The major conclusion is that the project could be an important first step to restructure the fishery sector an to harmonize the 'sea users'. A potential improvement could be the promotion of a more effective participation of fishermen in the project and the inclusion of the social and environmental dimensions. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Inversion and Model Validation with Potential Field Data and Seismics for the Central Portion of Parana Sedimentary Basin in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terra, E. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Taveira, D. T.; Miquelutti, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná basin, on the central-south region of the South American Plate, is one of the biggest South American intracratonic basins. It is composed by Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, which were covered by the enormous Cretaceous flood basalts, associated with the rifting of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Its depocenter region, with a maximum estimated depth of just over 7000 m, was crossed by three magnetotelluric - MT profiles proposed by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) aimed at better characterizing its geological structure, as the seismic images are very poor. The data include about 350 MT broadband soundings spanning from 1000 Hz down to 2,000 s. The MT data were processed using robust techniques and remote reference. Static shift observed in some stations were corrected based on Transient Electromagnetic - TEM measurements at each site. These models were integrated to existent gravity, magnetic and seismic data for a more comprehensive interpretation of the region. A pilot 3D model has also been constructed on a crustal scale covering the study area using four frequencies per decade in the 3D inversion scheme proposed by Siripunvaraporn et al. (2005). The inversion scheme produced a reliable model and the observations were adequately reproduced, with observed fitting particularly better for the deeper structures related to basement compared to the 2D results. The main features in the conductivity model correspond to known geological features. These included the conductivity structures obtained for the upper crust, i.e. the sedimentary sequences, underlain by more resistive material, assumed to be basement. Local resistive features in the near-surface are associated to volcanic basalts covering the sediments. Some highly resistivity horizontal and vertical bodies were associated to volcanic intrusion like dikes and sills. We observed depressions on basement consistent with half-graben structures possibly filled with sandstones.

  10. Carbon and Nitrogen in the Lower Basin of the Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil: Element fluxes and biogeochemical processes

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    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the lower basin of the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR, in which 57,000 km2 of the basin is located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. We proposed to identify the main sources of C and N fluxes in the PSR waters, to evaluate biogeochemical processes in the watershed, and to estimate C and N riverine loads to the Atlantic Ocean in the context of the sugarcane plantation expansion for ethanol production. Riverine water samples were collected at seven stations along 12 months. Physicochemical and limnological parameters, as well as discharge, were measured together with organic and inorganic C and N species in the dissolved and suspended particulate material. C and N concentrations in bed fluvial sediments, and suspended particulate material were measured, and their elemental ([C:N]a and isotopic (δ13C compositions were compared with the [C:N]a and δ13C of the following sources: riparian soils, insular flooded soils, aquatic macrophytes, phytoplankton, pasture grass, sugarcane, sugarcane byproducts, and forest litterfall. Temporal patterns in the physicochemical and limnological environment were correlated to discharge. It also was observed that sugar cane production can increase riverine C and N fluxes. Riparian soils inputs were larger than insular soils, which was likely to act as a biogeochemical barrier. Effects of the macrophytes on riverine C and N were unclear, as well as urban sewage disposal effects. Although the PSR loads represented a very small percentage of the fluvial input to global biogeochemical cycles, we suggest that this and other medium sized watersheds in Eastern and Southeastern South America can be significant contributors to the continental biogeochemical riverine loads to the ocean, if their loads are considered together.

  11. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil (pt

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    Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, thisresearch aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical riverslocated in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-AçuRivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results werecompared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originallydeveloped for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous,orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI valuesin all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verifythat mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorusspecies that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, whichwere incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling,although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimumof 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, thehigh total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promoteproportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like watertemperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. InJanuary, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density washigher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointedphytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  12. Flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system: a new depositional model for the Devonian Cabeças Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Piauí, Brazil

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    Luiza Corral M.O. Ponciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional model of the Cabeças Formation is re-evaluated in the context of the Devonian paleogeography of the Parnaíba Basin, and with particular reference to similarities between the formation's facies associations on the eastern border of the basin and the flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system facies that have been discussed in recent literature. The widespread occurrence and nature of sigmoidal clinoforms (with asymptotic cross-stratification and climbing ripples of the Cabeças Formation are here considered as strong evidence of flood-influenced depositional settings. Sandy strata of the Passagem Member, in the vicinity of Pimenteiras and Picos (Piauí State, are interpreted as the distal part of fine-grained mouth-bar deposits interbedded with delta-front sandstone lobes showing hummocky cross-stratification. Richly fossiliferous levels, with diverse megainvertebrates and plant cuticles, occur within the delta-front lobes and the distal mouth-bar deposits, reflecting continuation of shallow marine conditions.O modelo deposicional da Formação Cabeças é reinterpretado no presente estudo com base no contexto paleogeográfico da Bacia do Parnaíba durante o Devoniano e na similaridade entre as fácies encontradas na Formação Cabeças com as fácies características dos sistemas flúvio-deltaicos dominados por inundações. O tipo das clinoformas sigmoidais (com estratificação cruzada assintótica e laminação cruzada cavalgante, e a sua predominância na Formação Cabeças, são consideradas como as principais evidências da influência de inundações nesta unidade. Depósitos do Membro Passagem, localizados nos arredores das cidades de Pimenteiras e Picos, são interpretados como o componente distal de um tipo de barra de desembocadura com a predominância de arenitos finos a conglomeráticos, intercalados com lobos arenosos tabulares de frente deltaica com estratificação cruzada hummocky. Diversos intervalos fossil

  13. O Brasil e o Grão Caribe: fundamentos para uma nova agenda de trabalho Brazil and the Great Caribbean basin: the making of a new agenda

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    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as relações econômicas, políticas e de segurança internacional vigentes entre o Brasil e os 25 países da bacia do Caribe - México, América Central, Antilhas, Colômbia, Venezuela, Guiana e Suriname, além de uma dezena de territórios coloniais administrados por potências extra-regionais. Constata-se que as relações econômicas são muito intensas, especialmente em termos comerciais e de investimentos produtivos. O diálogo político entre as partes é construtivo, relevante e cada vez mais significativo. No que diz respeito às questões de segurança, vale destacar suas convergências, bem como certas divergências de natureza geopolítica derivadas do projeto brasileiro para a América do Sul. No final do artigo, propõem-se três cenários plausíveis para o futuro das relações entre Brasil e Caribe.The paper explores the economic, political and security relations between Brazil and the 25 Caribbean countries - Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean islands, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana and Suriname, inasmuch the colonial territories. The text suggest that the economic relations are very intensive. The political dialogue is constructive. In the security field, there are some convergences and divergences derived from the brazilian=s South American project. At the end, the paper consider three reasonable scenarios for the Brazilian-Caribbean relations.

  14. Structure of the tree component in an area of riparian forest in the Piratini River Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Luciano Rodrigues Soares

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation studied belongs to the Pampa biome. The vegetation of this region is described as Open Arboreal Savanna because it presents a herb stratum and an arboreal stratum with a gallery forest. This study aims to describe the structure of the forest trees of the Basin (31º35’33”S and 53º02’39”W contributing to knowledge of forest formation in the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul. All living or standing dead individuals in an area of 0.5ha with DBH ≥ 5cm were sampled. Each individual was recorded for its species, diameter at breast height – DBH, and estimated height. Of the 702 living individuals inventoried, 41 species belonging to 25 families were recorded the Myrtaceae family presented the greatest richness with seven species, followed by Salicaceae with four and Lauraceae with tree species. Anarcadiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapindaceae each showed two species. The other families sampled consisted of a single species only. About 53 individuals were counted dead, corresponding to 7.5% in relation to the quantity of living individuals. The highest importance value was attributed to Lithraea Brasliensis March. The Shannon diversity was estimated to be 2.99 nats (J’=0.81, one of the highest values registered below the 30º south parallel.

  15. The use of genetic bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality in a region under the influence of urban waste in Guaíba lake basin (Brazil

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    Izabel Vianna Villela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei was chosen as biomonitoring organism in Guaíba Lake Basin, based on population data, distribution, and sensitivity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies studies with Single Cell Gel Assay (SCGA and Micronuclei test (MN on this freshwater mussel showed that it is successful in biomonitoring studies, especially in urban pollution monitoring. This study evaluated two sampling sites in the Guaíba Lake (Guaíba PC e Guaíba BR, near urban waste discharges, and a control site (Itapuã insight a preserved area, using L. fortunei individuals. Comparing to the control site, the Guaíba BR sample induced DNA damage in haemocytes of mussels sampled both in situ and exposed to laboratory conditions, whereas MN only in in situ collected mussels. This sample also presented the only surface water mutagenic result by Salmonella/microsome assay with TA98 in the presence of metabolic activation. Guaíba PC samples increased MN frequency in situ and in laboratory conditions comparing to the Itapuã results. Metal influence seems to be less important than organic influence in genotoxic induction. These results confirm the strong urban influence in this region, showing that biomonitoring is a powerful tool to detect this kind of contamination in water bodies.

  16. Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

    2010-08-01

    This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process. PMID:20524059

  17. Risk factors associated with the transmissionof Brazilian spotted fever in the Piracicaba river basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Celso Eduardo de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE. After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI with 210 (37% confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63% discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035, the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439, the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764, the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138, an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231, and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003. CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment.

  18. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  19. Flora arbórea da bacia do rio Tibagi (Paraná, Brasil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist Tree flora of the Tibagi river basin (Paraná, Brazil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist

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    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou, por meio de coleções de herbários, os representantes arbóreos da ordem Celastrales sensu Cronquist, encontrados na bacia do rio Tibagi, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Esta bacia hidrográfica, subdividida em três zonas de norte para sul, baixo Tibagi (BT, médio Tibagi (MT e alto Tibagi (AT, apresenta diferentes condições ambientais e tipos de vegetação ao longo de sua extensão. A ordem Celastrales está representada na bacia estudada por 15 espécies arbóreas, pertencentes às famílias Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae e Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae conta com apenas duas espécies, Citronella gongonha e C. paniculata, sendo a primeira distinta pelo ovário glabro e folhas geralmente com espinhos. Aquifoliaceae contém seis espécies: Ilex brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. chamaedryfolia, I. dumosa, I. paraguariensis e I. theezans, que ocorrem preferencialmente no AT e MT e se distinguem pela dimensão, revestimento, ápice e margem da folha e pela morfologia das sépalas. Celastraceae está representada por sete espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros, Plenckia populnea, espécie de cerrado, encontrada apenas no MT e seis espécies de Maytenus (M. aquifolia, M. dasyclada, M. evonymoides, M. ilicifolia, M. robusta e M. salicifolia, com distinção baseada principalmente no tipo de margem e dimensão das folhas, forma do ramo e número de flores por inflorescência.A study of the tree species of the order Celastrales sensu Cronquist from the Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil, is presented, based on herbarium material. This basin is subdivided into three zones, from north to south: lower Tibagi (BT, mid Tibagi (MT and upper Tibagi (AT, each with different environmental conditions and vegetation types. The order Celastrales is represented in the basin by 15 tree species belonging to three families: Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae and Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae has only two species, Citronella gongonha and C. paniculata. The

  20. Zooplankton community composition and some limnological aspects of an oxbow lake of the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Vieira Sampaio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some limnological aspects of Lake Massacará (adjoining the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin were studied during two periods of the hydrological cycle. Water transparency was equally low during both the periods. During high water, thermal stratification was recorded, with a clinograde oxygen profile; pH was slightly acid, and conductivity was higher near the bottom. Concentrations of inorganic carbon and ammonia, and rates of primary production were higher than during the low water period. During the latter period, complete mixing occurred, with a clinograde oxygen profile; pH was slightly acid, and conductivity unvarying with depth. Higher concentrations of nitrate were found than during high water. With regard to the zooplankton communities, higher density and species richness of organisms occurred during high water. Copepods and rotifers were most numerous during both periods. The taxa identified consisted of 17 rotifers, four copepods, six cladocerans, five protozoans, and two macroinvertebrates. The most abundant species were Thermocyclops minutus, Keratella cochlearis, K. lenzi, and Trichocerca capucina during high water, and Thermocyclops minutus and Conochilus unicornis during low water.Lagoa Massacará (marginal ao Rio Paraopeba-MG, Bacia do Rio São Francisco foi estudada do ponto de vista de alguns aspectos limnológicos durante dois períodos do ciclo hidrológico (cheia e seca. A transparência da água foi baixa e semelhante nos dois períodos. No período de cheia ocorreu estratificação, perfil de oxigênio clinógrado com camadas inferiores anóxicas, pH ligeiramente ácido, alta condutividade elétrica no fundo, com maiores concentrações de CO2 inorgânico, de íons amônio e taxa de produção primária que na época seca. No período de seca ocorreu desestratificação, perfil de oxigênio clinógrado com camadas inferiores não anóxicas, pH ligeiramente ácido, condutividade elétrica constantes, com maiores

  1. Classificação da capacidade de uso das terras da Microbacia do Riacho Una, Sapé, PB Classification of land use capacity of micro basin of Una stream in Sapé, PB, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaque F. C. Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente expansão das atividades agropecuárias sem a consideração das potencialidades e limitações das terras, constitui fonte potencial de degradação do meio ambiente. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se avaliar o meio físico das terras da microbacia hidrográfica do Riacho Una, Sapé, PB, a partir da classificação de capacidade de uso das terras. A área se localiza na porção leste do Estado da Paraíba, entre as coordenadas geográficas: 35º 08' 16" e 35º 15' 12" de longitude, a oeste de Greenwich e 06º 59' 18" e 07º 05' 42" de latitude sul. Utilizam-se, nos procedimentos adotados, técnicas de geoprocessamento, sendo a integração de informações realizada no Sistema de Informações Geográficas Idrisi Kilimanjaro versão 14.0. Para a avaliação das terras adotou-se o sistema de capacidade de uso. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a Microbacia Hidrográfica do Riacho Una apresenta resultados bastante satisfatórios, com indicação de aproximadamente 60% de terras aptas para uso agrícola.The growing expansion of agricultural activities without consideration of the potentialities and limitations of land constitutes a potential source of environment degradation. This work aimed to evaluate the physical proprieties of lands in the micro bosin of Una, Sapé in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, using the classification of the land use capacity . The area is located in the eastern part of the Paraíba state, between the geographical coordinates: 35º 08' 16" and 35º 15' 12" longitude, West of Greenwich and 06º 59' 18" and 07º 05' 42" latitude South. The adopted procedures utilized geoprocessing techniques and the integration of information was made in the Geographical Information Systems Idrisi Kilimanjaro, version 14.0. The system of soil use capacity was adopted to evaluate land. The results obtained demonstrated that the micro basin of stream Una presents satisfactory results with an indication that approximately 60% of its

  2. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  3. Retrospective of fossil dinoflagellate studies in Brazil: their relationship with the evolution of petroleum exploration in the Cretaceous of continental margin basins; Historico do estudo de dinoflagelados fosseis no Brasil: sua relacao com a evolucao da exploracao petrolifera no Cretaceo das bacias da margem continental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Mitsuru; Lana, Cecilia Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: arai@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2004-05-01

    Palynostratigraphy of the Brazilian Cretaceous was mainly based on terrestrial palynomorphs (mostly spores and pollen grains) until the end of the nineteen eighties. This was so because, for several decades, petroleum exploration in Brazil was focused on the essentially non marine sediments of the Reconcavo Basin. During the nineteen sixties, PETROBRAS extended oil exploration to the Brazilian continental shelf (offshore areas). Nevertheless, at that time the company did not invest immediately in marine palynostratigraphy, because it was believed that bio stratigraphic schemes based on foraminifera and calcareous nanno fossils would be more efficient than palynology in marine sequences. This belief changed only in the seventies, when commercial oil reservoirs were discovered in the Campos Basin, within the Macae Formation, a rock unit deposited in a carbonate shelf environment. Its environmental conditions were certainly hostile to the development and post-mortem preservation of foraminifera and calcareous nanno fossil-producing algae. As a result, no more than two or three bio zones could be identified in the Macae carbonate section on the basis of such organisms. Besides, carbonate shelf sediments, subject to only minor terrigenous input, are usually poor in terrestrial palynomorphs. On the other hand, the palynological content of some Macae strata consists mainly (up to 100%) of such marine palynomorphs as dino flagellates, acritarchs e palynoforaminifera. Consequently, PETROBRAS recognized the importance of developing a zonal framework based on these organisms. The first Cretaceous dinoflagellate zonation in Brazil was erected in 1976, and since the nineteen eighties, marine Cretaceous palynostratigraphy has made significant advances mainly due to the use of dino flagellates. Hundreds of Cretaceous dinoflagellate index species have been introduced into PETROBRAS databanks, becoming widely applicable to the bio stratigraphy of all Brazilian continental margin

  4. Seleção dos indicadores da qualidade das águas superficiais pelo emprego da análise multivariada Surface water quality indicators in low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil, using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores antrópicos e naturais que determinam a qualidade das águas superficiais na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foram identificados pelo emprego da técnica de Análise Fatorial/Análise da Componente Principal (AF/ACP. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas no período de fev./2003 a mar./2004, em sete pontos de amostragem localizados ao longo do Rio Acaraú. Foram analisados 25 parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos. Pelo emprego da AF/ACP, identificou-se que o modelo de melhor ajuste para expressar a qualidade das águas na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foi aquele composto por quatro fatores, explicando 82,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator representa a componente de sólidos em suspensão, expressando o processo de erosão e escoamento superficial. O segundo fator é definido por uma componente de nutrientes associados aos esgotos sanitários, às áreas agrícolas e a outras fontes de poluição difusa; o terceiro fator é indicativo da ação antrópica (componente orgânica, enquanto o quarto representa os sais solúveis que expressam o processo natural do intemperismo das rochas. Outro ponto observado é que a análise fatorial não resultou em grande redução no número de variáveis, uma vez que o melhor ajuste do modelo ocorreu com a inclusão de 18 das 25 variáveis analisadas.Multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis/principal component analysis (FA/PCA, was applied to identify the human activity effects and natural processes on surface water quality in Low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected in four different campaigns from Feb/2003 to Mar/2004, at seven sampling stations sited in low Acaraú watershed. Twenty-five physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined in this study. The FA/PCA allowed the identification of the total variance. The best model was adjusted with four components, explaining 82.1% of the data variance. The first factor was mainly associated with suspended

  5. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil; Comportamento geoquimico de radionuclideos e metais pesados em solos da bacia do Rio Corumbatai (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  6. The evolution of the exploratory effort in Brazil in relation to its distribution in sedimentary basins and changes in the institutional structure: 1922 to 2008; A evolucao do esforco exploratorio no Brasil em relacao a sua distribuicao nas bacias sedimentares e as mudancas na estrutura institucional: 1922 a 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accioly, Felipe; Draghi, Julia [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study is based on the available data on the georeferred database of the Brazilian oil and gas government regulatory agency (ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo Gas e Biocombustiveis) regarding the position, year of drilling and results of the oil and gas wells drilled in Brazil. The position of the wells were plotted on their sedimentary basins and grouped into five periods (1922-1953, 1954-1961, 1962 - 1970, 1971-1997, after 1997). For each period some of the most significant changes in the technical or institutional background were compiled and reported. Those maps allowed an interesting discussion on the criteria and methodology used to establish the prospect locations at each period and presented a possible explanation for the very low productivity of drilling in Brazil up to the 80's as much as the changes in the conceptual basis that lead to the successful performance of the 90's and the first decade of the 21st century (author)

  7. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  8. Modelling potential landscape sediment delivery due to projected soybean expansion: A scenario study of the Balsas sub-basin, Cerrado, Maranhão state, Brazil/ 30 January 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreto, L.; Schoorl, J.M.; Kok, K.; Veldkamp, A.; Hass, A.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, agriculture expansion is taking place primarily in the Cerrado ecosystems. With the aim of supporting policy development and protecting the natural environment at relevant hotspots, a scenario study was conducted that concerned not only land-use change, but also the resulting effects on e

  9. Segundo registro de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae com descrição do habitat e de assembléia, Bacia do Rio Paraná, Brasil Second register of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae with description of the habitat and of assembly, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta recente, no fundo rochoso do Rio Piquiri, Bacia do Paraná, Brasil, de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, uma espécie de esponja continental ameaçada, possibilitou o registro fotográfico de espécimes vivos, o aperfeiçoamento das ilustrações ao MEV e da descrição de algumas características, a descrição do habitat e o registro de uma assembléia de esponjas composta por S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, 1881 e Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli tem seu primeiro registro para águas brasileiras e para a Bacia do Paraná. Gêmulas de O. navicella são tambem ilustradas ao MEV.The recent discovery of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, a brazilian endangered freshwater sponge, at the rocky bottom of River Piquiri, Paraná Basin, Brazil, enhanced the photographing of living specimens, the improving of SEM illustration and description for some characteristics, the description of the habitat and the register of an sponge assembly composed by S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, l881 and Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli has its first register for Brazilian waters and for the Parana Basin. Gemmules of O. navicella are also SEM illustrated.

  10. Barracuda, Caratinga oil field and surroundings: new exploratory and production field at Campos basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; Campos de Barracuda, Caratinga e adjacencias: novo polo exploratorio e de producao na Bacia de Campos, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Celso Carlos; Guardado, Lincoln Rumenos; Moreira, Jobel L.Pinheiro; Esteves, Fernando R.; Andrade, Vander F.; Freitas, Luiz Carlos S.; Soares, Carlos M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Exploracao

    1994-12-31

    Deep water Albacora and Marlim giant oil field were discovered by PETROBRAS in Campos basin during the 80`s. Deep water exploration was then increased, resulting in new 3 D seismic surveys aiming exploratory targets in the southern and southwestern part of the central producing trend of the basin. Since 1990, exploratory investment was concentrated in these areas and 18 exploratory wells have been drilled, resulting in 10 discoveries, grouped into five new oil fields: Salema (1990), Bijupira (1990), Barracuda (1990), RJS-424 Area (1993) and Caratinga (1994). (author) 5 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  12. The Permian basin geology in the north of Uruguay.Sedimentology exam about the uranium signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin is located in the Precambrian insular shelf limited to the North. East and South. The North (Brazil) and south (Uruguay) edge are constituted by the insular shelf ancient nucleus which dates from 2000 million years.

  13. Biologia dos Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda) da bacia hidrográfica de Ratones, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biology of Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Ratones hidrografic basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yara Maria Rauh Müller; Evelise Maria Nazari; Dib Ammar; Eduardo Cargnin Ferreira; Ingrid Thaís Beltrame; Cristiane Pacheco

    1999-01-01

    Biological aspects of palemonids, collected from March, 91 to December, 95 in the Ratones Hidrographic Basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, have been investigated. Individuals of different sizes of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Weigmann, 1836), Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrobrachium olfersii (Weigmann, 1836), Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller, 1880), Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 and Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871) were registered. These prawns, showed reproductive str...

  14. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  15. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil; Analises in situ de U e Pb em zircao por SRIMP II por controle remoto e de Hf por LA-ICP-MS: um exemplo de datacao e da evolucao genetica de zircao atraves da razao {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177} em amostra da Pedreira Ita no Complexo Atuba, SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; McReath, Ian; Sproesser, Walter; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], e-mail: keisato@usp.br, e-mail: osigajr@usp.br, e-mail: ianmcr@usp.br, e-mail: wmspres@usp.br, e-mail: baseimas@usp.br; Silva, Josiane Aline da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica; Dunyi, Liu [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China); Iizuka, Takafumi; Rino, Shuji; Hirata, Takafumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} > 0) and crustal contributions (({epsilon}{sub Hf} < 0) during the growth of the zircon crystals. While the archaean component in the complex was derived from the mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution ({epsilon}{sub Hf} - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  16. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  17. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  18. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) (Pisces, Teleostei) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dergam Jorge A.; Paiva Samuel R.; Schaeffer Carlos E.; Godinho Alexandre L.; Vieira Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira) is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63) and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial D...

  19. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  20. Biologia dos Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda da bacia hidrográfica de Ratones, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biology of Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda from the Ratones hidrografic basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Maria Rauh Müller

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of palemonids, collected from March, 91 to December, 95 in the Ratones Hidrographic Basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, have been investigated. Individuals of different sizes of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Weigmann, 1836, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium olfersii (Weigmann, 1836, Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller, 1880, Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 and Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871 were registered. These prawns, showed reproductive strategies, typical of the Palaemonidae (Rafinesque, 1815, associated to species particularities, and seem to adapt to different environmental conditions.

  1. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION IN THE FEE-FISHING LOCATED IN CORUMBATAI RIVER BASIN, SP (BRAZIL) = AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA DOS PESQUE-PAGUE LOCALIZADOS NA BACIA DO RIO CORUMBATAÍ, SP (BRASIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Nadai Malagutti; Alexandre Augusto Oliveira Santos; Ítalo Macedo Silva; Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo

    2012-01-01

    The fee-fishing are comprised of ponds, where fish are raised used in sport fishing. In ponds, the stocking of fish may deteriorate the water quality with the enrichment of nutrients from feed, fertilizer and fish faeces and animals around. This study determined some of the biotic factors of effluent and surface water bodies directly related units fee-fishing. Initially it carried out a number of fee-fishing active in Corumbataí river basin. Subsequently, six fee-fishing were selected for mon...

  2. Electric power transport costs - methodologies analysis; Custos de transporte de energia eletrica: analise de metodologias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahata, Dario

    1997-07-01

    The dissertation presents the aspects related to the restructuring of power systems in terms of international experiences, and the possible implications for the definition of the new power system in Brazil. The experience shows that the reform in various countries has started from the sector deverticalization, together with the transmissions open access scheme. The retrospect of researched countries indicates that the transmissions remuneration is based on a methodology that recovers the operative cost of transmission transactions, along with an additional amount that take into account the cost of the existing transmission system. The following countries have been analyzed: Chile, Norway, England and Argentina. This work also shows the current situation in Brazil, as in terms of tariffs, as regarding the power system organizational structure, as well as a preliminary proposal conceived by SINTREL (National System of Electrical Energy Transmission) to evaluate the transmission transaction cost. This dissertation ended with comments and conclusions, depicting a future program which might be followed, considering the aspects quoted above and the peculiarities of brazilian power system. (author)

  3. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil occupies an area of about 8.5 million square kilometers -- almost half of the South American continent. The dominant geographic feature is the Amazon basin. The Amazon River and its more than 200 tributaries drain about 60 percent of the country. The basin is a vast tropical rain forest, whereas the remainder of Brazil is made up predominantly of highlands. The Central Highlands, which extends into the Amazon basin, occupies nearly all of southern Brazil and includes major mountain chains such as the Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra do Espinhago. The Guiana Highlands fringe the northern Amazon basin and extend into Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana. Lowland areas other than the Amazon basin are found in western Mato Grosso, and along the Atlantic coast from French Guiana to Uruguay. The geology of Brazil is dominated structurally and areally by three major shields composed of crystalline rocks of Archean and Proterozoic age. Collectively they comprise the Brazilian complex which is probably the largest Precambrian outcrop in the world. The complex is made up of gneisses, granites, mica schists, quartzites, dolomites, skarns, diorites, itabirites and gabbros, many of which are deeply metamorphosed. Faults, quartz veins, and dikes are common. Recurrent granitization has occurred from the Precambrian to Late Tertiary. The area of Brazil is large and its geology is favorable, in places, for every known type of uranium deposit. This is not reflected in the amount of 'known' and 'inferred' reserves -- slightly more than 21,000 tons. Rather, it is an indication of the small amount of exploration done, taking into account the large area to be covered. The speculative potential can only be guessed. It is guessed to be 500,000 tons

  5. A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Lourenço Dumas; Jorge Luiz Nessimian

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Cernotina Ross, 1938, with 64 extant species, is a New World genus of caddisflies. In Brazil, there are 31 described species of which 28 are recorded from the Amazon basin. Cernotina puri sp. nov. is described and figured based on specimens collected in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the shape of the interm...

  6. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  7. Biostratigraphic and paleoclimatic zoning of upper quaternary sediments from the Campos basin slope, RJ, Brazil; Zoneamento bioestratigrafico e paleoclimatico dos sedimentos do quaternario superior do talude da bacia de Campos, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, Marco Aurelio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia

    1997-12-01

    Classic methods to analyze the post-Pliocene climatic changes were applied to samples from the Campos Basin. Twenty-six samples were piston cored from the sloping bank, and 1 306 samples were collected from three continuously cored drill holes. A selection was made among planktonic foraminifera indicating warm and cold waters and profiles were plotted and their percentages generated paleoclimatic curves. The comparison of these curves with those by Ericson and Wollin, permitted the identification of several glacial and interglacial intervals, and the age determination of the main climatic events that took place in the Campos Basin slope during the last 145 to 150 thousand years of the Upper Quaternary. Based on the frequency variations of the Globorotalia menardii s.l., Globorotalia inflata and Globorotalia truncatulinoides, complemented with observations on the disappearance/reappearance of the Pulleniatina complex, it was possible to subdivide the Z (Holocene), Y and X (Pleistocene) zones of the long cores (drill holes), into 15 sub zones (Z 1, Z 2, Y 1, Y 2 and X 1 to X 11). With this result it is possible to refine the correlation exercises for the cores and improve the calculations of sedimentation rates for these sections. The piston cores, relatively short, were useful to establish precisely the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary for many areas of the Campos Basin slope, and calibrate the bio-horizon where the Pulleniatina obliquiloculata disappeared. The disappearance of the Pulleniatina complex within the median section of the Y Zone establishes an age of approximately 42 000 years, and the disappearance of the Globorotalia flexuosa within the top portion of X Zone, indicates the end of the last interglacial period (84 000 years). This collection of data, when correlated with Bolli and Premoli Silva's bio stratigraphic zoning, shows that the sampled sediments are located in the upper portion of the Globorotalia truncatulinoides truncatulinoides Zone. The

  8. Measurement analysis using the Fricke dosemeter; Analise de medicoes com o dosimetro Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, G.A.C. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: gcpedrosa@inmetro.gov.br; Dantas, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: ccd@ufpe.br; Campos, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: auster@elogica.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Fricke dosemeter has been used for absolute determination of the radiation dose between 40 and 350 Gy for X-rays, Gamma rays and fast electrons energies. The great inconvenient of that dosimetric system is the impossibility of using for measurements of exposure or low dose rates. A Fricke dosimetry system was implanted at the Nuclear Sciences Regional Center (CRCN), in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, for the determination of radiation doses for spectrometry and mass dosimetry with plasma source. The statistical analysis of the obtained results have shown that using the spectrometric method that system cna be used for maintenance of factors of CRCN standard calibrations and the dose assessment thru mail system of radiotherapy centers of the country.

  9. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  10. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months.

  11. Petroleum Geology Characteristics and Hydrocarbon Distribution of Solimoes Basin, Brazil%巴西萨利莫斯盆地油气地质特征及油气分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞正炼; 樊太亮; 何辉; 李积林; 唐山; 马腾

    2012-01-01

    基于萨利莫斯盆地基础地质条件,以石油地质理论为指导,对盆地的生储盖条件及成藏特征进行了研究,并利用多因素叠合的方法对盆地潜在有利区进行了预测.分析认为,萨利莫斯盆地是新元古代末期克拉通内断陷基础上形成的克拉通盆地,形成古生界和中—新生界两套沉积充填序列.盆地内主力烃源岩和储盖层均发育在古生界序列中.泥盆系然迪亚图巴组页岩是盆地中的主力烃源岩;石炭系朱鲁尔组砂岩和泥盆系俄勒组砂岩是最有利的储集层段,与石炭系卡让利组、朱鲁尔组的蒸发岩和页岩构成良好的储盖组合.受岩浆侵入的影响,烃源岩的生排烃分为岩浆侵入前和侵入后两个阶段,并以第二阶段为主生排烃阶段;受晚期构造运动的影响,盆地具有多期成藏的特征,最后一期成藏决定了油气的最终分布.盆地勘探经验表明,油气田往往位于断裂带周围,并受烃源岩的发育位置控制.因此.认为盆地中烃源岩发育区内的断裂带周围是油气田,特别是气田的有利勘探领域.%Based on the geological characteristics, under the guidance of petroleum geology, characteristics of source rock, reservoir, cap rock, and hydrocarbon accumulation were studied. Superimposed method was adopted and favorable area of oil and gas exploration was forecasted. Solimoes Basin is a craton basin that originated from a rift in Amazon Craton. There are two main sequences in the basin, Paleozoic sequence and Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. The best source rock, reservoir and cap rock are all within the former one. The Devonian Jandiatuba Formation is the main source rock, and the Carboniferous Jurua Formation sandstone, Devonian Uere Formation sandstone are the main reservoirs. The evaporites of Carboniferous Jurua Formation and Carauari Formation are the cap rocks. Affected by the intrusion igneous rocks, generation of the hydrocarbon was separated into

  12. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  13. The sequence stratigraphy of the Campo Mourao (upper part) and Taciba Formations, Itarare Group, Eastern part of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Campo Mourao (parte superior) e Taciba, Grupo Itarare, Leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Joel Carneiro de [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. E-mail: jocastro@caviar.igce.unesp.br

    1999-06-01

    The chronostratigraphic framework of the Campo Mourao (upper part) and Taciba formations, Itarare Group was investigated through a subsurface study in the eastern flank of the Parana Basin. A total of five depositional sequences were recognized, each represented by an upward increase in the argillaceous content (sandstone to diamictite to shale). The upper part of basal sequence 1 is formed by a thick diamictite by the Lontras Shale; these glaciomarine and marine systems may constitute the transgressive tract of the sequence and represent the top of Campo Mourao Formation/cycle. The Lontras Shale (or Member) is not restricted to the Santa Catarina State; instead it is recognized throughout the eastern flank of the basin. The sequence 2 is represented in the basal portion by the sandstones of Rio Segredo (base of Taciba Formation/cycle). The next sequences are similar to the previous one, including some particular patterns: as the basal sandstones form clastic wedges, the sequence may be represented exclusively by diamictities. The clastic wedges of sequences 2 and 4 were applied from east and northeast; the western margin also contributed as source of coarse clastics. Sequences 4 and 5 were studied in detail, since they were reached by several shallow wells near the outcrop belt. the sequence 4 clearly displays facies change from marine in the south (Passinho Shale) to delta front in center-south, and to coal-bearing delta plain in the north. The occurrence of sequence 5 is restricted to southern Parana and northern Santa Catarina; it presents deltaic sandstone deposits intercalated with marine shales/sandstones and glaciomarine diamictites. Despite some transitional characteristics shown by the upper part of Itarare Group (sequences 4 and 5), it is noteworthy the unconformable of the Group with the overlying, post-glacial Triunfo Member of Rio Bonito Formation. (author)

  14. Effects of a regional décollement level for gravity tectonics on late Neogene-Quaternary deep-sea clastic sedimentation in the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Gorini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sets of 2D multi-channel seismic and chronostratigraphic data allowed us to undertake analyses of source to sink processes and triggering mechanisms of the gigantic megaslides previously documented off the NW and SE steep slope settings of the Foz do Amazonas basin. These megaslides comprise two sets of stacked allochthonous masses within the Upper Miocene-Quaternary sedimentary record, now described as Mass-Transport Complexes (MTCs): the Amapá Megaslide Complex (AMC) and the Pará-Maranhão Megaslide Complex (PMMC). Individual megaslides of both MTCs can mobilize to deep waters up to kilometer thick sedimentary series as allochthonous masses with different flow directions, degrees of sediment disruption and internal coherence. Megaslides spread downslope over areas as large as thousands of km2, attaining dimensions comparable to the world's largest mass-transport deposits. The basal and largest megaslide of the AMC (AM1 megaslide) is a quite unique example of mass-transport deposit, since it is interpreted as a dominant carbonate allochthonous mass sourced from a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform. According to stratigraphic correlations with global sea-level positions, platform instability would have been triggered between the late Miocene and the end of the Early Pliocene by gravitational collapse of the mixed platform under its own weight, after successive subaerial exposures which were able to generate karstification processes. Siliciclastic-type megaslides, on the other hand, are all sourced from large upslope slide and/or rotated blocks (up to 60 km large in the case of the PMMC).Stratigraphic correlations evidenced that horizon equally acts as the upper décollement level for the gravity tectonic system that operates in the regional scale of the Foz do Amazonas basin. In such a context, results of this work evidence complex links between variable modes of gravity deformation (gravity tectonics and mass wasting), all induced by instability created from

  15. Kinematic reconstitution and tectono-sedimentation associated to salt domes in deep water of Santos basin, Brazil; Reconstituicao cinematica e tectono-sedimentacao associada a domos salinos nas aguas profundas da bacia de Santos, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Manuela Fernandes [PETROBRAS E e P - Exploracao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Polo Centro], E-mail: manuela.caldas@petrobras.com.br; Zalan, Pedro Victor [PETROBRAS E e P - Exploracao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gestao de Projetos Exploratorios], E-mail: zalan@petrobras.com.br

    2009-05-15

    This article presents new methods for structural restoration and kinematic evolution of salt domes during the opening stages and growth of a passive margin in the Santos Basin. The traditional method or restoration of salt bodies uses software and a 3D database. Using 2D seismic data and adapting/improving methods published in the oil industry literature, we developed a method based on the observation of the stratal geometric patterns of sedimentary packages associated to the salt bodies such as tabular forms (straight parallel reflectors, pre or post-tectonic sedimentary sequences), or dish/bowl forms (with very distinct depocenters and thinned margins with fanning of dips, syntectonic/halokinetic sedimentary sequences), and on the determination/mapping of growth axes and thinning axes in halokinetic strata. Horizontal and vertical reconstitutions of the salt flow (inflation, deflation and horizontal flow) were deduced based on isochron (isopach maps in time) and axes maps and flattened seismic sections at the time of deposition of each associated sedimentary sequence. The resulting maps and reconstitutions presented an amazing correlation with the current patterns mapped in the study area. The interpreted tectonic phases of halokinetic evolution, deduced from the produced maps and reconstitutions, showed a good agreement with the regional events that affected the Santos Basin and adjoining basement. Based on those results, we believe that the application of this method provides an important contribution for the oil exploration industry, considering that it presents outstanding results based on 2D seismic data. It allows an understanding of the structural and kinematic evolution of the salt bodies and of the halokinetic sequences associated, with important implications on the modeling of petroleum systems, thus, reducing the risk of exploration prospects. (author)

  16. Water isotopic characterization of hypersaline formation of a petroleum field Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Caracterizacao isotopica de aguas de formacao hipersalinas de um campo de petroleo da Bacia do Reconcavo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Danilo Ribeiro de Sa; Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes de, E-mail: danilosateles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: expedito@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia; Santos, Christian Pereira Lopes dos, E-mail: cplsgs@gmail.com [Instituto Federal Baiano, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Formation water is the water present in reservoir rock pores, produced together with petroleum. Usually it is hyper saline with concentrations that can be higher than 250 g/l of dissolved solids. The concentration of the dissolved elements and the isotopic composition of the water and of some of the dissolved elements can be excellent tracers to study the dynamic of underground fluid flux, the mixing of distinct sources and the origin of salinization of these waters. This work reports the isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O) and electrical conductivity (EC) of formation waters from 10 wells of a petroleum field of the Reconcavo Basin, looking for their evolution, interaction with the minerals and rocks and reservoir interconnection. The samples have electric conductivity ranging from 84 to 137 mS/cm, with conductivity increasing with depth of production zone. It is observed an enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 with the depth of production zone, probably due to water-rock interactions that were probably increased by higher temperatures of the deeper levels and longer residence times. The samples from the production zone between 1450 to 1520 m, drained by 7 of the 10 wells sampled, show a small range in isotopic composition and in electric conductivity, indicating homogeneity in this level of the reservoir. In the shallow level of 450 m the values of {delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O and EC are lower, with isotopic composition similar to the oceanic water, possibly representing the original water that entered the reservoir during the sedimentation of the basin. (author)

  17. Genetic variability in Oligosarcus paranensis (Teleostei: Characiformes from the São Francisco river, Ivaí river basin – Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.14179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rocha dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Oligosarcus paranensis was estimated from a population collected in São Francisco river, Prudentópolis county in Paraná State (Brazil using the electrophoresis in starch gel technique. Eleven enzymatic systems were analyzed: Aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT; E. C. 2.6.1, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E. C. 1.1.1.1, Esterase (EST; E. C. 3.1.1.1, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; E. C. 5.3.1.9, Glycerol-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; E. C. 1.1.1, Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; E. C. 1.1.1.42, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E. C. 1.1.1.27, Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; E. C. 1.1.1.37 , Malate dehydrogenase NADP (ME; E. C. 1.1.1.40, Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E. C. 5.4.2.2 and Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORB; E.C. 1.1.1.14. Twenty loci were identified through 15% corn starch gel electrophoresis of which nine (45% were polymorphic. The average expected heterozygosity was estimated as 0.1229 ± 0.1728, and the observed was 0.0586 ± 0.1069, indicating high genetic variability. The average value of FIS = 0.5145 indicates homozygote excess.  

  18. Occurrence of ignimbrite volcanics in the northern Espirito Santo Basin, Brazil: an advance in the model of tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the basin; Ocorrencia de rochas vulcanicas ignimbriticas na porcao norte da Bacia do Espirito Santo: evolucao do modelo tectono-sedimentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Luis Carlos Chaves [PETROBRAS, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo. Gerencia de Reservatorios], e-mail: novais@petrobras.com.br; Zelenka, Tibor [University of Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Geology], e-mail: zelenka.tibor@freemail.hu; Szatmari, Peter [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello. Gerencia de Geologia Estrutural e Geotectonica], e-mail: szatmari@petrobras.com.br; Motoki, Akihisa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Mineralogia e Petrologia Ignea], e-mail: motoki@uerj.br; Aires, Jose Ribeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento-Petroquimica e Fertilizantes. Gerencia Setorial de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude], e-mail: aires@petrobras.com.br; Tagliari, Claudio VInicius [PETROBRAS, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo. Gerencia de Avaliacao de Blocos e Interpretacao Geologica e Geofisica], e-mail: tagliari@petrobras.com.br

    2007-11-15

    The intention of this work is to provide information on ignimbrite volcanoclastics, outcropping in the northern onshore part of the Espirito Santo Basin, and to examine their role in the tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the basin. We identified ignimbrites, pyroclastics of rhyolitic to dacitic composition, along the NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending transcurrent fault system named here Sao Mateus Alignment or Sao Mateus Arch. We followed the mostly horizontally layered ignimbrites, at least 50 m thick, for about 10 km along and close to the margins of the Sao Mateus River. These ignimbrite bodies had been mapped before as fluvio-lacustrine sandstones of the Tertiary Rio Doce/Barreiras Formation, without recognizing their partially volcanoclastic character. Microscopic examination suggests idiomorphic and fragmented {proportional_to}-quartz phenocrysts, contained in a hydrothermally altered matrix of clay minerals and zeolites. The fragmented form of the phenocrysts points to explosive volcanic activity; grain size tends to increase westward, probably indicating the principal place of volcanic centers. The outcropping sequence of ignimbritic rocks provides a major advance in the understanding of the basin's Cenozoic tectonic-structural history contributing to a revision of its stratigraphy. (author)

  19. Avaliação multicriterial no mapeamento de risco de incêndios florestais, em ambiente sig, na bacia do Rio Corumbataí, SP Multi-criteria evaluation of a GIS environment in a forest fire hazard mapping for the Corumbataí River basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Luis Ferraz da Silveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos agentes mais empregados na supressão de áreas florestais no Estado de São Paulo é o fogo, por meio de queimadas que, quando fora de controle, podem converter-se em incêndios responsáveis pela destruição de extensos ecossistemas. Na Bacia do Rio Corumbataí, SP, os incêndios são um dos causadores de fragmentação e degradação da cobertura florestal. Nesse contexto, este trabalho objetivou a realização do mapeamento de risco de incêndios florestais na Bacia do Rio Corumbataí, utilizando-se a avaliação multicriterial (Método da Média Ponderada Ordenada em um Sistema de Informações Geográficas. Os fatores importantes do estudo foram: declividade do terreno, face de exposição ao sol, pluviosidade, proximidade da malha viária, proximidade dos centros urbanos, proximidade da rede hidrográfica, vizinhança dos fragmentos e face de exposição aos ventos. A combinação dos mapas de fatores resultou no mapa de risco regional da bacia. Para a confecção do mapa de risco em nível de fragmento, determinou-se o risco associado a cada fragmento, a partir da análise de uma faixa de 30 m em seu entorno. O risco foi reclassificado em três classes: baixo, médio e alto. Com base no mapa final, verificou-se que: aproximadamente 20% dos fragmentos de mata nativa pertencem à classe de risco alto, 55% à classe de risco médio e 25% à classe de risco baixo. Nas condições atuais de uso e cobertura do solo, bem como de manejo das áreas agrícolas e pastagens, os remanescentes florestais da Bacia do Rio Corumbataí estão sob séria ameaça de degradação por incêndios florestais.Fire is one of the agents most used in the suppression of forest areas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and, when out of control, it can be responsible for the destruction of extensive ecosystems. In the case of the Corumbataí river basin, SP, fire is one of the main causes of forest fragmentation and degradation. The purpose of this study was

  20. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC)3) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing 197Hg and 203Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of 75Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of 203Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury levels obtained in this work

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of Taciba and Rio Bonito formations in Mafra, SC area, eastern Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Taciba e Rio Bonito (Membro Triunfo) na regiao de Mafra/SC, leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The Taciba and Rio Bonito ('lower' Triunfo Mbr) formations are divided into six depositional sequences based on cores, gamma-ray and electrical logs from shallow drillings from northern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Each sequence is formed by two systems tracts, a lower one, sandy (low stand) and an upper one, shaly (high stand). The Taciba Formation has three sequences, S{sub 0} to S{sub 2}; sequence S{sub 0} has a thick turbidite sandstone at the base (Rio Segredo Member) that pinches out towards the eastern margin and even disappears in the Mafra outcrop area. Sequence S{sub 1} varies from a thin fluvial-estuarine system to a thick turbidite sandstone of a channelled fan system; S{sub 1} upper shaly system tract is marine in well PP-11, and it is glacially influenced in well PP-10. Sequence S{sub 2} is a thick sandstone body of shallow marine origin, but restricted to one well (PP-11); its upper shaly tract is dominated by massive siltstones intercalated with thin, distal tempestites. The 'lower' Triunfo Member (or 'Taciba- Triunfo transition') begins with the arrival of deltaic clastics of sequence S{sub 3} lower tract, coarsening-up from medial- to proximal delta front sandstones. Sequence S{sub 4} is quite similar to S{sub 3}, both showing sandstone pro gradation from north to south, as opposed to the southwest-sourced transgressive diamictites. Sequence S{sub 5} consists of fluvial deposits at well PP-12, and two transgressive cycles from wells PP-11 to PP-9, each one of them composed of fluvial-estuarine to marine systems. Well PP-10 is an exception, where the lower cycle presents de glaciation to marine deposits. (author)

  2. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  3. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  4. Real-time environmental monitoring system: drilling campaign BM-CAL-4 Block, Camanu-Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Sistema de monitoramento ambiental em tempo-real: Bloco BM-CAL-4, Bacia de Camamu-Almada, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Pedro [El Paso Oleo e Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Cabral, Alexandre P. [Fugro OceansatPeg (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Between February and November 2007, the El Paso Oleo e Gas do Brasil Ltda. carried out a second exploratory campaign at the BM-CAL-4 Block (Camamu-Almada Basin), installing a real-time transmission metocean data monitoring system. Two metocean Wavescan (WS) buoys from Fugro were installed, transmitting current, wave and wind data to the El Paso crises room. The WS1 was positioned near the oil (10,5 km from the shore, at 22m depth), and the WS2 was located near the entrance of Barra Grande area (4,w km from the coast, at 10m depth). The real rime data fed the mathematical simulation using an oil spill model from Fugro Oceansatpeg. The metocean data Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System proved to be an important tool in the environmental management of the drilling activity located near the coastline. The sampling and real-time transmission of the current, wind and wave data allowed a better decision making regarding the selection of the best response strategies, saving time and resources in the simulation exercises, a vital issue in case of a real oil spill accident. (author)

  5. Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

  6. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author)

  7. Distribuição geográfica de pequenos mamíferos não voadores nas bacias dos rios Araguaia e Paraná, região centro-sul do Brasil Geographic distribution of small non-volant mammals in the Araguaia and Paraná basins, south-central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2008-06-01

    biogeográficos. A Serra dos Caiapós pode ter sido uma barreira geográfica para algumas espécies de pequenos mamíferos em face da retração e expansão das florestas ocorridas no passado.We collected small mammals in two hydrographic basins in central Brazil, namely the Paraná and Araguaia basins, with the aim of examining the composition of forest dwelling small mammal species and to compare their geographic distributions. Fourteen sites were sampled, eight in the Paraná basin and six in the Araguaia basin. A total of 20 species of small mammals was registered (8 marsupials and 12 rodents, 16 of them in live traps (5,253 trap-nights and eight in pitfalls (224 trap-nights, adding to a total of 161 captures of 139 individuals. The Paraná basin showed 16 species (trap-nights: 3,115 and 104 respectively and the Araguaia basin 11 species (trap-nights: 2,138 and 120 respectively, being both richness similar when the rarefaction method was applied. Seven (35% out of the 20 species recorded occurred in both basins. The marsupial Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 was the most abundant species. The marsupials species recorded were D. albiventris, Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758, Cryptonanus cf. agricolai Voss, Lunde & Jansa, 2005, Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, G. microtarsus (Wagner, 1842, Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest, 1804, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus, 1758, and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758. The rodent species recorded were Akodon gr. cursor, Calomys tener (Winge, 1887, Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883, N. squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oryzomys maracajuensis Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002, Oryzomys cf. marinhus, O. megacephalus (Fischer, 1814, Oligoryzomys fornesi (Massoia, 1973, Oligoryzomys sp., Proechimys longicaudatus (Rengger, 1830 and P. roberti (Thomas, 1901. The range extension of some species is discussed, in addition to biogeographic considerations. The Caiapós Mountains may have been a geographic barrier for some small

  8. Cladocerans from gut contents of fishes associated to macrophytes from Taquari River Basin, MS, Brazil Cladóceros do conteúdo estomacal de peixes associados a macrófitas da Bacia do Rio Taquari, MS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the cladocerans species from the gut contents of fishes sampled in an oxbow lake from Taquari River Basin, MS, with the specific view of investigating the importance of these crustaceans in the fishes diets; METHODS: Sampling was carried out in April and August of 2005 (dry season and January of 2006 (wet season. The fish were captured with a sieve. In the laboratory, individuals were identified and stomachs were removed and weighed. The stomach contents were identified, and a Feeding Index calculated; RESULTS: The items most consumed by fishes were filamentous algae, Cladocera and detritus. The Cladocera were especially important in the August and January samples, and consisted primarily of Chydoridae; cladocerans were most consumed by species of Serrapinnus and by Mesonauta festivus. Fish fed more in April, with decreases occurring in stomach fullness on the other two sampling dates. CONCLUSIONS: Cladocerans associated with macrophytes may be an important food source for small fish individuals in marginal lakes from Taquari River Basin. The relative importance of the Chydoridae in the guts may have been due to the high relative abundance and species richness of this group in the environment. A short discussion on fish feeding habits was included in the text.OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as espécies de cladóceros presentes no conteúdo estomacal de peixes amostrados em uma lagoa marginal da Bacia do Rio Taquari, MS, visando avaliar a importância destes crustáceos na dieta dos peixes; MÉTODOS: A amostragem foi realizada em abril e agosto de 2005 (estação seca e janeiro de 2006 (estação chuvosa. Os peixes foram capturados com um peneirão. Em laboratório, os indivíduos foram identificados até o nível de espécie e os estômagos removidos e pesados. O conteúdo estomacal foi identificado e um Índice Alimentar calculado. RESULTADOS: Os itens mais consumidos pelos peixes

  9. Avaliação preliminar das cargas difusas de origem rural, em uma sub-bacia do Rio Jaguari, SP Preliminary assessment of diffused loads from rural areas in a sub-basin of the Jaguari River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. C. Mansor

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dados oficiais de concentração de nutrientes e vazão do Rio Jaguari, foram utilizados na avaliação das contribuições difusas, com origem rural, às águas superficiais de uma sub-bacia do Rio Jaguari, SP. Modelos de cargas médias diárias de Ntotal e Ptotal foram gerados a partir de regressão estatística aplicada a dados de campo obtidos entre 1999 e 2002. A validação dos modelos foi feita utilizando-se dados de campo obtidos entre 1996 e 1998. O modelo mostrou que, em média, 68,2% das cargas anuais de Ntotal e 77,3% das cargas anuais de Ptotal foram transportados pela sub-bacia no período chuvoso. Partindo-se de cargas de base diárias de 1706,5 kg Ntotal e de 165,7 kg Ptotal, determinou-se que 55,1 e 69,4% das cargas anuais totais de Ntotal e Ptotal, respectivamente, transportadas pela sub-bacia, provieram de fontes difusas. As taxas de exportação de nutrientes por carga difusa, obtidas pela aplicação do modelo, foram iguais a 230 kg Ntotal km-2 ano-1 e 40 kg Ptotal km-2 ano-1. Concluiu-se que o controle das fontes difusas de Ptotal, a partir de áreas rurais, deverá diminuir as concentrações deste nutriente no Rio Jaguari.Official water quality and flow data from Jaguari River were used to assess the diffused loads of nutrients from rural areas into surface waters. Mathematical models of mean daily loads of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP were generated through the application of simple statistical procedures to field data collected from 1999 to 2002. The models obtained were validated with field data collected from 1996 to 1998. The application of the model showed that, on average, 68.2% of the TN annual loads and 77.3% of the TP annual loads were transported through the sub-basin during the raining season. Assuming the mean baseflow loads as 1706.5 kg TN d-1 and 165.7 kg TP d-1, the annual diffused loads obtained - primarily from rural sources - were equivalent to 55.1 and 69.4% of the total annual loads of

  10. Stratigraphy, Depositional Architecture and Facies Analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Neojurassic-Eocretaceous in the Type-area, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil: an Example of Sedimentation of Rift Initiation to Rift Climax Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Luís Fambrini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a stratigraphic revision of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazilbased on detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and palaeofl ow data. The main facies are: 1. coarsegrained conglomeratic sandstones and locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks, several large-to mediumscale trough cross-stratifi cations and predominantly lenticular geometry; 2. medium-to coarse-grained lenticular sandstones with granules, abundant silicified fossil wood and trunks, and large-to medium-scale trough cross-stratifications, cut-and-fill features and mud drapes on the foreset cross-strata; 3. conglomerates and poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebblesand horizontal stratifi cation; 4. fi ne-to very fine-laminated silty sandstone interlayered with 5. decimetric pelitic layers with parallel stratification and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Ten architectural elements were identifi ed: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel barsand bedforms, SG: sediment gravity fl ows, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB(p: sand bedform with planar cross-stratifi cation,OFch: Overbank fl ow of channel (levee, crevasse and channel splay, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet,LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. Not all of these features were observed at each outcrop. Theseelements, which are defi ned by their geometry and bounding surfaces, form the basis for interpreting depositional environments. TheMissão Velha Formation is interpreted as: a. high energy braided fluvial systems with fining-upward cycles, channelized features,truncated cross-strata (diastema, lenticular geometry, channeled sandstones, sparse pebbles and b. meandering river systems due tothe presence of flood plain deposits, crevasse splays and point-bars deposits. Aeolian deposits can also occur.

  11. Bold enterprise in Amazon basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D.

    1980-08-30

    The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pumpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia- Gmelina arborea which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products: pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

  12. Hydrodynamic characterization of soils within a representative watershed in northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, E. G.; Almeida, C. D. N.; Farias, A. S.; Coelho, V. H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies about the infiltration of water in the soil, based on hydraulic conductivity and retention curve, are important to simulate hydrological processes and pollution fluxes. This paper aims to present the hydrodynamic soil behaviour of the Gramame watershed, located in northeast Brazil. This basin is representative of several other watersheds located on the coastal region of northeast Brazil, where sugarcane crops constitute the main land use. For this study, three different land uses and ...

  13. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  14. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION IN THE FEE-FISHING LOCATED IN CORUMBATAI RIVER BASIN, SP (BRAZIL = AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA DOS PESQUE-PAGUE LOCALIZADOS NA BACIA DO RIO CORUMBATAÍ, SP (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Nadai Malagutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fee-fishing are comprised of ponds, where fish are raised used in sport fishing. In ponds, the stocking of fish may deteriorate the water quality with the enrichment of nutrients from feed, fertilizer and fish faeces and animals around. This study determined some of the biotic factors of effluent and surface water bodies directly related units fee-fishing. Initially it carried out a number of fee-fishing active in Corumbataí river basin. Subsequently, six fee-fishing were selected for monitoring bi-monthly, this carried out in nine samples. It collected samples of pond water to analyze the parameters: DBO, total pigments, total coliforms, E.coli, and toxicity tests. It was applied a principal component analysis to the values of the biotic fee-fishing studied. Most of the factors determined here were above the limit established by that law, demonstrating the need for greater control of ponds and the establishment of an Environmental Liability for this kind of activity. = Os pesque-pague são unidades compostas por viveiros, onde são criados peixes utilizados em pesca esportiva. Nos viveiros, a estocagem dos peixes pode deteriorar a qualidade da água com o enriquecimento de nutrientes, provenientes da ração, fertilização e das fezes dos peixes e animais do entorno. Este trabalho determinou algumas das variáveis bióticas dos efluentes e dos corpos de água superficiais relacionados diretamente com as unidades de pesque-pague. Inicialmente foi realizado um diagnóstico do número de pesque-pague em atividade na bacia do rio Corumbataí. Posteriormente, foram escolhidos 6 estabelecimentos para monitoramento bimestral, realizado em 9 coletas. Foram coletadas amostras de água dos viveiros para analisar as variáveis DBO, pigmentos totais, coliformes totais, E. coli, e realizados testes de toxicidade. Foi aplicada análise de componentes principais aos valores das variáveis bióticas dos pesque-pague estudados. Os resultados foram

  15. Qualidade da água subterrânea para irrigação na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Piauí, em Sergipe Groundwater quality for irrigation purposes in Piauí River Basin in the State of Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R. A. de Amorim

    2010-01-01

    . Physicochemical data of water from 278 deep wells located in Piauí River Basin, in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, were used considering the FAO restriction criteria for irrigation purposes. Maps of spatial distribution of groundwater quality indicators in the watershed were prepared by ordinary kriging procedures. Groundwaters showed good quality for irrigation use, mainly in the center-downstream portion of the river basin. There was a trend in increasing the salt concentration in water from the coast to inland in the Piauí River Basin area.

  16. Efeito da variabilidade da precipitação pluvial e do uso e manejo do solo sobre o escoamento superficial e o aporte de sedimento de uma bacia hidrográfica do Distrito Federal Effect of rainfall variability and land use on runoff and sediment in the Pipiripau river basin, in the Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marinho Leite Chaves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variabilidade da precipitação sobre o escoamento direto e sobre o aporte de sedimento na bacia do rio Pipiripau (A = 235 km², no Distrito Federal. Cinco anos típicos da série de precipitação foram selecionados: o ano mais úmido, o ano mais seco, o ano médio e dois anos que representaram os desvios-padrão da série (médio-seco e médio-úmido. Depois de o modelo ser calibrado com dados diários de chuva e vazão da bacia, simulações foram realizadas para cada evento chuvoso de cada um dos cinco anos selecionados da série, e o escoamento direto e o aporte de sedimento da bacia foram calculados com a MUSLE em três diferentes cenários de uso e manejo do solo: o cenário atual, onde predomina o preparo convencional do solo (PC nas áreas de agricultura da bacia; o passado recente, em que predominava o Cerrado nativo (CER; e o cenário de plantio direto (PD, nas áreas de agricultura da bacia. Apesar de as vazões médias anuais observadas terem apresentado relação linear com os volumes de precipitação pluvial anual, em todos os cenários, o escoamento direto e o aporte de sedimento apresentaram aumento exponencial com o aumento da precipitação pluvial anual, sendo esse mais pronunciado na condição de preparo convencional (PC do que nos outros cenários estudados (CER e PD. O aumento observado pode ser explicado pela não-linearidade do modelo MUSLE ao volume de precipitação e ao volume de escoamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the rainfall variability on the runoff and sediment amount in the Pipiripau river basin (A = 235 km², in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. To represent the climatic variability of the historic precipitation series, 5 years were selected: the moistest, the driest, an average, and 2 years representing the standard deviations from the series (half-wet and half-dry. After the calibration of the model with basin rainfall and

  17. Analysis of the economic potential of the landfill in the municipality of Chapeco - SC, Brazil; Analise do potencial economico do aterro sanitario do municipio de Chapeco - SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansian, Maricy Moreno, Email: maricymc@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the economic and environmental viability of the exploitation of methane gas (CH4) - biogas - concentrated at the bottom of the mountains of waste from landfill Chapeco for power generation. The landfill receives approximately of 80 tons / day, the vast majority of domestic origin.

  18. Energy analysis of the poultry rising located at the Sertao do Pajeu, Pernambuco, Brazil; Analise energetica de aviarios localizados no Sertao do Pajeu pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Lopes, Tiago Pessoa de Melo Queiroz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias]. E-mail: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    The activity of poultry raising is today an alternative for income generation in the backlands of Pajeu, State of Pernambuco. In the City of Sao Jose do Egito, distant 402 km from the State Capital Recife, there is a large poultry plant with 284 integrated poultry farms owned by small rural producers. Those poultry farms are built in masonry and lateral woven wire fencing within the standard size of 9 m X 125 m. Their capacity is 10,000 birds and they are equipped with drinking and feed boxes, silos, fans, nebuliser, motor-pumps, lights and heaters. In their first 18 days of the bird's life, called 'baby chick phase', it needs a warm environment temperature of about 34 deg C, which is fundamental for its survival. In that phase the energy consumption is mainly related to water pumping and lighting. From the 19th day up to the 45th day - the period called 'poultry phase' - the birds need lower temperatures. The feeders are automatic, fans and nebulizers are used to ease the air circulation and to improve the poultry comfort. This phase is the one, which requires more electric energy consumption. After 45 days the poultry is slaughtered with about 2.8 kg and the poultry farm comes into a time period of cleaning and resting called 'cleaning and resting phase', which takes from 15 to 28 days. This is the phase with the lowest energy consumption. Then the poultry farm cycle is completed, which takes about 70 days, that is, the time span of one year accounts for 5.5 cycles. In this work an energy consumption analysis for all phases of poultry raising is performed and alternative proposals for the energy conservation and energy consumption reduction is presented. (author)

  19. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  20. Analysis of the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine in Brazil; Analise da distribuicao de Radiofarmacos para servicos de Medicina Nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, Lilian T.; Correa, Eduardo L.; Potiens, Maria P.A., E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals produced by Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), as part of a project to develop a methodology for control and calibration of activimeters used by these Nuclear Medicine Services. This survey was conducted using registry data of registered customers and, with bases in such information, we analyzed the number of clinics all over the country. Considering the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals and what the most used in 2011, there was a total of 365 clinics, and this distribution as follows: Southeast with 56%, South 18%, Northeast 15%, North 4%, and Midwest with 7%. Among the various radioisotopes provided 26 were sold and most in demand are the {sup 67}Ga, {sup 131}I and IPEN-tec (technetium generator)

  1. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil; Analise de perigos e pontos criticos de controle para alimentos irradiados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-07-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)

  2. An energetic analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in Brazil; Uma analise energetica de um biodigestor tipo chines no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, Antonio; Moreira, Marco A.R.G.; Rebello, Renata B.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The energetic analysis has proved to be an important instrument for the evaluation of energetic alternatives concerning strategies objectives through the analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in the Brazilian use situation this work demonstrates that the technology is viable for Brazilian countryside areas 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  4. Traces of a large crocodylian from the Lower Cretaceous Sousa Formation, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Herbert B.N.; da Silva, Rafael C.; Milàn, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Body imprints and tracks attributed to large crocodylians from the Lower Cretaceous Sousa Formation of Brazil are described and interpreted as having been produced in a subaqueous environment. In addition to the crocodylian tracks, the assemblage also comprises isolated tracks from medium......-sized theropods. The studied crocodylian traces are interpreted as subaqueous traces possibly produced by Mesoeucrocodylia crocodyles, during half-swimming and resting next to the margin of a lake. This is the first record of crocodylian traces in Brazil and confirms the potential for finds of new ichnosites...... in the Rio do Peixe basins of northeastern Brazil....

  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) using in the detection of oil spills on the ocean surface, from texture classification at the Campos Basin region, RJ, Brazil; Uso de radar de abertura sintetica na deteccao de manchas de oleo na superficie do mar a partir de classificacao textural na regiao da Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Luciana de Souza [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lsoler@ltid.inpe.br; Freitas, Corina da Costa [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Processamento de Imagens]. E-mail: corina@dpi.inpe.br; Lorenzzetti, Joao Antonio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Oceanografia por Satelite]. E-mail: loren@ltid.inpe.br

    2001-07-01

    The search for oil reserves and oil production along offshore has caused an increase in oil and its derivatives transportation by ships. As a result, the oil spills have showed a serious threat to ocean healthy and preservation. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) capability in detecting ocean healthy and preservation. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) capability in detecting ocean surface waves, allows the oil spills identification due the damping of gravity and capillary waves. The wave damping causes allow roughness, thus a low signal return to radar. However, some ocean features, as low wind areas and rain cells (so-called oil spill look-alike), have similar responses to oil spill. This fact is considered the main problem in SAR contribution development in oil spill man made monitoring. It was used 4 RADARSAT/SAR images in Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro state. Two different textural classifiers were applied to separate oil, water, ships and oil spill look-alike. It was observed that both classifiers had relatively a good performance in separating oil, water and ships. However, in some classifications, it was observed a relative confusion between oil spill and its look-alike due to their similar responses. In spite of this limitation, it was concluded that SAR has a great potential in the oil spill detection in ocean surface. (author)

  6. Brazil's development plan centers on deepwater oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-03

    Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA continues to advance deepwater technology as it pushes the frontier in ultradeep waters of the Campos basin off Rio de Janeiro state. Petrobras holds many world records related to deepwater drilling and production. But the Campos basin campaign goes beyond technological bragging rights. The prolific basin, which accounts for more than half the country's crude oil production, is expected to be the cornerstone of Brazil's plans to boost production to 1 million b/d at year end 1993. Even with the surge to 1 million b/d, Brazil almost certainly will continue to be a net oil importer. The missed production targets result not from lack of identified oil reserves or technological capability, both of which Petrobras has in abundance in the Campos basin. The problem is lack of capital in the financially stressed country. Petrobras began reassessing its spending plans in 1992 after projections called for a need to spend about $18 billion on exploration and production to meet the target of 1 million b/d by 1995. Those plans are being further reassessed as Brazil's government indicates it might slash Petrobras's budget by half this year amid continuing economic turmoil. The funding dilemma also strengthens the case for at least partially privatizing the giant state petroleum concern, a controversial step at best. The paper discusses Campos surge in production, the Campos potential, deepwater record, Marlim Phase 1, Albacora field production, the possibility of foreign participation, and the Barracuda field pilot.

  7. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  8. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  9. A brief analysis of price lining at the domestic market; Uma breve analise do alinhamento de precos no mercado domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carla de Souza e

    2007-07-01

    The PETROBRAS price policy is a recurrent theme in the economic debate since the sector opening on 2002. In the last months, the theme obtained more importance because the Manguinhos refinery (Brazil) at the domestic market. This article aims to analyses the gasoline and diesel prices behavior during the first eight months of 2005.

  10. Comparative analysis of the strategies for the utilization of wind power; Analise comparativa das estrategias para implantacao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Geraldo Martins [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The utilization of wind power in more than 40 countries was performed following several guidelines which are analysed in this work aiming the definition of a strategy which can be applied in Brazil. A brief explanation of these strategies used abroad is provided as well as a comparative analysis of them. The outline of a Brazilian strategy is provided 37 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Caracterização dos argilominerais usados em matéria-prima cerâmica, da formação Rio do Rasto, Bacia do Paraná, no município de Turvo, SC Characterization of clay minerals used in the ceramic industry, from Rio do Rasto formation, Paraná basin, exploitation in Turvo, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No sudeste de Santa Catarina existem inúmeras minas de exploração de argilas destinadas à indústria cerâmica da região. Para o conhecimento desta matéria prima foi realizada a caracterização em detalhe de uma frente de lavra em atividade. A exploração é realizada em terrenos sedimentares da Formação Rio do Rasto (Permiano Superior na Bacia do Paraná que afloram como morros testemunho. Foram coletadas quatorze amostras representativas dos níveis desta mina composta de argilitos com intercalação de siltitos de pequena espessura. As amostras foram analisadas por difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó na rocha total e na fração In the southeastern part of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, many mines of clays used as raw material for the ceramic industry are found. A detail study of this material was developed in a mine in activity. The exploitation of clays is held in sedimentary rocks of Rio do Rasto Formation (Upper Permian in the Paraná Basin. The outcrops are in hills testimonies. Fourteen samples were collected and represent the levels of this mine which consisted of argillites with intercalation of slim siltite layer. These samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction using the powder method and in the fraction < 4 µm. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Petrographic observations in thin section were also performed. Scanning electron microscope images was obtained in samples fragments by secondary electron method. Electron microprobe microanalysis was performed in one thin section. The results showed large vertical variation in the mineralogy and it has been identified three different levels. Up to 2.00 m there is a predominance of smectite. Between 5.50 m 2.00 m the smectite is the main clay mineral, but with significant amounts of illite/mica and above 5.50 m occurs large increase in K-feldspar and detrital mica. Studies in detail by X-ray diffraction (determination of the b

  12. Análise do sistema de gerenciamento dos resíduos de serviços de saúde nos municípios da bacia hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Analysis of the management system of the healthcare waste in municipalities of Rio dos Sinos hydrographic basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paulo Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa focou-se o gerenciamento dos resíduos de serviços de saúde (RSS e especificamente aqueles do tipo perfurocortantes. Foram analisadas as formas atuais de gestão implementadas na bacia hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos (BHRS, a partir da aplicação de questionários nos estabelecimentos de saúde geradores de RSS. Os resultados indicam que 48,6% dos estabelecimentos de saúde atendem corretamente à legislação específica brasileira, verificando ainda uma melhor gestão para os estabelecimentos privados. Os estabelecimentos de saúde do tipo "laboratórios, bancos de sangue e farmácias" instalados nos municípios com mais de 20.000 habitantes e área municipal na BHRS dentro da faixa de 80 a 100% em relação à área total municipal apresentaram os piores resultados em termos de gestão de RSS. O grupo de atividades de serviços de saúde com o maior número de estabelecimentos na BHRS - "consultórios/clínicas de odontologia, clínicas veterinárias, drogarias e unidade móvel" - indicou um dos menores índices de conhecimento das exigências legais específicas relativas ao tema estudado.This research focused on the management of healthcare waste, specifically about the sharps types. The current ways of management in the Rio dos Sinos basin (BHRS were analyzed with the use of questionnaires in health establishments generators of healthcare waste. The results indicate that 48.6% of health facilities comply with the specific legislation in Brazil, also indicating a better management coming from private institutions. Health facilities of the type "labs, blood banks and pharmacies" installed in municipalities with over 20,000 inhabitants and municipal area in BHRS within the range of 80 to 100% relative to the total municipal area had the worst results in terms of healthcare waste management. The group activities of healthcare services with the highest number of establishments in BHRS - "dental offices/clinics, veterinary

  13. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  14. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  15. Estudo florístico do componente herbáceo e relação com solos em áreas de caatinga do embasamento cristalino e bacia sedimentar, Petrolândia, PE, Brasil Herbaceous floristic study and relationship with soil of crystalline shield and sedimentary basin caatinga areas at Petrolândia, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Andrade da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento florístico em áreas de caatinga do embasamento cristalino e de bacia sedimentar, em Petrolândia, Pernambuco, objetivando-se identificar diferenças na composição, hábito e forma de vida das herbáceas entre as duas áreas. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm. Foram estabelecidas 100 parcelas de 1×1 m em cada área e coletadas todas as espécies herbáceas. De modo geral, o solo da área do embasamento cristalino foi mais fértil, raso, com maior capacidade de reter água e maior porcentagem de argila. Os números de famílias, gêneros e espécies das áreas da bacia sedimentar e do embasamento cristalino foram 32, 62 e 78 e 31, 53 e 69, respectivamente. A similaridade florística entre as áreas foi alta (75%. A análise de agrupamento mostrou que os arranjos florísticos entre as parcelas amostradas são mais semelhantes dentro de cada área que entre áreas, sugerindo a existência de grupos distintos. Tipo de solo parece não ser um fator decisivo na similaridade florística, hábito e proporção de forma de vida das herbáceas da vegetação da caatinga quando as áreas são próximas, mas pode influenciar a ocorrência e a freqüência de algumas espécies.Floristic surveys were carried out in two close caatinga areas, one on the crystalline shield and the other on a sedimentary basin, both at Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil, with the objective of identifying differences between the two areas in composition, habit and life form of the herbaceous flora. One hundred 1×1 m plots were established in each area and all the herbaceous species were identified. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths. In general, the soil in the crystalline shield area was shallower, had greater clay content, with higher water holding capacity, and was more fertile. The number of families, genera and species in the sedimentary basin and crystalline shield areas were 32

  16. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  17. Age and growth of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula (tetraodontiformes, balistidae of the central coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Cristiano Queiroz de

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal spines (n=649 of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula were collected between 1997 to 1999 at the central coast of Brazil and used to evaluate fish growth. The marginal increment analysis validated that 1 increment was formed annually (n=476, with minimum values observed at the summer, and coinciding with the maximum proportion of translucent growth bands. Fish's maximum fork length and age were 460 mm and 14 years respectively. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy function were: Fl∞ = 441.3 mm, K = 0.14 and T0= -1.8. Weight gain by year ranged from about 110 g yr-1 for age 5 to about 30 g yr-1 for age 14. Compared to other studies, B. vetula growth in the Central coast of Brazil was slow, which could be related to the influence of the oligotrophic water from Brazil current. Our results indicate that B. vetula's fisheries in the Central coast of Brazil until 1999 have caught mostly adult individuals over the sexual maturation lenght, 60% of them with ages from 6 to 8 yr.Entre 1997 e 1999 foram amostrados 649 espinhos de Balistes vetula na costa central do Brazil e foram utilizados para a avaliação de crescimento. A validação de anéis anuais de crescimento foi realizada através da analise de incrementos marginais, cujos valores mínimos foram observados durante o verão, coincidindo com a maior proporção de anéis translúcidos na borda do espinho. Portanto, forma-se um anel de crescimento a cada ano. A idade e o comprimento padrão máximos observados foram respectivamente 14 anos e 460 mm. Os parâmetros da equação de von-Bertalanffy foram: Fl∞ = 441,3 mm, K = 0,14 e T0= -1,8. O incremento anual em peso variou de 110 g yr-1 para a idade 5 a 30 g yr-1 para a idade 14. Comparados a outros estudos, nossos resultados indicam taxas de crescimento mais baixas, que podem ter sido induzidas pela influência oligotrófica da corrente do Brasil ao longo da costa central do Brasil. Nossos resultados indicam que a pesca do peroá at

  18. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  19. Decentralization, participation and deliberation in water governance: a case study of the implications for Guarulhos, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van den Brandeler; M. Hordijk; K. von Schönfeld; J. Sydenstricker-Neto

    2014-01-01

    After the return to democracy in the late 1980s, Brazil developed a new system of water governance with a decentralization of responsibilities and the formation of participatory, deliberative institutions that characterized the governance reforms in general. Tripartite "water basin committees", with

  20. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Malm, O.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  1. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani de Oliveira Mendes-Neto; Marcelo Ricardo Vicari; Roberto Artoni; Orlando Moreira-Filho

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil. Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of H. regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of H. reg...

  2. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  3. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1; Diagnostico da mucoviscidose utilizando analise por ativacao com neutrons. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Bellido, Alfredo V

    1997-02-01

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author) 33 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Comparative analysis of strategies to wind energy implantation; Analise comparativa das estrategias para implantacao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, G.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The paper shows how several countries improved the use of wind power in their electrical grid stating model groups by adopting different strategies during the installations of wind electrical conversion systems coupled to their conventional electrical network. Also establishes a proposed model to be enforced in Brazil and analyses the Brazilian social and technical constraints, comparing strategies used in 18 countries. 37 refs., 1 tab

  5. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  6. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  7. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  8. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  9. Relações solo, superfície geomórfica e substrato geológico na microbacia do ribeirão Marins (Piracicaba - SP Soil, geological substrate and geomorphic surface relationships for the Marins river basin (Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Roberto Teramoto

    2001-06-01

    60-80cm é influenciada principalmente pela natureza química e física do substrato geológico, enquanto que os atributos morfológicos são determinados principalmente pelo relevo. Estas relações se repetem na paisagem da microbacia com características de solo, relevo e litologia semelhantes, permitindo sua extrapolação para outras áreas, contribuindo para futuros levantamentos detalhados de solos que possam vir a ser realizados na região.The relationships between soil, geology and geomorphic surface were studied in the Marins basin of Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil. Soils, parent material, geology and geomorphic surfaces were mapped. Two transects were studied to verify the lateral variation of the soils. Geology derives from Neo-Cenozoic superficial deposits of a loamy sand texture, sandstone belonging to the Piramboia Formation of the São Bento group, with siltstones and shales belonging to the Corumbatai Formation of the Passa Dois group, and colluvial and alluvial sediments. Five geomorphic surfaces were identified. The relationships between soil, parent material, geology and geomorphic surfaces were performed cross-referencing the different maps. These relations were analyzed by comparision to an "uniformity index", specialy developed to verify the inter-relation uniformity. Ten soil units were identified (Oxisol, Ultisol and Inceptisol orders. The Oxisol is related to the neocenozoic cover and surface I, were the relief is almost flat. The Ultisol, with a predominance of a sandy loam texture, is related to the Pirambóia formation sandstone and to surfaces II and III, with gentle slopes. The Incepstisol, with a clayey texture, are associated to the Corumbataí formation siltstone and silex, with IV and V surfaces (ondulating relief. The Incepitsols of varied textures are related to alluvium and colluvium deposits.The relation that exists between the soils and the geomorphic surfaces is represented by the tendency that, the older and more stable the surface

  10. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    augmentation of heterosexual transmission and IDUs as transmission groups, are described and analised. The geographical distribution of the AIDS cases registered between 1987-1993 in Brazil throughout the Brazilian States is evaluated by means of worksheets, maps, and non-parametric statistics. Results show that Gravimetric Centers (obtained by the use of the calculus spatial means of AIDS in Brazil are situated within a triangle the sides of which are formed lines joining the three main metropolitan areas of the wealthiest region of Brazil - the southeast, i.e. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. These especially S. Paulo, function as points of attraction for these Gravimetric Centers (GCs towards the south as compared with the GCs of the general population calculated ia accordance with data from the 1980 and 1991 censuses. It is possible to observe a displacement of the GCs toward the northwest over this period in accordance with the migration patterns of the Brazilian population in general, though with a dynamic of its own. These changes in the geographical, socio-demographic and transmission group patterns show the complex nature of the epidemic in Brazil and pose additional difficulties for the development of prevention strategies.

  11. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  12. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  13. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of the sedimentary zeolite occurrences in the Parnaiba Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the petrographical and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis through electronic microprobe realized in zeolites contained in the Corda Formation sandstones, in the northwestern portion of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil. The data presented here update and complete the information propagated by Rezende and Angelica (1995) and Angelica et al. (1995)

  15. Influence of urbanisation on water quality in the basin of the upper Uruguay River in western Santa Catarina, Brazil Influência da urbanização sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Zeni Ternus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the limnological characteristics of rivers flowing through urban and rural areas in the upper Uruguay River basin in western Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. METHODS: Sampling sites in the tributaries were selected along the longitudinal gradient and the different use of the soil in adjacent areas. Samples were collected bimonthly from March 2005 to August 2006. The following were analysed: depth, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus were analysed. RESULTS: In most of the rivers analysed, we found a continuum from the spring to the river mouth that was characterised by a gradual increase in electrical conductivity, COD, phosphorus, alkalinity, nitrite and nitrate. However, an alteration from this pattern was found in rivers passing through urban areas. This deviation was due to high organic matter input poured into the rivers from these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Degraded riparian forest was observed along most of the bodies of water, which facilitates the entry of pollutants. Although the studied area suffers from intense farming activity (agriculture and livestock and has the highest concentration of swine livestock in the country, the rivers that were most altered from their natural state were those that were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents from urban development.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as características limnológicas de rios que atravessam áreas rurais e urbanas na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pontos nos afluentes, obedecendo ao gradiente longitudinal e diferente uso do solo das áreas adjacentes. As amostragens foram bimestrais de março de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Foram analisadas as variáveis profundidade, pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido (OD

  16. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  17. Fases larvais do mexilhão dourado Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae na Bacia do Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Larval stages of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in Guaíba Basin, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia P. dos Santos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde o final de 1998, um pequeno bivalve invasor, o "mexilhão dourado", Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, oriundo do sudeste asiático, está presente no sul do Brasil. Foi provavelmente transportado, não intencionalmente, através de água de lastro para a Bacia do Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em nosso meio, este molusco vem causando problemas de "macrofouling" com grandes prejuízos econômicos e danos à fauna e flora. As coletas foram qualitativas e quantitativas quinzenais no período de um ano, no lago Guaíba, Praia do Veludo (30°12'35"S, 51°11'68"W, ao sul do município de Porto Alegre. Utilizou-se rede de plâncton com abertura de malha equivalente a 36 mm, filtrando-se a quantidade de 30 litros de água. Descrevem-se brevemente as diferentes fases larvais com parâmetros do comprimento. Primeiramente reconhece-se um estágio ciliado, desenvolvendo-se em trocófora (comprimento de 80 µm a 125 µm com quatro fases distintas, e valvadas com a larva "D" (120 µm a 150 µm, o veliger de charneira reta (150 µm a 190 µm, o veliger umbonado (190 µm a 220 µm e o pediveliger (220 µm a 250 µm. Quando pós-larvas ou plantígradas (comprimento em torno de 300 µm, começam a secretar o fio de bisso, permitindo a fixação ao substrato. Constatou-se a presença de larvas durante todos os meses amostrados, com picos nos meses de outubro a dezembro.Since the end of 1998 a small invasive bivalve, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, originating from Southeast Asia, is present in Southern Brazil. It was probably brought not intentionally in ballast water to the Guaíba Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. In this environment, the golden mussel is causing macrofouling very rapidly with grate financial loss and damages to the native fauna and flora. Quali-quantitative samplings twice a month were performed during one year in the Guaíba lake, at Veludo Beach (30°12'35"S, 51°11'68"W southward of the municipality of Porto

  18. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  19. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  20. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  1. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  2. Lessons from the Rain Forest : Experiences of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Amazon and Atlantic Forests of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The largest hydrographic basin in the world, the Amazon is the source of 20 percent of all the fresh water on the planet. The Basin covers some 600 million hectares in nine countries, over half of which are located within Brazil's national boundaries. A striking characteristic of the Amazon region is its tremendous biodiversity, which includes an estimated 50,000 species of plants, 3,000 s...

  3. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  4. Deepwater activities offshore Brazil: Evolution on drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos, A.; Awad, S.P.; Assuncao, R.B. [Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Petrobras started drilling deep water wells offshore Brazil in the mid-eighties. Nowadays, after ten years of experience, 180 wells have been drilled in water depths ranging from 400 m to 1,800 m. Several records have been broken since the Marlim Field Pilot System came on stream. Recent activities and new prospects are pushing on limits into even deeper waters, where Petrobras is committed to drill and produce wells in the near future. This paper addresses main problems faced in the Campos Basin area, southeast Brazil, during the deep water exploratory program and the solutions achieved to solve them. A brief description of the current field developments is also given. Finally, a point about the future challenges to be overcome is made.

  5. Qualidade da água em região alterada pela mineração de carvão na microbacia do rio Fiorita (Siderópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1610 Water quality in disturbed area by coal mining, Fiorita river basin (Siderópolis, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1610

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Santo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A mineração de carvão constitui importante atividade econômica na região sul catarinense. A área da bacia hidrográfica do rio Fiorita (Município de Siderópolis, SC foi intensamente minerada e atualmente apresenta inúmeros locais com rejeitos, estéreis de mineração e lagos ácidos. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo verificar os efeitos da mineração de carvão na qualidade da água dos corpos de água na microbacia do rio Fiorita. As análises gráficas e multivariada (“cluster” sugerem que a microbacia apresenta um gradiente horizontal, com redução da qualidade da água em direção à parte baixa da bacia, com diminuição do pH e elevação nos valores de acidez total, condutividade elétrica, Eh e nos teores de sólidos totais, sulfato, alumínio, cálcio, ferro II e total, magnésio e manganês. Esses dados sugerem o efeito da concentração de metais. Como primeira aproximação, de acordo com a Resolução Conama 20 de 1986, as águas da microbacia do rio Fiorita apresentam-se com elevado grau de comprometimento de sua qualidade e de uso restrito. Também são apresentadas considerações visando contribuir com subsídios à recuperação ambiental da área em questãoCoal mining is an important economical activity in the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The em>Fiorita River basin (municipality of Siderópolis was heavily mined out and nowadays several places with mining spoils and sterile soil, as well as acid lakes, can be found in its area. This study aimed to carry out an environmental diagnosis on the water bodies quality in that region. Graphic and cluster analysis suggested that the Fiorita River basin was compartmented. It seemed that there was a deterioration gradient in water quality toward the lower portion of the basin, with pH decrease and a rise in values of total acidity, electric conductivity, Eh, total solids contents, sulphate, aluminium, calcium, iron II and totals, manganese and magnesium

  6. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  7. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  8. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  9. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; L Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  10. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)

  11. An analysis on the costs of Belo Monte hydroelectric power plant; Uma analise sobre os custos da hidreletrica Belo Monte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: energiapara@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The Belo Monte hydropower plant's low generation cost is among the arguments used by Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brazil (ELETRONORTE), a Brazilian state electric utility, to make possible its construction. This paper shows that the generation cost presented by ELETROBRAS is very low in relation to the world pattern of cost and probably unrealistic. It also shows that the generation cost cannot be used separately to determine the Belo Monte dam's economic feasibility. There is the need to include other costs, such as: socio environmental degradation and control, financial compensation for using the hydraulic resources, transmission and thermal backup stations, beyond, evidently, generation cost for assuring the credibility of the Belo Monte hydropower plant's economic analysis. (author)

  12. Benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial, we reflect on the benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil between 2013 and 2014, which affected the water supply in many regions and especially in the southeast region, with emphasis on the conflict between the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro over the right to use the water of the Paraíba do Sul River Basin. We analyze the current state of water resource management, the integrated use of water and energy and possible solutions to expand the availability of fresh water.

  13. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  14. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  15. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 (Pisces, Teleostei in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergam Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63 and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes, including the Rio Grande and Macacu river basins. In the Rio Doce basin, the patterns of genetic similarity of RAPD-PCR markers (individual fingerprinting and Nei?s genetic distance suggest the existence of two genetically different groups, one composed of the lacustrine populations Carioca and Dom Helvécio, and the other of riverine and the remaining lacustrine populations. The differences in the RAPD-PCR patterns may be explained by the existence of sub-basins within this lacustrine system. A maximum parsimony tree of cytochrome b fragment (383 base pairs supports the view that trahiras of the Rio Doce share a complex biogeographic history with those of neighboring basins. The phylogeographic patterns may be explained by a common history of the watersheds of the Rio Doce, Paraíba do Sul, and Rio Grande basins, corroborating the hypothesis of a Plio-Pleistocene separation of these drainage systems, forming the Mantiqueira "divortium aquarium".

  16. Comparative analysis of integrated water resources management models and instruments in South America: case studies in Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and Colombia are rich in terms of water supply, ranking as world leaders in the supply of water resources. Despite this, both countries have problems of relative scarcity of this vital liquid in highly populated areas with much economic activity. Establishing policies and legal environmental standards has long tradition in both countries. However, although there are provisions and instruments for water management at the water basin level, these do not necessarily follow the conceptual development of integrated water resources management (IWRM. As a result, the two countries have partially implemented IWRM elements but with different characteristics both in its structure and instrumentality. In Colombia the State Government, through the Regional Environmental Corporations, implements IWRM (concessions, fee for water use, pollution rate, basin plans, etc, with no formal involvement of civil society management. In Brazil, however, IWRM management structure and tools are decentralized and participatory, as are the Water Basin Committees, entities where the State Government, municipalities and users participate, those with the greatest weight in water management. In Brazil, however, this model is not yet implemented in all watersheds. Thus, the aim of this paper is to compare the institutional and legal aspects of water management models in Brazil and Colombia with regard to the integrated water management concept. For the latter, we worked with a case study for each country regarding Nima River watershed (Colombia and Tietê Jacaré (Brazil.

  17. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  18. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  19. Bold enterprise in Amazon basin. [Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D.

    1980-08-30

    The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pulpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia, Gmelina arborea, which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products, pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood, and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

  20. Economic approach of pipelines: TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia) case; Analise economica de gasoduto: o caso TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Celso P.; Pettendorfer, Erick P. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this paper is offer to the industry an example of successful project finance in an emergent country. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline was projected to develop an industry of natural gas in Brazil. The total costs invested was around US$ 1, 5 billion (Brazilian side) and BID, BIRD, CAF, BEI, BNDES- Finame, Marubeni, Mediocredito with main lenders. There are tree contracts with Ship or Pay clauses that are the main guarantees of the project. We will describe the mains variables of this project and the economic model that was created to calculate the tariff and project all financial reports of Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline. (author)

  1. Tabanidae (Diptera of Maranhão state, Brazil. V. Description of Protosilvius gurupi sp. n. (Pangoniinae, Pangoniini and key to Protosilvius species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protosilvius gurupi sp. n. (Tabanidae, Pangoniinae is described and illustrated based on seven female and 53 male specimens collected in the Amazonian region at Reserva Biológica Gurupi, Centro Novo do Maranhão municipality, northwest Maranhão, Brazil. This is the first record of Protosilvius in northern Brazil and in the Amazon Basin. An illustrated key to all Protosilvius species is also presented.

  2. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  3. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  4. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  5. PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PISCICULTURE ACTIVITY: THE CASE OF THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE CUBATÃO DO NORTE RIVER – SC - BRAZIL = CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E SÓCIO-AMBIENTAL DA ATIVIDADE DE PISCICULTURA: CASO DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO CUBATÃO DO NORTE – SC - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lopes Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to evaluate socioeconomic andenvironmental impacts caused by fish culture in the Cubatão do Norte River Hydrographic Basin (CNRHB, located in the north of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The fieldwork consisted of visits to the places where fish culture is practiced and application of a questionnaire during the first semester of 2005; the existence ofenvironmental licenses and projects was evaluated as well as the type of soil where the fishponds are located, the owners’ economic profit, identification of cultivated species in the region and others. Results were obtained in 19 of the 26 properties with fishponds visited in the CNRHB area. With respect to environmental licenses, 68.4% of respondents claimed they were unaware of their existence, and 63.16% stated they did not have or did not know of the existence of pond construction projects, which can lead to severe environmental impacts in the region. It was observed that 42.1% of the properties had rocky soil which is inadequate for the implantation of fishpondssince they facilitate infiltration of water into the ground. It was noted that 47.4% of the fishponds had been constructed for consumption on the property itself with no commercial interest for the activity. Many types of fish were found on the properties,such as tilapia (Oreochromis spp, carp (Cyprinus spp, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. From the results it can be concluded that the lack of regulation of the tanks and the lack of information on the part of the fish culturists can cause impacts in superficial and underground waters of the region. = Este trabalho objetiva avaliar os impactos sócio-econômicos e ambientais causados pela piscicultura na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Cubatão do Norte (BHRCN, localizada na região Norte do Estado de Santa Catarina. O trabalho de campo foi realizado através de visitas aos locais onde a piscicultura é praticada

  6. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  7. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  8. Early Mesozoic basin aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Early Mesozoic basin aquifers in the states of Massachusettes, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,...

  9. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  10. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Marc Janssens

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i) agriculture, ii) gras...

  11. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  12. Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and

  13. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  14. Elementary analysis of human dental samples by using SRXRF; Analise elementar de amostras dentarias humanas usando SRXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcelino J.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Dias, Katia R. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2002-07-01

    Human teeth were analysed by {mu}SRXRF. The measurements were carried out in small areas of the teeth from enamel to root. The aim of this work was to evaluated the local elemental variations in the dental regions, enamel, dentine and pulp from patterns of relative intensities. The distributions of the elements Ca, Zn and Sr were studied. The samples (canine, premolars and molar teeth) were cross-sectioned along the vertical median plane, by polishing the whole tooth in order to obtain a smooth and plane surface, of about 1 mm thick. The measurements were carried out in the XRF beamline of the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil using a conventional collimation system (orthogonal slits 300 {mu}m x 300 {mu}m). The Ca concentration is quite constant and it is independent of the tooth type and individual characteristics. Ca and Sr distributions show a similar behavior. An increase of the Zn concentration was found for the pulp region and for untreated carious areas. (author)

  15. International comparative analysis of E and P regulatory issues; Analise comparativa internacional de aspectos regulatorios em E e P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Erica Cristina da Fonseca; Almedia, Mariana Lessa Rego de; Baleroni, Rafael Baptista [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the more global sectors of the economy, with its economic agents acting and competing at the same time in many countries. The limitation of available funds for investment and competition in global scale make the host countries adapt some elements of their concession instruments, as a way to attract greater investments. The comparison of legal framework of diverse host countries is an essential part in this process of decision and an indispensable tool to help the host countries in the dispute for the attraction of international investors. Therefore, to place Brazil in this process of global competition between States is necessary the knowledge and the comparison between the conditions offered for its legal system and offered for countries considered as models of attraction of investment. This work intends to offer a comparative study of relevant legal aspects for the oil industry, amongst them: characterization of the concession instrument; reach of the participation of the state-owned company; intervention of the State in the private management. The comparison will be made between countries with different characteristics, to obtain a consolidation of paradigms that helps the evolution of the Brazilian exploration and production legal framework. (author)

  16. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  17. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  18. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.

    2006-07-01

    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  19. First thoughts on surface tonal patterns in Amawaka, a Panoan language of Peru and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amawaka ([ɑmɨ̃ˈwɐkɑ]) is a highly endangered and underdocumented tonal language of the Headwaters (Fleck 2011) subgroup of the Panoan family in the Southwest Amazon Basin, spoken by approximately 200 people. Undocumented phonetic and phonological phenomena of Amawaka include its tonal structure, both in terms of surface realizations and the patterns underlying these realizations. Original audiovisual data from the author’s fieldwork in various Amawaka communities at the Peru-Brazil border wil...

  20. AMS radiocarbon dating on Campos Basin, Southeast Brazilian Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Figueiredo, A.G.; Lacerda de Souza, C.; Barbosa, C.F.; Coimbra, M.M.; Elmore, D

    2004-08-01

    We present results on radiocarbon dating of foraminifera shell samples, collected on the upper slope of Campos Basin, in Southern Brazil. This is the first time that the sedimentation rate of this area is measured with a fine scale (cm) stratigraphy. {sup 14}C ages vary from (2560 {+-} 80) years. BP at the top to (7260 {+-} 80) years. BP at the bottom of the sediment column. The mean accumulation ratio for the whole column is (6.2 {+-} 0.7) cm/kyears.

  1. Energy analysis of tubular digesters using swine residues; Analise energetica de biodigestores tubulares usando dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Grupo Pesquisador em Educacao Ambiental; Santos, Elenara Pinto dos; Casimiro, Evandro Luiz Nogarolli; Nagae, Ricardo Yuiti; Weiss Filho, Waldemiro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciecias Agraras

    2004-07-01

    Overcoming another financial crisis, the swine production has the great challenge, in this and next decades, of also reaching the sustainability in the ecosystem ambit. The Parana State/Brazil west area is known because of it's residues high production, with high pollution level, it possesses the added difficulty of presenting high concentration of animals, inserted in production centers in reduced areas. However, this situation reversion, changing the 'trouble called residue' in a 'energy source solution', by means of digesters, became a reality, with the initiative of some producers and researchers. Present work objective was to evaluate the energy production, by means of the digesters use, as alternative energy co-generation. The work was developed at a commercial farm located at the Parana State west area, with 1,700 sows, in an piglet unit producing, with production of 3,400 piglet per mouth. The studied system is constituted by two parallel digesters, with continuous flow and total capacity of 1,275 m3 per digester, with 30 days of hydraulic retention time. The generated biogas feeds a 4.1 cc engine, with six cylinders, 80 cv, 3,600 rpm, coupled to an generator, that constitutes an 50 kW electric engine. The system promoted a 58% reduction of chemical demand of oxygen. The daily gas production estimated was 208 m3, with production of electric energy of 35.2 kWh per day. For most of the year, the system has the potential of provisioning the farm of electricity for all its needs, promoting economy that is transformed into income for the activity. (author)

  2. Evaluation of monotonic trends for streamflow in austral Amazon, Brazil: a case study for the Xingu and Tapajós rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L. Z.

    2015-06-01

    This paper has the goal of evaluating monotonic trends in the Xingu and Tapajós river basins in the Austral Amazon region, Brazil. Non-parametric statistical tests such as Mann-Kendall, Bootstrap Mann-Kendall, Sen and Bootstrap Sen are applied on streamflow gauging stations data, to determine the significance and magnitude of possible trends. Data in these river basins is relatively scarce, with time series ranging from twenty to forty years, having many gaps. Former studies indicate a decreasing trend for both annual average and minimum streamflow values in the Tapajós river basin, with 99% confidence level, and a decrease in maximum values in the Xingu river basin, with 90% confidence level. However, past analyses have only used one station near the basin outlet. This study uses data from 7 gauging stations in the Xingu basin and 14 stations in the Tapajós basin. Results indicate opposite trends at the 95% confidence level for different regions in the basins, and for different flow regimes. For the Xingu river basin, trends in the minimum flow for different sub-basins even out at the Altamira station, near its outlet. For the Tapajós river, the southeastern part of the basin has increasing trends, while the southwestern part decreases. At the Itaituba station, they also balance out.

  3. Matéria-prima da formação Corumbataí na região do pólo cerâmico de Santa Gertrudes, SP, com características naturais para fabricação de argila expandida Sedimentary rocks from Corumbataí formation (Paraná basin, Brazil with natural characteristics to produce expanded clay lightweight aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. T. Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se um material da base da Formação Corumbataí, proveniente de uma mineração de argila, que apresenta restrições de uso em cerâmica devido à sua dureza e, principalmente, ao alto conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Verificou-se que o material apresenta características naturais ótimas para a fabricação de argila expandida diretamente a partir de fragmentos de rocha, mostrando comportamento piroplástico com expansão significativa se submetido à queima rápida. A caracterização da matéria-prima e do produto foi realizada mediante análise de carbono orgânico, difração de raios X, microscopia ótica e testes de queima. Foram determinadas as condições de queima para obter argila expandida utilizando forno de queima rápida e forno a rolos, ambos de laboratório, obtendo corpos com densidade variável (que podem chegar a valores menores que 0,5 g.cm-3 até o limite de expansão. Esta densidade é obtida devido à formação de poros fechados e uma película externa vítrea, que proporcionam uma resistência mecânica alta aos fragmentos expandidos.This paper refers to the study of the material of the base of the Corumbataí formation (Parana Basin, Brazil of a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0.5 g.cm-3 because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles.

  4. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  5. Brazil: public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  6. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  7. The concentrations of heavy metals and the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes and liver EROD activity in two edible-fish from the Paraíba do Sul river basin in Brazil | Concentração de metais pesados e incidência de eritrócitos micronucleados e atividade de EROD hepática em duas espécies de peixes comestíveis na bacia do Rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Estevam Martins Parente

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul river (PSR basin crosses one of the most populated and industrialized regions of Brazil and receives effluent from the metallurgic, paper mill and agricultural industries. PSR water has multiple uses, including being a supply of potable water and riverine populations which consume some species of its fish. In the present study, we investigated the responses of two biomarkers of aquatic pollution, EROD activity in the liver and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood, as well as the concentrations of seven heavy metals in the muscle tissue of two species of fish native to the PSR: Geophagus brasiliensis and Hypostomus sp. Sampling was performed in both the wet and dry seasons of 2003, with a total of 339 fish collected from 16 sites along the PSR basin. Fish collected at Levy Gasparian, Barra Mansa and Três Rios both had higher EROD activity and micronuclei frequency. The results also suggested a moderate induction of EROD activity in fish collected from S.L. Paraitinga and Sapucaia. Micronuclei frequency was elevated in fish from S.J. Campos, Além Paraíba, Campos and S.J. Barra. In all cases, heavy metal concentrations did not exceed the maximum considered safe for fish meat consumption. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul (PSR atravessa uma das regiões mais povoadas e industrializadas do Brasil, recebendo efluentes de indústrias metalúrgicas, de papel e celulose e agrícolas. Os usos das águas do PSR são múltiplos, incluem o fornecimento de água potável, e as populações ribeirinhas consomem algumas de suas espécies de peixes. No presente trabalho foram investigadas as respostas de dois biomarcadores à poluição, a atividade hepática de EROD e a freqüência de micronúcleo em sangue periférico, e medidos os níveis de sete metais pesados no músculo de duas espécies de peixes nativas do PSR, Geophagus brasiliensis and

  8. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  9. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  10. Reversing the indus basin closure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    After independence, a swift and extensive development of Indus river basin has intensified commitment of water resources. During dry period, the indication of over commitment and basin closure are visible. In the beginning 2000s, he river basin water resources were committed to more than 99% without any environmental flows. The paper tries to unfold drivers closing the Indus basin and the scope for change. Defining and implementing water allocation mechanism to ascertain equity, sustainabilit...

  11. Meso and microscopic characterization of deformation bands in porous sandstones: an example on the Paleozoic, Pre- and Sin-rift sequences of the Araripe Basin, Northeast of Brazil; Caracterizacao meso e microscopica de bandas de deformacao em arenitos porosos: um exemplo nas tectonossequencias Paleozoica, Pre- e Sin-rifte da Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Joao Marculino de; Silva, Fernando Cesar Alves da; Sa, Emanuel Ferraz Jardim de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica], e-mails: jota_ex2@hotmail.com, fernando@geologia.ufrn.br, emanuel@ccet.ufrn.br

    2012-04-15

    Deformation bands are narrow tabular volumes developed in porous sandstones. Although these structures are a product of brittle deformation, they may have internally a continuous displacement gradient. When granular cataclasis is the dominant deformation mechanism, the initial properties of their host rocks (i.e., porosity and permeability) can change significantly. The deformation bands in sandstones from the pre- and syn-rift of the Araripe Basin were studied in meso and microscale in order to classify them and to understand the deformation mechanisms involved during their nucleation and development. Their geometric-spatial, kinematic, and rheological criteria allowed establishing relations between the origin of deformation bands and lithification of their host rocks. Additionally, some inferences on their influence to the fluid flow in the reservoir-scale were outlined. Moreover, the study of deformation bands contributed to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the studied basin. Accordingly, the study of deformation bands can support research on local and regional aspects of the tectonosedimentary evolution of sedimentary basins. (author)

  12. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  13. Brazil advances subsea technology in Marlim pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-29

    Petroleum Brasileiro SA has extended several water depth records for subsea technology during a pilot project in giant Marlim oil field in the Campos basin off Brazil. Petrobras finished the 10 well Marlim pilot last December. The field's pilot phase was intended to begin early production and enable Petrobras to gather more reservoir data. Ten satellite wells, including two prepilot wells, were completed during the Marlim pilot phase with guidelineless (GLL) wet christmas trees designed and fabricated by FMC Corp., Houston, and CBV Industrial Mechanic SA, Rio de Janeiro. The subsea wells are producing 52,000 b/d of oil and 21.19 MMCfd of gas in water depths of 1,847-2,562 ft. Marlim pilot well flow is routed to a permanent semisubmersible floating production system (FPS). Oil moves from the FPS to a monobuoy that offloads to a shuttle tanker. In addition to marking the first successful uses of purpose-built GLL wet trees, FMC said the Marlim pilot project allowed GLL subsea technology to evolve from conceptual status into a proven deepwater completion method. The paper describes the project.

  14. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  15. Receptor models for source apportionment of remote aerosols in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission), and PESA (proton elastic scattering analysis) method were used in conjunction with receptor models for source apportionment of remote aerosols in Brazil. The PIXE used in the determination of concentration for elements with Z >- 11, has a detection limit of about 1 ng/m3. The concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the fine fraction of Amazon Basin aerosols was measured by PESA. We sampled in Jureia (SP), Fernando de Noronha, Arembepe (BA), Firminopolis (GO), Itaberai (GO) and Amazon Basin. For collecting the airbone particles we used cascade impactors, stacked filter units, and streaker samplers. Three receptor models were used: chemical mass balance, stepwise multiple regression analysis and principal factor analysis. The elemental and gravimetric concentrations were explained by the models within the experimental errors. Three sources of aerosol were quantitatively distinguished: marine aerosol, soil dust and aerosols related to forests. The emission of aerosols by vegetation is very clear for all the sampling sites. In Amazon Basin and Jureia it is the major source, responsible for 60 to 80% of airborne concentrations. (Author)

  16. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  17. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  18. Valuing Riparian Forests Restoration: a CVM Application in Corumbatai River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano Brugnaro

    2010-01-01

    This study is an application of CVM to a specific area in Brazil, the Corumbatai river basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, aiming to estimate the value attached by affected people to a hypothetical riparian forest restoration project. The method used was the double bounded dichotomous choice under a logit model. Data were obtained by street-intercept interviews with a net sample of 930 individuals, 20 years or older, living in seven municipalities (cities and respective rural areas) that contai...

  19. A reconstructed reduction sequence for curved bifacial stone tools from the eastern La Plata Basin, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Riris, Philip; Romanowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive regional lithic industry is found in the eastern La Plata basin, known as the Altoparanaense culture in northeastern Argentina, and the Humaitá tradition in southern Brazil. These archaeological cultures are recognised on the basis of large bifacial tools. The earliest deposits are dated to the ninth millennium BP, and elements of these industries continue to be produced into the post-contact period (8640±95 to 310±50 cal BP). One of the most characteristic features ...

  20. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, José Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Carla Karine B Pereira; Souza, Erlânio O.; Fabíola Fernandes G Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods : Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Cearα state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potenti...

  1. Season custom tariff analysis for electric power use in an agro-industry; Analise da tarifa horo-sazonal no uso da energia eletrica em uma agroindustria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, L.G.C.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation about the season custom tariffs in Brazil, and the research to achieve the electric parameters involved in its utilization is shown, analyzing the change of the conventional custom tariff for the blue and green season custom tariffs. This analysis made in a agro-industry where manioc flour is produced, located in Garca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A comparison between the blue and green custom tariff was accomplished in order to the better advantage in the system introduction, considering the use schedule and electric parameters involved. (author). 26 refs, 31 figs, 41 tabs, 3 apps

  2. Regulation of mature oil fields: a constitutional analysis; Regulacao de campos maduros de petroleo: uma analise a luz da Constituicao Federal de 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil activities in Brazil had been started in an intensive way by the years 30 and 40. During approximately 40 years only one agent had been executed the oil activities in this country: the PETROBRAS. Many of the fields explored in the past are nowadays in decline. These fields, not interesting for the majors, would be interesting for the small and medium enterprises. The present research analyses the mature oil fields and its regulation in Brazil, looking to the 'Constituicao Federal de 1988' and to the idea of social and economic development. (author)

  3. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  4. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  5. Application of nuclear logging to porosity studies in Itaborai basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Milena F.S.; Lima, Inaya; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: milena@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Ferrucio, Paula Lucia; Borghi, Leonardo, E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.br, E-mail: borghi@ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Abreu, Carlos Jorge, E-mail: jo_abreu@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear logging provides information on bulk density and porosity variations by measuring the intensity of the scattered radiation induced on the formation by radioactive sources. In this study, nuclear logging was employed to analyze the pore-space system of the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well placed on the Itaborai limestone basin, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. This is one of the smallest sedimentary basin in Brazil and it is formed by clastic deposits and travertine limestone rocks which are fractured. Understanding the pore-space system of carbonate rocks has become important subject for the oil industry, specially in Brazil. A Density Gamma Probe (LSD) and a Neutron Probe (NEUT) were used for data acquisition, which nuclear logging was carried out in part of the well, with continuous detection for about 50 m of deep. The detection speed was 4 m/min for the LSD and 5 m/min for the NEUT. The results obtained by nuclear logging showed that the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well consists of three different intervals with rocks ranging from low to moderate porosity present in travertine, marls and gneisses. (author)

  6. Vazões máximas e mínimas para bacias hidrográficas da região alto Rio Grande, MG Maximum and minimum discharges for Alto Rio Grande region basins, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Vazões máximas são grandezas hidrológicas aplicadas a projetos de obras hidráulicas e vazões mínimas são utilizadas para a avaliação das disponibilidades hídricas em bacias hidrográficas e comportamento do escoamento subterrâneo. Neste estudo, objetivou-se à construção de intervalos de confiança estatísticos para vazões máximas e mínimas diárias anuais e sua relação com as características fisiográficas das 6 maiores bacias hidrográficas da região Alto Rio Grande à montante da represa da UHE-Camargos/CEMIG. As distribuições de probabilidades Gumbel e Gama foram aplicadas, respectivamente, para séries históricas de vazões máximas e mínimas, utilizando os estimadores de Máxima Verossimilhança. Os intervalos de confiança constituem-se em uma importante ferramenta para o melhor entendimento e estimativa das vazões, sendo influenciado pelas características geológicas das bacias. Com base nos mesmos, verificou-se que a região Alto Rio Grande possui duas áreas distintas: a primeira, abrangendo as bacias Aiuruoca, Carvalhos e Bom Jardim, que apresentaram as maiores vazões máximas e mínimas, significando potencialidade para cheias mais significativas e maiores disponibilidades hídricas; a segunda, associada às bacias F. Laranjeiras, Madre de Deus e Andrelândia, que apresentaram as menores disponibilidades hídricas.Maximum discharges are applied to hydraulic structure design and minimum discharges are used to characterize water availability in hydrographic basins and subterranean flow. This study is aimed at estimating the confidence statistical intervals for maximum and minimum annual discharges and their relationship wih the physical characteristics of basins in the Alto Rio Grande Region, State of Minas Gerais. The study was developed for the six (6 greatest Alto Rio Grande Region basins at upstream of the UHE-Camargos/CEMIG reservoir. Gumbel and Gama probability distribution models were applied to the

  7. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  8. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  9. Biofuel Expansion and Water Resources in the Ivinhema Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libra, J. M.; King, C.; Xavier, A.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil produces approximately a quarter the world's yearly ethanol demand, making it a global leader in biofuel production. The repercussions for local water resources in areas of intensive biofuel expansion, however, remain uncertain. To assess the effects of various land-use change scenarios on water sustainability in Brazil, this study models a small catchment currently experiencing soybean and sugarcane expansion using the Stockholm Environment Institute's Water Evaluation and Planning software (WEAP). The catchment, the Ivinhema basin in Southern Mato Grosso do Sul, has experienced extensive sugarcane expansion since the mid-1990s - a trend that is expected to continue. The model uses climatic data, soil characteristics, and agricultural production trends in the region from 1990 - 2012 to simulate known streamflows, using the WEAP-MABIA method. The model predicts flow impacts under a number of different future climatic and land-use scenarios. The results will be used to inform the ICONE's Brazil Land Use Model (BLUM), which models the economics of land use.

  10. Effects of immigration on the prevalence of malaria in rural areas of the Amazon basin of Brazil Conseqüência da imigração na prevalência da malária nas áreas rurais da bacia Amazônica no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick B. Macgreevy; Reynaldo Dietze; Aluísio Prata; Stephen C. Hembree

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiological studies were conducted on malaria in three rural areas of the Amazon basin in the State of Rondônia: the town of Costa Marques, Forte Príncipe da Beira (Fort), and an immigrant settlement in the nearby forest. These studies were instituted to document the malaria problem and to describe the role of immigration on its distribution and prevalence. Hospital records in the town show that the number of malaria cases increased five fold from 1983 to 1987 and that the predominant mal...

  11. Capital rewarding of the electric power enterprises: a comparative analysis; Remuneracao de capital das distribuidoras de energia eletrica: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Katia; Braganca, Gabriel Fiuza de [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mails: katia@ipea.gov.br; gabriel@ipea.gov.br; Camacho, Fernando [Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: camacho@bndes.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    We analyze the electricity distribution segment in Brazil from 1998 to June 2005, trying to assess whether the return on capital invested was in line with the risk and opportunity cost required in the segment. We conclude that the return on capital in this segment in Brazil was systematically negative until 2003. Only in 2005 did the distribution segment really begin to recover, presenting profitability partly consistent with the estimated cost of capital. Comparisons with Argentine, Chilean and American companies reveal that firms in the latter two countries, particularly in Chile, generally managed to reward shareholders according to the opportunity cost of capital. We find evidence of differential effects of regulatory characteristics between the price-cap and cost-plus regimes in the segment's financial profitability, since the return on capital invested was more uniform and predictable in American companies, which are subject to regulation by an internal rate of return or cost-plus mechanism, than in Brazilian firms, subject to price-cap regulation. Among the groups with greater return to profitability after the rationing episode in Brazil in 2002 are EDP Brazil, CPFL Energia, Neoenergia and starting in 2004, Elektro and companies still in government hands. The EDF Group performed the worst in the study pe