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Sample records for basin brazil analise

  1. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  2. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  3. Preliminary constraints on paleotemperature and landscape evolution in and around Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, using apatite fission track analysis; Abordagem preliminar sobre paleotemperatura e evolucao do relevo da Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil, a partir da analise de tracos de fissao em apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais Neto, Joao Marinho de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Interpretacao e Avaliacao da Margem Equatorial], E-mail: marinho@uq.edu.au; Hegarty, Kerry; Karner, Garry David

    2005-11-15

    The Araripe Basin, located in the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, developed through a sequence of distinct events related to the opening of the South Atlantic. Its geological history is recorded in the preserved stratigraphy, which ranges in age from Paleozoic to Middle Cretaceous. The most conspicuous feature associated with the Araripe Basin is the Araripe Plateau, a large mesa capped by Cenomanian- Albian non-marine sandstones (Exu Formation). At the plateau base, gray to black shales ('Batateiras layers') represent deposition in a large lake system covering part of northeastern Brazil during Early Aptian. Previous researchers have used the preserved geological section in the basin to infer the landscape evolution of the Araripe Plateau, and they have suggested that its uplift and exhumation were caused by widespread epeirogenic movements associated with post-break-up events in the Borborema Province. Independent constraints on the timing and magnitude of uplift in the Araripe Plateau area can now be introduced by this preliminary study using apatite fission track analysis. A series of samples along a N-S transect of the Araripe Basin and its neighboring basement provide clear evidence of heating in the past. Results from all samples also show evidence of Late Cenozoic cooling commencing sometime in the last 40 Ma. Maximum paleotemperature associated with this event are very similar (70 deg - 90 deg C) between samples, consistent with little differential movement across the sampled region. Fission track results from the Aptian sandstone sample (Rio da Batateira Formation) indicate an earlier event (pre-40 Ma). However, interpretation of data suggests that any paleo-heating between sediment deposition (112 Ma) and 40 Ma must be associated with paleotemperature less than {approx}100 deg C, pointing to minor paleo burial during the Late Cretaceous in this area. The timing of these various events are broadly consistent with the timing of events

  4. Bioenergy in Brazil and Europe: a comparative analysis; Bioenergia no Brasil e na Europa: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Nivalde Jose de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia], e-mail: nivalde@ie.ufrj.br; Dantas, Guilherme de Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (GESEL/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos do Setor Eletrico], e-mail: guilhermecrvg@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    A higher application of bioenergy is one of the existing ways to adequate the necessity of an expansion in the energy supply with the mitigation of global warming. The consumption of biofuel in the transport sector is the most usual and important use of biomass, however, bioenergy may also have a relevant contribution to the world electrical matrix. A comparative analysis shows that Brazil has consolidate the usage of biofuel while Europe is having problems to accomplish the biofuels levels established in the European Union guidelines. However, some european countries are developing their bioelectrical generation potential in a much more efficient way than Brazil. Therefore , brazilian policies to support bioelectricity should observe the successful instruments applied in Europe. (author)

  5. Analysis of public policies for new renewable energy in Brazil; Analise de politicas publicas para novas energias renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, M.C.; Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Baitelo, R.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy have a prominent place among the solutions to combat global warming, but its potential is still untapped in Brazil. Without long-term policies with clear rules, you can not attract entrepreneurs and ensure stability of operation of this market. The main tools of government to promote renewable energy generation have not been efficient - the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources of Energy (Proinfa) was implemented in 2002 but put into operation just over two thirds of the energy proposal. The low success rate in repeated auctions focused on renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to discuss the prospects of the expansion of electricity generation by renewable energies in Brazil and some fundamental requirements for effective structuring of this market in the country. This argument is supported by the analysis of the proposed mechanisms used internationally and in the country, under a new law for renewable energies. As a practical demonstration of the analysis, we present a simulation of conditions of formation of the final price of renewable resources in different conditions as varied market rate of return, cost of transmission, and sale of carbon credits.

  6. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  7. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  8. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, S.M.G.L.; da Silva, B. B.; A. C. D. Antonino; J. R. S. Lima; E.S. Souza; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly co...

  9. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraiba Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Marcio M., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto; Goes, Ana M.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Ochoa, Felipe L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Departamento de Geologia

    2012-06-15

    Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraiba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono- sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraiba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic-rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraiba Basin. (author)

  10. Tectonics and sedimentation in the Curitiba Basin, south of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamuni, Eduardo; Ebert, Hans Dirk; da Silva Borges, Mauricio; Hasui, Yociteru; Costa, João Batista Sena; Salamuni, Riad

    2003-03-01

    The Curitiba Basin, Paraná, lies parallel to the west side of the Serra do Mar range and is part of a continental rift near the Atlantic coast of southeastern Brazil. It bears unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediments divided in two formations: the lower Guabirotuba Formation and the overlying Tinguis Formation, both developed over Precambrian basement. Field observations, water well drill cores, and interpretations of satellite images lead to the inference that regional tectonic processes were responsible for the origin of the Basin in the continental rift context and for morphotecatonic evolution through block tilting, dissection, and erosion. The structural framework of the sediments and the basement is characterized by NE-SW-trending normal faults (extensional tectonic D 1 event) reactivated by NE-SW-trending strike-slip and reverse oblique faults (younger transtensional tectonic D 2' to transpressional tectonic D 2″ event). This tectonic event, which started in the Paleogene and controlled the basin geometry, began as a halfgraben and was later reactivated as a pull-apart basin. D 2 is a neotectonic event that controls the current morphostructures. The Basin is connected to the structural rearrangement of the South American platform, which underwent a generalized extensional or trantensional process and, in late Oligocene, changed to a compressional to transpressional regime.

  11. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

  12. Sediments of Afonso Bezerra belt-Macaiba (meridional border of Potiguar basin, RN, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogy of sediments from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, is investigated and its origin is determined. Usual sedimentologic methods and X-ray diffraction were used. (M.C.K.)

  13. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  14. Igneous pyrometamorphism in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazil, cretaceous rocks (sandstones, siltstones, shales, limestones are intruded by Paleogene to Neogene basic bodies. As a result, were formed buchites, pyrometamorphic rocks indicating very low pressures and very high temperatures. Field descriptions permitted distinguishing light buchites (LB and dark buchites (DB, which were investigated throughout petrographic, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction studies. LBs contain abundant clasts of quartz surrounded by radial tridymite needles, besides phenocrysts of sanidine and clinopyroxene included in a vitreous groundmass. DBs have mainly microcrystals of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite, mullite, armalcolite, ilmenite and spinel, dispersed within a black cryptocrystalline matrix. Chemically, LBs are richer in SiO2 (~76.7% and K2O (~5.7% and poorer in Al2O3 (~12.8% when compared to DBs (respectively ~51.5, ~0.2 and ~42.7%. Based on phase diagrams published in the literature, the habit of crystals (acicular, elongated sometimes hollow crystals and the significant content of glassy material we consider that the liquid formed by melting at ~1100 – 1150o C of sedimentary material cooled quickly at very high temperatures and pressures below 1 kbar. The results obtained are relevant in petrological terms, and may also have economic implications since a large number of basic bodies intrude rocks with hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  15. Ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil: analysis and discussion; O etanol de cana-de-acucar no Brasil: analise e discussoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Polasse, Belisa Athayde; Simao, Nathalia Machado [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao Stricto Sensu em Energia

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, the intense investment in renewable energy reflects the search for alternative solutions to politician-economic and socio-environment originated by energy' source predominance of fossil origin in the global energy matrix. In this case, the ethanol from Brazil's sugar cane is more and more writing your history on the International bio fuels market. That's mainly due to Brazil's commercial maturity, agricultural, technological achieved in last decades. However, some negatives socio environments, such as deforestation, fires and precarious job conditions, among others are a discredit for a probable future hegemony of Brazilian ethanol. In this way, it is important to set guide-line discussions about this topic, analyzing and overcoming problems that avoid a better sustainable posture. (author)

  16. Towards the response of water balance to sugarcane expansion in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. Pereira; Tursunov, M.; C. B. Uvo

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the short-, medium- and long-term impacts of expansion of the sugarcane plantation on the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil, as estimated by changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and surface runoff calculated by a hydrological model. Twenty years of simulation are made using three different land use scenarios that include the basin area planted with sugarcane in 1993, 2000 and 2007 as estimated from satellite im...

  17. Statistical distribution models for migratory fish in Jacuí basin, South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís P. Alves; Nelson F. Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution patterns of migratory fishes in the Jacuí river basin (Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil), proposing a statistical model of presumed distribution based on geomorphologic environmental data. Through maps of occurrence probability, we hope to contribute to decisions regarding basin environmental management. The analyzed species were: Salminus brasiliensis (dourado), Leporinus obtusidens (piava), Prochilodus lineatus (grumatã) and Pimel...

  18. Analysis of the productive process of Ceramica CECIDA company - Guarabira, state of Paraiba, Brazil; Analise do processo produtivo da Ceramica CECIDA - Guarabira - Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Otacilio Oziel de; Leite, Jose Yvan Pereira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: carvalho@eol.com.br; Porpino, Lucas Alexandre Freire; Porpino Filho, Walter de Azevedo; Andrade, Jean Carlos Silva [Ceramica Santa Cecilia (CECIDA), Guarabira, PB (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The Ceramica CECIDA Company is located in the municipal district of Guarabira, PB, Brazil. It produces, approximately, 850.000 pieces of ceramics by month (among bricks and blocks). The production is destined to the consuming markets of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba state, as well as for Recife city, Pernambuco state. In this work, it were done analysis of the productive process and its controls such as production, used firewood, time of burning and its relationship in the process, productivity, efficiency of the ovens and level of losses of the process. With the data are presented proposals for improvement of the process. (author)

  19. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  20. Magnetic properties of mesozoic volcanic rocks from Maranhao Basin, in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paleomagnetic poles were determined from 113 samples of Jurassic volcanic rocks, lying in the western part of Maranhao Basin (Porto Franco-Estreito), in Brazil and 157 samples of sills and dikes of lower cretaceous age (Teresina Picos-Floriano) from the eastern part. The analysis of magnetic minerals of samples were done by thermomagnetic curves and X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  1. Uranium prospecting in the Iguatu and Frade basins (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mineral Exploration Department of CNEN studied the possibilities of uranium occurences in the Iguatu and Frade Basins in the preliminary research program designated 'Small Basins of the Northeast' which contitutes the object of this report. The two basins are located in the State of Ceara. The results of geologic and radiometric researches ahowed that the possibilities for uranium mineralizations were small, since the analyses of samples from the two main anomalies showed the radioactivity came from the remains of monazite. Further analysis of sedimentologic factors indicated favorable confitions for uranium concentration, taking into consideration the large variations of vertical and lateral granulometries, which permit spectulation about the flow of uraniferous solutions. radiometric measurements of surface samples were insignificant and no uranium mineral was found. The result of research of the sedimentary Frade Basin was negative for uranium mineralization. The basin was entirely eroded, remaining as an outcrop described in this report. (F.E.)

  2. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  3. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques; Caracterizacao, analise e datacao de ceramicas arqueologicas da Bacia Amazonica atraves de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  4. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

  5. Chemotaxonomical aspects of lower Cretaceous amber from Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition of Lower Cretaceous amber samples from Reconcavo Basin (Salvador, Bahia) was performed by GC-MS to characterize possible botanical sources. The compounds identified were hydrocarbonic and polar diterpenoids, such as abietane, dehydroabietane, tetrahydroretene, dehydroabietol, dehydroabietic acid, ferruginol and sugiol. Other diterpenoid classes were not detected as well as triterpenoids. The composition of the extracts and chemosystematic data allows relating the samples to conifers of Podocarpaceae or Cheirolepidiaceae families due to detection of ferruginol, a specific biomarker to these families. The data concerning Cretaceous amber in the Reconcavo Basin provided information concerning the presence of a resinous flora in the Maracangalha Formation sediments during the Lower Cretaceous. (author)

  6. Risk analysis applied to development of a gas field in Santos Basin; Analise de risco aplicada ao desenvolvimento de um campo de gas na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Alexandre M.; Filoco, Paulo R.; Yamada, Debora T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Decision analysis applied to the development phase of petroleum fields must take into account the risk associated to many kinds of uncertainties. In the transition of the appraisal to the development phases, the importance of risk associated to the production and the recovery factor may increase significantly. The process is complex due to high investments, large number of uncertain variables and strong dependence of the results with the production strategy definition. In E and P, several decisions must be taken considering the risks involved through the appraisal of the uncertainties impact in production of petroleum fields, increase the possibility of success, measuring possible lost and sub-optimized developments identifying new opportunities. In a specific scenario, like gas production, the risk associated to the project becomes larger due to the gas prices compared to oil, the demand, the distribution's structure and the deadlines defined in contracts. The objective of this paper is to show the results of a methodology developed in a detailed study of a risk analysis process in appraisal and development phases (execution and implementation) to one of the biggest gas fields in Brazil (Mexilhao Field) and support reliable future decisions. (author)

  7. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws. PMID:25794814

  8. A taphonomic model for the Mesosauride assemblage of the Irati Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M B

    2003-01-01

    The Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil) is made up of a succession of black bituminous and nonbituminous shales and mudstones with interbedded carbonate layers, which record deposition in marine environments. Mesosaur remains are abundant at several sites in this formation, where they occur preserved in centimetre- thick beds and displaying various degrees of skeletal disarticulation. This paper seeks to establish a model to explain the processes that generated the mesosaurian tap...

  9. Considerations on fluorides anomalies in Botucatu-Piramboia aquifers system, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater of a great number of deep wells dug to exploit the Botucatu-Piramboia aquifer system in the Parana Basin, Brazil, have high fluoride concentrations, over 1 ppm, that turns groundwater useless for human supply. Investigations being carried out a the Center for Groundwater Research (CEPAS) of the Institute of Geosciences at USP, Sao Paulo, indicate a relationship between fluoride concentration and groundwater age, dated with radiocarbon. (author)

  10. Ituglanis agreste, a new catfish from the rio de Contas basin, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio M. Q. Lima; Cinara P. Neves; Rafael M. Campos-Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Ituglanis agreste, a new species of catfish, is described from a tributary stream of the rio Gongogi drainage, rio de Contas basin, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, from a transition area between the Atlantic Rain Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga savanna. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: elongate interopercle plate with high number of odontodes (26-30), high number of ribs (5-6), fewer vertebrae (36), number of branchiostegal rays (7), number of ...

  11. Analysis of the technical potential for carbon capture and geological sequestration in the oil sector of Brazil; Analise do potencial tecnico do sequestro geologico de CO{sub 2} no setor petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Isabella Vaz Leal da

    2009-02-15

    This thesis focuses on the technologies related to CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage. The main objective of this study is to perform an analysis of the technical potential of geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the oil and gas sector in Brazil. Climate changes are directly related to emissions of greenhouse gases. Mainly, are related to increased carbon dioxide emissions due to the use of fossil fuels. To mitigate climate changes there are technologies that have the purpose of promoting the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases such as the Geological Sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Thus, the study presents a description of the stages of the geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} and the state of the art of the technology in Brazil and worldwide. In addition, is presented the capacity for storage of the Brazilian sedimentary basins. Finally, this thesis analyzes the application of the described technologies in two stationary sources of great importance: refineries and oil and gas production fields. (author)

  12. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins in Brazil and Angola/Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, P. A.; Strozyk, F.; Back, S.

    2013-12-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  13. Deep sea Caridea (Crustacea, Decapoda from Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A. Cardoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS two collecting campaigns were performed. Both used the N/RB Astrogaroupa and fishery nets to collect samples from the continental slope in Campos Basin, RJ (21º48'S to 22º48'S. Campaign Oceanprof I occurred in February, 2003 and collected 18 samples at depths between 1074 and 1649 m. Oceanprof II occurred in August, 2003 and collected 22 samples at depths between 1059 and 1640 m. A total of 14 caridean species were collected: Parapontophilus sp. (Crangonidae; Glyphocrangon longirostris (Smith, 1882 (Glyphocrangonidae; Lebbeus sp. (Hippolytidae; Nematocarcinus ensifer (Smith, 1882 (Nematocarcinidae; Acanthephyra eximia Smith, 1884; A. quadrispinosa Kemp, 1939; A. stylorostratis (Bate, 1888; Janicella spinicauda (A. Milne Edwards, 1883; Meningodora vesca (Smith, 1887; Notostomus elegans A. Milne Edwards, 1881; Oplophorus spinosus (Brullé, 1839; and Systellaspis debilis (A. Milne Edwards, 1881 (Oplophoridae; Heterocarpus inopinatus Tavares, 1999 and Plesionika sp. (Pandalidae. Three out of these 14 species, Parapontophilus sp., Lebbeus sp. and Plesionika sp. are still under investigation and were not included in the present study. From the 11 species identified Nematocarcinus ensifer is a new record for the Brazilian continental slope.Durante o Projeto de Caracterização Ambiental de Águas Profundas da Bacia de Campos coordenado pelo CENPES/PETROBRAS duas campanhas de coleta foram realizadas. Ambas utilizaram o N/RB Astrogaroupa e redes de pesca de arrasto com porta para coletar amostras do talude continental da Bacia de Campos, RJ (21º48' S a 22º48'S. A campanha Oceanprof I ocorreu em fevereiro de 2003, coletou 18 amostras em profundidades que variaram entre 1074 e 1649 m e a Oceanprof II em agosto de 2003 coletou 22 amostras em profundidades variando entre 1059 e 1640 m. No total, 14 espécies de Caridea foram coletadas: Parapontophilus sp. (Crangonidae

  14. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  15. Glacial geologic confirmation of an intraplate boundary, in the Paraná basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.

    1993-05-01

    The predrift fit of South America and Africa remains problematic given the inability to match all parts of the coastlines simultaneously. Early opening of the South Atlantic Ocean may have been facilitated by intraplate deformation in either South America or Africa, but the location of such deformation is controversial and poorly constrained. Broad-scale remote sensing has suggested an intraplate boundary in South America, stretching from the Cochabamba bend in the Andes to the Rio Grande-Walvis rise, but the inferred boundary crosses the Paranaá basin of Brazil where any evidence of deformation is obscured by Late Jurassic flood basalts. A subsurface study of the upper Paleozoic glaciogenic infill of the Paranaá basin (the 1300-m-thick Itarare Group; ca. 300-260 Ma) identifies repeated episodes of intracratonic rifting on either side of an accommodation zone crossing the basin along the trend of the inferred intraplate boundary. Renewed influence of this zone during the opening of the South Atlantic is suggested by the asymmetric distribution of successive magma units within the Serra Geral lava pile and by the trend of dike swarms. The intraplate boundary identified within the Paranaá basin may extend westward along the northern margin of the Chaco basin in Bolivia.

  16. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  17. The Marlin and Albacora giant fields, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, J.M.; Scarton, J.C.; Candido, A.; Cora, C.A.G. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    The Albacore and Marlim giant fields are located in the province of Campos basin, about 110 km (68 mi) offshore Cape Sao Tome, in water depths ranging from 200 m (656 ft) to 2,000 m (6562 ft). The Albacora field was discovered in September 1984 by the wildcat 1-RJS-297, drilled in 293 m (961 ft) of water. Subsequently, the wildcats 1-RJS-305 and 1-RJS-342 extended the field limits to deeper waters. The Albacora field is approximately 235 km{sup 2} (90 mi{sup 2}) in area, with an estimated volume of 4.5 billion bbl of oil in place. The Marlim field was discovered in February 1985 by the wildcat 1-RJS-219A, in a water depth of 853 m (2,800 ft). The Marlim field area is about 152 km{sup 2} (58 mi{sup 2}), and the latest estimate of oil in place is about 8.2 billion bbl. The Marlim complex encompasses Marlim field itself and the surrounding proved and potential areas known as East-of-, West-of-, and South-of-Marlim, respectively. The current estimated volume of oil in place in the Marlim complex is close to 13.9 billion bbl, with a total surface of about 350 km{sup 2} (135 mi{sup 2}). Oil production in the Albacora field comes from Lower Cretaceous (Albian) and Tertiary (Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene) turbidite reservoirs. Oligocene turbidite sandstones are the potential reservoirs in the Marlim field. These deposits are genetically associated with sea level variations and are mainly composed of massive sandstones and, subordinately, of contourites. Both fields are structurally and stratigraphically controlled accumulations. Hydrocarbons are trapped in anticlines and/or faulted blocks associated with salt tectonics. Stratigraphic contributions result from sandstone bodies pinching out against shales and marls. The development of these fields has been supported by three-dimensional seismic data. The Albacora field is being gradually put on stream from shallower to deeper waters.

  18. Austrolebias varzeae, a new annual fish from the upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa; Reis, Roberto E.; Everton R. Behr

    2004-01-01

    Austrolebias varzeae n. sp. is described from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil. It seems to be closely related to A. carvalhoi (Myers), with which it shares a similar color pattern of male and an apomorphic morphology of the autopalatine. The new species differs from A. carvalhoi by having more anal-fin rays in males and more caudal-fin rays. Austrolebias varzeae is distinguished from all other species of the genus by a unique color pattern, in which there a...

  19. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos

  20. Seabed acoustic classification in the Pelotas basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Lumi Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to develop a seabed map of the region of the Pelotas Basin using acoustic methods. A total number of 1,507,823 seabed reflectivity data, collected during six oceanographic surveys, were processed to generate a seabed map. Data processing consisted of the classification of the acoustic parameter BSBS (Bottom Surface Backscattering Strength obtained with the Scientific Echosounder EK 500 operating at a frequency of 38 kHz. BSBS is expressed in decibels (dB, and corresponds to a logarithm of the ratio between incident acoustic energy and the energy reflected by the seabed. Four BSBS value classes, associated with different sediment types, were established. High BSBS values are associated with coarse sediments, whereas low values indicate fine sediments. A seabed reflectivity map was generated using the Natural Neighbor method to interpolate the BSBS values organized according to the pre-established classes. Four features with high BSBS values were identified at 100-200 m depth. The largest one was found in the region of Santa Marta Cape and attributed mainly to consolidated seabed and/or the presence of biodetritic material, according to comparison with maps available in the literature. Above 500m depth, there was a predominance of acoustically low reflectivity sea floor, which was attributed to the presence of muddy sediment. Considering the lack of information on the seabed at great depths, the acoustic method was shown to be an alternative tool to obtain data on seabed characteristics in these regions.O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal a realização de um mapeamento de fundo, através de metodologia acústica, para a região da Bacia de Pelotas. Um total de 1.507.823 dados de refletividade de fundo provenientes de seis Cruzeiros Oceanográficos foi processado para elaboração de um mapa de refletividade de fundo. Esse processamento consistiu numa classificação dos valores do parâmetro acústico BSBS

  1. AMS-14C measurements for the carbonate platform of the offshore Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) program in Brazil we prepared and measured some red algae carbonate crust samples from Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The measurements were performed at Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab), Purdue University, IN, USA. This carbonate material is interlaminated with foraminiferal lime mud reflecting recurrent intervals of carbonate development, which might be linked to outer-shelf oceanographic circulation

  2. Visan miospore biostratigraphy and correlation of the Poti Formation (Parnaba Basin, northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo; Loboziak

    2000-10-01

    The Poti Formation, which consists mainly of sandstones with minor proportions of carbonaceous shales and other siliciclastic lithologies, represents all the Viséan strata thus far recorded in the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil.Well-preserved miospores featuring species with both Southern Euramerican and Gondwanan affinities have been recovered from this formation in four well sections. The most characteristic species are listed in this paper, and brief systematic descriptions are presented for the most significant species, along with comments on their biostratigraphy. A new generic combination is proposed: Cordylosporites magnidictyus (Playford and Helby) Loboziak and Melo comb. nov. Comparisons with miospores illustrated from the Grand Erg Occidental, Algerian Sahara, are tentatively proposed.In terms of the Western European Carboniferous palynozonation, miospore assemblages from the Poti Formation are assignable to the Perotrilites tessellatus-Schulzospora campyloptera (TC)-Raistrickia nigra-Triquitrites marginatus (NM) zonal range. This corresponds to the upper part of the Holkerian and the whole Asbian, which are British regional stages for the lower to middle parts of the upper Viséan. The Viséan age formerly attributed to biostratigraphic interval XII of Petrobras' regional palynostratigraphic scheme is therefore confirmed. As already noted in our recent investigations of the Faro Formation in the Amazon Basin and equivalent strata of the Solimões Basin, latest Tournaisian and early to middle Viséan sections are either absent or barren of characteristic miospores in the Parnaíba Basin as well. PMID:11042330

  3. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.

  4. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  5. Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonadi, Leandro; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Zavattini, João Afonso

    2016-02-01

    This research was aimed at addressing aspects related to variation in the amount of precipitation during the period from 1986 to 2011 in the Paraná River Hydrographical Basin, Brazil, for 32 meteorological stations using 11 climate indices created by the ETCCDI (Expert Team, ET, on Climate Change Detection and Indices, ETCCDI). The daily rainfall data were organized in spreadsheets, which were subjected to an intense quality control and an accurate historical research. For each pluviometric index, we have estimated the trends and the statistical significant of the slopes have been calculated. The results confirm that an increase in total precipitation in almost all analyzed stations was registered, and the extreme precipitations were the main contributors to such additions. In fact, the significant increase in total annual rainfall in north-central sector of the basin are related to higher rates of heavy rain, mainly above 95th percentile, as well as to the highest event of rainfall above 10 mm. Instead the northern part of the region, showed declining trends of extreme rainfall, caused mainly by the reduction in the rainfall occurrences over 95th percentile. In order to evaluate the impact that the increasing extreme rainfall may cause in large urban centers, we have investigated the data of two municipalities (Curitiba, PR and Goiânia, GO-Brazil), where the positive trend can cause inconvenience to the population (floods and inundations) suggesting, at least, the need of implementation of more effective urban planning for the future.

  6. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  7. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  8. OSL dating results of post-Barreiras sediments in the Paraiba basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: drtudela@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H., E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP/CEETEPS), Laboratorio de Datacao e Luminescencia de Cristais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rossetti, Dilce F., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Observacao da Terra, Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto - DSR

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we show ages of 39 sediments samples of two sedimentary units (PB1 and PB2) collected from Paraiba Basin, northeastern Brazil, obtained by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) making use of standardized growth curve (SGC) and applying single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol in 15 randomly selected samples to validate the equivalent Dose (D{sub e}). Environmental radiation dosimetry of the area was performed to evaluate the natural concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and in this way annual dose rates of the locations were evaluated. The results showed natural radioisotopes concentrations between 0.542-4.879 ppm for U, 1.314-26.098 ppm for Th and 0.141-1.12% for K and annual dose rates between 439-4172{mu}Gy/yr. The ages ranged from 1.8-178.3 kyr were obtained, and they are in agreements with the geological considerations. (author)

  9. Geochemical evaluation of marginal basins in the south of Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical analyses were performed on more than 700 rock samples and 4 oil samples, from Mucuri, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha basins, offshore Bahia state, Brazil. The methods employed in this study includes the evaluation of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, carbon isotopes, assessment of oils and extrats by liquid and gas chromatography and gas chromatography - spectrometry. Three main source rock systems have been identified in offshore Bahia: the Mucuri shales from Rio da Serra and Aratu Stages lower Neocomian related to a lacustrine fresh water environment; the Jiquia shales (Upper Neocomian) deposited in a lacustrine saline water environment, and the Alagoas Shales related to an evaporitic environment of Aptian age. (author)

  10. Estimation of Phosphorus Emissions in the Upper Iguazu Basin (brazil) Using GIS and the More Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; Fuchs, S.; Hilgert, S.

    2016-06-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of pollution control policies to achieve the desired water quality. Consequently, it helps avoiding problems such as eutrophication of water bodies. The focus of the research described in this study is related to phosphorus emissions into river basins. The study area is the upper Iguazu basin that lies in the northeast region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, covering about 2,965 km2 and around 4 million inhabitants live concentrated on just 16% of its area. The MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) model was used to estimate phosphorus emissions. MoRE is a model that uses empirical approaches to model processes in analytical units, capable of using spatially distributed parameters, covering both, emissions from point sources as well as non-point sources. In order to model the processes, the basin was divided into 152 analytical units with an average size of 20 km2. Available data was organized in a GIS environment. Using e.g. layers of precipitation, the Digital Terrain Model from a 1:10000 scale map as well as soils and land cover, which were derived from remote sensing imagery. Further data is used, such as point pollution discharges and statistical socio-economic data. The model shows that one of the main pollution sources in the upper Iguazu basin is the domestic sewage that enters the river as point source (effluents of treatment stations) and/or as diffuse pollution, caused by failures of sanitary sewer systems or clandestine sewer discharges, accounting for about 56% of the

  11. The microbial nature of laminated limestones: Lessons from the Upper Aptian, Araripe Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Bruno; Jahnert, Ricardo Jorge; Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Varejao, Filipe Giovanini; Assine, Mario Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Araripe Basin, located in northeastern Brazil, originated during the Gondwana continental break-up responsible for the opening of the South Atlantic during the Early Cretaceous. In the Araripe Basin, the post-rift Aptian sequence corresponds to the Santana Group, which is composed, in upward succession, of mostly clastic continental and rare carbonate layers of the Barbalha, Crato, Ipubi and Romualdo Formations. The laminated limestones of the Crato Formation were deposited in a lacustrine environment preceding the deposition of the Ipubi Formation evaporites. They are age-equivalent to the limestones of the pre-salt interval of the east coast of Brazil, which contains large petroleum reserves. The excellent preservation of its macrofossils has made the Crato Formation known worldwide as a Fossil Lagerstätte. The limestones are macroscopically homogeneous, and their deposition has been previously attributed to chemical precipitation. Although the carbonate laminites are macroscopically undifferentiated, mineralogical variations, microscopic texture and distinctive biotic aspects supported the characterization of four microfacies: planar laminated, crustiform, nodular and rhythmic. The microfacies analysis indicated a strong and pervasive biological activity in the Crato limestone morphogenesis. Organominerals precipitated by the metabolic action of cyanobacteria and/or sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic-oxidizing archea are represented by calcite and pyrite. Calcified coccoid and filaments are common, furthermore, the presence of calcified biofilms composed of exopolymeric substances (EPS) is ubiquitous. The presence of amorphous organic matter (AOM) and gypsum, particularly in the rhythmic microfacies, indicates anoxic/dysoxic conditions and stressful environments during periods of drought and low lake levels which favored the development and preservation of microbial biofilms. Phytoclasts and miospores when present in the succession indicate an

  12. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 n.cm-2.s-1. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  13. Uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Nóbrega

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantify uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on the discharge of the Rio Grande, a major tributary of the River Paraná in South America and one of the most important basins in Brazil for water supply and hydro-electric power generation. We consider uncertainty in climate projections associated with the SRES (greenhouse-gas emission scenarios (A1b, A2, B1, B2 and increases in global mean air temperature of 1 to 6 °C for the HadCM3 GCM as well as uncertainties related to GCM structure. For the latter, multimodel runs using 6 GCMs (CCCMA CGCM31, CSIRO Mk30, IPSL CM4, MPI ECHAM5, NCAR CCSM30, UKMO HadGEM1 and HadCM3 as baseline, for a + 2 °C increase in global mean temperature. Pattern-scaled GCM-outputs are applied to a large-scale hydrological model (MGB-IPH of the Rio Grande Basin. Based on simulations using HadCM3, mean annual river discharge increases, relative to the baseline period (1961–1990, by + 5% to + 10% under the SRES emissions scenarios and from + 8% to + 51% with prescribed increases in global mean air temperature of between 1 and 6 °C. Substantial uncertainty in projected changes to mean river discharge (− 28% to + 13% under the 2 °C warming scenario is, however, associated with the choice of GCM. We conclude that, in the case of the Rio Grande Basin, the most important source of uncertainty derives from the GCM rather than the emission scenario or the magnitude of rise in mean global temperature.

  14. Uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Nóbrega

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We quantify uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on the discharge of Rio Grande, a major tributary of the Paraná River in South America and one of the most important basins in Brazil for water supply and hydro-electric power generation. We consider uncertainty in climate projections associated with the greenhouse-gas emission scenarios (A1b, A2, B1, B2 and increases in global mean air temperature of 1 to 6° C for the HadCM3 GCM (Global Circulation Model as well as uncertainties related to GCM structure. For the latter, multimodel runs using 6 GCMs (CCCMA CGCM31, CSIRO Mk30, IPSL CM4, MPI ECHAM5, NCAR CCSM30, UKMO HadGEM1 and HadCM3 as baseline, for a +2° C increase in global mean temperature. Pattern-scaled GCM-outputs are applied to a large-scale hydrological model (MGB-IPH of Rio Grande Basin. Based on simulations using HadCM3, mean annual river discharge increases, relative to the baseline or control run period (1961–1990, by +5% to +10% under the SRES emissions scenarios and from +8% to +51% with prescribed increases in global mean air temperature of between 1 and 6° C. Substantial uncertainty in projected changes to mean river discharge (−28% to +13% under the 2° C warming scenario is, however, associated with the choice of GCM. We conclude that, in the case of Rio Grande Basin, the most important source of uncertainty derives from the GCM rather than the emission scenario or the magnitude of rise in mean global temperature.

  15. Well successfully drilled with high performance water-based fluid: Santos Basins, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, Frank C.; Luzardo, Juan P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Bishnoi, M.L. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Santos Basin is a 352,260 square kilometers (136,010 sq mi) offshore pre-salt basin. It is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, some 300 kilometers (190 mi) South East of Sao Paulo, Brazil. One of the largest Brazilian sedimentary basins, it is the site of several recent significant oil fields, including Tupi and Jupiter. The criteria for drilling fluid selection is based upon the following factors: maximum cost efficiency, environmental friendliness, optimum borehole stability, and ease of use. The recommended drilling fluid formulation takes into consideration the experience gained during the drilling of wells in the Santos Basin area. The operator wanted to use a high-performance water-based fluid (HPWBF) that could provide shale inhibition, wellbore stability, lubricity and improved rate of penetration (ROP) as an alternative to synthetic-based drilling fluids to present value in terms of economics and environmental friendliness. The HPWBF consists of three synergistic products: a hydration suppressant, a dispersion suppressant, and an accretion suppressant. The system is formulated based on customized solutions for managing the clay reactivity. High logistics costs require drilling fluids that can be prepared with sea water and discharged to the sea without environmental impact. The HPWBF is a clay-free system designed for maximum shale inhibition in highly reactive formations. The system can provide wellbore stability, high rates of penetration, and acceptable rheological properties over a wide range of temperatures, with the added benefit of allowing cuttings discharge based upon water base environmental restrictions. Since no oil is used in the formulation, the HPWBF eliminates the need for cuttings processing and monitoring equipment, and exceeds the environmental requirements by achieving an LC50 value of 345,478.22 ppm in comparison with the minimum requirement (LC50 > 30,000 ppm in 96 hr), permitting use and discharge to the sea. The HPWBF selected

  16. The use of Po-210 a geochronometer at Corumbatai river basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochronology of 210Pb allows to measure the rate of accumulation of sediments in the environment (Koide et al., 1973), the recent pollution history for heavy metals, i.e. the rate of affluence of pollutants, as well the rates of regional erosion and growth of saline swamps (Evans and Rigler, 1980; McCafferty and Thomson, 1980; Battarbee et al., 1985; Christensen and Goetz, 1987). The 210Pb atoms are removed from atmosphere by precipitation, entering directly into lakes and reservoirs through the rain or indirectly by the superficial drainage in the basin hydrographic, mechanisms that finalize after deposition in the bottom of lakes and oceans when are incorporated into the column of sediments, being subjected to chemical changes. However, besides possessing 210Pb originated from the atmosphere, the sediments also contain 210Pb generated by the decay of 226Ra. The 210Pb originated in the atmosphere and present in the sediments has been referred to as 'non-supported' 210Pb and the 210Pb resultant of 226Ra decay present in the sediment has been referred to as 'supported' 210Pb. In order to determine the sedimentation rate and to establish a chronological evaluation at the Corumbata river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, on using the unstable lead (210Pb) present in bottom sediments, in this work was quantified the 210Po, 'grandson' of 210Pb. Such nuclide presents a half-life of 138.4 days and declines for the stable 206Pb, emitting an alpha particle of 5.3 MeV of energy (Eakins and Morrison, 1978) (au)

  17. Austrolebias varzeae, a new annual fish from the upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrolebias varzeae n. sp. is described from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil. It seems to be closely related to A. carvalhoi (Myers, with which it shares a similar color pattern of male and an apomorphic morphology of the autopalatine. The new species differs from A. carvalhoi by having more anal-fin rays in males and more caudal-fin rays. Austrolebias varzeae is distinguished from all other species of the genus by a unique color pattern, in which there are three distinctively darker and narrower bars on the anterior portion of male flank. Putative close relationships between A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi suggest a closely related biogeographic history between upper Uruguay and upper Iguaçu River basins, corroborated by a biogeographic pattern of the anablepid genus Jenynsia.Austrolebias varzeae sp. n. é descrita da várzea do rio da Várzea, bacia do rio Uruguai superior, sul do Brasil. Ela parece estar estreitamente aparentada a A. carvalhoi, com a qual compartilha um padrão de colorido similar e uma morfologia apomórfica do autopalatino. A nova espécie difere de A. carvalhoi por possuir mais raios na nadadeira anal de machos e mais raios na nadadeira caudal. Austrolebias varzeae se distingue de todas as espécies do gênero por um padrão de colorido exclusivo, no qual há três barras distintivamente mais estreitas e mais escuras na porção anterior do flanco do macho. As supostas estreitas relações de parentesco entre A. varzeae e A. carvalhoi sugerem uma história biogeográfica intimamente relacionada entre as bacias do rio Uruguai e do rio Iguaçu superiores, corroborada por um padrão biogeográfico do gênero anablepídeo Jenynsia.

  18. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  19. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  20. Depositional, diagenetic and stratigraphic aspects of microfacies from Riachuelo Formation, Albian, Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinícius Gabrig Turbay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rocks of the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, represent an example of carbonate sedimentation related to the drift phase during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The Carapeba and Brejo quarries exhibit the best onshore outcrops of the drift carbonate section along the Brazilian continental edge. Field studies and microfacies analysis of the outcropped sedimentary section showed six sedimentary deposits related to the physiography of a carbonate shelf. Proximal mixed deposits are represented by the rich-terrigenous dolostone. Levels with alternate layers of fine grained sandstones and siltstones are here related to distal facies of submarine fans deposits. Mudstones with miliolids and textularids represent a lagoonal environment in a semi-restricted middle shelf. Packstones, grainstones and occasionally wackestones with oncoids, intraclasts and peloids represent sedimentary deposits related to the back of shallow sandy bars and environments at the interface with the lagoon. Grainstones whit ooliths, oncoids, intraclasts and bioclasts, with trough cross-bedding, represent a shallower shoreface environment over the shallow carbonate back on outer shelf. Cements and other post- depositional features suggest four different diagenetic environments: a marine phreatic diagenetic environment with active water circulation; b marine phreatic diagenetic environment with stagnant water; c freshwater phreatic diagenetic environment; d burial diagenetic environment. The sedimentary succession is formed by shallowing upward cycles overlain by a possible transgressive surface, which may indicate the passage of a lowstand to a transgressive system tract.

  1. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  2. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraíba Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraíba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraíba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraíba Basin.Várias publicações têm contribuído para melhorar a estratigrafia da Bacia Paraíba no nordeste do Brasil. Entretanto, a caracterização e distribuição das unidades sedimentares em áreas continentais desta bacia são ainda incompletas, apesar de sua importância para reconstruir a evolução tectono-sedimentar da margem passiva sulamericana. Este trabalho fornece novas informações para diferenciar entre estratos litologicamente similares que, por outro lado, não são relacionados no tempo. Esta

  3. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  4. Impact of the flex-fuel vehicle on the prices formation and regulation in Brazil; Analise do impacto dos veiculos flex-fuel na formacao e regulacao de precos de combustiveis veiculares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscarini, Rodolfo Jose Galvao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Economia; Cesca, Igor Gimenes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The main fuels for vehicles in Brazil are the gasoline type C - which is a mixture of gasoline, resulting from the fractional distillation of oil and anhydrous ethanol - and hydrated ethanol. For this importance, has been created an institutional framework to guide and regulate the activities of the fuel sector, initially for gasoline, hydrated ethanol was contemplated by such device in 2011. Since 2003, there has been manufactured in Brazil the flex-fuel vehicles. With this, the possibility of activation of an additional factor for the regulation of vehicle fuel prices, increasing consumer power to define which of the fuels could be used as the disposition of their prices. One of the effects of growth flex-fuel sales has been increased production and investment in ethanol (especially sugar cane) as a suitable alternative to the. The hope was that the formation of fuel prices was less dependent on their cost of production and distribution and more influenced by a pressure of consumer demand. However, the increase in the sales of the flex-fuel vehicle in Brazil in the last years was not the determining factor in the price of fuels, as it was expected. The explanation of this is on external factors to the automotive industry, linked to the structures of the production chain of oil and ethanol, especially the question of the great increase in international prices of oil and hydrated ethanol in the international market in recent years. (author)

  5. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  6. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  7. Environmental law in Brazil: analysis of environmental licensing of wind power plants in permanently preserved areas; Direito ambiental no Brasil: analise do licenciamento ambiental de usinas eolicas de preservacao permante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Cristiano Abijaode; Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Bleil, Julia Rechia [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@abiape.com.br, adriana@abiape.com.br, julia@abiape.com.br

    2011-04-15

    The Brazilian electric energy matrix is mostly renewable. According to the Generation Information Base (BIG) of the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), hydroelectricity is responsible for 67.31% of the country's energy. The additional generation comes mostly from fossil fuels, whose use is questioned when it comes to environmental quality and climate change. Despite its abundance, hydroelectric power generation has physical, socioeconomic and environmental limitations. Thus, it is essential to develop alternative technologies, providing security in the supply of electric energy and the maintenance of a clean matrix. Among the alternative technologies available, wind power is the one that has been gaining prominence, domestically and internationally speaking. In the last auction of renewable sources held in August 2010 in Brazil, the energy produced by the plants of sugarcane bagasse (biomass) was traded at an average of R$ 144.20 MWh; wind energy, which was the cheapest, was traded at R$ 130.86, and the energy from small hydropower plants (PCH), at R$ 141.93 MWh. The wind power plants accounted for 70% of the auction, which resulted in a plan for increasing its installed capacity by fivefold, by the year 2013. Brazil has great potential to be explored (estimated 143,000 MW), yet despite being appealing, wind energy still face some challenges. One of them is due to the fact that most potential areas for such energy are found in permanently preservation areas and areas considered national assets, subject to special protection measures. This study aims to investigate whether the regulatory, legal and environmental issues are considered an obstacle to an effective inclusion of wind power generation in Brazil. The study examines the process of environmental licensing of wind power plants, especially those established in permanently preservation areas (APPs) and Coastal Areas. The research methodology consisted of normative framework, judicial decisions

  8. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.Os calc

  9. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  10. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui, Brazil; Identificacao e analise dos impactos locais e regionais da introducao da producao de biodiesel no estado do Piaui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Omar Inacio Benedetti; Rathmann, Regis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Padula, Antonio Domingos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. This study aims at understanding the mechanisms taking place within a production system geared towards biodiesel production. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is the development and validation of an analytical structure capable of characterizing the biodiesel productive arrangements and identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, Our theoretical basis comprises elements from the regional economy, biorefineries, local production arrangements and innovation. For the analyses, we employed the methods of input-output, local quotient and shift-share. It can be said that a new social-economic dynamics is taking place in Piaui; however, the company needs to assess its interaction with local institutions as well as its castor bean production strategies. (author)

  11. CO{sub 2} emissions generated by the economic activity in Brazil: a decomposition analysis; Emissoes de CO{sub 2} gerados pela atividade economica no Brasil: uma analise de decomposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Hercules Souza de; Dezidera, Daniela Arduino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mails: hercules.medeiros@bg-group.com; danidezidera@igmail.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The present article intends to estimate the direct and indirect emissions of carbon dioxide through of the Brazilian economy official data (IBGE) and data from the National Energy Balance (BEN), trying to correlate the results. For this, the decomposition methodology was used by indexes (IDA). In that sense, evaluations were made in the temporary variations of indicators as: pollution coefficient, energy intensity, effect structures and economical activity. Besides the evaluation of the results consolidated for the period 1970 - 2004, it was compared such results with the one of other countries, whose savings have relative similarity with the Brazilian economy. The results demonstrated that in Brazil and in the countries where the methodology was applied was obtained, as main indicator in the alterations of the emissions of CO{sub 2}, the level of economical growth, which is also reality to Brazil. However, it should be emphasized that each case is considered by other factors. Another contribution of the present study refers the comparison of the intensity of present carbon in the two analysed savings. It identified, still, that the Brazilian energy outlook, for being 'cleaner', propitiates positive impact on carbon emissions results. It was also demonstrated that the increase of the participation of the natural gas in the energy matrix could minimize the carbon intensity effect, mainly as alternative for the power generation and transportation. (author)

  12. Volcanism and stratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Campo Alegre Basin, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO B. CITRONI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional succession of the Campo Alegre Basin (Santa Catarina - southern Brazil was investigated having the evolution of the volcanic activity as background. The different stratigraphic units are interpreted as belonging to different volcanic stages: Bateias Formation, conglomerates and sandstones, related with a pre-volcanic stage; Campo Alegre Group, at the main volcanic stage, with each different formation corresponding to different episodes of volcanism - Rio Negrinho Formation, corresponding to the basic volcanism, Avenca Grande Formation to ignimbritic event, Serra de São Miguel Formation to the acid volcanism and Fazenda Uirapuru Formation, related to an explosive event; Rio Turvo and Arroio Água Fria formations correspond respectively to inner and extra-caldera deposits.A sucessão deposicional das rochas vulcânicas e sedimentares da Bacia de Campo Alegre (Santa Catarina - sul do Brasil foi estabelecida tendo como "background" a evolução da atividade vulcânica. As diferentes unidades estratigráficas são consideradas como pertencentes a diferentes estágios do vulcanismo: Formação Bateias, constituída por conglomerados e arenitos, é relacionada a um estágio pré-vulcânico; Grupo Campo Alegre, depositado durante o estágio vulcânico principal, é constituído de diferentes formações que refletem os diversos momentos desse vulcanismo - Formação Rio Negrinho, relacionada ao vulcanismo básico, Formação Avenca Grande a eventos ignimbríticos, Formação Serra de São Miguel ao vulcanismo ácido e a Formação Fazenda Uirapuru a um evento explosivo; as formações Rio Turvo e Arroio Água Fria correspondem respectivamente a depósitos do interior e do exterior de uma caldeira abatida.

  13. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  14. Shallow properties of faults in carbonate rocks - The Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, F. H.; Bertotti, G.; Rabelo, J.; Silva, A. T.; Carneiro, M. A.; Cazarin, C. L.; Silva, C. C.; Vieira, M. M.; Bisdom, K.; Moraes, A.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the development of shallow faults in the Jandaíra Formation, a Turonian-Campanian carbonate platform in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil. Our main goal was to characterize fault geometry and properties such as porosity and permeability, and associate these results with fluid flow in shallow conditions. We used an integrated multidisciplinary approach, which combined Quickbird satellite and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, drone) imagery, structural and sedimentary-facies mapping, and petrographic and petrophysical analyses. The Jandaíra Formation presents a variety of carbonate facies, which include mudstones to bioclastic, peloidal, intraclastic, and oolitic grainstones. We modeled our remote sensing and structural data using a finite element analysis system for 2D deformation modeling. We applied the magnitudes and directions of the present-day stress field to simulate depths as deep as 500 m. These stress data were derived from borehole breakout data and drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in resistivity image logs. Our results indicate the occurrence of dilation processes along three sets of joints that were reactivated as faults in the upper crust: N-S, NE-, and E-W-striking faults. These faults provided preferential leaching pathways to fresh water percolation, contributing to localized dissolution and increased secondary porosity and permeability. The results also indicate that the tectonic stresses are concentrated in preferred structural zones such as fault intersection and termination, which are sites of increased fracturing and dissolution. Dissolution by fluids increased permeability in carbonate rocks from primary values of 0.0-0.94 mD to as much as 1370.11 mD. This process is mostly Cenozoic.

  15. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  16. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  17. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil Peixes da bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (sistema da Laguna dos Patos), sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    FG. Becker; Fries LCC. De; J. Ferrer; VA. Bertaco; KDG. Luz-Agostinho; JFP Silva; AR. Cardoso; ZMS. Lucena; CAS. Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 no...

  18. Challenges for environmental risk assessment application in offshore E and P activities in Brazil; Desafios para a aplicacao de analise de risco ecologico nas atividades de E e P offshore no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Chame, Luciana Moreira [DNV Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves [BP Brasil, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although the Brazilian Legislation does not clearly specify the requirements and the need to elaborate and apply the Environmental Risk Analysis, the Term of Reference to submit studies to Environmental Entities for E and P offshore activities has required the presentation of an {sup E}nvironment Risk Analysis{sup .} Nevertheless, the interactions or possible effects of these accidents as well as possible chronic discharges are not focused. The Environment Risk Analysis programs used world wide for offshore petroleum activities are very sophisticated and need intense research, specially by universities to be adequate and applicable in Brazil. The studies briefly described in this work, when developed may give the characteristics of Brazilian offshore, important information on the potential of the environment impact of the E and P activities, reducing significantly today's subjectivity on evaluation of impacts and environmental risks. (author)

  19. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Analise de conformidades as normas tecnicas de protecao radiologica dos servicos de radioterapia no Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Epidemiologica; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: mbpeduardo@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  20. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in Piracicaba river basin (São Paulo/Brazil: a survey of sediment, bivalve and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the level of occurrence of the organochlorine compounds in samples of sediments, bivalves and two fish species collected in the Piracicaba River basin (São Paulo, Brazil. The isomers alpha and gamma of HCH and Heptachlor were most frequently detected in samples of sediments and specimens of bivalve and fish. Therefore, although the levels of these compounds found were not critically high, they are still found in the environment. This fact suggests that they are still being used, despite the fact that the use of these compounds was outlawed more than twenty years ago.

  2. Evaluation and prediction of oil biodegradation: a novel approach integrating geochemical and basin modeling techniques in offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, Roger [YPF S.A. (Argentina); Santos, Glauce Figueiredo dos; Losilla, Carlos; Cabrera, Ricardo; Loncarich, Ariel; Gavarrino, Alejandro [RepsolYPF do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Oil fields accounting for a large portion of the world reserves are severely affected by biological degradation. In Brazil, giant fields of the Campos Basin are producing biodegraded oils with widely variable fluid characteristics (10 to 40 deg API) and no apparent logical distribution nor predictability. Modern geochemical techniques allow defining the level of biodegradation. When original (non-degraded) oil samples and other with varying degradation level are available it might be possible to define a distribution trend and to relate it to present day geological factors such as temperature and reservoir geometry. However, other critical factors must be taken into account. But most of all, it is fundamental to have a vision in time of their evolution. This can only be achieved through 3D Basin Models coupled with modern visualization tools. The multi-disciplinary work-flow described here integrates three-dimensional numerical simulations with modern geochemical analyses. (author)

  3. Susceptibility and compatibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Río de la Plata basin with Schistosoma mansoni from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Carlos Edgardo; Rea, María Josefa F

    2010-07-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to southern parts of Brazil. Between 2005-2007 the dispersion and the proliferation of Biomphalaria tenagophila was verified in the province of Corrientes near the Brazilian border. In order to study the possibility that schistosomiasis might spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers, 440 B. tenagophila collected from 10 populations groups were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni of the SJ2 strain. Snails from five localities were susceptible. Frandsen's index (TCP/100) shows that those snails from Mirungá (11%), Aguacerito (2%) and Curupicay (2%) were Class I and not very compatible. Meanwhile, snails from Copra (6%) and Pay-Ubre (22%), in the Paraná River basin, were Class II and poorly compatible. PMID:20721498

  4. Susceptibility and compatibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Río de la Plata basin with Schistosoma mansoni from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edgardo Borda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has expanded to southern parts of Brazil. Between 2005-2007 the dispersion and the proliferation of Biomphalaria tenagophila was verified in the province of Corrientes near the Brazilian border. In order to study the possibility that schistosomiasis might spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers, 440 B. tenagophila collected from 10 populations groups were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni of the SJ2 strain. Snails from five localities were susceptible. Frandsen's index (TCP/100 shows that those snails from Mirungá (11%, Aguacerito (2% and Curupicay (2% were Class I and not very compatible. Meanwhile, snails from Copra (6% and Pay-Ubre (22%, in the Paraná River basin, were Class II and poorly compatible.

  5. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy review of Ponta Grossa formation, Parana Basin - emphasis on the Tibagi Member sandstones; Analise de facies e revisao da estratigrafia de sequencias da Formacao Ponta Grossa, Bacia do Parana - enfase nos arenitos do Membro Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Ary Gustavo [PETROBRAS, Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio Exploracao e Producao da Bacia de Campos. Gerencia de Avaliacao de Blocos e Interpretacao Geologica e Geofisica]. E-mail: ary.candido@petrobras.com.br; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires

    2006-11-15

    Lithostratigraphic studies of Ponta Grossa Formation (Devonian - Parana Basin) suggest the recognition of three members, denominated: Jaguariaiva Member, Tibagi Member and Sao Domingos Member. This work studies the formation as a whole, but predominantly the Tibagi Member, the most controversial, regarding its stratigraphic genesis. Differing from the other members, that are predominantly pelitic, the Tibagi Member has a sandy composition with the facies; distal storm, proximal storm, deltaic outlet bars and littoral drift currents. The disposition of these facies, formed in marine transitional environment, reveals deposition with a pro gradational array, beginning in shallow platformal environment, with strong storm influence, and covered by deltaic outlet bar deposits. Finally, the coastal drift currents process prevailed. Based on the facies analysis and the comparison between gamma-ray profiles of outcrops and geophysical profiles of wells, the formation was divided in two depositional sequences. In the upper sequence, where it is suggested that Tibagi Member sandstones represent deposits formed in a tract similar to a shelf edge systems tract. This system tract was used (elaborated for passive margin basins, and not for ramp type basins, as the Parana Basin), to have the possibility of obtaining good explanations to understand the deltaic progradation associated with the deposition of that interval, clarifying issues referring to the relative sea level behavior, to the sedimentary contribution, and to the stratigraphic pile up. Finally, comparisons were made with existing stratigraphic models, with the aim to establish a discussion on this important subject in order to promote new debate on the Ponta Grossa Formation stratigraphic sequences. (author)

  6. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  7. Participatory and decentralized water resources management: challenges and perspectives for the North Paraíba River Basin committee - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee. PMID:22925876

  8. Assessing the spatial and temporal water quality in the sub-basin of the Poxim river, Sergipe state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Nogueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the land use and cover in the Poxim river basin, in Sergipe, Brazil, is a determinant factor for reducing the superficial water quality. This study aimed to identify aspects of water quality related to the land use and cover in four different monitoring stations, in the rainy and dry season. The monitored parameters were pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, between July 2009 and June 2010. Water samples were collected at four monitoring stations (E1, in the Poxim-Mirim River; E2, in the Poxim-Açu River; E3, in the main river, near the confluence of the two tributaries; and E4, at the Sanitation Company of Sergipe State water supply intake and analyzed at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the Federal University of Sergipe State. The results were compared with Brazilian standards for fresh water quality (Class 2, according to CONAMA Resolution nº 357/2005. BOD and COD showed a higher input of organic matter in the monitoring station E3. OD values were critical in all four stations. The nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus had higher concentrations at stations E1 and E2 (upper basin, with agricultural practices. In the lower basin, there is a considerable deterioration of water quality, possibly due to the urbanization process. The studied parameters indicate the low quality of water in the Poxim River basin and the need to adopt appropriate mitigation measures.

  9. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  10. Peru and Brazil: a comparative analysis of E and P licensing models adopted by these countries; Peru e Brasil: um analise comparativa dos modelos de licitacao de E and P adotados por esses paises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Luciana P.; Ferreira, Sabrina S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the concession process of Oil and Gas Exploratory Blocks adopted in two countries of Latin America: Peru and Brazil, according to the rules of the Bidding Rounds occurred in 2007 (Peru's Bidding Round and 9th Bidding Round, respectively). In order to analyze the two models chosen, we considered, among others, the rules and proceedings adopted, the legal framework, the criteria used to qualify the companies, the number of blocks offered, the number of participating companies, the infra-structure of the event and the offer selection system. Through this analysis it was possible to verify the points which could be improved in each concession process model and it showed significant differences between them, despite the fact of each one is suitable to the reality of each country. It is important to highlight that the exchange of experience between agents of oil and gas sector, in this specific case Perupetro and ANP, contributes a lot to the continued improvement of bidding processes and other practices adopted. (author)

  11. Analyzing natural gas distribution in Brazil through EVA (Economic Value Added); Analise economico-financeira da industria de distribuicao de gas natural brasileiro sob a otica da geracao de valor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando Rodrigues; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    Although the Brazilian gas market has been showing steady growth and positive news regarding new discoveries, it is not immune to be questioned about its capacity of value generation, and, in particular, if the new companies, operating in distribution have generated it. Value creation, and its management, has become one of the main activities of the modern corporation in order to align the management and shareholders interests. Despite its advancements, the Brazilian NG industry can be considered at its early stages when compared to those of other countries whose industry is more traditional and mature. The process of unbundling of the gas industry, as well as of the public utilities, has become one of the icons of the Brazilian government policies since the mid 90's. Taking into account regulatory change which had only allowed in the last couple of decades the participation of private ownership into the domestic gas market, a follow up of these companies' performances is of interest. Following the concept of value generation, the present study examines the Brazilian gas distribution sector. Based on a detailed analysis of the financial statements of some of the main companies in the sector, that together represent around 68% of the total Brazilian market, this paper verifies whether the gas distribution sector have presented a positive or negative EVA{sup R}, in other words, if, during the period from 2002 to 2007, these newly companies in the gas industry have created or destroyed value in Brazil. (author)

  12. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  13. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Teixeira, de, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is marked by socio-eco¬nomic disparities and environmental vulnerabilities. Water managers in the semi-arid region of the basin are faced with several challenges, such as competition among different wate...

  14. Water politics in Brazil subsidiarity and humanity aspects for the semi-arid sustainable river basin management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencarr [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Direito Publico

    2010-02-15

    This paper examines Brazilian national constitutional law interpretation about water resources management, environmental protection and sustainable development principles. Institutional scenario is characterized under an economical format, important to conciliate human rights guaranties, national development and water protection. We provide subsidies for legal and institutional analysis considering human rights and an equity desirable scenario. Institutional context in Brazil assumes that Federal Law No. 9433/97 determined that water management must improve its multiple uses, decentralization and social participation. Water resources management in Brazil is legally and institutionally marked by the presence of the subsidiarity principle. We analyze the case in current national scene, with its consequent conflict in Sao Francisco River Basin, a semi arid Northeastern River Basin. This work also reflects some aspects of water pricing as defined by State politics. Some parameters are discussed as an elementary presupposition for water regulatory instruments that will define respective water management policy. Therefore, when defining criteria water fees, laws must comply with constitutional principles and the parameters established by the Brazilian Water Law (Law 9.433/97). The lack of reasonability and proportionality in dealing with the formal aspects and, specially, in defining water allocation, can obstruct the subsidiary principle application as determined by the Law 9433/97 and National Water Resources Policy. The question is observed in a more detailed focus over Northeastern Brazilian semi-arid region, where scarcity and traditional relations on politics are difficult to deal with, according to a renewed vision of the State and sustainable development principles. (author)

  15. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2...

  16. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.O recurso pesqueiro da bacia do rio Cuiabá, um dos mais importantes tributários da bacia do Alto Paraguai, formadora do Pantanal, foi estudado a partir dos dados de desembarque de pescado obtidos no Mercado do Porto de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. São descritas a composição e procedência das capturas para os anos de 2000 e 2001. O rio Cuiabá é a fonte dominante de pescado para a cidade de Cuiabá, mas uma parte do

  17. Analysis of the reliability of the centrifugal pumping system on the Northeast pole platforms in the Campos basin; Analise de confiabilidade do sistema de bombeio centrifugo das plataformas do polo nordeste da bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz; Bardy, Mariana [Principia Engenharia de Informatica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Simoes Filho, Salvador [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Div. de Engenharia Basica Industrial; Neves, Edinei [PETROBRAS, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao

    1999-12-01

    The results of the statistical analysis of useful life data for the Submersible Centrifugal Pumping (BCS) sets installed in the wells in the Northeast Pole of the Campos Basin are given in this work. The objective is to analyze the data compiled with a view to determine the failure rate distributions for the various system components. These are important for the reliability analysis of the BCS systems and to predict the expected number of equipment acquisitions over a yearly period. In addition, suggestions are made aimed at improving the operational reliability of the systems analyzed. (author)

  18. Statistical distribution models for migratory fish in Jacuí basin, South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís P. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution patterns of migratory fishes in the Jacuí river basin (Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil, proposing a statistical model of presumed distribution based on geomorphologic environmental data. Through maps of occurrence probability, we hope to contribute to decisions regarding basin environmental management. The analyzed species were: Salminus brasiliensis (dourado, Leporinus obtusidens (piava, Prochilodus lineatus (grumatã and Pimelodus pintado (pintado. Samples were made through interviews with fishermen and local inhabitants, covering the main channel and tributaries of the rivers Jacuí, Taquari-Antas, Vacacaí, Vacacaí-Mirim, Pardo, Pardinho, Sinos, and Caí. The sampling program resulted in 204 interviews, being 187 considered as valid in 155 different sampling points. The probability of migratory fish occurrence was adjusted through the LOGIT routine of the Idrisi Andes Software: P = e(b0 + b1 . altitude + b2 . basin area . (1 + e(b0 + b1 . altitude + b2 . basin area-1, where P is the occurrence probability of the species (0-1 and b0, b1 and b2 are the equation parameters. Model accuracy, for estimating presence, ranged from 82% to 93%. Pimelodus pintado was cited to occur in 121 points among the 155 sampled (78.06%, Prochilodus lineatus in 72 (46.45%, L. obtusidens in 62 (40.00% and S. brasiliensis in 58 (37.42%. Equation parameters were estimated (± standard error as follow: S. brasiliensis: b0 = -2.8762 ± 0.2597; b1 = 1.3028 ± 0.0332; b2 = 1.1487 ± 0.0301; L. obtusidens: b0 = -0.8364 ± 0.2213; b1 = -1.5564 ± 0.0462; b2 = 0.9947 ± 0.0206; Prochilodus lineatus: b0= 0; b1= -1.3067 ± 0.0544; b2= 0.8128 ± 0.0177; Pimelodus pintado: b0= -0.9487 ± 0.3688; b1= -0.8269 ± 0.0496; b2= 0.9255 ± 0.0304.O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar o padrão de distribuição de peixes migradores da bacia hidrográfica do rio Jacuí (Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil, propondo um

  19. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is m

  20. Mechanical Erosion in a Tropical River Basin in Southeastern Brazil: Chemical Characteristics and Annual Fluvial Transport Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the mechanical erosion processes that occur in a tropical river basin, located in the São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, through the chemical characterization of fine suspended sediments and the transport mechanisms near the river mouth, from March 2009 to September 2010. The chemical characterization indicated the predominance of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 and showed no significant seasonal influences on the major element concentrations, expressed as oxides. The concentration variations observed were related to the mobility of chemical species. The evaluation of the rock-alteration degree indicated that the physical weathering was intense in the drainage basin. The fine suspended sediments charge was influenced by the variation discharges throughout the study period. The solid charge estimate of the surface runoff discharge was four times higher in the rainy season than the dry season. The transport of fine suspended sediments at the Sorocaba River mouth was 55.70 t km−2 a−1, corresponding to a specific physical degradation of 37.88 m Ma−1, a value associated with the mechanical erosion rate that corresponds to the soil thickness reduction in the drainage basin.

  1. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  2. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  3. Quaternary colluvial episodes (Upper Paraná River Hydrographic Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea E.M. Sallun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Colluvial deposits occur extensively in the Upper Paraná River Hydrographic Basin (UPRHB in Southeastern,Southern, and Western central Brazil. These deposits were recognized as an allostratigraphic unit and related to creeping during the Quaternary. Every studied colluvial profile is homogeneous, which indicates relatively long periods of landscape stability that is sufficient for the development of a thick soil cover. The deposits were dated by luminescence and indicate periods of more intense colluvial deposition between 6 and 220 ky B.P. These events correspond approximately to the transitions between the oxygen isotope stages 2-3-4 and 5-6, suggesting that this aggradation was influenced by climatic changes. However, the most important alluviation episode was tentatively correlated with the Middle to Upper Pleniglacial of the Wisconsin glaciation. The most intensive and frequent periods of precipitation that occurred during climate transitions are probably correlated with aggradation events. The regularity of the colluvial deposits suggests continuous uplift accompanied by sediment deposition throughout the UPRHB due to neotectonic activity during the last million years.Depósitos coluviais ocorrem extensivamente na Bacia Hidrográfica do Alto Rio Paraná, no sudeste, sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Esses depósitos foram reconhecidos como uma unidade aloestratigráfica, e são interpretados como depósitos formados por processos de rastejo durante o Quaternário. Cada perfil coluvial estudado é muito homogêneo, e indica relativamente períodos longos de estabilidade da paisagem, suficiente para desenvolvimento de espessa cobertura. Estes depósitos foram datados por luminescência para estabelecer cronologicamente períodos de deposição coluvial mais intensa entre 6 e 220 ky B.P. Estes eventos correspondem aproximadamente às transições entre os estágios de isótopos do oxigênio 2-3-4 e 5-6, sugerindo que essa agradação esteve

  4. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g‑1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g‑1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g‑1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g‑1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however

  5. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Parana Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Menegat, R.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Basei, M.A.; Barboza, E.; Simas, M.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 {+-} 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Parana Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Parana Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 {+-} 3 Ma and 299.2 {+-} 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  6. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  7. A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Centromochlus comprises twelve species, distributed in the main inland watersheds of South America, including the Orinoco, Essequibo, coastal rivers of Suriname, Amazon, upper Paraná and São Francisco basins. The new species is described from the upper rio Paraná based on material collected in 1965 during the construction of the UHE Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is easily distinguished from all congeners due to absence of adipose fin, a condition otherwise restricted to Gelanoglanis nanonocticolus, among centromochlin catfishes. The new species comprises small catfishes (adults ranging from 35 to 39 mm SL, in which modified anal fin of males is devoid of denticulations or spines, and most posterior rays reduced in length. In addition, Tatia simplex Mees is transferred to Centromochlus and its generic reassignment discussed.

  8. Copper speciation in Iguaçu river basin, at Curitiba's metropolitan region, Brazil, by ligand competition using DPASV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeu Grassi, M.; Sodré, F. F.

    2003-05-01

    Copper concentrations and speciation in two different sites located in the Iguaçu River Basin, Brazil, were evaluated during a 10-months period, in this work. Results showed a seasonal influence on copper levels with a major contribution of non-point sources during the rainy season, when concentrations of copper were similar in both Irai and Iguaçu Rivers. During the dry season the discharge of raw sewage was the primary source of copper for the sampling point located downstream the city of Curitiba, in the Iguaçu River, which exhibited higher metal concentrations. Speciation results also showed different patterns. Higher copper contents were found in the particulate phase in Iguaçu River, whereas labile copper concentrations were relatively greater in Irai River waters.

  9. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  10. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  11. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (unde...

  12. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORUS EMISSIONS IN THE UPPER IGUAZU BASIN (BRAZIL) USING GIS AND THE MORE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; S. Fuchs; S. Hilgert

    2016-01-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of...

  13. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  14. The role of environmental land use conflicts in soil fertility: A study on the Uberaba River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, C A; Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2016-08-15

    In the Uberaba River basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), pastures for livestock production have invaded areas of native vegetation (Cerrado biome), while already existing pastures were invaded by crop agriculture, with an expansion of sugar cane plantations in the most recent years. In some areas of the basin, these land use changes were classified as environmental land use conflicts because the new uses were not conforming to land capability, i.e. the soil's natural use. Where the areas in conflict became dense, some soil properties have changed significantly, namely the organic matter content and the exchangeable potassium concentration, which have decreased drastically (5kg/m(3) per 10% increase in the conflict area) threatening the fertility of soil. Besides, these changes may have triggered a cascade of other environmental damages, specifically the increase of soil erosion and the degradation of water quality with negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity, related to a disruption of soil organic matter structural functions. Because half the Uberaba catchment has been considered is a state of accentuated environmental degradation, not only caused by environmental land use conflicts, conservation measures have been proposed and requested for immediate implementation across the watershed. PMID:27107645

  15. Water budget comparison of global climate models and experimental data in Onça Creek basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, D. C. D.; Marin, I. S. P.; Wendland, E.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the hydrological cycle, accounting for more than 25% of human needs on the global scale. As a result of aquifer overexploitation associated with climate change, even in the most conservative future climate scenarios, mean water-table levels can experience drastic drops. Although there are efforts to include groundwater dynamics in global climate models (GCMs), its influence is still not taken into full account in GCM water budgets, although it is as important as the other water sources considered. To assess the role of percolation in the water balance, we compared the water budget from climate forcing scenarios using 10 GCMs with the water budget from experimental data of a basin in São Paulo state, Brazil. We used the delta factor approach to correct the bias of the model's temperature and precipitation for a control period from 1970 to 1999, and calculated evapotranspiration using the Thornthwaite method. Experimental data for runoff and interception were derived for the basin's representative crops (sugar cane and pasture) for both water budgets. As the GCMs ignore subsurface flow and the only input considered is precipitation and snow melt, the excess surface water is assumed to be redistributed among the other water budget components. The experimental data shows that there is enough available water for infiltration, indicating that recharge cannot be ignored in the water balance. This leads to the possibility of the models' overestimating the other components to compensate for the ignored recharge.

  16. Jurassic–cretaceous deformational phases in the Paraná intracratonic basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Strieder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the domes and basins, regional arcs and synclines, and brittle structures of the Paraná Basin flood volcanism to characterize the deformational phases in its Jurassic to Cretaceous history. First-stage fieldwork revealed brittle structures, extensional joints, and strike-slip faults, and second-stage fieldwork investigated the connections of the brittle structures to both open folds and dome-and-basin features. Fault-slip data inversion was performed using two different techniques to distinguish local and remote stress/strain. Geometric and kinematic analyses completed the investigations of the deformation, which characterized two deformational phases for the Jurassic to Cretaceous periods in the Paraná Basin. Both developed under regional bi-directional constrictional (σ1 ≥ σ2 ≫ σ3 stress regimes that produced a number of non-cylindrical folds. A D1 deformational phase produced the N–S and E–W orthogonally oriented domes and basins. The D2 arcs and synclines are oriented towards the NW and NE and indicate a clockwise rotation (35–40° of both horizontal principal stress tensors. The extensional joints and strike-slip faults characterize the local stress field in the outer rim of the orthogonally buckled single volcanic flow, whereas the inner rim of the buckled single flow supported constriction and thus, developed the local arcuate folds.

  17. Four new species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrerette, Orlemir; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Polycirrus were collected at the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, during a survey coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS under the scope of the project, "Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin". These species are P. nonatoi sp. nov., P. papillosus sp. nov., P. breviuncinatus sp. nov., and P. habitats sp. nov. All these species are herein described and compared with the morphologically most similar congeners. In addition, a key is provided for the identification of the species of Polycirrus which have been originally described for the Brazilian coast. PMID:26176130

  18. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evain, M.; Afilhado, A; Rigoti, C; Loureiro, A.; D. Alves; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P; Feld, A.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; de Lima, M. Vinicius; Corela, C.; L. Matias; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.

    2015-01-01

    International audience The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, are discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the Santos Basin (SanBa) experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS...

  19. Actual stage of organic geochemical knowledge from Campos and Espirito Santo basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos and Espirito Santo basins display several similar geochemical aspects. The microbial and other degradation processes caused changes in the composition of the oils in the reservoir rocks. The oils are biodegraded in different degrees, with the reservoir temperature developing an important role in the control of the biodegradation process. The migration pathway model is similar for Campos and Espirito Santo basins, involving the upward secondary migration through a window in the evaporitic seals. The oils passed to the marine sequence where migration and accumulation were controlled by faults, regional unconformities and by reservoirs. The geochemical correlation of oils are realized by gaseous and liquid chromatography analysis, carbon isotopes and biolabelled compounds. (author)

  20. Uranium prospecting in Cerro Partido Region-Encruzilhada do Sul Basin-RS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cerro Partido residual basin is a shallow (85 meters) and small (25km2) sedimentary basin, a remainder of the erosive cicle, enclosed in the pre-cambrian granitic rocks of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield. Grades of 0.2+ U3O8 were found in its upper-paleozoic sandstones and shales drilles for uranium. The small size and thicknesses of these concentrations prevent their economic mining. However, the different levels of the shield exposed by tectonics, the intrusive granitic, riolitic and syenitic rocks, the anomalous uranium contents in sedimentary and crystalline rocks recommend further investigations on the shield area

  1. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  2. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  3. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210Pb and 226Ra. (author)

  4. Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

    2011-01-01

    Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments. PMID:22095604

  5. Seven new species of the killifish genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) from the Paraná, Paraguay and upperAraguaia river basins, central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2005-01-01

    Seven new species of the Rivulus punctatus group collected during recent field studies in central Brazil are described. Rivulus dapazi n. sp., from the upper rio Correntes drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal and caudal fins in males; R. cyanopterus n. sp., from the upper rio São Lourenço drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal fin in both sexes; R. rossoi n. sp., from the rio Inhanduí drainage, rio Paraná ba...

  6. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  7. Zircon fission track and U–Pb dating methods applied to São Paulo and Taubaté Basins located in the southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon samples from the Cenozoic São Paulo and Taubaté Basins and Mantiqueira Mountain Range (southeast Brazil) were concomitantly dated by zircon Fission Track Method (FTM) and in situ U–Pb dating method. While FTM detrital-zircon data are ideally used to provide low-temperature information, U–Pb single detrital grain ages record the time of zircon formation in igneous or high grade metamorphic environments. This methodology may be used to study the possible sources of the basins sediments. The results suggest that the São Paulo Basin is composed of sediments from just one source, the Mantiqueira Mountain Range. On the other hand, the Taubaté Basin presents further sediment sources besides the Mantiqueira Mountain Range. - Highlights: ► Zircons from São Paulo and Taubaté Basins were dated by FTM and U–Pb. ► The zircon ages were compared with ages from the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (source). ► Results suggest the Mantiqueira is the source of sediments for the São Paulo Basin. ► The Taubaté Basin presents further sediment sources besides the Mantiqueira

  8. Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiero, Laurent; Furquim, S.A.C.; Vallès, Vincent; Furian, S.; Sakamoto, Arnaldo; Rezende Filho, A.,; Fort, Monique

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive feature of Nhecolândia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, is the presence of both saline (alkaline) and freshwater lakes. Saline lakes were attributed to a past arid phase during the Pleistocene, but recent studies have shown that the geochemistry of the saline lakes arises from the current concentration process of fresh waters that is supplied to the Pantanal every year. The region is mainly used for cattle farming, more recently eco-tourism is becoming widespread...

  9. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  10. Sedimentary and tectonic environments for uranium mineralization on the Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Parana Basin is an isolated intracratonic basin in Southeastern South America and is characterized by Paleozoic and Mesozoic clastic sediments and by the location of one of the world's largest lava flows. Uranium mineralization occurs mainly in lower Devonian epineritic feldsphatic sandstones and in fluvio-deltaic channels developed in middle Permian mudstones and sandstones. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic conditions plus tectonic barriers in association with underground water controlled the mineralization. Two uranium deposits with 4250 and 6800 tonnes U of RAR plus EAR were found containing primary (pitchblende and coffinite) and secondary (autunite, sabugalite, uranocircite) minerals. A paleochannel model for the Permo-carboniferous mineralization is quite well established whereas many questions are still open for the confirmation of a model for the Devonian occurrences. Host rock sedimentary environment, ore-forming conditions and source rocks are discussed. (author)

  11. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT) BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares; Ynglea Georgina de Freitas Goch; José Reinaldo Pacheco Peleja; Bruce Rider Forsberg; Edivaldo Júnior de Souza Lemos; Otávio Peleja de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg) in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were d...

  12. Microhabitat preferences of six Drosera (Droseraceae) from Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Panayotis Saridakis; José Marcelo Domingues Torezan; Galdino Andrade

    2004-01-01

    We studied the microhabitats and the climatic requirements of six Drosera taxa, which occur in the subtropical grasslands of the Tibagi river basin. They are annual,or most communly, perennial herbs known as carnivorous plants, whose leaves are transformed into traps for the capture and digestion of small insects as an adaptation for supplying nutricional deficiencies. They usually occur in distrophic substrata. In order to contribute to conservation plans for the species of the genus, threat...

  13. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

  14. Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Araguaia basin in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio C. T. Lima; Cristiano R. Moreira

    2003-01-01

    Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) are described from the upper rio Araguaia basin. Hyphessobrycon langeanii n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a well-defined, round humeral spot, a reticulate color pattern, a broad, horizontally-elongate caudal-peduncle blotch, and a relatively wide, faint midlateral dark stripe. Hyphessobrycon eilyos n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of humeral and caudal spots; by the presence ...

  15. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  16. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carlos A; Lima, Evandro F; Nardi, Lauro V S; Liz, Joaquim D; Waichel, Breno L

    2006-09-01

    The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources. PMID:16936944

  17. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  18. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  19. The Neo-Alagoas in the Ceara, Araripe and Potiguar basins (Brazil): stratigraphic and paleoecologycal caracterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stratigraphic analysis of the Alagoas Stage (local stage) in Ceara Basin allows the investigated interval to be divided into two parts, with distictive tectono-sedimentary and paleobiological features. The lower part shows non-marine environmental character and the upper part, informally named Aptian-Albian transition, contains marine organisms in certain levels. These records would represent the first phases of a primitive equatorial Atlantic Ocean in the area. The Trairi Beds at the top of the continental section were deposited in an environmental complex which includes a marginal sabkha, reflecting cyclical conditions of extreme aridity or humidity. Similar events have ocurred in the Potiguar Basin with the Ponta do Tubarao Beds and in Araripe Basin with the deposition of thinny calcareous and shale layers, here informally named ''Batateria Beds''. These environmental conditions provided an excellent setting for preservation of organic matter due to cyclical anoxic processes. The observation that the organic extracts from shales of all these strata are similar supports the hypothesis of correspondence of these events. (author)

  20. Study of silting on basin streams of Bodocongó, Campina Grande, State of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to produce thematic maps that reflect the expansion of space-time silting of the basin's Creek Bodocongó for the period from 1989 to 2007. The study area is located in the marsh west of the state of Paraiba in the city of Campina Grande. Analysis of images TM/Landsat-5, SSC / CBERS - 2 and data from work the field were made. The digital processing of Landsat images was performed from SPRING - 4.3. The results showed that the basin presented a reduction in the mirror of the water dam around 19% over 18 years. Between the years 1989 and 2007, this dam had 27.28 ha of mirror of water, already in April 2007 this area was reduced to 22.17 ha, according to analysis from CBERS images. The silting is one of the most aggravating consequences of degradation due to poor storage conditions, lack of supervision of public agencies and control the activities found along the whole basin.

  1. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais State, 'Steel Valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  2. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais state, 'steel valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  3. Dissolved organic matter and terrestrial-lotic linkages in the Central Amazon Basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Michael E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Brandes, Jay A.; Pimentel, Tania P.

    1997-09-01

    We evaluate the hypothesis that decomposition and adsorption reactions operating in upland soils of headwater catchments control the concentration and composition of dissolved and fine particulate organic matter in rivers of the Amazon basin. In two contrasting first-order catchments characteristic of the central Amazon basin, we analyzed plant, litter, soil, groundwater, and stream water chemistry. Our results indicate that clear and persistent differences exist in the concentration and elemental composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in stream waters and groundwaters from the two catchments, due mainly to corresponding differences in soil texture and chemistry. Within the more oxide and clay rich Oxisols underlying terra firme forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were uniformly low (120 μMC) and C/N ratios averaged 10. Conversely, within the oxide and clay deficient Spodosols underlying campinarana forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were greatly elevated (3000 μMC), and C/N ratios averaged near 60. We found that, in the terra firme/Oxisol terrain, the majority of DOM contributions to the stream derived from the riparian zone, while in the campinarana/Spodosol terrain, upland groundwater contributions could account for the concentration and composition of DOM in the stream. The implications of our findings are that in the terra firme terrains which dominate the region, upland soil profiles are not the site of definitive processes which impart compositional signatures to organic matter carried by the largest rivers of the Amazon basin, as was hypothesized. Instead, we suggest that definitive reactions are focused primarily in the river corridor.

  4. Results of the marine biota monitoring during drilling activity on Campos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petta, Claudia Brigagao de; Bastos, Fabio; Danielski, Monica; Ferreira, Mariana; Gama, Mariana; Coelho, Ana Paula Athanazio; Maia, Decio [Aecom do Brasil Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Project (PMA) aims to report environmental changes arising from drilling activity, in relation to the marine fauna. This project can also help in the monitoring of accidental spills. Since the professionals spend six hours of the day monitoring the ocean around the rigs, they can locate and identify oil stains, notify the responsible onboard, and also help in the monitoring of the oil stain. Such Project has been developed onboard a drilling unit working in Campos Basin. The results presented here were collected during the drilling activity in Bijupira and Salema fields, by Shell Brasil Petroleo Ltda, from July 13th to October 8th, 2011.

  5. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  6. The influence of oceanic basins on drought and ecosystem dynamics in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2012 drought in Northeast Brazil was the harshest in decades, with potentially significant impacts on the vegetation of the unique semi-arid caatinga biome and on local livelihoods. Here, we use a coupled climate–vegetation model (CCM3-IBIS) to: (1) investigate the role of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the 2012 drought, and; (2) evaluate the response of the caatinga vegetation to the 2012 climate extreme. Our results indicate that anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean were the primary factor forcing the 2012 drought, with Pacific Ocean SST having a larger role in sustaining typical climatic conditions in the region. The drought strongly influenced net primary production in the caatinga, causing a reduction in annual net ecosystem exchange indicating a reduction in amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. (letter)

  7. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the Southern Amazonas Basin and Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project Brushfire 1979 took place based in Brasilia, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, CH3CL, COS, NO, NO2, O3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. (orig./RW)

  8. New insights into Gondwana paleography based on palinological data from Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Garcia, Gustavo; Vasconcellos Garcia, Antônio Jorge; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    The Sergipe-Alagoas basin (NE Brazil) has been widely studied in the frame of oil exploration, because it displays the most complete exposition of the stratigraphic sequences from the basins of the Brazilian continental margin. In this context, the aim of this workis to present the results of the bio-stratigraphic and paleo-environmental analysis of Morro do Chaves Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in Alagoas Sub-basin, part of the transitional section situated between the rift phase and restricted marine environment associated with the South Atlantic ocean opening. The material was analyzed from the palynological point of view and was collected in the InterCement quarry, located in São Miguel dos Campos, State of Alagoas. From 17 outcrop rock samples collected, nine had palynological content; among these only six were considered for biostratigraphic analysis purposes. In addition to outcrop samples, 28 samples were processed from four core drill. The paleoenvironmental analysis was based on the palynological content of the collected samples and on the paleontological and geological information available. The studied sedimentary package corresponds to carbonate and fine siliciclastic deposits, with approximately 70.0 m in thickness. The unit in question is formed by carbonatic "coquinóides" rocks interspersed with shale levels of dark green color. Palinofloristic assemblages were recuperated between 5.0 m and 70.0 m of the outcropping section. In the recovered material it was possible to identify 9 kinds of spores and 8 kinds of pollen grains, and two genera of fungi. Due to the degree of preservation of the material, age was established by the occurrence of Dicheiropollis etruscus specimens, which has enabled the recognition of the Dicheiropollis etruscus palinozone (upper Barremian). In microscopic observations under fluorescent light some algalic vesicles components were also recognized and classified as possible algae of the Prasinophyceae class, indicating

  9. Rovearinids (stemless crinoids) in the Albian carbonates of the offshore Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil: stratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic and palaeoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Brito, D.; Ferré, B.

    2001-06-01

    Microfacies analysis of marine carbonates cored by Petrobras well 1-SPS-6 in the offshore Santos Basin (southeastern Brazil) has revealed a remarkable fossil assemblage of calpionellids (colomiellids), favusellids, hedbergellids, globigerinelloidids, buliminids, radiolarians, inoceramid prisms, roveacrinids, and saccocomids(?) preserved in lower Albian calcimudstones-wackestones of the lower part of the Guarujá Formation. This assemblage represents an allochtonous accumulation in a deep neritic to shallow bathyal hypoxic environment. Besides 'saccocomid-like' sections, the only determinable sections of roveacrinids are thecal plates of Poecilocrinus dispandus elongatus Peck, 1943. This species was previously only known from the Weno Formation of Texas. The Brazilian material extends its records farther south from at least the lower Albian, which then represents the earliest occurrence of this peculiar family in the South Atlantic region. Taking into account their Albian global distribution and the location of their oldest representative (Hauterivian near Alicante, Spain), the Roveacrinidae dispersed westward throughout all of Cretaceous Tethys. The Tethyan origin of Roveacrinidae is further evidence that, during late Aptian-Albian times, the northern South Atlantic (north of the Walvis-São Paulo Ridge) was supplied by a Tethyan water mass.

  10. Biochronostratigraphy and paleoenvironment analysis of Neogene deposits from the Pelotas Basin (well 2-TG-96-RS), Southernmost Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wagner G; Zerfass, Geise S A; Souza, Paulo A; Helenes, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the integration of micropaleontological (palynology and foraminifera) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) analysis of a selected interval from the well 2-TG-96-RS, drilled on the onshore portion of the Pelotas Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of eight samples of the section between 140.20 and 73.50 m in depth was selected for palynological analysis, revealing diversified and abundant palynomorph associations. Species of spores, pollen grains and dinoflagellate cysts are the most common palynomorphs found. Planktic and benthic calcareous foraminifera were recovered from the lowest two levels of the section (140.20 and 134.30 m). Based on the stratigraphic range of the species of dinoflagellate cysts and sporomorphs, a span age from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene is assigned. The relative age obtained from the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in shells of calcareous foraminifers indicates a Late Miocene (Messinian) correspondence, corroborating the biostratigraphic positioning performed with palynomorphs. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on the quantitative distribution of organic components (palynomorphs, phytoclasts and amorphous organic matter) throughout the section and on foraminiferal associations indicate a shallow marine depositional environment for the section. Two palynologicals intervals were recognized based on palynofacies analysis, related to middle to outer shelf (140.20 to 128.90 m) and inner shelf (115.75 to 73.50 m) conditions. PMID:26312424

  11. Pedogenic calcretes within fracture systems and beddings in Neoproterozoic limestones of the Irecê Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S. V. F.; Balsamo, F.; Vieira, M. M.; Iacumin, P.; Srivastava, N. K.; Storti, F.; Bezerra, F. H. R.

    2016-07-01

    Calcretes or caliches are continental limestones developed by surficial weathering process that takes place mostly in arid and semi-arid regions. In the Irecê Basin, northeastern Brazil, in addition to the regular occurrence of pedogenic calcretes, a peculiar type of structurally controlled calcretes occurs on Neoproterozoic limestones. These peculiar calcretes developed near the surface and occur (1) between layers, (2) inside fractures and (3) within major thrust faults. Fieldwork on selected outcrops was integrated with petrographic, mineralogic, geochemical, density and mercury intrusion porosity analyses to constrain the environment of formation and their petrophysical properties. The results revealed that this type of calcrete is the product of multiepisodic events of dissolution and precipitation occurring during the wet and dry seasons in the region along fractures and beddings. Based on the petrophysical results, we suggest that these calcretes may have an important role in the migration of fluids through the impermeable host carbonate rock and that they act as a conduit for fluid flow, as revealed by their high porosity (mean value = 26%) and remarkable pore connectivity.

  12. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  13. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin. PMID:24068425

  14. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  15. Mercury (Hg) in fish consumed by the local population of the Jaguaribe River lower basin, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, B G B; Lacerda, L D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of Hg concentrations in fish is of considerable interest since these organisms are a major source of protein to coastal human populations and fishing communities. The main source of human exposure to Hg contamination occurs through the consumption of fish. In this paper, we compare Hg concentration in 13 fish species from Jaguaribe River lower basin and an adjacent coastal region in the northeastern coast of Brazil. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: fluvial, estuarine, and marine regions. We tested the hypothesis that Hg concentration in muscle tissue vary according to species, location, and trophic level. Significant differences were observed among species and trophic level, but these could not be observed among the regions studied. As expected, the highest concentrations were observed in carnivorous fish (5.6-107.5; 26.9 ± 18.8 ng g(-1)). Hg concentrations observed in this study are similar to those observed in regions of low environmental contamination. We estimated Hg intake to vary between 0.02 and 0.22 ng Hg kg body weight(-1) week(-1), for the average body weight of 56.7 kg, which was considered as low exposure and therefore, a low risk to consumers of fish from the regions studied. PMID:25119275

  16. Thermal history from Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, SP/MG , Brazil and dyke rich margins using apatite fission track analysis; Historia termica do macico alcalino de Pocos de Caldas (SP/MG) e adjacencias atraves da analise de datacao por tracos de fissao em apatitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail: aobf@rc.unesp.br; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Ribeiro, Luis Felipe Brandini [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia; Guedes, Sandro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2005-09-15

    The South American Platform in southeastern Brazil records a long history of tectonic magmatic and uplift events, which resulted from the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Cretaceous reactivation and epirogeneic processes. Specific manifestations include the basic magmatism of the Serra Geral Formation of the Parana Basin and alkaline magmatism of Pocos de Caldas - Cabo Frio Lineament, as well as the uplift of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar mountain ranges. Thermo tectonic and geochronological studies using the K-Ar method and apatite fission track analysis in samples of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif show an initial evolution beginning 89 Ma related to a tectonic uplift, interpreted as related to the intrusion's doming. This was followed by an important episode of rapid cooling related to the formation of the massif. At the same time, the mountains that surround the massif record heating events in response to the alkaline intrusion, between 70 and 50 Ma. Periods of slow uplift, probably related to the South American Erosion Cycle (between 50 and 30 Ma) and Velhas Erosion Cycle (from 25 Ma), indicate a strong manifestation of denudation in this area. (author)

  17. Neogene Palynomorphs from the 2-CA-1-RS Well, Pelotas Basin, Brazil: Biostratigraphic and Paleoecological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Guimarães da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There is information available on calcareous microfossils found in the pre-Quaternary section of the Pelotas Basin.However, there is relatively sparse palynological data, since palynological studies only started to be systematicallyconducted in the last years. This paper presents palynological results regarding 20 samples collected between depths of262-145 m in the 2-CA-1-RS well, which is located in the onshore portion of this basin, in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Fivesamples showed rich and diverse associations of palynomorphs and fifteen samples showed a predominance of amorphousorganic matter or phytoclasts. Species of spores, pollen grains, dinoflagellate cysts, as well as microforaminiferal linigs,scolecodonts, acritarchs, Chlorococcales algae (Botryococcus and fungal spores were also identified in this study.Quantitative analysis on the distribution of particulate organic matter along the section allowed the identification oftwo palynological assemblages. The results indicate marine paleoenvironments, varying from the bottom to the top, forthe studied section. Assemblage 1 (262 – 248 m is interpreted as distal marine environment in open ocean, whereasAssemblage 2 (190 – 160 m is associated with proximal marine environments. The stratigraphic range of certain speciesof dinoflagellate cysts indicates ages ranging from the Miocene to the Quaternary.

  18. Biodiversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.

  19. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were distributed in the basin of the Negro river during the period of high water. After the fisheries specimens were identified, measured and weighed. Then muscle samples were taken and subjected to acid digestion and analyzed by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer - CVAFS. To research data was used analysis of variance and linear regression. A total of 264 specimens distributed into 10 species were analyzed, and the THg of the concentrations ranged from 0.030 for 1,670 mg.kg-1. The species Hoplias malabaricus, Serrasalmus rhombeus, Hemiodus immaculatus and Cichla temensis showed bioaccumulation. High concentrations of THg were found in carnivorous, piscivorous, planctívos and omnivores fish. No specimen showed mean concentrations of THg in violation to ANVISA, but this occurred in relation to FAO and WHO. keywords: Brazilian Amazon; biomonitoring; high waters; Hg.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  1. A 4D-variational ocean data assimilation application for Santos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Fragoso, Mauricio; de Carvalho, Gabriel Vieira; Soares, Felipe Lobo Mendes; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Toste, Raquel; Sancho, Lívia Maria Barbosa; Passos, Elisa Nóbrega; Böck, Carina Stefoni; Reis, Bruna; Landau, Luiz; Arango, Hernan G.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to achieve systematic ocean forecasting for the southeastern Brazilian coast, an incremental 4D-Var data assimilation system is applied to a regional ocean model focused mainly in the Santos Basin region. This implementation is performed within the scope of The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System (or Project Azul), a pilot project designed to collect oceanographic data with enough frequency and spatial coverage so to improve regional forecasts through data assimilation. The ocean modeling and data assimilation system of Project Azul is performed with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The observations used in the assimilation cycles include the following: 1-day gridded, 0.1° resolution SST from POES AVHRR; 1-day gridded, 0.3° composite of the MDT SSH from AVISO; and surface and subsurface hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity collected with gliders and ARGO floats from Project Azul and from UK Met-Office EN3 project dataset. The assimilative model results are compared to forward model results and independent observations, both from remote sensing and in situ sources. The results clearly show that 4D-Var data assimilation leads to an improvement in the skill of ocean hindcast in the studied region.

  2. Tectonics and paleogeography of the Marajó Basin, northern Brazil

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    JOÃO B. S. COSTA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marajó Basin area presents geologic and geomorphologic features chiefly due to the Mesozoic extension and post-Miocene neotectonics. The extension event with an Early and a Late Cretaceous phases originated four sub-basins that constitutes the Marajó Basin, with a thick continental clastic sequence showing marine influence. NW and NNW normal faults and NE and ENE strike-slip faults controlled the basin geometry. The extension, related to the Equatorial Atlantic opening, propagated into the continent along crustal weakness zones of the Precambrian Tumucumaque, Amapá and Araguaia orogenic belts. The neotectonic event is a strike-slip regime which developed transtensional basins filled in by Upper Tertiary shallow marine (Pirabas Formation and transitional sequences (Barreiras Group, followed by Quaternary fluvial deposits and transitional sequences derived from the Amazon and Tocantins rivers and the Marajoara estuary. The current landscape has a typical estuarine morphology. The coast morphology presents sea-cliffs on transitional Upper Tertiary sequences, while inwards dominate hills sustained by Mid-Pleistocene lateritic crust, with a flat erosive surface at 70 m. In the eastern Marajó Island several generations of paleochannels associated with fluvial-estuarine sequences are recognized, while a fluvial-marine plain is widespread on its western side.A área da Bacia do Marajó apresenta feições geológicas e geomorfológicas devidas principamente à distensão Mesozóica e à neotectônica pós-miocênica. O evento de distensão, com fases do Cretáceo Inferior e Superior, originou quatro sub-bacias que contituem a Bacia do Marajó, com uma espessa seqüência clástica continental mostrando influência marinha. Falhas normais NW e NNW e direcionais NE e ENE controlaram a geometria da bacia. A distensão, relacionada com a abertura do Atlântico Equatorial, propagou-se continente adentro ao longo de zonas de fraqueza crustal dos

  3. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom

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    J. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  4. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

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    Gabriel da Costa e Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: P. kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin and P. asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus, P. nigrescens, P. reus, and P. zawadzkii by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of P. reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  5. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

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    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  6. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    elements provide a hint at a prevailing subsidence regime and effective sediment supply into the basin that clearly contrast with the conveyed idea of a sediment-starved and tectonic stable shelf. They naturally raise questions about the nature and origin of sediment supply, since no significant point siliciclastic fluvial source flows directly into the shelf. Stemming from that, we are forced to speculate about: (A) the role of neotectonic movements involving the Serra do Mar coastal mountain ranges to potentially source clastic influx into the basin during the Quaternary, or about the real importance of secondary drainage basins debouching today; and (B) the mechanical nature of a supposed subsidence during the Pliocene and the Quaternary time span (overloading ? sediment compaction ? thermal cooling ?). The interpretation of industrial seismic lines can provide the answers of many of these questions. The next step of this work is to make a stratigraphy model of the sedimentary systems of Santos basin to understand how the ancient creation of accommodation space can influence the recent sedimentary architecture and how is the change in sedimentary influx and the sedimentary records of different orders of cyclicity.

  7. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve) in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability) and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems' performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June). The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  8. Geologic and geomorphologic controls of the kaolin deposits of Campo Alegre basin (SC-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important kaolin deposits from Campo Alegre region (S C) were formed by the conjunction of at least one hydrothermal phase followed by many others weathering, supergenic, phases. Possibly deposits formed by only one of these processes exist, but these deposits shall be small and smaller than those mined today. Besides kaolinization, illitization/muscovitization and silicification, hydrothermalism also generated pyritized and propilitized zones, with quartz + chlorite. Together, hipogenic alterations related to kaolin deposits are very similar to alterations of high sulfidation epigenetic volcanogenic gold deposits. Most part of the biggest kaolin mines from the southern part of Campo Alegre Basin are distributed along a 13 Km long and 0,5 Km width bent zone that is parallel to structural alignments that point out the eastern Basin border. This zone was originated by deformation that has inclined and broken rocks, generating a fault system alongside and parallel to structural lineaments. This fault system has made possible the ascent of hydrothermal hot aqueous fluids and of diqueform intrusions that caused hydrothermalism genetically related to kaolin deposits. Gamma spectrometry may indicate hydro thermalized zones. Although the potassium equivalent rock contents, derived from aerial gamma spectrometry of the mine regions, varies from a minimum of 2,07% to a maximum of 3,78%, 17 of the 20 mines are on high grade regions, with equivalent potassium contents grater than 3,04% and lower than 3,58%. The 'F factor' ((K.U)/Th) seems to indicate hydro thermalized zones better than potassium equivalent rock contents. Practically all the biggest mines on region are placed where 'F factor' is large, bigger than 10,05% and lower than 13,70%. The biggest mines are restricted to regions with altitudes between 950 and 1060 m. The average altitude of 23 mines is 1012,1+-13,8 m. This zone agrees with an ancient peneplane that makes possible the development of the intense

  9. 210Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350 km sector of the river. The 210Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess 210Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess 210Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the 210Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. - Highlights: • Gold mining activities. • Madeira River basin at Amazon area. • Pb-210 chronological method. • Models for evaluating sedimentation rates

  10. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  11. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  12. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  13. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  14. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  15. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (mCSEM) detects hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Santos Basin - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonora, Marco Polo Pereira; Rodrigues, Luiz Felipe [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zerilli, Andrea; Labruzzo, Tiziano [WesternGeco, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) has driven the attention of an increasing number of operators due to its sensitivity to map resistive structures, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath the ocean floor and successful case histories have been reported. The Santos basin mCSEM survey was performed as part of a technical co-operation project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger to assess the integration of selected deep reading electromagnetic technologies into the full cycle of oil field exploration and development. The survey design was based on an in-depth sensitivity study, built on known reservoirs parameters, such as thickness, lateral extent, overburden and resistivities derived from seismic and well data. In this context, the mCSEM data were acquired to calibrate the technology over the area's known reservoirs, quantify the resistivity anomalies associated with those reservoirs, with the expectation that new prospective locations could be found. We show that the mCSEM response of the known reservoirs yields signatures that can be clearly imaged and accurately quantified and there are evident correlations between the mCSEM anomalies and the reservoirs. (author)

  16. Ra-226 concentrations in the hydrographic basins near uranium mining and milling in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of the 226Ra concentrations in river waters in the vicinity of the mining area and future milling facilities in the Pocos de Caldas region began in January 1977. The objective of the monitoring survey is to establish a baseline to allow future comparisons between the 226Ra concentrations in waters of the hydrographic basins of the Pocos de Caldas plateau before and after the beginning of full scale commercial operations. Open pit mining started in July 1977 in the uranium deposits of Campo do Cercado, but the main uranium body has not been reached yet. Seasonal variations in riverflow are apparently accompanied by little variations in the 226Ra concentrations in river waters. A crude calculational dosimetric model is in the process of being developed to estimate annual dose equivalent to an individual from 226Ra via drinking water and irrigation patterns as a first step to calculate the collective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the Pocos de Caldas plateau and surroundings

  17. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  18. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  19. Sommerxylon spiralosus from Upper Triassic in southernmost Paraná Basin (Brazil: a new taxon with taxacean affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The anatoical description of silici?ed Gymnospermae woods from Upper Triassic sequences of southernmost Paraná Basin (Brazil has allowed the identi?cation of a new taxon: Sommerxylon spiralosus n.gen. et n.sp. Diagnostic parameters, such as heterocellular medulla composed of parenchymatous and sclerenchymatous cells, primary xylem endarch, secondary xylem with dominant uniseriate bordered pits, spiral thickenings in the radial walls of tracheids, medullar rays homocellular, absence of resiniferous canals and axial parenchyma, indicate its relationship with the family Taxaceae, reporting on the first recognition of this group in the Triassic on Southern Pangea. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the Taxaceae at the Mesozoic were not con?ned to the Northern Hemisphere.A descrição anatômica de lenhos silicificados de Gymnospermae em seqüência do Triássico Superior no sul da Bacia do Paraná (Brasil, possibilitou a identificação de um novo taxon: Sommerxylon spiralosus n.gen. et n.sp. Parâmetros diagnósticos tais como medula heterocelular, composta por células parenquimáticas e esclerenquimáticas, xilema primário endarco, xilema secundário com pontoações areoladas unisseriadas dominantes, espessamentos espiralados nas paredes radiais dos traqueídeos, raios lenhosos homocelulares, ausência de canais resiníferos e de parênquima axial, indicam a sua vinculação à família Taxaceae, constituindo-se em reconhecimento inédito da presença deste grupo no Triássico Superior no sul do Pangea. Esta evidência suporta a hipótese de que a família Taxaceae não estava confinada ao Hemisfério Norte durante o Mesozóico.

  20. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively, lower

  1. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  2. Petrophysical properties of carbonate rocks: example from the cretaceous Jandaira Formation, Potiguar basin - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Francisco; Soares, José; Bezerra, Francisco; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Cazarin, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate sediments are prone to rapid and pervasive diagenetic alterations that change the mineralogy and pore structure within carbonate units. In particular, cementation and dissolution processes continuously modify the pore structure to create or destroy porosity. In extreme cases these modifications can completely change the mineralogy from calcite to dolomite, in the properties of rock for soil (Caliche), or reverse the pore distribution whereby original grains are dissolved to produce pores as the original pore space is filled with cement to form the rock. These processes are common in fractured carbonate units. All these modifications alter the elastic properties of the rock and, therefore, the sonic velocity. This study presents the result of relationship among diagenesis, porosity, grain density, and sonic velocity, in limestones, dolomites and caliche samples from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar basin, Brasil. This stratigraphic unit have been subjected to fracturing since the late Cretaceous. The rock and soil samples were collected in outcrops, prepared as plugs, and analyzed at ambient temperature. The porosity and grain density analysis were performed under ambient pressure, while elastic properties analyses were conducted with samples under confining pressure between 5 and 40 MPa. The result is a wide range of sonic velocity in carbonates, in which compressional-wave velocity (VP) ranges from 3507 to 6119 m/s and shear-wave velocity (VS) range from 2114 to 3451 m/s. The ratio VS1/VS2 indicate a level of anisotropy equal to 2%, without any clear relationship with porosity. The elastics properties are affected by rock alteration process or by modification of mineral composition, due to the presence of clay minerals and organic matter, The porosity and grain density values range from 3.2 to 21.5%, and 2.7 to 2.8 (g/cm3), respectively. The grain density analysis in the carbonate rocks indicate the existence of two groups: the first group of calcareous

  3. Microhabitat preferences of six Drosera (Droseraceae from Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Panayotis Saridakis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microhabitats and the climatic requirements of six Drosera taxa, which occur in the subtropical grasslands of the Tibagi river basin. They are annual,or most communly, perennial herbs known as carnivorous plants, whose leaves are transformed into traps for the capture and digestion of small insects as an adaptation for supplying nutricional deficiencies. They usually occur in distrophic substrata. In order to contribute to conservation plans for the species of the genus, threatened by the conversion of the natural grasslands into pastures, we tried to define their preferential habitats and climatic requirements. We verified that the variables of microhabitat and altitude presented significant correlation at 5% probability level, while the variables in annual average relative humidity, annual average temperature and type of substratum types did not show significant correlation.Nós estudamos os microhabitats e as exigências climáticas de seis taxa de Drosera (Droseraceae, que ocorrem nos campos subtropicais da bacia do rio Tibagi. São ervas perenes, conhecidas como plantas carnívoras, cujas folhas são transformadas em armadilhas para a captura e digestão de pequenos animais, o que tem sido referido como adaptação para suprir deficiências nutricionais, já que geralmente ocorrem em substratos distróficos. Para auxiliar na elaboração de planos de conservação para as espécies do gênero, ameaçadas pela conversão dos campos em pastagens, nós procuramos definir os habitats preferenciais e as exigências climáticas. Verificou-se que as variáveis: tipo de microhabitat e altitude apresentam correlação significativa no nível de 5%, enquanto as variáveis: umidade relativa média anual, temperatura média anual e tipo de substrato, não apresentaram correlação significativa. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a distribuição dos taxa de Drosera estudados está relacionada principalmente com a variação de altitude e

  4. A new long-finned Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from the lower rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Corydoras is described from the lower rio Paraná basin, just downstream from Itaipu Dam, Brazil, close to Paraguay boundary. The new species can be distinguished from most of its congeners by the infraorbital 2 with a posterior laminar expansion conspicuously reduced, first and second dorsal-fin branched rays conspicuously elongated in males, mesethmoid entirely covered by skin, and by the presence of four to six irregular black or brownish blotches on the midline of the flank. The probable occurrence of the new species in the floodplain of the upper portion of the rio Paraná drainage is discussed.

  5. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  6. Cynolebias parnaibensis, a new seasonal killifish from the Caatinga, Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil, with notes on sound producing courtship behavior (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa; Telton P. A Ramos; Luisa C Alexandre; Robson T. C. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Cynolebias parnaibensis from the Canindé River drainage, Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil, is described. It is considered to be a member of a clade endemic to the Caatinga. The clade is diagnosed, e. g., by a series of structural modifications of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus, which is related to the sound production exhibited by males during courtship behavior. The courtship sound of C. parnaibensis consists of a single pulse named as thump (duration 0.031-0.133s; interthump interval...

  7. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  8. Parotocinclus halbothi, a new species of small armored catfish (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, from the Trombetas and Marowijne River basins, in Brazil and Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pablo Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parotocinclus halbothiis described as a new species from the Trombetas and Marowijne river basins, in Brazil and Suriname. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in the Guianas, Orinoco, and Amazon basins by details of color pattern, form and arrangement of bony plates, body shape, and morphometric features. It is distinguished from all other species of Parotocinclusby the elongation of the canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of head posteriorly to contact the cleithrum. The new species is differentiated from Parotocinclus collinsae, the most similar species in terms of color pattern, by the small, circular, median abdominal plates, the poorly developed preanal shield with two or three plates, and by having the adipose fin rudimentary. This new species is one of the smallest loricariid catfishes known to date.

  9. Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae from the upper rio Araguaia basin in Brazil

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    Flávio C. T. Lima

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae are described from the upper rio Araguaia basin. Hyphessobrycon langeanii n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a well-defined, round humeral spot, a reticulate color pattern, a broad, horizontally-elongate caudal-peduncle blotch, and a relatively wide, faint midlateral dark stripe. Hyphessobrycon eilyos n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of humeral and caudal spots; by the presence of numerous dark chromatophores on the lateral surface of the body, intensely concentrated on the ventral region from the pelvic-fin origin to the end of the caudal-fin base, dorsal, adipose, and caudal fins with carmine red pigmentation in life; and the presence of 7-11 maxillary teeth. Hyphessobrycon weitzmanorum n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the possession of two humeral spots and a general dark color pattern. These three new species, along with Creagrutus molinus (Characidae, Apareiodon tigrinus (Parodontidae, Aspidoras velites (Callichthyidae, an undescribed member of the Hypoptopomatinae (Loricariidae, Cnesterodon septentrionalis (Poeciliidae, and Simpsonichthys cholopteryx (Rivulidae, all of which are apparently endemic of the upper rio Araguaia, indicate that this area is a previously unrecognized area of endemism.Três novas espécies do gênero Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae são descritas para a bacia do alto rio Araguaia. Hyphessobrycon langeanii n.sp. se distingue de seus congêneres pela presença de uma mancha umeral redonda e bem definida, de um padrão reticulado de colorido, de uma mancha no pedúnculo caudal horizontalmente alongada e de uma faixa longitudinal larga e difusa. Hyphessobrycon eilyos n.sp. se distingue de seus congêneres pela ausência de manchas umeral e caudal, pela presença de numerosos cromatóforos escuros nas laterais do corpo, mais concentrado na porção ventral da origem

  10. Santa Bárbara Formation (Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): depositional sequences and evolution of an Early Paleozoic postcollisional basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borba, André Weissheimer; Pimentel Mizusaki, Ana Maria

    2003-10-01

    The Santa Bárbara Formation, located in southernmost Brazil, comprises red-colored conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. It was deposited in the Early Paleozoic under continental conditions in a restricted, strike-slip basin (Santa Bárbara basin) in response to the postcollisional stresses of the Brasiliano/Pan-African cycle (900-500 Ma). Five facies associations are recognized: alluvial fans, fan-delta front, lacustrine, sandy braided, and gravel bed braided river deposits. The application of sequence stratigraphy enables the recognition of three depositional sequences. The two basal sequences (I and II) represent a coherent depositional pattern, with axial fluvial and fan-delta systems that deposit northeastward and lateral contribution from alluvial fans. Such coarse deposits are composed mainly of metamorphic clasts derived from the erosion of 'Caçapava high', the eastern steep margin of the Santa Bárbara basin. Sequence III lies unconformably over the basal subunits and reflects the inversion of the axial systems, in that the paleocurrents of the gravel bed deposits systematically point south/southwestward. The alluvial fan deposits of Sequence III also suggest a tectonic rearrangement of the basin, with partial erosion of the basal sequences and the presence of granitoid fragments, which reflects a deeper denudation stage for the Caçapava high and possibly a significant hiatus at the base of Sequence III.

  11. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Hilário Bezerra, Francisco; Adolfo Fuck, Reinhardt; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2) Seismic data indicate that 120-200 km wide and up to 300 km long rift zones occur in other parts of the basins. These rift zones mark the early stage of the 3.5 km thick sag basin. (3) The rifting phase occurred in the early Paleozoic and had a subsidence rate of 47 m Myr-1. (4) This rifting phase was followed by a long period of sag basin subsidence at a rate of 9.5 m Myr-1 between the Silurian and the late Cretaceous, during which rift faults propagated and influenced deposition. These data interpretations support the following succession of events: (1) after the Brasiliano orogeny (740-580 Ma), brittle reactivation of ductile basement shear zones led to normal and dextral oblique-slip faulting concentrated along the Transbrasiliano Lineament, a continental-scale shear zone that marks the boundary between basement crustal blocks. (2) The post-orogenic tectonic brittle reactivation of the ductile basement shear zones led to normal faulting associated with dextral oblique-slip crustal extension. In the west, pure-shear extension induced the formation of rift zones that crosscut metamorphic foliations and shear zones within the Parnaíba block. (3) The rift faults experienced multiple reactivation phases. (4) Similar processes may have occurred in coeval basins in the Laurentia and Central African blocks of Gondwana.

  12. Erosion rates and landscape evolution of the lowlands of the Upper Paraguay river basin (Brazil) from cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; Bierman, Paul R.; Assine, Mario Luis; Rood, Dylan H.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Merino, Eder Renato

    2015-04-01

    The importance of Earth's low sloping areas in regard to global erosion and sediment fluxes has been widely and vigorously debated. It is a crucial area of research to elucidate geologically meaningful rates of land-surface change and thus the speed of element cycling on Earth. However, there are large portions of Earth where erosion rates have not been well or extensively measured, for example, the tropical lowlands. The Cuiabana lowlands are an extensive low-altitude and low-relief dissected metamorphic terrain situated in the Upper Paraguay river basin, central-west Brazil. Besides exposures of highly variable dissected metamorphic rocks, flat residual lateritic caps related to a Late Cenozoic planation surface dominate interfluves of the Cuiabana lowlands. The timescale over which the lowlands evolved and the planation surface developed, and the rate at which they have been modified by erosion, are poorly known. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in outcropping metamorphic bedrock and clastic-lateritic caps to quantify rates of erosion of the surface and associated landforms in order to better understand the Quaternary landscape evolution of these lowlands. Overall, slow erosion rates (mean 10 m/Ma) suggest a stable tectonic environment in these lowlands. Erosion rates vary widely between different lithologies (range 0.57 to 28.3 m/Ma) consistent with differential erosion driving regional landform evolution. The lowest erosion rates are associated with the low-relief area (irregular plains), where clastic-laterite (mean 0.67 m/Ma) and quartzite (mean 2.6 m/Ma) crop out, whereas the highest erosion rates are associated with dissection of residual hills, dominated by metasandstone (mean 11.6 m/Ma) and phyllite (mean 27.6 m/Ma). These data imply that the Cuiabana lowland is comprised of two dominant landform sets with distinct and different dynamics. Because the planation surface (mostly lowlands) is lowering and losing mass more

  13. The onset of flood basalt volcanism, Northern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A precise U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon age for a Chapecó-type dacite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Freitas, Vivian Azor; Heaman, Larry H.

    2011-02-01

    We report the first U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon date for a felsic volcanic rock from the Paraná Large Igneous Province in south Brazil. The new date of 134.3 ± 0.8 Ma for a hypocrystalline Chapecó-type dacite from Ourinhos (northern Paraná basin) is an important regional time marker for the onset of flood basalt volcanism in the northern and western portion of the province. The dated dacite was erupted onto basement rocks and is overlain by a high-Ti basalt sequence, interpreted to be correlative with Pitanga basalts elsewhere. This new U-Pb date for the Ourinhos dacite is consistent with the local stratigraphy being slightly older than the few reliable step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dates currently available for overlying high-Ti basalts (133.6-131.5 Ma). This indicates an ~ 3 Ma time span for the building of the voluminous high-Ti lava sequence of the Paraná basin. On the other hand, it overlaps the 40Ar/39Ar dates (134.8-134.1 Ma) available for the stratigraphically older low-Ti basalt (Gramado + Esmeralda types) and dacite-rhyolite (Palmas type) sequences from South Brazil, which is consistent with the short-lived character of this volcanism and its rapid succession by the high-Ti sequence.

  14. Age of the Serra do Martins Formation, Borborema Plateau, northeastern Brazil: constraints from apatite and zircon fission track analysis; Idade da Formacao da Serra dos Martins, Planalto da Borborema, nordeste do Brasil: analise de tracos de fissao em apatia e zircao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais Neto, Joao Marinho de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Interpretacao], e-mail: jmarinho@PETROBRAS.com.br; Green, Paul Frank [Geotrack International Pty. Ltd., Brunswick West, Victoria (Australia)], e-mail: mail@geotrack.com.au; Karner, Garry David [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston TX (United States)], e-mail: garry.d.karner@exxonmobil.com; Alkmin, Fernando Flecha de [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas], e-mail: alkmin@degeo.ufop.br

    2007-11-15

    Results of apatite and zircon fission track analysis of samples from the Serra de Santana mesa provide quantitative constraints on the depositional age of the nonfossiliferous Serra do Martins Formation. This unit consists of sedimentary remnants preserved at high elevations on the Borborema Plateau and its distributions and age are considered important in understanding the geomorphological evolution and denudation history of northeastern Brazil following the early Cretaceous breakup. We also report apatite fission track results from post-rift units of the Potiguar Basin (Acu and Tibau formations). Apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) of samples from the Serra do Martins Formation suggests that they reached maximum paleotemperatures around 60 deg C, from which they began to cool some time between 30 and 0 Ma. Due to the high thermal gradients related to the prolonged Cenozoic volcanism in the study area, we hypothesize that the paleotemperatures modeled for those samples may be related dominantly to an anomalous heat flow, rather than to significant burial. Zircon fission track analysis (ZFTA) in two samples of the Serra do Martins Formation yields ages of 135 {+-}18 Ma and 165{+-}40 Ma, but both samples show a significant spread in the data, and the youngest population of grains in these samples are characterized by ages of 83{+-} Ma and 65{+-} Ma, respectively. As the AFTA data show that these ages have not been reset after deposition, the zircon fission track ages must represent inherited provenance ages, demonstrating that those sediments can be no older than Paleocene. Independent lithological observations provide additional support to reject a stratigraphic correlation between the Serra do Martins and Acu formations. Combining the AFTA and ZFTA results, and integrating available geological evidence, we suggest that the Serra do Martins Formation was deposited some time between 64 and 25 Ma (Paleocene-Oligocene). Modeled thermal history solutions from AFTA in

  15. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  16. The use of chemical and isotopic data as indicators of the origin of waters and dissolved salts in the Bambui calcareous aquifer (Bahia-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of 25 wells located in the Bambui limestone aquifer in the region of Irece - Bahia, have been analised for the isotopic ratio 18O/16O and the major chemical species Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4 and bicarbonate. The oxygen-18 data have been found to range between -2,62/00(in a thousand) to -6,66/00(in a thousand) relative to the universal Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) and are compared with the values of the precipitation in the localities of Jacobina and Lencois (meteorological stations nearby) and with the values of the groundwater in sedimentary basins in northeastern Brazil. The comparison suggests that aquifer system is recharged by precipitation originated in northeastern Brazil, instead of originating on coast of Bahia, east of the area. Furthermore, the waters in aquifer are not found homogenized, having widely varying 18O and chemical composition and being of different ages. The strong correlation between the observations Ca, Mg, Na, Cl and TDS (total dissolved solids) suggests an aerosol origin of salts, not excluding the hypothesis of dissolution of rock, which concentrations. The comparison of characteristic ratios Mg/Ca, SO4/Cl and (Cl-Na)/Cl, a Piper diagrama and a dendrogram established by cluster analysis, indicates that the wells may be separated in to two groups according to the isotopic or geochemical environment to which they belong. These groups may represent the differents sources of salt proposed, one being from the limestone, the other having come from aerosols. (Author)

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in population structure of Hemigrammus marginatus (Characiformes: Characidae) in streams of the Ivinhema River Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia da Silva Lourenço; Izaias Médice Fernandes; Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2012-01-01

    The present study has assessed spatial and temporal variations in the length structure of Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis, 1911 and estimated growth parameters for the species. Sampling was carried out in five streams in the Vitória and Piravevê sub-basins of the Ivinhema River from January to December 2002. A total of 933 specimens of H. marginatus were caught (97 in the Vitória sub-basin and 836 in the Piravevê sub-basin). Mean length of the individuals caught in the Piravevê sub-basin was sho...

  18. Diagnostic of ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin using two methods of rapid environmental assessment, Federal District, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Joveli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid environmental assessments have been used to describe the quality and semi-quantitative attributes of the ecosystems along an environmental gradient using visual observations and few measurements. The aim of this study was to identify and measure anthropogenic impacts on ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin, Federal District, Central Brazil, and to propose its environmental zoning. This study was performed using two methods based on rapid environmental assessment: a rapid river assessment protocol, to evaluate in an integrated form the features of a lotic system section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment; and the Leopold matrix, to identify and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts. The environmental zoning of this sub-basin detected three areas: preserved, transition and urban areas. The environmental assessment revealed, the preserved area had lotic stretches with natural features under low magnitude of impacts, except on burned areas. In the transition area, there was a predominance of lotic stretches with altered features, due to agriculture and livestock activities of intermediate level of impacts. Finally, the urban area had altered and impacted lotic stretches of higher magnitude due to anthropogenic impacts. Thus, this study revealed large differences among the areas detected by environmental zoning, according to the methods used. These methods were considered complementary in relation to environmental diagnostic of the ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin.

  19. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author)

  20. Depositional tracts and stratigraphic architecture of the Itajaí Basin sedimentary sucessions (Neoproterozoic, northeastern Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Silva Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of the Itajaí Basin show depositional trends and a stratigraphic framework characteristics of foreland basin system. The sedimentary environments have developed in basin conditions ranging from deep marine context, transitional shallow marine, to continental. Stratigraphic architecture comprises three depositional tracts (DT: DTI - submarine fans system that records the initial basin sedimentation and involves frontal and distal turbiditic deposits; DTII - transitional to shallow marine depositional system that represents the efective infill fase of basin, and includes deltaic succession with braided channels dominated plain; and DTIII - fluvial braided and alluvial fan depositional system that comprises the final stage of basin sedimentation. Arkoses and greywacke of the DTI present paleocurrent unimodals patterns and general trend to south-southeast, suggesting source area from Santa Catarina Granulitic Complex. The sandstones and conglomerates of DTII and DTIII have opposite paleocurrent pattern, indicating source area from both Metamorphic Brusque Complex and Florianópolis Batolith. Integration of paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic data, with previous information (U-Pb in detrital zircon, allowed a consistent interpretation on the sedimentary evolution and detrital sources of the basin and represent a progress on the discussions on the knowledge of the Itajaí Basin and its significance in the evolutionary context of the Dom Feliciano Belt.

  1. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  2. Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2011-07-01

    The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon

  3. Petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and paleo environmental characterization of radioactive anomaly associated to carbonate rocks from Jandaira formation of high cretaceous from Potiguar basin - Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jandaira Formation (Turonian/Maastrichtian - Potiguar Basin, Brazil) presents an anomalous radioactive marker in the upper part of its carbonatic section. This marker of 3-20 m in thickness, comprises an area of about 3500 Km2 and shows a radioactivity of 470 UAPI, against a background of 20 UAPI on the Gamma Ray Log. In the effort of characterizing this marker, petrological, mineralogical, geological and paleontological, analyses were made in ditch samples of selected 23 wells. This marker is composed by bioclastics packstones to mudstones, mainly constituted of planktonic and bentonic forams, deposited in relatively deep water. Chemical analysis of the P 205 richest samples, the ones show that they are also enriched on U, F, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, V, Y, Yb and on all rare-earth elements. The origin of the radioactive anomaly is due to the presence of sedimentary phosphates (phosphorite) made-up of uraniferous coloform apatite. (author)

  4. Study of weathering velocity of rocks with uranium as a natural tracer. Application to two drainage basins of the north-east of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on rock weathering rate, i.e. rock-soil interface formation, by measuring the elements dissolved in river waters. These elements are used as natural tracers. This work has been carried out in the drainage basin of Preto and Salgado Rivers, in Brazil. Conventional elements, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been utilized first and all dissolved salts have been used as natural tracers to allow comparison with other scientific works. Then, uranium has been used because it is not found in rain waters so that corrections are not necessary and because its abundance can be measured by α and γ spectrometry, and the 234U/238U ratio obtained, 234U being more rapidly dissolved during weathering. Another reason is that no interaction occurs between uranium and the biomass. It is then possible to find a geochemical balance for this area

  5. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Swanepoel

    1984-01-01

    In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  6. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as...

  7. Stratigraphic framework and evolution of the Cretaceous continental sequences of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana, and Parecis basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batezelli, Alessandro; Ladeira, Francisco Sergio Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    With the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, the South American Plate has undergone an intense process of tectonic restructuring that led to the genesis of the interior basins that encompassed continental sedimentary sequences. The Brazilian Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins during Late Cretaceous have had their evolution linked to this process of structuring and therefore have very similar sedimentary characteristics. The purpose of this study is to establish a detailed understanding of alluvial sedimentary processes and architecture within a stratigraphic sequence framework using the concept of the stratigraphic base level or the ratio between the accommodation space and sediment supply. The integration of the stratigraphic and facies data contributed to defining the stratigraphic architecture of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins, supporting a model for continental sequences that depicts qualitative changes in the sedimentation rate (S) and accommodation space (A) that occurred during the Cretaceous. This study discusses the origin of the unconformity surfaces (K-0, K-1 and K-1A) that separate Sequences 1, 2A and 2B and the sedimentary characteristics of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins from the Aptian to the Maastrichtian, comparing the results with other Cretaceous Brazilian basins. The lower Cretaceous Sequence 1 (Caiuá and Areado groups) is interpreted as a low-accommodation systems tract compound by fluvial and aeolian systems. The upper Cretaceous lacustrine, braided river-dominated alluvial fan and aeolian systems display characteristics of the evolution from high-to low-accommodation systems tracts (Sequences 2A and 2B). Unconformity K-0 is related to the origin of the Bauru Basin itself in the Early Cretaceous. In Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins, the unconformity K-0 marks the contact between aeolian deposits from Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous alluvial systems (Sequences 1 and 2). Unconformity K-1, which was

  8. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil; Gamametria de solos da bacia do rio Buquira, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  9. Moist forest restoration in Brazil: a locally based project of CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection in Corumbatai River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfrinato, W.; Azevedo, T. [Imaflora (Brazil); Viana, V. [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    This project is a multidisciplinary effort to restore gallery forests in a most degraded Atlantic Moist Forest, recovering the forest fragments in the river basin will (i) establish a pilot project for carbon sequestration, targeting a zero balance for carbon emissions in the region; (ii) improve the watershed quality, thereby decreasing costs of water treatment; (ii) link forest fragments in order to increase biodiversity in the entire basin; (iv) create community involvement with local implementation of environmental education programs. The project is funded by FUNBIO (Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity) and by each participating organization, and is coordinated by Imaflora (Institute for Forest and Agriculture Management and Certification). The Corumbatai Project will be significant as it establishes a new collaborative effort with the alcohol industry which is known to be a promising alternative to fossil fuel. It has the potential to revert a process of many centuries of environmental degradation. It is also a landmark in the process of environmental restoration using a multidisciplinary approach, combining CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection. This experience, in a heavily populated area of Brazil, will generate important information on potential solutions to the problems of Global Change in local initiatives. (author)

  10. Epilithic diatoms in headwater areas of the hydrographical sub-basin of the Andreas Stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giselda Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to study the composition of epilithic diatom flora in headwater areas of the sub-basin of the Andreas stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes. METHODS: Quarterly excursions (March, June, September, December 2012 and Mach 2013 were performed in ten sampling points selected in the sub-basin, to collect samples for the identification and counting the organisms in the group of diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae. RESULTS: The results indicated the occurrence of 243 taxa, distributed in 53 genera. Of these, 59 were considered abundant, being distributed in 29 genera. Seven species showed elevated tolerance levels to organic pollution and eutrophication: Adlafia drouetiana (R. M. Patrick Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow; Fallacia monoculata (Hustedt D. G. Mann, Navicula cryptotenella Lange-Bertalot, Navicula symmetrica R. M. Patrick, Nitzschia palea (Kützing W. Smith and Sellaphora auldreekie D. G. Mann & S. M. McDonald in Mann et al. CONCLUSION: Although this research has been conducted in headwater areas, the occurrence of these seven species could be explained by considering the use of these areas for agricultural and livestock purposes, compromising the stability of these aquatic ecosystems, due to the significant contribution of fertilizer and organic matter, a condition that characterizes a process of eutrophication.

  11. Calibration of hydrodynamic model MIKE 11 for the sub-basin of the Piauitinga river, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Folegatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Piauitinga river sub-basin the environment has been suffering from negative actions by humans such as deforestation around springs, inadequate use of the uptaken water, inappropriate use in domestic activities, siltation and sand exploitation, and contamination by domestic, industrial and agricultural residuals. The present study presents the one-dimensional hydrodynamic MIKE 11 model calibration that simulates the water flow in estuary, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. The aim of this work was to fit the MIKE 11 model to available discharge data for this sub-basin. Data from the period of 1994 to 1995 were used for calibration and data from 1996 to 2006 for validation, except the 1997 year, from which data were not available. Manning’s roughness coefficient was the main parameter used for the Piauitinga river sub-basin discharge calibration and other parameters were heat balance, water stratification and groundwater leakage. Results showed that the model had an excellent performance for the Piauitinga basin and had an efficiency coefficient of 0.9 for both periods. This demonstrates that this model can be used to estimate the water quantity in Piauitinga river sub-basin.

  12. Detecting Light Hydrocarbon Microseepages and related Intra-sedimentary Structures at the São Francisco Basin, Brazil, using Airborne Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, J. B.; Pires, A. C.; Silva, A.; Crosta, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The use of indirect techniques for the detection of light hydrocarbons occurrences on the surface, named as microseepages, has been used to augment hydrocarbon exploration. Surveys developed for this type of application are normally targeted at mapping the effects that microseepages cause on the environment. In Brazil, most available airborne geophysical surveys were not appropriately designed for this type of application and, thus far they have been mostly used to define the main basin structural features. Existing microseepages are known in Remanso do Fogo area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), located in São Francisco Basin, where the Quaternary sedimentary cover made the identification of new occurrences and associated controlling structures quite difficult. This study investigates the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon related structures in shallower to intra-sedimentary depths in the Remanso do Fogo area, using airborne magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometry data. These data were managed by the ANP (Brazilian Petroleum National Agency) and conducted by Lasa Engineering & Surveys in 2006. In the study area, data were acquired along north-south flight lines spaced 500 m apart and along orthogonal tie lines flown 4 Km apart at a terrain clearance of 100 m. The geophysical data were processed using techniques developed to suppress the influence of regional geological signatures. For the magnetic data, this study focuses on the enhancement of intra-sedimentary structures and possible near surface accumulations of diagenetic magnetic minerals, provided by hydrocarbon related chemical reactions. The amplitude of the analytic signal, calculated with second order derivatives, combined with the total horizontal gradient of the subtraction between the 1200 and 400 meter upward continuations, illuminated the NW and EW magnetic lineaments, which are partially related to the microseepages and the drainage of the area. The distinction of near-surface and deeper signatures also

  13. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  14. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Claudia de Oliveira; Renato Pariz Maluta; Ariel Eurides Stella; Everlon Cid Rigobelo; José Moacir Marin; Fernando Antonio de Ávila

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated b...

  15. Viability analysis of energy generation from a thermoelectric power plant in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using combined cycle; Analise da viabilidade de geracao de energia de uma central termeletrica na cidade do Rio de Janeiro operando em ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Garritano Monteiro; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: tgguima@hotmail.com, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a modeling on the economic and energetic viability of a electric power system generation in a thermoelectric plant placed at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, using a combined cycle and cogeneration using the software Thermoflow 17.0.0 (academic version). This paper intends to know which is the better alternative of configuration of thermal electric plant among the various possible scenarios and also evaluate the time of return invested capital.

  16. A conservationist approach on environmental diagnosis of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9001

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Gomes Souto

    2012-01-01

    Landscape Ecology is a contemporary approach in conservation studies in which, coupled to the development and use of GIS-based tools, provides new methods for the analysis of forest fragments. Based on these new approaches, the environmental assessment of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil is provided through conservation-based flora and ecology aspects. A regional map of ground use with field-collected data using Rapid Ecological Assessment methodology an...

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prochilodus costatus and Prochilodus argenteus preceding dam construction in the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Dergam; Isabella F. Pena; Carolina C. R. Horta; Flávia F. Siqueira; Bárbara F. Magalhães; Fábio P. Arantes; Tatiana M. Barroca; Evanguedes Kalapothakis

    2012-01-01

    Curimatã-pioa (Prochilodus costatus) and curimatã-pacu (Prochilodus argenteus) are migratory fish species endemic to the São Francisco River Basin in Brazil. Both species play important roles in local fisheries and ecology in the Paraopeba River. A dam was recently constructed on this river and to help in the development and conservation programs, we characterized the genetic variation of both species before dam construction. Complex hypervariable repeats...

  18. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado) environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders an...

  19. Assessment of water quality in areas of ecological economic zoning of the Guapiaçu-Macacu basin, RJ, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; Jaime Lopes da Mota Oliveira; Lia Amorim Chaves Fernandes; Priscilla da Silva Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems have often been significantly altered by multiple impacts. The Guapiaçu-Macacu Hydrographic Complex is an important basin in Rio de Janeiro characterized by distinct ecological zones that make up an Ecological Economic Zoning. This research evaluated ecological upright in segments of this Complex located in Wildlife Conservation Zone (WCZ) and the Agricultural Use Zone (AUZ) using the Protocol Visual Assessment (PVA) and physical, chemicals and microbiology methods. The res...

  20. Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxy...

  1. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  2. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  3. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River BasinBrazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a hydroclimatic variability, (b investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (−45.3% and irrigation (−78.0% by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader

  4. Technical and economical analysis for the implementation of small scale GTL (Gas-to-liquids) technology to monetizing the associated remote offshore stranded natural gas in Brazil; Analise tecnica e economica da aplicacao da tecnologia GTL de pequena escala para a monetizacao do gas natural associado remoto offshore no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo Branco, David Alves

    2008-02-15

    The volume of stranded natural gas global reserves is substantial and represents more than a third of the world's proven natural gas reserves. In Brazil, recent discoveries operated by PETROBRAS, with participation of other companies, show trend of stranded gas reserves incorporation, associated gas or not. This dissertation's main objective is to make a technical and economic analysis of the implementation of small-scale GTL technology for the exploitation of stranded associated natural gas offshore in Brazil. Thus, the dissertation held, initially, a survey of the processes of gasification and the manufacturers with technologies and projects based on these processes, for specific offshore applications. In a second stage, the conditions of the offshore environment were examined. After the confrontation of the technologies available and the operation conditions, a technological alternative has been chosen to be used in an illustrative economic analysis. The results show that GTL offshore option becomes viable at a minimum price of about US $ 40.00 / barrel. Although this value is greater than the robustness price adopted by PETROBRAS, there are prospects for the reduction of GTL technology costs. (author)

  5. Permian paleogeography of west-central Pangea: Reconstruction using sabkha-type gypsum-bearing deposits of Parnaíba Basin, Northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Francisco R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Soares, Joelson L.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme aridity during Late Permian - Early Triassic period was the main factor for resetting the entire paleoclimate of the planet. Permian evaporite basins and lacustrine red beds were widely distributed along the supercontinent of Pangea. Sulphate deposits in Western Pangea, particularly in Northern Brazil, accumulated in an extensive playa lake system. Outcrop-based facies and stratigraphic analysis of up to 20 m thick evaporite-siliciclastic deposits reveal the predominance of laminated reddish mudstone with subordinate limestone, marl and lenses of gypsum. The succession was deposited in shallow lacustrine and inland sabkha environments associated with saline pans and mudflats. Gypsum deposits comprise six lithofacies: 1) bottom-growth gypsum, 2) nodular/micronodular gypsum, 3) mosaic gypsum, 4) fibrous/prismatic gypsum, 5) alabastrine gypsum, and 6) rosettes of gypsum. Gypsum types 1 and 2 are interpreted as primary deposition in saline pans. Bottom-growth gypsum forms grass-like crusts while nodular/micronodular gypsum indicates displacive precipitation of the crust in shallow water and the groundwater capillary zone. Types 3 and 4 are early diagenetic precipitates. Abundant inclusions of tiny lath-like anhydrite crystals suggest a primary origin of anhydrite. Alabastrine gypsum, fibrous gypsum (satinspar) and rosettes of gypsum probably derived from near-surface hydration of anhydrite. The gypsum-bearing deposits in the Parnaíba Basin contribute towards understanding paleogeographic changes in Western Pangea. A progressive uplift of East Pangea, culminated in the forced regression and retreat of epicontinental seas to the West. Restricted seas or large lakes were formed before the definitive onset of desert conditions in Pangea, leading to the development of extensive ergs.

  6. Paleoenvironmental reconstitution of Motuca and Sambaíba formations, Permian-Triassic of the Parnaíba Basin in southwest Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Romério Abrantes Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interval between the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic was marked by paleogeographic and paleoclimatic global changes, partly attributed to catastrophic events. The intense continentalization of the supercontinent Pangaea of End-Permian propitiated the development of extensive deserts that succeeded the coastal and platform environments of Early Permian. The records of these events in northern Brazil are found in intracratonic basins, particularly in the Permo-triassic succession of the Parnaíba Basin. The facies and stratigraphic outcrops analysis of this succession allowed the individualization of 14 sedimentary facies grouped into four facies associations (FA: FA1 and FA2 related to deposits of Motuca Formation and, FA3 and FA4, representative of the base of Sambaíba Formation. The FA1 – Shallow lake/Mudflat consists of red laminated mudstone with lenses of gypsum, calcite and marl, besides lobes of sigmoidal sandstones. The FA2 – Saline pan consists of lenticular bodies of laminated gypsum, nodular gypsum and gypsarenite, overlapped by greenish mudstones with dolomite nodules and palygorskite. The FA3 – sand sheet and FA4 – dunes field are formed, respectively, for orange cream sandstones with even parallel stratification and medium- to large-scale cross-bedding. In the contact between Motuca and Sambaíba formations occurs a deformed interval, laterally continuous for hundreds of kilometers. Brecciated and contorted bedded siltstones and mudstone (Motuca Formation and sandstone with sinsedimentary faults/microfaults, convolute lamination and mud-filled injection dykes (Sambaíba Formation are interpreted as seismites triggered by high magnitude earthquakes (> 8 according Richter scale.

  7. Biogeography and comparative cytogenetics between two populations of Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 (Ostariophysi: Erythrinidae from coastal basins in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uedson Pereira Jacobina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Hoplias malabaricus is a predator fish found in nearly all cis-Andean basins. From a cytogenetic point of view, this species comprises, at least, seven differentiated karyomorphs. Several localities have been formerly analyzed in Brazil, however, some regions, such as Bahia State, remain underrepresented. Recently, the Brazilian Environment Ministry classified both Itapicuru and Contas river basins (entirely located within Bahia territory as priority conservation areas, whose biodiversity status lacks enough information. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to characterize, cytogenetically, populations of H. malabaricus from both basins, by using conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding techniques. All specimens presented a diploid number of 2n = 40 with metacentric/submetacentric chromosomes, without differences between sexes, thereby representing the so-called "karyomorph F". The first metacentric pair presented a remarkably larger size in relation to the other pairs. The NORs were multiple, comprising the terminal region on long arms of two chromosomal pairs in both populations. However, the C-banding pattern was somewhat distinguishable between samples. Although sharing heterochromatic blocks at centromeric region of all chromosomes, the population from Itapicuru River basin appeared to have some more conspicuous blocks than those observed in the population from Contas River basin. The similar karyotype observed in both populations suggests a common geological history between them. The present results represent an advance in the knowledge about the cytogenetic pattern of H. malabaricus populations from poorly studied basins.A espécie Hoplias malabaricus é um predador que ocorre em praticamente todas as bacias cis-andinas. Sob o ponto de vista citogenético, ela compreende, pelo menos, sete cariomorfos diferenciáveis. Várias localidades já foram previamente analisadas no Brasil, porém, algumas regiões, como o

  8. Concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments of the Canes River Basin, the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research about chimism in the Bengalas river basin was performed as a part of the environmental study project developed in the area, encompassing several knowledge fields. Among these, Environmental Geochemistry played an important role. This work presents the results related to heavy metals in stream sediments, indicating its origins (natural or anthropic) and its availability for aquatic biota. The basin under study has 135.07 Km2, laying in the oriental portion of the Teresópolis country, 100 Km far from the of Rio de Janeiro city. The rivers forming the Bengalas basin cut Pre-Cambrian terrain, formed by Orthognaiss takes 70% of the area, post-tectonic granite(20%), migmatite gneiss (10%) and gabro dikes. The methodology used was the determination of the content of heavy metals through sequencial extraction technique, consisting in the selective remove of metals in the geochemical fractions found in the sediments, cation exchange (bioavailable), carbonaceous, reducible and organic (potentially bioavailable) and residual (non available).The analyze of the results showed that iron was present in all sequential phases and predominated in the residual phase The same behavior was verified for zinc and copper. Manganese had the best distribution through the fractions due to its redox character, allowing bigger solubility and transportation; it appeared in the exchange, residual, organic and carbonaceous phases. Cadmium was found only in the carbonaceous phase, confirming its geochemical tendency. Chrome, on the other hand, was present in the residual and organic phase, while lead was found in the residual and carbonaceous phase

  9. Isotopic composition of precipitations in Brazil: isothermic models and the influence of evapotranspiration in the Amazonic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest theoretical models of the isotopic fractionation of water during equilibrium isothermical processes are analized in detail. The theoretical results are applied to the interpretation of the stable isotope concentrations in the precipitations of 11 Brazilian cities that belong to the international network of IAEA/WMO. The analysis shows that the experimental data are fairly consistent with such equilibrium models; no non-equilibrium processes need to be assumed. The study of the stable isotope content of precipitations in the Amazonic Basin suggests some modifications to the models in order that the evapotranspiration contribution to the vapour balance be taken into account

  10. Climate and Hydrological Data Analysis for hydrological and solute transport modelling purposes in the Muriaé River basin, Atlantic Forest Biome, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Künne, Annika; Kralisch, Sven; Fink, Manfred; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The Muriaé River basin in SE Brazil has been experiencing an increasing pressure on water resources, due to the population growth of the Rio de Janeiro urban area connected with the growth of the industrial and agricultural sector. This leads to water scarcity, riverine forest degradation, soil erosion and water quality problems among other impacts. Additionally the region has been suffering with seasonal precipitation variations leading to extreme events such as droughts, floods and landslides. Climate projections for the near future indicate a high inter-annual variability of rainfall with an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events combined with a statistically significant increase in the duration of dry periods and a reduced duration of wet periods. This may lead to increased soil erosion during the wet season, while the longer dry periods may reduce the vegetation cover, leaving the soil even more exposed and vulnerable to soil erosion. In consequence, it is crucial to understand how climate affects the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. In this context, physically-based hydrological modelling can contribute to a better understanding of spatial-temporal process dynamics in the Earth's system and support Integrated Water Resourses Management (IWRM) and adaptation strategies. The study area is the Muriaé river basin which has an area of approx. 8000 km² in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States. The basin is representative of a region of domain of hillslopes areas with the predominancy of pasture for livestock production. This study will present some of the relevant analyses which have been carried out on data (climate and streamflow) prior to using them for hydrological modelling, including consistency checks, homogeneity, pattern and statistical analyses, or annual and seasonal trends detection. Several inconsistencies on the raw data were

  11. A new side-neck turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Early Paleocene (Danian) Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Anny Rafaela De Araújo; Ghilardi, Aline Marcele; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2016-01-01

    Limestone and marl from Maria Farinha Formation (Paraíba Basin, NE Brazil) accumulated in a shallow continental shelf environment during the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean in early Paleocene (Danian). It contains a rich paleontological record, which comprises many marine invertebrates, several species of bony and cartilaginous fishes, a crocodyliform and turtle remains. Here, we describe a new genus and species of pleurodire turtle from Maria Farinha Formation, based on a nearly complete plastron, an incomplete left pelvic girdle, and four dermal plates of the carapace. We tested the phylogenetic position of Inaechelys pernambucensis gen. et sp. nov. by including it in a comprehensive cladistic analysis of pleurodires. The new species is included within Botrhemydidae, with affinities to Bothremydini, positioned as sister group of Rosasia soutoi. Inaechelys pernambucensis gen. et sp. nov. differs from R. soutoi for the almost straight anterior lobe cranial edge of its plastron, as well as for its pentagonal shaped entoplastron and its abdominal shield midline, which is considerably smaller than the respective femoral shield midline. Inaechelys pernambucensis is the first turtle species formally described from Brazilian Paleocene strata. Within Bothremydidae, it is also the first conclusively fully marine species described for this country. This new record contributes to the understanding of the ecology and paleobiogeographical distribution of Bothremydidae family. PMID:27395602

  12. Evidence of Neoproterozoic back arc basin development in the Central Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil: new geochronological and geochemical constraints from the Sao Roque - Acungui Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ribeira Belt (RB) of southeastern Brazil represents an important manifestation of the Brasiliano Orogeny formed during the assembly of West Gondwana. Contemporaneous sedimentation and volcanism within the RB provide a basis for helping understand its tectonic evolution and paleogeography. U-Pb monazite data from the basal metavolcanic rocks of the Sao Roque Group indicate a crystallization age of 628 Ma and the upper sequence is cut by a 605 Ma (U-Pb zircon) rhyolite intrusion. Zircon and monazite analyses of metavolcanic (mafic) rocks and from metagabbros of the lower Acungui supergroup yield crystallization ages of 614 and 617 ma, respectively. This supergroup is intruded by a 607 ma granite. Geochemical signatures of basal mafic units in both sequences are characteristic of E-MORB subalkaline tholeitic basaltic rocks. Nd isotopic signatures of the metamafic rocks indicate that they were derived in part from the asthenospheric mantle (consistent with emplacement in an extensional setting), whereas the felsic bodies appear to have come from the melting of paleoproterozoic lithosphere. The paleogeographic reconstruction of part of the RB suggests that the Sao Roque/Acungui groups represent extensional sequences, with features of backarc basins, which evolved during the syn-collisional phase of the Brasiliano Orogeny. These data support the hypothesis that we have a rapid evolution (10-20 ma) between extensional and compressional tectonics during the geological history of the Sao Roque/Acungui Backarc. (author)

  13. Palynological and sedimentary analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops of the Itapecuru Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Parnaíba Basin), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Neila N.; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2016-03-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Itapecuru Formation occur in a large area of the Parnaíba Basin and its deposits crop out along the Itapecuru River, in Maranhão State, northern Brazil. The palynological analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops strata yields a rich and diversified data. The presence of index-palynofloras in assemblages allows the identification of the Complicatisaccus cearensis Zone, of Late Aptian-Early Albian age. Terrestrial palynomorphs are abundant in the assemblages, being represented by bryophytes and pteridophytes, especially perisporate trilete spores (Crybelosporites and Perotrilites), and gymnosperms and angiosperms (Afropollis and Elaterosporites). The composition of palynological assemblages suggests the presence of moist soils for both outcrops. Acritarchs were recovered in the Querru 1 outcrop, which suggest a marine setting supporting a tidal flat environment indicated by facies associations. Furthermore, reworked Paleozoic palynomorphs were observed in the Querru 1 outcrop. The microflora from Igarapé Ipiranga outcrop suggests terrestrial environment corroborating with floodplain environment indicated by facies association.

  14. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  15. Green line fracturing systems fluids in Campos Basin, Brazil; Sistemas de fluidos de fraturamento na Bacia de Campos: evolucao em beneficio do meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alexandre B. de; Araujo, Cosme J.C. de; Martinho, Flavio M.; Gaspar, Fernando [BJ Services do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The constant demand for Services Companies in Oil and Gas Industry to reduce the environmental impacts has led to a race in search of new cleaner technologies. Fluids with low toxicity are the target of research and development by the companies which are committed to ensure the aspects of quality, health, safety and environment from manufacturing up to the use in the final destination of these products. The replacement of these fluids is happening at a larger speed than in the past on the based in two factors: greater awareness on the part of these companies in relation to the environmental and by new environmental laws. The fluids systems used in fracturing operations are not an exception to this rule. Service companies today are in the process of replacing their formulations with systems less aggressive to the environment so-called 'green' systems. In this context the new technological developments of fracturing fluids are of fundamental importance to assist the new environmental requirements of both operators and government regulatory bodies and also to ensure better effectiveness of these products. This paper reports the research, development and application of new environmentally acceptable fracturing fluids technology, reviews the pioneering case histories in offshore operations and the benefits experienced in the Campos Basin - Brazil. (author)

  16. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  17. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  18. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  19. Evidence of the color pattern variation in populations of Gymnotus pantanal (Gymnotiformes from three streams in the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor André Frana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Color pattern is an important character in the systematics and alpha-taxonomy of electric fishes of the genus Gymnotus. This paper presents evidence of color variation in populations of G. pantanal found in the streams Jacutinga and Pinheirinho, in the upper Paraná River basin, southern Brazil. Color variations were corroborated for morphological and cytogenetic data. Our results show the importance of integrating morphologic and cytogenetic data in the taxonomy of the Gymnotus species.O padrão de colorido é um caráter muito importante na sistemática e alfa taxonomia de espécies do gênero Gymnotus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar evidências de variação no padrão de colorido em populações locais de Gymnotus pantanal encontrados nos córregos Jacutinga e Pinheirinho, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. A variação no padrão de colorido foi corroborada por dados morfológicos e citogenéticos. Nossos resultados demonstram a importância da integração de dados morfológicos e citogenéticos na taxonomia de espécies de Gymnotus.

  20. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40K>226Ra>232Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  1. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  2. Temporal characterization of Arsenic in das Velhas River hydrographic basin waters, MG, Brazil for one decade (1998 - 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Diniz Leão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a metalloid with wide distribution in nature, can be found in natural environments in the forms of high toxicity. Monitoring conducted in the Basin of the das Velhas River, MG, demonstrates the occurrence of this metal in all sampling stations distributed over the water course and main tributaries. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the time trends of concentration of arsenic in water courses of the basin of das Velhas River, considering the data of twenty-nine monitoring stations from 1998 to 2007. The tests included the verification of seasonality, autocorrelation and temporal trend with the non-parametric tests of Mann-Kendall and Mann-Kendall seasonal. Eight sampling stations showed seasonality, with higher concentrations observed in rainy season. The autocorrelation was virtually nonexistent, which may be associated with low sample found in a monitoring program (three to six months. Only seven monitoring stations showed significant negative trend, indicating a reduction in the concentration of arsenic over the period studied. The results showed that the time trend studies have great relevance for the management of pollution of water resources from tracking data, providing subsidies for preventive and corrective measures differentiated between the stations and sampling periods of the year and also be used in evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.

  3. Análise morfométrica como subsídio ao zoneamento territorial: o caso das bacias do Córrego Carioca, Córrego do Bação e Ribeirão Carioca na região do Alto Rio das Velhas-MG Morphometric analises as subsidy to the territorial zoning of the Itabirito River, tributary of the rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clibson Alves dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A região do Alto Rio das Velhas está inserida no contexto da província geológica do Quadrilátero Ferrífero, na região Central de Minas, sendo caracterizada pelo uso conflituoso dos terrenos, com intenso desenvolvimento da mineração, crescente ocupação urbana e forte expansão imobiliária. Os diversos processos erosivos, os mananciais assoreados e as áreas degradadas são outros problemas ambientais observados. Esse estudo analisou as características morfométricas da rede de drenagem e do relevo das bacias do Córrego Carioca, Córrego do Bação e Ribeirão Carioca, afluentes do rio Itabirito, tributário do rio das Velhas, visando a auxiliar na compreensão da vulnerabilidade natural dos terrenos às intervenções antrópicas, na compreensão dos processos erosivos e a na definição do zoneamento territorial, além de complementar análises realizadas em outros estudos, objetivando a compreensão da dinâmica superficial na área. As bacias do Córrego do Bação e Ribeirão Carioca mostraram índices morfométricos que as caracterizam como as mais vulneráveis às intervenções antrópicas e aos processos erosivos. devido à morfologia suave, a bacia do ribeirão Carioca é a que apresenta condições menos restritivas à ocupação para fins imobiliários, principalmente para utilização para chacreamento. Conclui-se que parâmetros morfométricos contribuem para a compreensão da vulnerabilidade de terrenos à erosão, permitindo um melhor ordenamento territorial de bacias hidrográficas.The Upper Rio das Velhas region is part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero geologic province, Central Minas Gerais State (Brazil, and is characterized by the conflicting use of the land, with intense mining development, increasing urban occupation and strong real estate expansion. The varied erosive processes, the silting of streams and general degradation are some of the problems that impact the environment. This study is the result of the

  4. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation in forebulge grabens: An example from the Ediacaran Bambuí Group, São Francisco Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Humberto L. S.; Suss, João F.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic successions have been described in multiple Phanerozoic sedimentary settings recording the dynamic interplay of tectonics, eustasy, climate, in situ carbonate production, and variations in siliciclastic sediment supply. The Ediacaran Bambuí 1st-order sequence (i.e., Bambuí Group) covers most of the intracratonic São Francisco basin (southeast Brazil) and encompasses thick packages of carbonate and fine- to coarse-grained siliciclastic strata. Recording a marine foreland basin stage that developed in the São Francisco plate during the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic West Gondwana assembly, the Ediacaran deposits unconformably overlie Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic assemblages of the Sete Lagoas basement high and fill a series of kilometer-long grabens in the southern São Francisco basin. Seismic data reveal that these troughs developed through the extensional reactivation of ancient basement structures along with the tectonically driven forebulge uplift of the Sete Lagoas high, in the early evolutionary stages of the Bambuí basin cycle. Based on the detailed description of continuous drill cores of a well recently drilled during hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, we recognized two transgressive-regressive 2nd-order sequences preserved within one of the focused grabens: (i) Sequence 1 includes the glaciogenic deposits of the basal Carrancas Formation that grade upward into the carbonate ramp successions of the Sete Lagoas Formation; (ii) Sequence 2 contains the siliciclastic-dominated and deep water to deltaic strata of the Serra de Santa Helena Formation and passes upward into peritidal carbonates of the Lagoa do Jacaré Formation. These sedimentary successions encompass suites of retrogradational, aggradational, and progradational lower-rank cycles and are bounded by erosional surfaces. Regional seismic interpretation, well data, and the available literature indicate that most of these deposits and their correlatives are

  5. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  6. Deciphering the depositional environment of the laminated Crato fossil beds (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, North-eastern Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ariztegui, Daniel; Lenniger, Marc;

    2010-01-01

    bedded, pale to dark lamination. To obtain information on palaeoenvironmental conditions, sample slabs derived from three local stratigraphic sections within the Araripe Basin were studied using high-resolution multiproxy techniques including detailed logging, petrography, mu-XRF scanning and stable...... significant contribution from a benthonic, carbonate-secreting microbial mat community is not supported by these results. Deposition took place under anoxic and, at least during certain episodes, hypersaline bottom water conditions, as evidenced by the virtually undisturbed lamination pattern, the absence of......, promoting equilibration with atmospheric CO2, probably in concert with stagnant conditions and low input of soil-derived carbon. Integration of lithological and isotopic evidence indicates a shift from closed to semi-closed conditions towards a more open lake system during the onset of laminite deposition...

  7. Facies architecture and sequence stratigraphy of an early post-rift fluvial succession, Aptian Barbalha Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Goldberg, Karin; Bardola, Tatiana

    2015-06-01

    The Barbalha Formation (Aptian) records deposition in a fluvial and lacustrine environment accumulated in an early post-rift sag basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and sequence stratigraphic framework of the alluvial succession was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of outcrops and cored wells. The development of depositional sequences in this unit reflects variation in the accommodation-to-sediment supply (A/S) ratio. Two depositional sequences, showing an overall fining-upward trend, are preserved within the succession. The sequences are bounded by regional subaerial unconformities formed during negative A/S ratio, and may be subdivided in Low-accommodation Systems Tracts (LAST) (positive A/S ratio close to zero) and High accommodation Systems Tracts (HAST) (A/S ratio between 0.5 and 1). Sequence 1, with a minimum thickness of 100 m, is characterized by amalgamated, multi-storey, braided fluvial channel sand bodies, defining a LAST. These are interlayered with crevasse splay and floodplain deposits toward the top, passing to open lacustrine deposits, defining a HAST. Sequence 2, with minimum thickness ranging from 50 to 90 m, overlies the organic-rich lacustrine deposits. At the base, this sequence is composed of amalgamated, multistorey braided fluvial channel sand bodies (LAST), similar to Sequence 1, overlain by well-drained floodplain with fixed fluvial channel deposits, interpreted as an anastomosed fluvial system, which are in turn capped by lacustrine deposits, both grouped in a HAST. Paleocurrent data on fluvial deposits of sequences 1 and 2 show a consistent paleoflow to the SE. Sedimentological evidence indicates humid to sub-humid climatic conditions during deposition of sequences 1 and 2. Accumulation of fluvial sequences 1 and 2 was mainly controlled by tectonics. Variation in A/S ratios must be related to tectonic subsidence and uplift of the basin.

  8. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  9. Trophic organization and fish assemblage structure as disturbance indicators in headwater streams of lower Sorocaba River basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Botti Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the relationship patterns between environmental structure complexity and fish fauna provide crucial information to stream restoration efforts. In order to test the hypothesis that streams with more complex environmental structure sustain more diverse and functionally more complex fish communities we sampled fish fauna from Sorocaba River headwater stream reaches (SE - Brazil. Reaches represented two distinct treatments: (1 a simplified reach, characterized by unstable fine substrate, clay, deeper channel and higher water velocity and (2 structurally complex reaches, characterized by coarse substrate, with gravel, pebble, rock, stems and branches and leaves inside the channel, producing a diverse pattern of microhabitat, associated with sequences of pools, runs, and riffles. Both trophic structure and taxonomic composition varied significantly between treatments. Invertivorous trophic group exclusively occurred in structurally complex reaches, which also presented greater diversity and species richness. We suggest enhancing in-stream environmental structure that suffered simplification processes due to human impacts in order to reestablish fish communities and ecossistemic functioning.

  10. Preliminary analysis of the regolithic clay covers from the region of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate its use in the traditional ceramic industry; Analise preliminar das coberturas regoliticas argilosas da regiao de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, visando sua utilizacao na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia; Moreno, M.M.T. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    The region of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is predominantly constituted of Pre-Cambrian rocks with well developed alteration profiles in association with colluvial and alluvial sediments. No study to date has examined in detail its potential use in the ceramic industry. The scarce knowledge of its mineralogical and technological properties limits its value and consequently its industrial use. Until now, these clay materials have been used in a rudimental manner, in small scale in the fabrication of red tiles. The present study aimed at analyzing these clays mineralogically (X-ray diffraction), chemically (major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence and organic carbon analysis) and technologically (pressing granulometric distribution; mechanical resistance; water absorption, apparent porosity; linear firing shrinkage; color of firing and others) in order to better understand the raw material and develop adequate technological applications. The best results of ceramic properties were the samples with higher organic content (more plastic clays) and higher values of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (kaolinite and gibbsite) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well lower SiO{sub 2} content and finer grain size which contribute to a better sintering. (author)

  11. Study on water-sediment interaction in samples from Rio das Velhas - Minas Gerais State - Brazil using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and argon plasma coupled mass spectroscopy; Estudo da interacao agua-sedimento em amostras do Rio das Velhas - MG utilizando os metodos: analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental (INAA) e espectrometria de massa acoplada a um plasma de argonio (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Revel, G.; Pinte, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. d`Analyse par Activation Pierre Sue; Toulhoat, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Unite Mixte de Recherche Analyse et Environnement

    1999-11-01

    Sorption of the metallic elements in aqueous solutions in surface of the hydroxides affects the transport of heavy elements in the freshwaters. Sorption and the chemistry of the hydroxides are important studies for knowledge in geology, waters and waste treatment, and environment studies. In the industrial mining region areas, the river surface waters are subject to modifications in its physical and chemistries properties: pH, DBO, conductivity and alkalinity. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), have ben used for the determination of toxic heavy metals and others pollutants in the Das Velhas river in State of Minas Gerais, in south-east Brazil. Water samples were collected with acidification on site, which provoked a change of its natural pH. Consequently, metallic elements associated to hydroxides and to particles in suspension were liberated. The objective of this paper is to show the different behavior of any elements, in water of Das Velhas river, with relation of its chemical forms (cations or anions), the solubility degree, the pH and the presence of rare earth elements. (author) 11 refs., 10 figs.; e-mail: adelaide at nuclear.ufmg.br; heeren at nuclear.ufmg.br; grevel at drecam.cea.fr; pierre.toulhoat at cea.fr

  12. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  13. Of the clean development mechanism to the program of activities: an analysis of the bio diesel and wind energy uses in Brazil; Do mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo ao programa de atividades: uma analise do uso do biodiesel e da energia eolica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Mayra Jupyara Braga

    2009-05-15

    The current actions of economic and industrial activities have resulted in increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since 1750. According to IPCC (2007) this alteration can increase the average temperature in the planet between 1,8 and 4,0 deg C up to 2100. The climate changes and the global warming are the most complicated environmental questions of our time and the actions took now will have effect on the future generations. In this context, a series of world-wide conferences and diverse scientific quarrels had occurred throughout the last decade, which culminated in the most important multilateral agreement firmed on climate changes, the Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997. The Protocol is a landmark in the attempts of mitigation of the climate changes, since it established the commitment of the industrialized countries with emissions reduction targets of 5,2% to the level of 1990 emissions. To achieve such targets these countries count on three flexibilization mechanisms provided by the Kyoto Protocol: Joint implementation, Emission Trading and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that it will be object of this study. The objective of this thesis is to carry through an evaluation of the CDM since its conception until the current days, searching to identify its dynamics and the main inherent gaps of this instrument and finally present two case studies of the bio diesel and wind energy uses in Brazil. (author)

  14. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  15. Seven new species of the killifish genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae from the Paraná, Paraguay and upperAraguaia river basins, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the Rivulus punctatus group collected during recent field studies in central Brazil are described. Rivulus dapazi n. sp., from the upper rio Correntes drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal and caudal fins in males; R. cyanopterus n. sp., from the upper rio São Lourenço drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal fin in both sexes; R. rossoi n. sp., from the rio Inhanduí drainage, rio Paraná basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the caudal fin in males and a reduced number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch; R. litteratus n. sp., from the upper rio Araguaia basin, is diagnosed by unique color patterns of flank in males and caudal fin in females; R. rutilicaudus n. sp., from the rio Verde drainage in Goiás, rio Paraná basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the caudal fin in females; R. scalaris n. sp., from the rio Sucuruí, rio Aporé, rio Correntes and rio Taquari drainages, rio Paraná basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the flank in males; and, R. egens n. sp., from the upper rio Verde drainage in Mato Grosso do Sul, rio Paraná basin, is distinguished by a combination of frontal E-scale pattern and the absence of red marks on the caudal fin in males. Combinations of other color patterns and morphological features, including number of scales of the longitudinal series, number of dorsal, anal, caudal and pectoral fin-rays, relative position of dorsal-fin origin and anal-fin rays, and number of vertebrae, are also useful in identification of the new species, but phylogenetic relationships among them are unknown at the present. A key to identification of species of Rivulus from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin and adjacent headstreams is provided.Sete espécies novas do grupo Rivulus punctatus coletadas durante estudos de campo recentes no Brasil central são descritas. Rivulus dapazi sp. n., da

  16. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, this research aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical rivers located in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-Açu Rivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results were compared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originally developed for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous, orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI values in all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verify that mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorus species that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, which were incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling, although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimum of 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, the high total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promote proportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like water temperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. In January, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density was higher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointed phytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  17. Geochemical characterization in karst basin tributaries of the San Franciscan depression: The Corrente River, western Bahia, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Karina L.; Bicalho, Cristina C.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2016-08-01

    Karst aquifers are important freshwater resources for the growing population in Brazil. The sandstones of Urucuia plateau and the limestone of Bambui Group constitute important aquifer systems in the western part of Bahia state. The Corrente River provides ∼30% of the total water flow of the São Francisco River and crosses karstified structures. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during the dry period, the beginning of the wet season, and the wet season. The main objective was to define sources and distribution of dissolved elements and to describe the geochemical processes that govern their mobility within the system. Water samples are classified into three groups, depending on the dominant weathering process. When carbonate dissolution governs, waters are bicarbonate-calcium-type; whereas when the atmospheric precipitation signal is present, the samples in siliciclastic terrain are more Cl- - Na+. Groundwaters reflect bicarbonate-mixed-type, with the highest dissolved concentrations. In contrast to the major elements, trace elements, including Rare Earth Elements (REE), show seasonal behavior: their concentrations increase with the beginning of the wet season, due to re-mobilization and release into the solution of adsorbed elements from the system and the atmospheric dust. The total dissolved REE concentration (800-7500 ng L-1) is one order of magnitude more concentrated in karsts than in siliciclastic rocks. Principal component analysis was performed, explaining >77% of the variance. First factor extracted (REE, Y, Th, Al, Fe) explain the washout and enhancement of atmospheric dust weathering throughout the beginning of the wet seasons. The second component comprises variables related to karsts lithology, representing calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  18. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data as paleoenvironmental indicators for limestones from the Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo Basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and oxygen isotope data of limestones from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo basins provided additional information on the sedimentation environments of these carbonates. The predominance of δ 13C values between + 1,0 per mille and - 1,0 per mille samples from the Tertiary and the middle section of the Jiquia Stage (Lower Cretaceous) could indiccate, for both carbonate sequences, deposition in a normal marine environment. However, the absence of marine fossils in the Jiquia Stage but not in the Tertiary allows to suggest a normal marine environment for the latter and saline lakes for the former. More positive δ 13C values in the upper portion of the Jiquia Stage and in the Alagoas Stage suggest a restricted marine environment, with a tendency to hypersalinity. During the Albian the carbonate sedimentation could have occurred in a marine enrironment with an above normal salinity, as indicated by values of δ 13C between + 3,0 per mille and + 4,0 per mille. According to δ 18O data, the surface waters were warm, with a tendency of becoming gradually cooler towards the top of the Tertiary. (Author)

  19. Banding chromosome pattern of two species of Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Parana River basin of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lenice; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2004-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies were carried out on seven specimens of Pimelodus heraldoi and sixteen specimens of Pimelodus sp., both from the Parana River basin. The two species had the same diploid number of 56 chromosomes: P. heraldoi with 22M+22SM+6ST+6A and FN of 106 and Pimelodus sp. with 24M+26SM+4ST+2A and FN of 110. NORs were found at the terminal position of the long arm of one pair of ST chromosomes. C-banding (CB) showed in the two species heterochromatin distributed in various chromosomes of the complement, mainly in telomeric regions and in a pair of metacentric chromosomes with strong heterochromatic staining in both telomeres. Treatment only with the fluorochrome CMA3 confirmed in Pimelodus heraldoi and Pimelodus sp. the nucleolar chromosome pair and showed other fluorescent bands. Combined treatment with CB+CMA3 enhanced fluorescent staining of chromosomes in the two fish species evidencing several bands, including in P. heraldoi a chromosome pair showing fluorescent staining in both telomeres. PMID:19058555

  20. Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil

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    Souza Paulo A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis and the Hamiapollenites karrooensis Subzones, and is recognized from the glacial (Itararé Group and post-glacial sequence (Rio Bonito Formation and the base of the Palermo Formation. The Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zone occurs from the uppermost Rio Bonito Formation, through the Palermo and Irati formations, and into the Serra Alta and Teresina formations. The main characteristics and reference sections are established, as well as additional criteria to recognize biostratigraphical units, in accordance with the International Stratigraphic Guide. Palynostratigraphical correlation suggests that the Vittatina costabilis Zone concerns the Early Permian (early Cisuralian, while the Lueckisporites virkkiae is regarded as late Early Permian to early Middle Permian (late Cisularian to early Guadalupian.

  1. Description and relationships of Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from rio Tietê basin, southeastern Brazil

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    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species, is described based on specimens recently collected in a headwater stream of the middle stretch of the rio Tietê, a river from the upper rio Paraná basin in southeastern Brazil. The new taxon belongs to a clade also encompassing the genera Schizolecis, Otothyris and Pseudotothyris. Otothyropsis marapoama is hypothesized to be the sister-group of Pseudotothyris and Otothyris based mainly on the presence of several derived characters of the swimbladder capsule and associated bones. Several paedomorphic characters shared by Pseudotothyris and Otothyris and their significance for the phylogenetic position of the new genus are discussed.Otothyropsis marapoama, novo gênero e espécie, é descrito baseado em espécimes recentemente coletados em um riacho de cabeceira da porção media do rio Tietê, um rio da bacia do alto rio Paraná no sudeste do Brasil. O novo táxon pertence a um clado que inclui também os gêneros Schizolecis, Otothyris e Pseudotothyris. Otothyropsis marapoama é considerado o grupo-irmão de Pseudotothyris e Otothyris baseado principalmente na presença de vários caracteres derivados da cápsula da bexiga natatória e ossos associados. Vários caracteres pedomórficos compartilhados por Pseudotothyris e Otothyris e seu significado filogenético para a posição deste novo gênero são discutidos.

  2. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  3. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

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    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  4. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  5. 2 D seismic sections interpretation for the Xareu field in the Mundau sub-basin (Ceara basin, Northeastern Brazil); Interpretacao de secoes sismicas 2D para o Campo de Xareu na sub-bacia de Mundau (Bacia do Ceara, NE do Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alex Francisco [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: alex@geologia.ufrn.br; Jardim de Sa, Emanuel Ferraz [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Matos, Renato Marcos Darros de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Keller Filho, Odilon [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE; Lima Neto, Francisco Fontes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a reinterpretation of seismic sections of the Xareu Oil Field, located in the central portion of the Mundau Sub-basin (Ceara Basin, Northeast Brazil). These seismic sections were acquired during the 80's and the 90's. Their reinterpretation show that the field is structured by a main arrangement of N W-trending listric normal faults, with associated roll-over structures affecting the rocks of the rift (Mundau Formation) and transitional (Paracuru Formation) sections of the basin. Some of these faults also affect the basal and intermediate layers of the drift section (Ubarana Formation), what denotes their reactivation (or even the formation of new faults). the new interpretation allows a better understanding of the frequency, geometry, orientation, style and kinematic of the faults, important factors in the structural characterization of the Xareu Oil Field. (author)

  6. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  7. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

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    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a

  8. Determining Regional Actual Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Crops and Natural Vegetation in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil Using Remote Sensing and Penman-Monteith Equation

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    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainable development and to ensure water availability in hydrological basins, water managers need tools to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET on a large scale. Field energy balances from irrigated and natural ecosystems together with a net of agro-meteorological stations were used to develop two models for ET quantification at basin scale, based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The first model (PM1 uses the resistances to the latent heat fluxes estimated from satellite measurements, while the second one (PM2 is based on the ratio of ET to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and its relation to remote sensing parameters. The models were applied in the Low-Middle São Francisco river basin in Brazil and, after comparison against field results, showed good agreements with PM1 and PM2 explaining, respectively, 79% and 89% of the variances and mean square errors (RMSE of 0.44 and 0.34 mm d−1. Even though the PM1 model was not chosen for ET calculations, the equation for surface resistance (rs was applied to infer the soil moisture conditions in a simplified vegetation classification. The maximum values of rs were for natural vegetation—caatinga (average of 1,937 s m−1. Wine grape and mango orchard presented similar values around 130 s m−1, while table grape presented the lowest ones, averaging 74 s m−1. Petrolina and Juazeiro, in Pernambuco (PE and Bahia (BA states, respectively, were highlighted with the biggest irrigated areas. The highest increments are for vineyards and mango orchards. For the first crop the maximum increment was verified between 2003 and 2004 in Petrolina-PE, when the cultivated area increased 151%. In the case of mango orchards the most significant period was from 2005 to 2006 in Juazeiro-BA (129%. As the best performance was for PM2, it was selected and used to analyse the regional ET at daily and annual scales, making use of Landsat images and a geographic information system for different

  9. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) and Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernández-Yépez, 1948)(Characiformes, Curimatidae) from the Tibagi River basin (Paraná State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravena, W; Teribele, R; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Dias, A L

    2007-12-01

    We cytogenetically analyzed 18 individuals of Cyphocharax modestus, and 41 individuals of Steindachnerina insculpta from the Tibagi River basin (Paraná State, Brazil). All the specimens had 2n=54 chromosomes, all meta-submetacentric (M-SM). The presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes was seen in some individuals of C. modestus of the two sampled populations, showing inter- and intra individual variation. In S. insculpta, B chromosomes were also observed but only in one population, also showing inter- and intra individual variation. C-banding was used to show that the identified B chromosomes were totally heterochromatic in the two examined species. PMID:18278358

  10. Dispersal Syndromes of fossil Seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Juliane M. Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological analysis of seeds has been an important subject in modern ecological studies, once it provides evidence about the biology and adaptations of the parent plant. However, this kind of study has been restricted to the ecology of modern plants and is rarely used in interpretations of Paleozoic data. From the understanding of dispersal syndromes analysis as an important tool to paleoecological reconstruction, this study provides a first approach using this tool with seeds from the Lower Permian strata of southern Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul. Based on previously classified seeds and using their biological and taphonomic data, the syndrome of dispersal was interpreted, and their placement in successional groups (pioneer, early-successional and later-successional was suggested. Seven morphospecies were analyzed: Samaropsis gigas, representing a later-successional species living in water bodies with hydrochory as its dispersal syndrome; Samaropsis kurtzii, typical of early-successional species showing anemochory as its dispersal syndrome and living in distal areas in relation to water bodies; Samaropsis aff. S. millaniana, Cordaicarpus aff. C. brasilianus, Cordaicarpus cerronegrensis and Cordaicarpus truncata have typical characteristics of pioneer plants, exhibiting barochory as their primary dispersal syndrome with other syndromes associated.A Análise morfológica das sementes tem sido um importante objeto em estudos ecológicos modernos, uma vez que fornece evidências sobre a biologia e as adaptações das plantas-mãe de sementes. Entretanto, este tipo de estudo tem sido restrito a ecologia de plantas modernas e é raramente utilizado em interpretações de dados paleozóicos. A partir do entendimento da análise das sindromes de dispersão como uma importante ferramenta para reconstruções paleoecológicas, este estudo oferece uma primeira abordagem utilizando essa ferramenta com sementes do Permiano Inferior do Sul da

  11. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  12. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.O córrego Paulicéia é um afluente direto do rio Mogi-Guaçu, situado no município de Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, Estado de S

  13. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  14. 0 Dizer-Verdadeiro: Analise Narrativa de"Desenredo.:conto de Guimaraes Rosa

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    Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Retoma-se, neste artigo, um exercicio de analise narrative do conto Desenredo l , de Guimaraas Rosa, realizado com a finalidade didatica de ilustrar, em s.ale de aula, passes, possibilidades e interesse do exame da organizacao narrative de textos da "grande literatura". A analise obedece aos principios da teoria semiotics do discurso, tal coma vem sendo desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Investigações Sêmio-Lingüísticas, sob a direç]aoo de A.J. Greimas. Da teoria, serão retomados aqui apenas dois principios gerais: o de percurso gerativo do sentido, necessário para situar o nível de análise da narrativa, e a definçãoo mesma da narratividade.

  15. Activity and habitat use of two species of stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil

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    Domingos Garrone Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The life history of freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae under natural conditions has been poorly documented. In this study, we investigated theperiod of activity and the habitat use of two species of the genus Potamotrygon in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil. Potamotrygon falkneri and P. motoro are similar to each other as far as the analyzed behavior is concerned. Individuals of both species segregate according to their size, and in function of the depth and period of the day. Younger individuals inhabit mostly sandy beaches and places that are no deeper than four meters throughout the whole day. Bigger stingrays realize bathymetric migrations, alternating their position between places deeper than eight meters during the day, and shallow areas at night. Individuals of intermediate size inhabit transition environments that have greater habitat diversity. Both species presented mostly nocturnal habits, especially regarding their feeding behavior. The behavioral patterns observed seem to go through ontogenetic variations and probably change throughout the year, between dry and wet seasons.Informações sobre o modo de vida das raias de água doce (Potamotrygonidae sob condições naturais são escassas. Neste trabalho, estudamos o período de atividade e as formas de uso do habitat de duas espécies do gênero Potamotrygon na bacia do alto rio Paraná, no Sudeste do Brasil. Potamotrygon falkneri e P. motoro apresentaram comportamento muito semelhante, com nítida segregação espacial dos indivíduos em função do seu tamanho, da profundidade e do período do dia. Juvenis estiveram associados a praias arenosas e locais com profundidades abaixo de quatro metros ao longo de todo o dia. Raias de grande porte realizaram migrações batimétricas, alternando sua posição entre locais com profundidade superior a oito metros durante o dia e áreas mais rasas à noite. Indivíduos com tamanho intermediário ocuparam ambientes de

  16. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

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    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  17. Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, studies on the ecology of host-parasite interactions are incipient and generally related to taxonomic aspects. The main objective of the present work was to analyze ecological aspects and identify the metazoan fauna of ectoparasites that infest the piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri. In May 2002, field samples were collected in the rio Araguaia basin, State of Goiás (Brazil. A total of 252 individuals of P. nattereri were caught with fishhooks and 32.14% were infested with ectoparasite crustaceans. The recorded ectoparasites were branchiurans, Argulus sp. and Dolops carvalhoi and the isopods Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis and Asotana sp. The prevalence and mean intensity of branchiurans (16.6% and 1.5, respectively and isopods (15.5% and 1.0, respectively were similar. Isopods were observed in the gills of the host; branchiurans were more frequent where the skin was thinner, and facilitated attachment and feeding. The ventral area, the base of the pectoral fin and the gular area were the most infested areas. The correlations between the standard length of the host and the variables intensity and prevalence of crustaceans parasitism, were significant only for branchiurans (rs = 0.2397, p = 0.0001; chi2 = 7.97; C = 0.19. These results suggest that both feeding sites and body size probably play an important role in the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites.Nos trópicos, os estudos sobre a ecologia de interações parasito-hospedeiro são incipientes, sendo a maioria de cunho taxonômico. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a fauna metazoária de ectoparasitas e analisar aspectos ecológicos da piranha Pygocentrus nattereri. As coletas foram realizadas em maio de 2002, na bacia do rio Araguaia, GO. Com o auxílio de linha e anzol foram capturados 252 exemplares de P. nattereri, dos quais 32,14% estavam infestados por crustáceos ectoparasitos. As espécies de ectoparasitas registradas foram Argulus sp

  18. Coexistence of halloysite and kaolinite: a study on the genesis of kaolin clays of Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa T.G. de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin at Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil was formed from alteration of volcanic acid rocks. Halloysite clays dominate the clay fraction of the matrix of the kaolin body, whereas a poorly crystalline kaolinite is abundant in veins. Some primary blocky structures have high amounts of illite, in one mine, but in general, only low contents of illite-smectite, illite, chlorite-vermiculite, vermiculite and quartz were identified in the clay fraction of the samples. Toward the top of the mines, hematite and lepidocrocite appear in horizontal red and ochre colored levels and the amount of kaolinite increases compared to halloysite. The vertical zoning of alteration levels, the changes in mineralogy, the positive correlation between depth and Cation Exchange Capacity of the clays, the preservation of different types of rock textures in the kaolin bodies, the dominant tube morphology of the halloysite clays indicate a supergene genesis for the deposits. Criteria to distinguish between supergene and hypogene kaolin are discussed. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the cross sections of halloysite tubes showed polygonal forms that are ascribed to be transitional between kaolinite and halloysite. It is proposed that some of the kaolinite of these deposits be inherited from the dehydration of halloysite tubes.O caolim da Bacia de Campo Alegre, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, formou-se da alteração de rochas vulcânicas ácidas. A haloisita predomina na fração argila da matriz do corpo de caolim, enquanto a caolinita, de baixa cristalinidade, é abundante nos veios. Algumas estruturas em blocos, primários, têm altos teores de ilita em uma mina, mas no geral, somente foram identificadas, na fração argila das amostras, baixas quantidades de ilita-esmectita, ilita, clorita-vermiculita, vermiculita e quartzo. Em direção ao topo das minas aparecem hematita e lepidocrocita em níveis vermelhos e ocres e as quantidades de caolinita

  19. Cynolebias parnaibensis, a new seasonal killifish from the Caatinga, Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil, with notes on sound producing courtship behavior (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cynolebias parnaibensis from the Canindé River drainage, Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil, is described. It is considered to be a member of a clade endemic to the Caatinga. The clade is diagnosed, e. g., by a series of structural modifications of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus, which is related to the sound production exhibited by males during courtship behavior. The courtship sound of C. parnaibensis consists of a single pulse named as thump (duration 0.031-0.133s; interthump intervals 0.020-8.319s; dominant frequency 70.3-93.8 Hz. The new species is distinguished from all other congeners by a combination of 27-31 neuromasts around eye, 29-33 supraorbital neuromasts, 16-18 dorsal-fin rays and 19 anal-fin rays in males, 28-31 caudal-fin rays, 33-36 scales in the longitudinal series, 3+10 gill-rakers in the first branchial arch, absence of second pharyngobranchial teeth, absence of contact organs on the flank scales, 34-35 vertebrae, absence of teeth on vomer, and presence of transverse series of scales on the anal-fin base.Cynolebias parnaibensis, da drenagem do rio Canindé, bacia do rio Parnaíba, nordeste do Brasil, é descrita. Ela é considerada um membro de um clado endêmico da Caatinga. O clado é diagnosticado, e. g., por uma série de modificações estruturais do aparato mandibular faringiano, que está relacionado à produção de som exibida por machos durante o comportamento de corte. O som de corte de C. parnaibensis consiste de um único pulso denominado como thump (duração 0,031-0,133s; intervalos entre thumps 0,020-8,319s; frequência dominante 70,3-93,8 Hz. A nova espécie se distingue de todos os outros congêneres por uma combinação de 27-31 neuromastos em torno do olho, 29-33 neuromastos supraorbitais, 16-18 raios na nadadeira dorsal e 19 raios na nadadeira anal em machos, 28-31 raios na nadadeira caudal, 33-36 escamas na série longitudinal, 3+10 rastros branquiais no primeiro arco branquial, ausência de

  20. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  1. Morphometric analysis of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The State of São Paulo Water Resources Policy established, in 1991, the Integrated Water Resources Management System (SIGRHI and defined the basic principles for water management, adopting the watershed as the basic unit for studies, integrated planning for sustainable development. This study characterized the morphology of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP. Morphometric analysis involved the characterization of geometric parameters, topography and drainage network, and the analysis of land use and land cover of the sub-basins. The morphometric characterization revealed that Perdizes sub-basin has an area of 12.70 km², a perimeter of 19.85 km, and a main channel length of 6.86 km, while Fojo sub-basin has a drainage area of 13.97 km ², a perimeter of 19.74 km, and a main channel length of 6.94 km. These results indicate similarities between the two sub-basins. The compactness coefficient (Kc for Perdizes was 1.56 and for Fojo 1.41. These values associated with the respective form factors, F = 0.27 and F = 0.29, indicate that these sub-basins, under a normal precipitation regime are not susceptible to flooding. The results of these indices are consisted with the circularity index (CI found: CI = 0.41 for Perdizes and CI = 0.45 for Fojo, respectively. As CI values found are far from one, they indicate that these sub-basins tend to have a more elongated shape and, therefore, lower flow concentration tendency. The results obtained for the maintenance coefficient indicate that in order to maintain the flow of each channel meter, Perdizes sub-basin needs 286.5 m² and Fojo sub-basin needs 243.9 m². Land cover and land use analysis revealed that among the four existing vegetation cover types, Forest is dominant in both sub-basins with 649 ha (51.1% in Perdizes, and 608.8 ha (43.6% in Fojo; Reforestation cover ranks second with similar areas in both sub-basins, Perdizes with 218 ha (17.2% and Fojo with approximately

  2. Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito Formation, Early Permian, Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, A.; Menegat, R.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; de Souza, P.A. [UNIVATES, Lajeado (Brazil)

    2006-07-15

    This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quiteria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Parana Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

  3. Determining Regional Actual Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Crops and Natural Vegetation in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) Using Remote Sensing and Penman-Monteith Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    To achieve sustainable development and to ensure water availability in hydrological basins, water managers need tools to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET) on a large scale. Field energy balances from irrigated and natural ecosystems together with a net of agro-meteorological stations were used to develop two models for ET quantification at basin scale, based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The first model (PM1) uses the resistances to the latent heat fluxes estimated from satellit...

  4. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira Mountain in the municipal district of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning and action integration in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira Mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of educational environmental material. Results have shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and quantity during the dry season. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the Cruzeiro, SP water supply.

  5. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira mountain in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning information and integration actions in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of support material for environmental education. Results has shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and regulated quantity. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the water supply for the city of Cruzeiro, SP.

  6. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO AZEVEDO ZOCCAL GARCIA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcia DAZ, Costa ADA, Leme GLA, Orsi ML. 2014. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Biodiversitas 15: 180-185. The dispersion of organisms by human actions has been the major source of changes in the natural distribution of species, making the introduction of non-native species a threat to biological diversity. Micropterus salmoides is a fish originating from North America, which was introduced in a lagoon in the Ecological Park of Fazenda Monte Alegre in southern Brazil over 50 years ago. The reproductive activity, weight-length relationship and relative condition factor were analyzed to evaluate the health parameters of the species. The result allows us to classify the reproductive activity of this population as moderate. It was found that the health condition patterns are identical to those theoretically expected. The occurrence of individuals downstream of the lagoon shows that the population has been presenting dispersion conditions to new environments, posing a threat to local biodiversity. Management measures, such as isolation or eradication of the population, are required to control the species within the studied site, and prevent its dispersion into natural watercourses.

  7. What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brazil flux network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Rocha, da H.R.; Hutyra, L.R.; Araujo, de A.C.; Borma, L.S.; Christoffersen, B.; Cabral, O.M.R.; Camargo, de P.B.; Cardoso, F.L.; Lola da Costa, A.C.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Kruijt, B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity, and the effects thereon of variations in climate and land-use, by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in A

  8. Facies and depositional architecture according to a jet efflux model of a late Paleozoic tidewater grounding-line system from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Carolina Danielski; Buso, Victoria Valdez; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio; Milana, Juan Pablo; Paim, Paulo Sergio Gomes

    2016-04-01

    During the Late Paleozoic, the Gondwana supercontinent was affected by multiple glacial and deglacial episodes known as "The Late Paleozoic Ice Age" (LPIA). In Brazil, the evidence of this episode is recorded mainly by widespread glacial deposits preserved in the Paraná Basin that contain the most extensive record of glaciation (Itararé Group) in Gondwana. The Pennsylvanian to early Permian glaciogenic deposits of the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin) are widely known and cover an extensive area in southern Brazil. In the Doutor Pedrinho area (Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil), three glacial cycles of glacier advance and retreat were described. The focus of this article is to detail the base of the second glacial episodes or Sequence II. The entire sequence records a deglacial system tract that is represented by a proximal glacial grounding-line system covered by marine mudstones and shales associated with a rapid flooding of the proglacial area. This study deals with the ice proximal grounding-line systems herein interpreted according to lab model named plane-wall jet with jump. Detailed facies analysis allowed the identification of several facies ranging from boulder-rich conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones. No fine-grained deposits such as siltstone or shale were recorded. According to this model, the deposits are a product of a supercritical plane-wall outflow jet that changes to a subcritical jet downflow from a hydraulic jump. The hydraulic jump forms an important energy boundary that is indicated by an abrupt change in grain size and cut-and-fill structures that occur at the middle-fan. The sedimentary facies and facies associations show a downflow trend that can be subdivided into three distinct stages of flow development: (1) a zone of flow establishment (ZFE), (2) a zone of transition (ZFT), and (3) an established zone (ZEF). The proximal discharge is characterized by hyperconcentrated-to-concentrated flow due to the high energy and sediment

  9. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  10. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  11. Sequence stratigraphy in Rift deposits: an example in the Membro Mucuri (Aptiano) of the Sao Mateus field, Espirito Santo basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencia em depositos de Rifte: um exemplo no membro Mucuri (Aptiano) do Campo de Sao Mateus, Bacia do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirro, Antonio Celso; Rey, Antonio Cosme Del [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    Sao Mateus field is located onshore Espirito Santo basin, Brazil eastern cost. Petroleum accumulations occur in Mucuri Member, Aptian, deposited at the end of basin rift phase. Vertical section of this member records a transition from a continental to a shallow marine environment. Three depositional sequences are recognized. Each sequence consists of lowstand fluvial deposits covered by transgressive deposits with delta estuarine fine grained sediments. The highly transgressive sedimentation pattern makes difficult to discern transgressive to highstand deposits. The reservoirs are fluvial and delta estuarine sandstones, and the seals are transgressive fine grained sediments. Normal faults promoted up-dip closures. (author)

  12. Insectivory in Potamotrygon signata (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), an endemic freshwater stingray from the Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil Insetivoria em Potamotrygon signata (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), uma raia de água doce endêmica da bacia do rio Parnaíba, nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    G De Moro; Charvet, P.; RS. Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Potamotrygon signata is an endemic freshwater stingray species in the Parnaíba River basin, Brazil. After its original description, only citations in systematic lists were recorded in the literature and the biology of the species remains unknown, including the feeding habits. The aim of this study is to characterize the overall diet of P. signata based on analysing stomach contents and to provide preliminary information on intraspecific diet variability between sexes and maturity stages. The ...

  13. Project installation the large equipment in line system in Brazil. Gas export line valve P-40 FPSO-MLS. Field Marlim Sul, Campos Basin, Brazil; Operacao de instalacao do maior equipamento no sistema in line ja realizado no Brasil. Valvula do gasoduto P-40 X FPSO-MLS. Campo de Marlim Sul, Bacia de Campos, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcos Antonio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Paulo Tavares [PETROBRAS, Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    This work will approach the current level of development of the installation of connected underwater equipment to flexible lines in the underwater engineering operations in Campos' Basin. The project will show studies, analysis and simulations (through software developed by PETROBRAS) about the installation of the largest equipment laid in the 'in-line' system (connected to flexible lines) in Brazil - and one of the largest of the world: the ESDV (Emergency Shut Down Valve) of the gas pipeline P-40 x FPSO-MLS, in the South Marlim field, in Campos' Basin. This ESDV, of about 18.000 kg, 4 m height and 6,5 m length, has the purpose of assuring the safety conditions on the facilities, interrupting the gas flow exported for P-40 in case of emergency situations. Its installation opened a new alternative in releasing underwater equipment, using the ships that install the flexible lines. This operation occurred in June, 2004, and required the use of a second vessel for support and monitoring of the ESDV laying. The ESDV was installed at 400 m from FPSO-MLS, in a water depth of 1.137 m. This method shall be used broadly by the company in the implantation of the new units of Campos' Basin, and the upcoming studies must consider the gradual increase of the water depth in the new projects. This work will focus the technological development in this area, and one of its purposes is to foresee the future difficulties that can appear in the implantation of the production systems in deep and ultra-deep waters. (author)

  14. A new species of Pimelodus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Raynner V. Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto S. de Lucena; Osvaldo T Oyakawa

    2011-01-01

    Pimelodus multicratifer, a new species, is described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin. The new species differs from the other Pimelodus species by the following features: 26 to 30 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a combination of three to six rows of dark spots regularly or irregularly scattered on the flanks and several small dark spots irregularly scattered on the dorsal surface of head, supraoccipital process, and sometimes on the dorsal and caudal fins; striated lips; maxillar...

  15. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Washington Franca Rocha; Antonio Jorge Vasconcellos Garcia; Daniela Dantas de Menezes Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology) using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Sy...

  16. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  17. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the marine sequence of the Tapajós Group, Early-Middle Pennsylvanian of Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the south and western regions of the Amazonas Basin to describe the conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group comprising the upper Monte Alegre, Itaituba, and lower Nova Olinda formations. The analyzed area includes one outcrop along the Tapajós river (TAP), two carbonate quarries (QI, QII), and 18 wells (dots 1-18). The conodont fauna is dominated by Idiognathoides sinuatus and Neognathodus symmetricus in the Monte Alegre Formation, followed by Idiognathodus incurvus, Diplognathodus coloradoensis and Neognathodus bassleri in the Itaituba and Nova Olinda formations. The conodont association suggests an Early to Middle Pennsylvanian age to the analyzed section. Relative ages attributed to the three lithostratigraphic units using conodonts, palynomorphs, and foraminifers are consistent. Herein are proposed one local taxon-range zone of Idiognathodus incurvus in the Itaituba and lower part of the Nova Olinda Formation and one local taxon-range subzone of Diplognathodus coloradoensis in the Itaituba Formation, suggesting a late Bashkirian - Moscovian (Atokan - early Desmoinesian) age to these strata. The Itaituba Formation marks the establishment of large Pennsylvanian marine conditions in the Amazonas Basin and is composed primarily of marine carbonates of abundant fossil content, tidal flat evaporites and siliciclastic thin intervals. Its lower limit, with the Monte Alegre Formation, is characterized by the predominant occurrence of fluvial-deltaic sandstones superimposed on an extensive sequence of aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales intercalated with the interdune and lakes. From the upper strata of Itaituba Formation the faunal and lithological characteristics indicate the occurrence of a regressive phase culminating in a restricted environment, arid which indicates the Nova Olinda Formation. This is characterized by the occurrence of evaporites

  18. Comparison between some trace and heavy metals concentrations in sediments of a river and a natural wetland system in Ribeira do Iguape Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumoThe sediment is an integrator site of many processes that take place in the water column. Its study is extremely important for the assessment of environmental impacts to which aquatic ecosystems are subordinated, since the sediments are able to accumulate nutrients and pollutants. The aim of this research was to compare copper, lead, manganese and mercury concentrations in the sediments of Jacupiranguinha River and of a natural wetland, observing the spatial-temporal variation of these concentrations in two sampling periods: October, 2004 and January, 2005. The study area is located in one of the most miserable regions in Brazil, Ribeira do Iguape Basin, whose economy is based on banana cultivation and mining activities. The obtained results contributed to better understand the differences in contaminants´ dynamic for lotic and lentic biological systems. Copper, lead and manganese concentrations were higher in the natural wetland sediment when compared to the river, probably due to the variability of processes in one and other ecosystem. It was possible to observe temporal variation, since the highest concentrations of these three metals were obtained in the sampling during the rainy period. Mercury, however, presented a different behavior. The highest concentrations were obtained in Jacupiranguinha River, reaching 0.8 mg kg-1, painting a deep and serious public health problem. Besides, mercury concentrations during the rainy period were lower in comparison with the period with less intense precipitation, pointing the possibility of this metal’s transportation from Jacupiranguinha river to the other rivers located in the basin.

  19. Levels of potassium, uranium, thorium and rate of radiogenic heat production in the bedrock adjacent to Camamu and Almada sedimentary basins, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bedrock adjacent to Camamu and Almada sedimentary basins is characterized mainly by rocks of granulite and amphibolite facies, with archaean and paleoproterozoic ages, which belong to orogen Itabuna-Salvador-Curaca. The units in major proportion in this context are the metatonalites associated with basic and metamonzonites belonging to Itabuna belt. In smaller area occur the Teolandia granite and the Moenda granodiorite associated with the Ipiau band amphibolites, the charnockites and charnoenderbites of Jequie bloc, the neoproterozoic sienites and the mafic dikes. The K, U and Th contents of the rocks vary from 0,02 to 6,33% for K, from -3. The coverage areas of such lithologies are, however, small compared with that of the metatonalitic granulites, metamonzonitic granulites and sienites where the rates vary from 0,10 to 1,44 μW m-3, 0,23 to 5,55 μW m-3 and 0,60 to 2,24 μW m-3, respectively. In this case, the heat production rates vary from 0,10 to 1,44 μW m-3. The basic granulites have the smaller rates, from 0,06 to 0,36 μW m-3. The observation of the lithologies in the margins of the two basins suggest that, in the bedrock under the younger sediments, may predominate the metatonalites, followed by the metamonzonites, with some significant participation of sienites in the Almada basin. In those lithologies, the volumetric heat production rates, with one standard deviation range, are 0,41 +- 0,30 μW m-3 for metatonalites, 0,71 +- 0,57 μW m-3 for metamonzonites and 1,20 +- 0,51 μW m-3 for sienites. (author)

  20. Fishes from the Corumbá Reservoir, Paranaíba River drainage, upper Paraná River basin, State of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Pavanelli; Graça, W. J.; C. H. Zawadzki; H. A. Britski; Vidotti, A. P.; Avelino, G. S.; Veríssimo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Corumbá Reservoir is located in CorumbáRiver, a tributary to the right bank of ParanaíbaRiver, upper Paraná River basin. Fish werecollected monthly, from March 1996 to February2000, in 17 sampling stations along CorumbáReservoir and its influence area, using gill nets,casting nets, electrofishing and long lines.Considering the entire period, 119 fish specieswere colleted, which belong to seven Orders, 26Families, and 78 Genera. Among them, fivespecies are considered endemic to Corumbá Riv...

  1. Intra-individual numerical chromosomal polymorphism in Trichomycterus davisi (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae from the Iguaçu River basin in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borin Luciana Andreia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of Trichomycterus davisi, collected from the Iguaçu River basin, has shown a diploid number of 2n = 54 chromosomes. However, we observed intra-individual numerical polymorphism in a T. davisi specimen. There were three cell populations with diploid number 2n = 54 (40M + 12SM + 2ST, 2n = 55 (40M + 12SM + 2ST + 1M and 2n = 56 (40M + 12SM + 2ST + 2A chromosomes. This variation was attributed to a probable post-zygotic non-disjunction of a metacentric chromosome of small/middle size, followed by centric fission, which originated in this individual.

  2. Determination of As, Co, Cr and Fe on sediments and soil of the region of middle and low courses of the Rio da Velhas basin, MB, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regions of the middle and low courses of the Rio das Velhas Basin are important under economical point of view for Minas Gerais State because of the agricultural production and high bovine population. In this work sediment and soil samples were analysed at monitoring points near the river established by FEAM-Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente. As, Co, Cr and Fe were determined by means k0-Neutron Activation Analysis. The sediment's and soil's results suggested metal contamination probably due to metals carried by high course water. (author)

  3. Structural chromosome polymorphism in a Pimelodus maculatus La Cepède, 1803 population (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Paranapanema River basin, PR, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuchelli, J; Swarça, A C; Dias, A L

    2007-12-01

    In the present cytogenetic study of Pimelodus maculatus, 13 specimens (8 males and 5 females) from the Congonhas Stream in Paraná State, Brazil, were examined using conventional staining. All of them showed a karyotype of 2n=56, with a chromosome distribution of 20m + 20sm + 10st + 6a. However, four individuals (2 males and 2 females) were found to have a variant karyotype (cytotype) with two heteromorphic chromosomes in the group of submetacentric chromosomes--one of them corresponds to the second largest chromosome of this group and the other is a chromosome of small size. This variation suggests the existence of a structural polymorphism in the studied population. PMID:18278362

  4. A tapinocephalid dinocephalian (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil): Taxonomic, ontogenetic and biostratigraphic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, A. D. S.; Kammerer, C. F.; Schultz, C. L.; Paes Neto, V. D.

    2015-11-01

    Permian tetrapod fossils have been recovered from the Rio do Rasto Formation of Brazil since the 1970s. Previous studies of this fauna indicated strong affinities with the Guadalupian-Lopingian vertebrates of South Africa and Eastern Europe, suggesting biostratigraphic correlations between these areas. Here, a new dinocephalian specimen from the Rio do Rasto Formation in the Serra do Cadeado area (Paraná State, Brazil) is described based on fragmentary skull remains and an associated left lower jaw ramus. Despite the fragmentary nature of these remains, they represent the most complete tapinocephalid specimen known from South America. Comparison with other tapinocephalids indicates that the material described herein represents a juvenile or sub-adult specimen. Although it is not possible to identify this material to the genus level, it most closely resembles the 'moschopines' Moschops and Moschognathus from the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of South Africa. As dinocephalians are known to be restricted to the Guadalupian, they are one of the best tetrapod biostratigraphic markers for the Rio do Rasto Formation, indicating that at least some of the strata in the areas where they occur [Serra do Cadeado (Paraná State), Fagundes farm and Boqueirão farm (Rio Grande do Sul State)] are Guadalupian. Vertebrate fossils from Rio do Rasto Formation occur in disperse, isolated and discontinuous outcrops, so that they have been grouped in 'local faunas'. However, most of the specimens lack precise stratigraphic provenance data and even occurring in locations near each other they are not necessarily contemporary. Thus, until a more robust stratigraphic framework is developed, we suggest discontinuing use of 'local faunas' to this stratigraphic unit.

  5. A new Permian bivalve-dominated assemblage in the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil: Faunal turnover driven by regional-scale environmental changes in a vast epeiric sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Rohn, Rosemarie; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; David, Juliana Machado

    2015-12-01

    The basal portion of the Permian Rio do Rasto Formation (Serrinha Member), Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil, records an entirely new bivalve fauna intercalated between the underlying Pinzonella neotropica assemblage (uppermost portion of the Teresina Formation) and the overlying Leinzia similis assemblage (Rio do Rasto Formation). Mollusks of these assemblages lived in marginal shallow-water habitats of an immense epeiric sea and were dominated by endemic bivalve species. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Terraia curvata (60.61%), Astartellopsis prosoclina (19.70%), Cowperesia emerita (10.61%), Leinzia curta (4.55%), Terraia bipleura (3.03%) and Beurlenella elongatella (1.52%), which are associated with conchostracans and plant remains. Species composition, abundance, and dominance in this novel assemblage differ notably from the preceding ones, suggesting a substantial evolutionary turnover. Regional-scale environmental changes recognized based on taphonomy, facies analysis, and geochemical data consist of progressive freshening of the marginal habitats of the Paraná Basin and taxic changes that include the following: (a) loss of genera, (b) decrease in bivalve abundance and ecological guilds, (c) disappearance of the dominant bivalve group (Pinzonellinae) and (d) diversification of Terrainae bivalves. The ecological signature also changed notably because only infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves are present, indicating a significant loss of functional diversity at the regional scale. Likely stressor factors (among others) are tied to freshening events, suggesting profound changes in (a) salinity, (b) primary productivity and (c) a lack of coarse, stable substrates coupled with high bioturbation rates. Hence, our regional example could offer valuable clues to benthic (bivalve) community responses in a habitat subjected to (a) rapid climate changes and (b) freshening events in shallow-water settings. Finally, the stratigraphic range of the

  6. Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Limeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

  7. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Franca Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.

  8. Contribution to the study of the weathering rate of minerals and rocks in the drainage basin of the Paraguacu river - Bahia - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of Na+, Mg++, Ca++, K+, SiO2, SO sup(=)4, alcalinity and pH have been determined for twenty-nine surface water samples of the Paraguacu river drainage basin, mainly in the Utinga River sub-basin. The stable isotope ratio of carbon 13C/12C as well as concentration of 14C was determined for some samples. The ion influence on local aerosol chemistry has also been subtracted from all samples. The analytical results were used to determine the current rate of weathering the rocks of this region and study the sources of dissolved carbon in this water. The analysis of the data shows that weathering processes are influenced by the local lithology. The data from them Utinga river suggests that dissolution of limestone contributes a large percentage of ions. The influence of groundwater in the river flow also brings high concentrations of Na+, Mg++ and Ca++ ions from aerosols, presumeably concentrated by evapo-transpiration. The presence of aerosols in the samples used is remarkable, the contribution of salts from silicate weathering is rather small. It is proposed that the dissolution of limestone and decomposition of organic matter might explain the origin of carbon in some of the samples but others appear to have suffered equilibration with atmospheric CO2. (Author)

  9. Eichhornia meyeri A. G. Schultz : a new citation for the Pantanal basin at the Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Luz Sanches, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a taxonomic review for the Pontederiaceae Kunth family at the Pantanal basin, at the Mato Grosso and Malo Grosso do Sul states, we cite for the first time the occurence of Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz in those states. For the identification of this species at the Pantanal basin, located at Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, we re-describe E. meyeri and present data on the species ecology and ethimology. In addition, we present illustrations and a geographical distribution map for E. meyeri

    Como resultado de la revisión taxonómica de la familia Pontederiaceae Kunth para el Pantanal, en los estados de Mato Grosso y Mato Grosso do Sul fue citada por primera vez la presencia de Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz. Para el reconocimiento de esta especie en el Pantanal Matogrossense fue redescrita y incluidos datos ecologicos, etimología, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución geográfica.

  10. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2014-12-01

    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  11. RAINFALL INDEX IN TWO MICRO BASINS ON MOGI-GUAÇU RIVER, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = ÍNDICES DE PLUVIOSIDADE EM DUAS MICROBACIAS DO RIO MOGI-GUAÇU, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Laurino Junior

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of rainfall indexes is an important matter due to the interaction of several abiotic factors on natural and built ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the rainfall indexes of two micro basins of Mogi-Guaçu River basin, located in Pirassununga, São Paulo State, Brazil. They are very important due toits location and because the districts that includes them. One of them is Barrinha stream micro basin, located in the Research and Continental Fishing Management of Resorts Center (CEPTA IBAMA and other is the Potreiro stream, at the Air Force Academy (AFA. The study was accomplished in the humid/hot periods, being October/2000 to January/2001; October/2001 to January/2002, and October/2002 toJanuary/2003. The equipment used was a rainfall model - Ville of Paris, which possesses a circular reception hoop of 400 cm2, with a collection funnel of 5 liters, representing 125 mm of captured rain. It was also used a rain graphic model-PLG-5, with an reception area of 200 cm2, in agreement with effective international patterns.In the study period the largest annual average of rainfall index was 820 mm in to AFA and 550 mm in CEPTA, respectively showing differences in the total annual average of 197 mm, during the whole study period among the two micro basins. The results when statistically analyzed (a = 0.50%, however, showed not significant differences among these two studied micro basins. = A identificação do índice pluviométrico torna-se necessária dada à interação deste fator abiótico nos distintos ecossistemas naturais e construídos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os índices pluviométricos de duas microbacias da bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu, localizadas no município de Pirassununga, SP. Esta última é muito importante devido a sua localização e dos municípios que a compõem. Estas microbacias são a do córrego da Barrinha, no Centro de Pesquisa e Gestão de RecursosPesqueiros Continentais (CEPTA

  12. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  13. PETROBRAS and social responsibility: the artificial reefs project in Campos Basin, Brazil; PETROBRAS e responsabilidade social: a instalacao de recifes artificiais na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortegiano, Adriana de Santa Marinha Pastorino de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    This article focus on an innovative project launched by PETROBRAS with the main purpose of minimizing the impacts of drilling activities in Campos Basin, over the fishery industry in the northeast region of Rio de Janeiro. This project is seen as a relevant part of PETROBRAS' corporate social responsibility actions. In this sense, it is supposed to consider the interests of all parts directly and indirectly related and affected by the companies' intervention. The major conclusion is that the project could be an important first step to restructure the fishery sector an to harmonize the 'sea users'. A potential improvement could be the promotion of a more effective participation of fishermen in the project and the inclusion of the social and environmental dimensions. (author)

  14. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil (pt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, thisresearch aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical riverslocated in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-AçuRivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results werecompared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originallydeveloped for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous,orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI valuesin all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verifythat mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorusspecies that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, whichwere incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling,although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimumof 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, thehigh total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promoteproportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like watertemperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. InJanuary, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density washigher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointedphytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  15. Flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system: a new depositional model for the Devonian Cabeças Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Piauí, Brazil

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    Luiza Corral M.O. Ponciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional model of the Cabeças Formation is re-evaluated in the context of the Devonian paleogeography of the Parnaíba Basin, and with particular reference to similarities between the formation's facies associations on the eastern border of the basin and the flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system facies that have been discussed in recent literature. The widespread occurrence and nature of sigmoidal clinoforms (with asymptotic cross-stratification and climbing ripples of the Cabeças Formation are here considered as strong evidence of flood-influenced depositional settings. Sandy strata of the Passagem Member, in the vicinity of Pimenteiras and Picos (Piauí State, are interpreted as the distal part of fine-grained mouth-bar deposits interbedded with delta-front sandstone lobes showing hummocky cross-stratification. Richly fossiliferous levels, with diverse megainvertebrates and plant cuticles, occur within the delta-front lobes and the distal mouth-bar deposits, reflecting continuation of shallow marine conditions.O modelo deposicional da Formação Cabeças é reinterpretado no presente estudo com base no contexto paleogeográfico da Bacia do Parnaíba durante o Devoniano e na similaridade entre as fácies encontradas na Formação Cabeças com as fácies características dos sistemas flúvio-deltaicos dominados por inundações. O tipo das clinoformas sigmoidais (com estratificação cruzada assintótica e laminação cruzada cavalgante, e a sua predominância na Formação Cabeças, são consideradas como as principais evidências da influência de inundações nesta unidade. Depósitos do Membro Passagem, localizados nos arredores das cidades de Pimenteiras e Picos, são interpretados como o componente distal de um tipo de barra de desembocadura com a predominância de arenitos finos a conglomeráticos, intercalados com lobos arenosos tabulares de frente deltaica com estratificação cruzada hummocky. Diversos intervalos fossil

  16. O Brasil e o Grão Caribe: fundamentos para uma nova agenda de trabalho Brazil and the Great Caribbean basin: the making of a new agenda

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    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as relações econômicas, políticas e de segurança internacional vigentes entre o Brasil e os 25 países da bacia do Caribe - México, América Central, Antilhas, Colômbia, Venezuela, Guiana e Suriname, além de uma dezena de territórios coloniais administrados por potências extra-regionais. Constata-se que as relações econômicas são muito intensas, especialmente em termos comerciais e de investimentos produtivos. O diálogo político entre as partes é construtivo, relevante e cada vez mais significativo. No que diz respeito às questões de segurança, vale destacar suas convergências, bem como certas divergências de natureza geopolítica derivadas do projeto brasileiro para a América do Sul. No final do artigo, propõem-se três cenários plausíveis para o futuro das relações entre Brasil e Caribe.The paper explores the economic, political and security relations between Brazil and the 25 Caribbean countries - Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean islands, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana and Suriname, inasmuch the colonial territories. The text suggest that the economic relations are very intensive. The political dialogue is constructive. In the security field, there are some convergences and divergences derived from the brazilian=s South American project. At the end, the paper consider three reasonable scenarios for the Brazilian-Caribbean relations.

  17. The use of genetic bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality in a region under the influence of urban waste in Guaíba lake basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Vianna Villela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei was chosen as biomonitoring organism in Guaíba Lake Basin, based on population data, distribution, and sensitivity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies studies with Single Cell Gel Assay (SCGA and Micronuclei test (MN on this freshwater mussel showed that it is successful in biomonitoring studies, especially in urban pollution monitoring. This study evaluated two sampling sites in the Guaíba Lake (Guaíba PC e Guaíba BR, near urban waste discharges, and a control site (Itapuã insight a preserved area, using L. fortunei individuals. Comparing to the control site, the Guaíba BR sample induced DNA damage in haemocytes of mussels sampled both in situ and exposed to laboratory conditions, whereas MN only in in situ collected mussels. This sample also presented the only surface water mutagenic result by Salmonella/microsome assay with TA98 in the presence of metabolic activation. Guaíba PC samples increased MN frequency in situ and in laboratory conditions comparing to the Itapuã results. Metal influence seems to be less important than organic influence in genotoxic induction. These results confirm the strong urban influence in this region, showing that biomonitoring is a powerful tool to detect this kind of contamination in water bodies.

  18. A new species of Pimelodus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Raynner V Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimelodus multicratifer, a new species, is described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin. The new species differs from the other Pimelodus species by the following features: 26 to 30 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a combination of three to six rows of dark spots regularly or irregularly scattered on the flanks and several small dark spots irregularly scattered on the dorsal surface of head, supraoccipital process, and sometimes on the dorsal and caudal fins; striated lips; maxillary barbels reaching between posterior tip of the pelvic-fin rays and posterior tip of the middle caudal-fin rays.Pimelodus multicratifer, espécie nova, é descrita da bacia do rio Ribeira de Iguape. A espécie nova difere das demais espécies de Pimelodus pelas seguintes características: 26 a 30 rastros branquiais sobre o primeiro arco branquial; a combinação de três a seis fileiras de máculas regular ou irregularmente distribuídas sobre os flancos e várias máculas menores irregularmente distribuídas sobre a superfície dorsal da cabeça e processo supraoccipital, e algumas vezes, nas nadadeiras dorsal e caudal; lábios estriados; barbilhões maxilares alcançando a extremidade posterior dos raios da nadadeira pélvica e a extremidade posterior dos raios médios da nadadeira caudal.

  19. Cytotaxonomic and evolutionary considerations about karyotipic data of fishes from the Iguaçu River Basin in South of Brazil

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    Daniel Luis Zanella Kantek

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenetic data available in the literature about the ichthyofauna of the Iguaçu River basin were analyzed in this review. The ichthyofauna was characterized by the high level of endemism and by the low diversity of species. Twenty-four of the eighty-one species were already karyotyped; six Characiformes, fourteen Siluriformes and four Perciformes. The chromosomal data showed the taxonomic and systematic complexity of the groups. Hypothesis related to the evolution of some Characiformes and Siluriformes groups from the Iguaçu River are proposed, as well as the utilization of karyotypic data for cytotaxonomy.Nesta revisão são analisados os dados citogenéticos disponíveis na literatura relativos à ictiofauna da bacia do Rio Iguaçu, a qual é caracterizada pelo alto grau de endemismo e pela baixa diversidade de espécies. Das oitenta e uma espécies conhecidas, vinte e quatro já foram cariotipadas sendo 6 Characiformes, 14 Siluriformes e 4 Perciformes. Os dados cromossômicos evidenciam a complexidade taxonômica e sistemática dos grupos. São propostas hipóteses relacionadas à evolução de alguns grupos de Characiformes e Siluriformes do Rio Iguaçu, assim como o aproveitamento de dados cariotípicos para a citotaxonomia.

  20. Water balance model and eucalyptus growth simulation in the rio doce basin, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.16955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welliam Chaves Monteiro Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the 3-PG model is widely used for forest productivity calculations, there are processes that do not present appropriate physical treatment. The aim of this study was to generate a tool to improve the water balance calculation in the model to enhance the energy balance and transpiration process. The calculation of transpiration was modified to account for variations in solar radiation with the inclination and azimuth of the terrain; the vapor pressure deficit was changed based on the relative humidity and air temperature; and the stomatal conductance varied according to solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and air temperature. The water storage in the soil varied with the depth of the root system and the total water availability (TWA in the soil. The assessment was also changed from a monthly to an hourly basis. The study was conducted in areas surrounding Cenibra, and the data were collected from the Rio Doce river basin, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Taken together, these modifications improved growth - modeling processes and enhanced the capacity of this analytical tool to differentiate intra - region productivity.

  1. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  2. Risk factors associated with the transmissionof Brazilian spotted fever in the Piracicaba river basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Celso Eduardo de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE. After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI with 210 (37% confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63% discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035, the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439, the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764, the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138, an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231, and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003. CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment.

  3. Zooplankton community composition and some limnological aspects of an oxbow lake of the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Edson Vieira Sampaio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some limnological aspects of Lake Massacará (adjoining the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin were studied during two periods of the hydrological cycle. Water transparency was equally low during both the periods. During high water, thermal stratification was recorded, with a clinograde oxygen profile; pH was slightly acid, and conductivity was higher near the bottom. Concentrations of inorganic carbon and ammonia, and rates of primary production were higher than during the low water period. During the latter period, complete mixing occurred, with a clinograde oxygen profile; pH was slightly acid, and conductivity unvarying with depth. Higher concentrations of nitrate were found than during high water. With regard to the zooplankton communities, higher density and species richness of organisms occurred during high water. Copepods and rotifers were most numerous during both periods. The taxa identified consisted of 17 rotifers, four copepods, six cladocerans, five protozoans, and two macroinvertebrates. The most abundant species were Thermocyclops minutus, Keratella cochlearis, K. lenzi, and Trichocerca capucina during high water, and Thermocyclops minutus and Conochilus unicornis during low water.Lagoa Massacará (marginal ao Rio Paraopeba-MG, Bacia do Rio São Francisco foi estudada do ponto de vista de alguns aspectos limnológicos durante dois períodos do ciclo hidrológico (cheia e seca. A transparência da água foi baixa e semelhante nos dois períodos. No período de cheia ocorreu estratificação, perfil de oxigênio clinógrado com camadas inferiores anóxicas, pH ligeiramente ácido, alta condutividade elétrica no fundo, com maiores concentrações de CO2 inorgânico, de íons amônio e taxa de produção primária que na época seca. No período de seca ocorreu desestratificação, perfil de oxigênio clinógrado com camadas inferiores não anóxicas, pH ligeiramente ácido, condutividade elétrica constantes, com maiores

  4. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  5. Classificação da capacidade de uso das terras da Microbacia do Riacho Una, Sapé, PB Classification of land use capacity of micro basin of Una stream in Sapé, PB, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaque F. C. Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente expansão das atividades agropecuárias sem a consideração das potencialidades e limitações das terras, constitui fonte potencial de degradação do meio ambiente. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se avaliar o meio físico das terras da microbacia hidrográfica do Riacho Una, Sapé, PB, a partir da classificação de capacidade de uso das terras. A área se localiza na porção leste do Estado da Paraíba, entre as coordenadas geográficas: 35º 08' 16" e 35º 15' 12" de longitude, a oeste de Greenwich e 06º 59' 18" e 07º 05' 42" de latitude sul. Utilizam-se, nos procedimentos adotados, técnicas de geoprocessamento, sendo a integração de informações realizada no Sistema de Informações Geográficas Idrisi Kilimanjaro versão 14.0. Para a avaliação das terras adotou-se o sistema de capacidade de uso. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a Microbacia Hidrográfica do Riacho Una apresenta resultados bastante satisfatórios, com indicação de aproximadamente 60% de terras aptas para uso agrícola.The growing expansion of agricultural activities without consideration of the potentialities and limitations of land constitutes a potential source of environment degradation. This work aimed to evaluate the physical proprieties of lands in the micro bosin of Una, Sapé in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, using the classification of the land use capacity . The area is located in the eastern part of the Paraíba state, between the geographical coordinates: 35º 08' 16" and 35º 15' 12" longitude, West of Greenwich and 06º 59' 18" and 07º 05' 42" latitude South. The adopted procedures utilized geoprocessing techniques and the integration of information was made in the Geographical Information Systems Idrisi Kilimanjaro, version 14.0. The system of soil use capacity was adopted to evaluate land. The results obtained demonstrated that the micro basin of stream Una presents satisfactory results with an indication that approximately 60% of its

  6. Fish community structure of Juramento reservoir, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil Estrutura da comunidade de peixes do reservatório de Juramento, bacia do Rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. M. Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many rivers in Brazil as the São Francisco (SFR have been impounded for reservoirs construction purposes. However, there is a lack of knowledge on their fish fauna in many areas, including headwaters. The present study aimed to describe the fish community structure from Juramento reservoir, located on Juramento River, a branch of SFR basin. Six bimonthly samplings were made in four different sites. Gill and cast nets, beach seines and sieves were used to collect fish. Ecological indexes as well as the relationship between fish abundance and some limnological variables were determined. 3288 fish belonging to 33 species (16.5% of the total described for SFR basin were captured, being 75.7% Characiformes, 18.1% Siluriformes, 3% Cyprinodontiformes and 3% Gymnotiformes. Only two non-native species, 'tamboatá' - Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828 and 'trairão' - Hoplias lacerdae Ribeiro, 1908 were found. The highest catches in number occurred in the dry period (March-October and the lowest one in the wet season (November-February. Diversity was higher at Barragem station and richness did not vary between reservoir zones. Five migratory species were found downstream of the dam (four exclusively there, whereas only the 'curimbatá-pioa' - Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes, 1850 occurred in the reservoir. The low observed correlations between fish abundance and the limnological variables utilized suggest that the local fish fauna is not strongly affected by their variation.No Brasil, vários rios, como os da bacia do São Francisco (RSF, são barrados para a formação de reservatórios. Entretanto, o estudo desta ictiofauna, especialmente a dos rios de cabeceira, ainda deixa a desejar. O presente estudo descreveu a estrutura da ictiofauna do reservatório de Juramento, Rio Juramento, bacia do RSF. Foram realizadas seis coletas bimestrais em quatro locais empregando-se redes de emalhar, tarrafas, arrastões e peneiras. Foram determinados

  7. Maximum discharge and probable rainfall at Aiuruoca basin, Minas Gerais State

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Campos Pinto; Pedro Luiz Terra Lima; Zélio Resende de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Research on rainfall and annual daily maximum discharge rates is essential to support decisions during the design of hydraulic structures. This study tested the adequacy of probability functions to predict the probable rainfall and discharge rates of the Aiuruoca River Basin in Minas Gerais State in Brazil. This basin is very important as starting point of the Rio Grande Basin that eventually discharges into the Parana River in the southern region of Brazil at the border with Argentina. It wa...

  8. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  9. Seleção dos indicadores da qualidade das águas superficiais pelo emprego da análise multivariada Surface water quality indicators in low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil, using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores antrópicos e naturais que determinam a qualidade das águas superficiais na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foram identificados pelo emprego da técnica de Análise Fatorial/Análise da Componente Principal (AF/ACP. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas no período de fev./2003 a mar./2004, em sete pontos de amostragem localizados ao longo do Rio Acaraú. Foram analisados 25 parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos. Pelo emprego da AF/ACP, identificou-se que o modelo de melhor ajuste para expressar a qualidade das águas na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foi aquele composto por quatro fatores, explicando 82,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator representa a componente de sólidos em suspensão, expressando o processo de erosão e escoamento superficial. O segundo fator é definido por uma componente de nutrientes associados aos esgotos sanitários, às áreas agrícolas e a outras fontes de poluição difusa; o terceiro fator é indicativo da ação antrópica (componente orgânica, enquanto o quarto representa os sais solúveis que expressam o processo natural do intemperismo das rochas. Outro ponto observado é que a análise fatorial não resultou em grande redução no número de variáveis, uma vez que o melhor ajuste do modelo ocorreu com a inclusão de 18 das 25 variáveis analisadas.Multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis/principal component analysis (FA/PCA, was applied to identify the human activity effects and natural processes on surface water quality in Low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected in four different campaigns from Feb/2003 to Mar/2004, at seven sampling stations sited in low Acaraú watershed. Twenty-five physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined in this study. The FA/PCA allowed the identification of the total variance. The best model was adjusted with four components, explaining 82.1% of the data variance. The first factor was mainly associated with suspended

  10. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil; Comportamento geoquimico de radionuclideos e metais pesados em solos da bacia do Rio Corumbatai (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  11. The evolution of the exploratory effort in Brazil in relation to its distribution in sedimentary basins and changes in the institutional structure: 1922 to 2008; A evolucao do esforco exploratorio no Brasil em relacao a sua distribuicao nas bacias sedimentares e as mudancas na estrutura institucional: 1922 a 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accioly, Felipe; Draghi, Julia [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study is based on the available data on the georeferred database of the Brazilian oil and gas government regulatory agency (ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo Gas e Biocombustiveis) regarding the position, year of drilling and results of the oil and gas wells drilled in Brazil. The position of the wells were plotted on their sedimentary basins and grouped into five periods (1922-1953, 1954-1961, 1962 - 1970, 1971-1997, after 1997). For each period some of the most significant changes in the technical or institutional background were compiled and reported. Those maps allowed an interesting discussion on the criteria and methodology used to establish the prospect locations at each period and presented a possible explanation for the very low productivity of drilling in Brazil up to the 80's as much as the changes in the conceptual basis that lead to the successful performance of the 90's and the first decade of the 21st century (author)

  12. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  13. Segundo registro de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae com descrição do habitat e de assembléia, Bacia do Rio Paraná, Brasil Second register of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae with description of the habitat and of assembly, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta recente, no fundo rochoso do Rio Piquiri, Bacia do Paraná, Brasil, de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, uma espécie de esponja continental ameaçada, possibilitou o registro fotográfico de espécimes vivos, o aperfeiçoamento das ilustrações ao MEV e da descrição de algumas características, a descrição do habitat e o registro de uma assembléia de esponjas composta por S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, 1881 e Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli tem seu primeiro registro para águas brasileiras e para a Bacia do Paraná. Gêmulas de O. navicella são tambem ilustradas ao MEV.The recent discovery of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, a brazilian endangered freshwater sponge, at the rocky bottom of River Piquiri, Paraná Basin, Brazil, enhanced the photographing of living specimens, the improving of SEM illustration and description for some characteristics, the description of the habitat and the register of an sponge assembly composed by S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, l881 and Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli has its first register for Brazilian waters and for the Parana Basin. Gemmules of O. navicella are also SEM illustrated.

  14. Avaliação da contaminação do Igarapé do Sabino (Bacia do Rio Tibiri por metais pesados, originados dos resíduos e efluentes do Aterro da Ribeira, em São Luís, Maranhão Evaluation of contamination on Sabino streamlet (Basin Rio Tibiri by heavy metals originated from waste and effluents of the Ribeira landfill, in São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Lopes Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to carry out an environmental monitoring in sabino narrow river (affluent of Tibiri Basin, in São Luís - MA, Brazil, in order to verify the main environmental impacts caused by effluent residues from Ribeira landfill. Chemical analysis and bibliographic and cartographic researches on this ecosystem were also carried out. In addition, heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb and Zn, were investigated in water samples by ICP-MS technique. It was observed that the contents of such heavy metals were above the tolerance limits established by the Brazilian legislation, showing a strong impact level on the evaluated ecosystem.

  15. Barracuda, Caratinga oil field and surroundings: new exploratory and production field at Campos basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; Campos de Barracuda, Caratinga e adjacencias: novo polo exploratorio e de producao na Bacia de Campos, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Celso Carlos; Guardado, Lincoln Rumenos; Moreira, Jobel L.Pinheiro; Esteves, Fernando R.; Andrade, Vander F.; Freitas, Luiz Carlos S.; Soares, Carlos M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Exploracao

    1994-12-31

    Deep water Albacora and Marlim giant oil field were discovered by PETROBRAS in Campos basin during the 80`s. Deep water exploration was then increased, resulting in new 3 D seismic surveys aiming exploratory targets in the southern and southwestern part of the central producing trend of the basin. Since 1990, exploratory investment was concentrated in these areas and 18 exploratory wells have been drilled, resulting in 10 discoveries, grouped into five new oil fields: Salema (1990), Bijupira (1990), Barracuda (1990), RJS-424 Area (1993) and Caratinga (1994). (author) 5 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Brazil; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure investment in Brazil. Brazil has inferior overall infrastructure quality relative to almost all its export competitors. Brazil’s infrastructure endowment ranks low by international standards, and its low quality affects productivity, market efficiency, and competitiveness. Areas in which Brazil’s competitiveness has lagged include, but are not limited to, education, innovation, governance, and justice. Brazil’s infrastructure gap has be...

  17. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  18. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  19. The Permian basin geology in the north of Uruguay.Sedimentology exam about the uranium signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin is located in the Precambrian insular shelf limited to the North. East and South. The North (Brazil) and south (Uruguay) edge are constituted by the insular shelf ancient nucleus which dates from 2000 million years.

  20. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  1. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil; Analises in situ de U e Pb em zircao por SRIMP II por controle remoto e de Hf por LA-ICP-MS: um exemplo de datacao e da evolucao genetica de zircao atraves da razao {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177} em amostra da Pedreira Ita no Complexo Atuba, SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; McReath, Ian; Sproesser, Walter; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], e-mail: keisato@usp.br, e-mail: osigajr@usp.br, e-mail: ianmcr@usp.br, e-mail: wmspres@usp.br, e-mail: baseimas@usp.br; Silva, Josiane Aline da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica; Dunyi, Liu [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China); Iizuka, Takafumi; Rino, Shuji; Hirata, Takafumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} > 0) and crustal contributions (({epsilon}{sub Hf} < 0) during the growth of the zircon crystals. While the archaean component in the complex was derived from the mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution ({epsilon}{sub Hf} - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  2. Population dynamics and net primary production of the aquatic macrophite Nymphaea rudgeana C. F. Mey in a lotic environment of the Itanhaém River basin (SP, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    A.F.M. Camargo; FLORENTINO E. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we evaluated the population dynamics and obtained estimates of the net primary production of the aquatic macrophyte Nymphaea rudgeana in an arm of the Itanhaém River (São Paulo State, Brazil). This species presents, in the studied area, a broad seasonal variation of biomass. As from November (13.1 g DW/m²) we observed a gradual increase of biomass that reached a maximum in February (163.1 g DW/m²). Then, the biomass decreased, maintaining low levels until a new growth period. Th...

  3. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  4. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) (Pisces, Teleostei) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dergam Jorge A.; Paiva Samuel R.; Schaeffer Carlos E.; Godinho Alexandre L.; Vieira Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira) is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63) and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial D...

  5. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  6. Statistical analysis of the potassium concentration obtained through; Analise estatistica da concentracao de potassio obtida por aerolevantamentos geofisicos em diferentes formacoes geologicas na regiao de Santa Maria, RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Joao Eduardo da Silva [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica]. E-mail: jesp61@gmail.com; Silva, Jose Luiz Silverio da; Pires, Carlos Alberto da Fonseca [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogeologia; Strieder, Adelir Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem Geologica e Ambiental

    2007-07-01

    The present work was developed in outcrops of Santa Maria region, southern Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul State. Statistic evaluations were applied in different rock types. The possibility to distinguish different geologic units, sedimentary and volcanic (acid and basic types) by means of the statistic analyses from the use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry integrating potash radiation emissions data with geological and geochemistry data is discussed. This Project was carried out at 1973 by Geological Survey of Brazil/Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais. The Camaqua Project evaluated the behavior of potash concentrations generating XYZ Geosof 1997 format, one grid, thematic map and digital thematic map files from this total area. Using these data base, the integration of statistics analyses in sedimentary formations which belong to the Depressao Central do Rio Grande do Sul and/or to volcanic rocks from Planalto da Serra Geral at the border of Parana Basin was tested. Univariate statistics model was used: the media, the standard media error, and the trust limits were estimated. The Tukey's Test was used in order to compare mean values. The results allowed to create criteria to distinguish geological formations based on their potash content. The back-calibration technique was employed to transform K radiation to percentage. Inside this context it was possible to define characteristic values from radioactive potash emissions and their trust ranges in relation to geologic formations. The potash variable when evaluated in relation to geographic Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates system showed a spatial relation following one polynomial model of second order, with one determination coefficient. The statistica 7.1 software Generalist Linear Models produced by Statistics Department of Federal University of Santa Maria/Brazil was used. (author)

  7. Vinna Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, J.; Franců, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Tomanová-Petrová, P.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 223-241 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION IN THE FEE-FISHING LOCATED IN CORUMBATAI RIVER BASIN, SP (BRAZIL) = AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA DOS PESQUE-PAGUE LOCALIZADOS NA BACIA DO RIO CORUMBATAÍ, SP (BRASIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Nadai Malagutti; Alexandre Augusto Oliveira Santos; Ítalo Macedo Silva; Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo

    2012-01-01

    The fee-fishing are comprised of ponds, where fish are raised used in sport fishing. In ponds, the stocking of fish may deteriorate the water quality with the enrichment of nutrients from feed, fertilizer and fish faeces and animals around. This study determined some of the biotic factors of effluent and surface water bodies directly related units fee-fishing. Initially it carried out a number of fee-fishing active in Corumbataí river basin. Subsequently, six fee-fishing were selected for mon...

  9. Population dynamics and net primary production of the aquatic macrophite Nymphaea rudgeana C. F. Mey in a lotic environment of the Itanhaém River basin (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMARGO A. F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluated the population dynamics and obtained estimates of the net primary production of the aquatic macrophyte Nymphaea rudgeana in an arm of the Itanhaém River (São Paulo State, Brazil. This species presents, in the studied area, a broad seasonal variation of biomass. As from November (13.1 g DW/m² we observed a gradual increase of biomass that reached a maximum in February (163.1 g DW/m². Then, the biomass decreased, maintaining low levels until a new growth period. The reduction of biomass is associated to the development of floating aquatic macrophytes (Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta and, subsequently to environmental factors (higher salinity values that are unfavorable to their development. The net primary production of N. rudgeana was estimated from the biomass data, and the annual productivity value was estimated between 3.02 and 3.82 t/ha/year.

  10. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil occupies an area of about 8.5 million square kilometers -- almost half of the South American continent. The dominant geographic feature is the Amazon basin. The Amazon River and its more than 200 tributaries drain about 60 percent of the country. The basin is a vast tropical rain forest, whereas the remainder of Brazil is made up predominantly of highlands. The Central Highlands, which extends into the Amazon basin, occupies nearly all of southern Brazil and includes major mountain chains such as the Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra do Espinhago. The Guiana Highlands fringe the northern Amazon basin and extend into Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana. Lowland areas other than the Amazon basin are found in western Mato Grosso, and along the Atlantic coast from French Guiana to Uruguay. The geology of Brazil is dominated structurally and areally by three major shields composed of crystalline rocks of Archean and Proterozoic age. Collectively they comprise the Brazilian complex which is probably the largest Precambrian outcrop in the world. The complex is made up of gneisses, granites, mica schists, quartzites, dolomites, skarns, diorites, itabirites and gabbros, many of which are deeply metamorphosed. Faults, quartz veins, and dikes are common. Recurrent granitization has occurred from the Precambrian to Late Tertiary. The area of Brazil is large and its geology is favorable, in places, for every known type of uranium deposit. This is not reflected in the amount of 'known' and 'inferred' reserves -- slightly more than 21,000 tons. Rather, it is an indication of the small amount of exploration done, taking into account the large area to be covered. The speculative potential can only be guessed. It is guessed to be 500,000 tons

  11. Electric power transport costs - methodologies analysis; Custos de transporte de energia eletrica: analise de metodologias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahata, Dario

    1997-07-01

    The dissertation presents the aspects related to the restructuring of power systems in terms of international experiences, and the possible implications for the definition of the new power system in Brazil. The experience shows that the reform in various countries has started from the sector deverticalization, together with the transmissions open access scheme. The retrospect of researched countries indicates that the transmissions remuneration is based on a methodology that recovers the operative cost of transmission transactions, along with an additional amount that take into account the cost of the existing transmission system. The following countries have been analyzed: Chile, Norway, England and Argentina. This work also shows the current situation in Brazil, as in terms of tariffs, as regarding the power system organizational structure, as well as a preliminary proposal conceived by SINTREL (National System of Electrical Energy Transmission) to evaluate the transmission transaction cost. This dissertation ended with comments and conclusions, depicting a future program which might be followed, considering the aspects quoted above and the peculiarities of brazilian power system. (author)

  12. Identification of lithotypes in well logs of Namorado field (Campos Basin, Brazil) and Maracaibo lake (Venezuela) applying multi varied statistics; Identificacao de litotipos nos perfis de poco do campo de Namorado (Bacia de Campos, Brasil) e do lago Maracaibo (Venezuela) aplicando estatistica multivariada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flexa, Roosevelt Tavares; Carrasquilla, Abel [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo]. E-mail: rtflexa@lenep.uenf.br, abel@lenep.uenf.br; Andrade, Andre [Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: aandrade@ufpa.br

    2004-12-15

    The identification of lithotypes along a borehole is one of the most important contributions of borehole geophysics to geological studies inside the petroleum industry. However, it is a difficult task, because the measurements performed in the well express the changes of the physical properties and, not necessarily, the lithological variations. This work shows a methodology based on discriminant analysis technique for the identification of lithotypes in well logs, by means of the association between the physical property variations and the lithological types in depth. The geophysical logs applied for the evaluation of this methodology were gamma ray, sonic, neutronic porosity, density and resistivity. In this form, we tested this scheme in two wells of Namorado Field (Campos Basin, Brazil) and another two of Maracaibo Lake (Venezuela). The obtained results are interesting in the sense of the automatic identification of lithotypes using well logs. Thus, the obtained results allow to observe an excellent agreement between the well log interpretations or the geological column descriptions of the well and the lithological types identified by the method. (author)

  13. A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Lourenço Dumas; Jorge Luiz Nessimian

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Cernotina Ross, 1938, with 64 extant species, is a New World genus of caddisflies. In Brazil, there are 31 described species of which 28 are recorded from the Amazon basin. Cernotina puri sp. nov. is described and figured based on specimens collected in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the shape of the interm...

  14. Distribution of hepatitis B infection in Brazil: the epidemiological situation at the beginning of the 21 st century

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Dutra Souto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brazil was formerly considered a country with intermediate hepatitis B endemicity, with large heterogeneity between Brazilian regions and areas of high prevalence, especially in the Amazon basin. Systematic vaccination of children was initiated in 1998. Between 2004 and 2009, a large population-based study reported decreased prevalence in all regions of Brazil. This review analyzed the current hepatitis B epidemiological situation in Brazil through a systematic search of the scientif...

  15. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months

  16. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months.

  17. Measurement analysis using the Fricke dosemeter; Analise de medicoes com o dosimetro Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, G.A.C. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: gcpedrosa@inmetro.gov.br; Dantas, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: ccd@ufpe.br; Campos, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: auster@elogica.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Fricke dosemeter has been used for absolute determination of the radiation dose between 40 and 350 Gy for X-rays, Gamma rays and fast electrons energies. The great inconvenient of that dosimetric system is the impossibility of using for measurements of exposure or low dose rates. A Fricke dosimetry system was implanted at the Nuclear Sciences Regional Center (CRCN), in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, for the determination of radiation doses for spectrometry and mass dosimetry with plasma source. The statistical analysis of the obtained results have shown that using the spectrometric method that system cna be used for maintenance of factors of CRCN standard calibrations and the dose assessment thru mail system of radiotherapy centers of the country.

  18. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  19. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, I.; L. Brandimarte; M. S. U. Perera; M. Peviani

    2012-01-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a h...

  20. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  1. The sequence stratigraphy of the Campo Mourao (upper part) and Taciba Formations, Itarare Group, Eastern part of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Campo Mourao (parte superior) e Taciba, Grupo Itarare, Leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Joel Carneiro de [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. E-mail: jocastro@caviar.igce.unesp.br

    1999-06-01

    The chronostratigraphic framework of the Campo Mourao (upper part) and Taciba formations, Itarare Group was investigated through a subsurface study in the eastern flank of the Parana Basin. A total of five depositional sequences were recognized, each represented by an upward increase in the argillaceous content (sandstone to diamictite to shale). The upper part of basal sequence 1 is formed by a thick diamictite by the Lontras Shale; these glaciomarine and marine systems may constitute the transgressive tract of the sequence and represent the top of Campo Mourao Formation/cycle. The Lontras Shale (or Member) is not restricted to the Santa Catarina State; instead it is recognized throughout the eastern flank of the basin. The sequence 2 is represented in the basal portion by the sandstones of Rio Segredo (base of Taciba Formation/cycle). The next sequences are similar to the previous one, including some particular patterns: as the basal sandstones form clastic wedges, the sequence may be represented exclusively by diamictities. The clastic wedges of sequences 2 and 4 were applied from east and northeast; the western margin also contributed as source of coarse clastics. Sequences 4 and 5 were studied in detail, since they were reached by several shallow wells near the outcrop belt. the sequence 4 clearly displays facies change from marine in the south (Passinho Shale) to delta front in center-south, and to coal-bearing delta plain in the north. The occurrence of sequence 5 is restricted to southern Parana and northern Santa Catarina; it presents deltaic sandstone deposits intercalated with marine shales/sandstones and glaciomarine diamictites. Despite some transitional characteristics shown by the upper part of Itarare Group (sequences 4 and 5), it is noteworthy the unconformable of the Group with the overlying, post-glacial Triunfo Member of Rio Bonito Formation. (author)

  2. Water isotopic characterization of hypersaline formation of a petroleum field Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Caracterizacao isotopica de aguas de formacao hipersalinas de um campo de petroleo da Bacia do Reconcavo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Danilo Ribeiro de Sa; Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes de, E-mail: danilosateles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: expedito@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia; Santos, Christian Pereira Lopes dos, E-mail: cplsgs@gmail.com [Instituto Federal Baiano, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Formation water is the water present in reservoir rock pores, produced together with petroleum. Usually it is hyper saline with concentrations that can be higher than 250 g/l of dissolved solids. The concentration of the dissolved elements and the isotopic composition of the water and of some of the dissolved elements can be excellent tracers to study the dynamic of underground fluid flux, the mixing of distinct sources and the origin of salinization of these waters. This work reports the isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O) and electrical conductivity (EC) of formation waters from 10 wells of a petroleum field of the Reconcavo Basin, looking for their evolution, interaction with the minerals and rocks and reservoir interconnection. The samples have electric conductivity ranging from 84 to 137 mS/cm, with conductivity increasing with depth of production zone. It is observed an enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 with the depth of production zone, probably due to water-rock interactions that were probably increased by higher temperatures of the deeper levels and longer residence times. The samples from the production zone between 1450 to 1520 m, drained by 7 of the 10 wells sampled, show a small range in isotopic composition and in electric conductivity, indicating homogeneity in this level of the reservoir. In the shallow level of 450 m the values of {delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O and EC are lower, with isotopic composition similar to the oceanic water, possibly representing the original water that entered the reservoir during the sedimentation of the basin. (author)

  3. Genetic variability in Oligosarcus paranensis (Teleostei: Characiformes from the São Francisco river, Ivaí river basin – Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.14179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rocha dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Oligosarcus paranensis was estimated from a population collected in São Francisco river, Prudentópolis county in Paraná State (Brazil using the electrophoresis in starch gel technique. Eleven enzymatic systems were analyzed: Aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT; E. C. 2.6.1, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E. C. 1.1.1.1, Esterase (EST; E. C. 3.1.1.1, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; E. C. 5.3.1.9, Glycerol-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; E. C. 1.1.1, Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; E. C. 1.1.1.42, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E. C. 1.1.1.27, Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; E. C. 1.1.1.37 , Malate dehydrogenase NADP (ME; E. C. 1.1.1.40, Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E. C. 5.4.2.2 and Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORB; E.C. 1.1.1.14. Twenty loci were identified through 15% corn starch gel electrophoresis of which nine (45% were polymorphic. The average expected heterozygosity was estimated as 0.1229 ± 0.1728, and the observed was 0.0586 ± 0.1069, indicating high genetic variability. The average value of FIS = 0.5145 indicates homozygote excess.  

  4. Avaliação multicriterial no mapeamento de risco de incêndios florestais, em ambiente sig, na bacia do Rio Corumbataí, SP Multi-criteria evaluation of a GIS environment in a forest fire hazard mapping for the Corumbataí River basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Luis Ferraz da Silveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos agentes mais empregados na supressão de áreas florestais no Estado de São Paulo é o fogo, por meio de queimadas que, quando fora de controle, podem converter-se em incêndios responsáveis pela destruição de extensos ecossistemas. Na Bacia do Rio Corumbataí, SP, os incêndios são um dos causadores de fragmentação e degradação da cobertura florestal. Nesse contexto, este trabalho objetivou a realização do mapeamento de risco de incêndios florestais na Bacia do Rio Corumbataí, utilizando-se a avaliação multicriterial (Método da Média Ponderada Ordenada em um Sistema de Informações Geográficas. Os fatores importantes do estudo foram: declividade do terreno, face de exposição ao sol, pluviosidade, proximidade da malha viária, proximidade dos centros urbanos, proximidade da rede hidrográfica, vizinhança dos fragmentos e face de exposição aos ventos. A combinação dos mapas de fatores resultou no mapa de risco regional da bacia. Para a confecção do mapa de risco em nível de fragmento, determinou-se o risco associado a cada fragmento, a partir da análise de uma faixa de 30 m em seu entorno. O risco foi reclassificado em três classes: baixo, médio e alto. Com base no mapa final, verificou-se que: aproximadamente 20% dos fragmentos de mata nativa pertencem à classe de risco alto, 55% à classe de risco médio e 25% à classe de risco baixo. Nas condições atuais de uso e cobertura do solo, bem como de manejo das áreas agrícolas e pastagens, os remanescentes florestais da Bacia do Rio Corumbataí estão sob séria ameaça de degradação por incêndios florestais.Fire is one of the agents most used in the suppression of forest areas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and, when out of control, it can be responsible for the destruction of extensive ecosystems. In the case of the Corumbataí river basin, SP, fire is one of the main causes of forest fragmentation and degradation. The purpose of this study was

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC)3) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing 197Hg and 203Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of 75Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of 203Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury levels obtained in this work

  6. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  7. Sequence stratigraphy of Taciba and Rio Bonito formations in Mafra, SC area, eastern Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Taciba e Rio Bonito (Membro Triunfo) na regiao de Mafra/SC, leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The Taciba and Rio Bonito ('lower' Triunfo Mbr) formations are divided into six depositional sequences based on cores, gamma-ray and electrical logs from shallow drillings from northern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Each sequence is formed by two systems tracts, a lower one, sandy (low stand) and an upper one, shaly (high stand). The Taciba Formation has three sequences, S{sub 0} to S{sub 2}; sequence S{sub 0} has a thick turbidite sandstone at the base (Rio Segredo Member) that pinches out towards the eastern margin and even disappears in the Mafra outcrop area. Sequence S{sub 1} varies from a thin fluvial-estuarine system to a thick turbidite sandstone of a channelled fan system; S{sub 1} upper shaly system tract is marine in well PP-11, and it is glacially influenced in well PP-10. Sequence S{sub 2} is a thick sandstone body of shallow marine origin, but restricted to one well (PP-11); its upper shaly tract is dominated by massive siltstones intercalated with thin, distal tempestites. The 'lower' Triunfo Member (or 'Taciba- Triunfo transition') begins with the arrival of deltaic clastics of sequence S{sub 3} lower tract, coarsening-up from medial- to proximal delta front sandstones. Sequence S{sub 4} is quite similar to S{sub 3}, both showing sandstone pro gradation from north to south, as opposed to the southwest-sourced transgressive diamictites. Sequence S{sub 5} consists of fluvial deposits at well PP-12, and two transgressive cycles from wells PP-11 to PP-9, each one of them composed of fluvial-estuarine to marine systems. Well PP-10 is an exception, where the lower cycle presents de glaciation to marine deposits. (author)

  8. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  9. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author)

  10. Distribuição geográfica de pequenos mamíferos não voadores nas bacias dos rios Araguaia e Paraná, região centro-sul do Brasil Geographic distribution of small non-volant mammals in the Araguaia and Paraná basins, south-central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2008-06-01

    biogeográficos. A Serra dos Caiapós pode ter sido uma barreira geográfica para algumas espécies de pequenos mamíferos em face da retração e expansão das florestas ocorridas no passado.We collected small mammals in two hydrographic basins in central Brazil, namely the Paraná and Araguaia basins, with the aim of examining the composition of forest dwelling small mammal species and to compare their geographic distributions. Fourteen sites were sampled, eight in the Paraná basin and six in the Araguaia basin. A total of 20 species of small mammals was registered (8 marsupials and 12 rodents, 16 of them in live traps (5,253 trap-nights and eight in pitfalls (224 trap-nights, adding to a total of 161 captures of 139 individuals. The Paraná basin showed 16 species (trap-nights: 3,115 and 104 respectively and the Araguaia basin 11 species (trap-nights: 2,138 and 120 respectively, being both richness similar when the rarefaction method was applied. Seven (35% out of the 20 species recorded occurred in both basins. The marsupial Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 was the most abundant species. The marsupials species recorded were D. albiventris, Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758, Cryptonanus cf. agricolai Voss, Lunde & Jansa, 2005, Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, G. microtarsus (Wagner, 1842, Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest, 1804, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus, 1758, and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758. The rodent species recorded were Akodon gr. cursor, Calomys tener (Winge, 1887, Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883, N. squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oryzomys maracajuensis Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002, Oryzomys cf. marinhus, O. megacephalus (Fischer, 1814, Oligoryzomys fornesi (Massoia, 1973, Oligoryzomys sp., Proechimys longicaudatus (Rengger, 1830 and P. roberti (Thomas, 1901. The range extension of some species is discussed, in addition to biogeographic considerations. The Caiapós Mountains may have been a geographic barrier for some small

  11. A new species of the genus Pimelodus La Cépède, 1803 from the rio Iguaçu basin and a reappraisal of Pimelodus ortmanni Haseman, 1911 from the rio Paraná system, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Garavello

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Pimelodus britskii, is described from the rio Iguaçu in the rio Paraná drainage, on the border of Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil. Specimens of this species were wrongly included in the type series of Pimelodus ortmanni. Pimelodus britskii is distinguished from its congeners by color pattern, having circular dark brown blotches usually smaller than one orbital diameter, regularly and scattered along the trunk. Differs from P. ortmanni by the following characters: body depth at posterior cleithral process greater than head length; lips not prominent; and maxillary barbel reaching or surpassing vertical drawn through median of adipose fin. Pimelodus britskii represents the second species of the genus Pimelodus from the rio Iguaçu basin.Pimelodus britskii nova espécie é descrita do rio Iguaçu na drenagem do rio Paraná na divisa dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, Brasil. Exemplares dessa espécie foram erroneamente incluídos na série típica de Pimelodus ortmanni. Pimelodus britskii difere de suas congêneres pelo padrão de colorido, com máculas arredondadas, geralmente menores que o diâmetro do olho, dispersas regularmente no tronco. Difere de P. ortmanni pelos seguintes caracteres: altura do corpo no nível do processo cleitral posterior maior que o comprimento da cabeça; lábios não proeminentes; e barbilhão maxilar atingindo ou ultrapassando a linha vertical que passa pela região mediana da nadadeira adiposa. Pimelodus britskii representa uma segunda espécie do gênero Pimelodus na bacia do rio Iguaçu.

  12. Sedimentary evolution of Rio do Rastro formation (permian-triassic of the Parana Basin) at central south portion of Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Evolucao sedimentar da Formacao Rio do Rastro (Permo-Triassico da Bacia do Parana) na porcao centro sul do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Roldan, Luis Fernando; Steiner, Samar dos Santos; Chamani, Marlei Antonio Carrari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica]. E-mail: lvwarren@yahoo.com; Almeida, Renato Paes de; Hachiro, Jorge; Machado, Romulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2008-06-15

    Between the Late Carboniferous and the Early Triassic, the south portion of the Gondwana Supercontinent witnessed the development of intracratonic basins related with the coeval Sanrafaelic Orogeny. The continuous subsidence and consequent generation accommodation space resulted in the formation of a large confined water body and the accumulation of a transgressive regressive sequence between the Late Permian and the Early Triassic. The progradational nature of the upper portion of this sequence, represented by de Rio do Rasto e Piramboia formations, culminated with the complete filling of the water body. In the south-eastern portion of Santa Catarina State (Southern Brazil), the Rio do Rasto Formation overlies the Teresina formation and is overlain by the Piramboia formation, both contacts being characterized by lithological transition. The lower portion of the Rio do Rasto Formation is characterized by architectural elements deposited in offshore environments subject to storm action. A marked change of the color of the pelitic facies, from gray to red and purple occurs at the top of the unit. At this stratigraphic level, there is also a predominance of deltaic and eolian architectural elements. The intercalation of near shore and offshore architectural elements can be explained by the strong auto cyclic character expected in deltaic depositional systems and by the variation of relative rates of base-level rise. The occurrence of eolian architectural elements interbedded with subaquatically deposited sediments on the second third of the unit can be considered an evidence of continentalization to the top, materialized as the transition to the Piramboia desert system. (author)

  13. Cladocerans from gut contents of fishes associated to macrophytes from Taquari River Basin, MS, Brazil Cladóceros do conteúdo estomacal de peixes associados a macrófitas da Bacia do Rio Taquari, MS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the cladocerans species from the gut contents of fishes sampled in an oxbow lake from Taquari River Basin, MS, with the specific view of investigating the importance of these crustaceans in the fishes diets; METHODS: Sampling was carried out in April and August of 2005 (dry season and January of 2006 (wet season. The fish were captured with a sieve. In the laboratory, individuals were identified and stomachs were removed and weighed. The stomach contents were identified, and a Feeding Index calculated; RESULTS: The items most consumed by fishes were filamentous algae, Cladocera and detritus. The Cladocera were especially important in the August and January samples, and consisted primarily of Chydoridae; cladocerans were most consumed by species of Serrapinnus and by Mesonauta festivus. Fish fed more in April, with decreases occurring in stomach fullness on the other two sampling dates. CONCLUSIONS: Cladocerans associated with macrophytes may be an important food source for small fish individuals in marginal lakes from Taquari River Basin. The relative importance of the Chydoridae in the guts may have been due to the high relative abundance and species richness of this group in the environment. A short discussion on fish feeding habits was included in the text.OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as espécies de cladóceros presentes no conteúdo estomacal de peixes amostrados em uma lagoa marginal da Bacia do Rio Taquari, MS, visando avaliar a importância destes crustáceos na dieta dos peixes; MÉTODOS: A amostragem foi realizada em abril e agosto de 2005 (estação seca e janeiro de 2006 (estação chuvosa. Os peixes foram capturados com um peneirão. Em laboratório, os indivíduos foram identificados até o nível de espécie e os estômagos removidos e pesados. O conteúdo estomacal foi identificado e um Índice Alimentar calculado. RESULTADOS: Os itens mais consumidos pelos peixes

  14. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and

  15. Avaliação preliminar das cargas difusas de origem rural, em uma sub-bacia do Rio Jaguari, SP Preliminary assessment of diffused loads from rural areas in a sub-basin of the Jaguari River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. C. Mansor

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dados oficiais de concentração de nutrientes e vazão do Rio Jaguari, foram utilizados na avaliação das contribuições difusas, com origem rural, às águas superficiais de uma sub-bacia do Rio Jaguari, SP. Modelos de cargas médias diárias de Ntotal e Ptotal foram gerados a partir de regressão estatística aplicada a dados de campo obtidos entre 1999 e 2002. A validação dos modelos foi feita utilizando-se dados de campo obtidos entre 1996 e 1998. O modelo mostrou que, em média, 68,2% das cargas anuais de Ntotal e 77,3% das cargas anuais de Ptotal foram transportados pela sub-bacia no período chuvoso. Partindo-se de cargas de base diárias de 1706,5 kg Ntotal e de 165,7 kg Ptotal, determinou-se que 55,1 e 69,4% das cargas anuais totais de Ntotal e Ptotal, respectivamente, transportadas pela sub-bacia, provieram de fontes difusas. As taxas de exportação de nutrientes por carga difusa, obtidas pela aplicação do modelo, foram iguais a 230 kg Ntotal km-2 ano-1 e 40 kg Ptotal km-2 ano-1. Concluiu-se que o controle das fontes difusas de Ptotal, a partir de áreas rurais, deverá diminuir as concentrações deste nutriente no Rio Jaguari.Official water quality and flow data from Jaguari River were used to assess the diffused loads of nutrients from rural areas into surface waters. Mathematical models of mean daily loads of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP were generated through the application of simple statistical procedures to field data collected from 1999 to 2002. The models obtained were validated with field data collected from 1996 to 1998. The application of the model showed that, on average, 68.2% of the TN annual loads and 77.3% of the TP annual loads were transported through the sub-basin during the raining season. Assuming the mean baseflow loads as 1706.5 kg TN d-1 and 165.7 kg TP d-1, the annual diffused loads obtained - primarily from rural sources - were equivalent to 55.1 and 69.4% of the total annual loads of

  16. Stratigraphy, Depositional Architecture and Facies Analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Neojurassic-Eocretaceous in the Type-area, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil: an Example of Sedimentation of Rift Initiation to Rift Climax Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Luís Fambrini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a stratigraphic revision of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazilbased on detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and palaeofl ow data. The main facies are: 1. coarsegrained conglomeratic sandstones and locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks, several large-to mediumscale trough cross-stratifi cations and predominantly lenticular geometry; 2. medium-to coarse-grained lenticular sandstones with granules, abundant silicified fossil wood and trunks, and large-to medium-scale trough cross-stratifications, cut-and-fill features and mud drapes on the foreset cross-strata; 3. conglomerates and poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebblesand horizontal stratifi cation; 4. fi ne-to very fine-laminated silty sandstone interlayered with 5. decimetric pelitic layers with parallel stratification and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Ten architectural elements were identifi ed: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel barsand bedforms, SG: sediment gravity fl ows, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB(p: sand bedform with planar cross-stratifi cation,OFch: Overbank fl ow of channel (levee, crevasse and channel splay, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet,LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. Not all of these features were observed at each outcrop. Theseelements, which are defi ned by their geometry and bounding surfaces, form the basis for interpreting depositional environments. TheMissão Velha Formation is interpreted as: a. high energy braided fluvial systems with fining-upward cycles, channelized features,truncated cross-strata (diastema, lenticular geometry, channeled sandstones, sparse pebbles and b. meandering river systems due tothe presence of flood plain deposits, crevasse splays and point-bars deposits. Aeolian deposits can also occur.

  17. Hydrodynamic characterization of soils within a representative watershed in northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, E. G.; Almeida, C. D. N.; Farias, A. S.; Coelho, V. H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies about the infiltration of water in the soil, based on hydraulic conductivity and retention curve, are important to simulate hydrological processes and pollution fluxes. This paper aims to present the hydrodynamic soil behaviour of the Gramame watershed, located in northeast Brazil. This basin is representative of several other watersheds located on the coastal region of northeast Brazil, where sugarcane crops constitute the main land use. For this study, three different land uses and ...

  18. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  19. On the Variability of Southern Ocean Front Locations Between Southern Brazil and the Antarctic Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yoshimine; Siedler, Gerold; Zwierz, Marek

    1989-01-01

    A 4-year expendable bathythermograph data set (1984–1987) from the area between southern Brazil and the Antarctic Peninsula provides information on the interannual variability of front locations. Two boundaries of subtropical water at different depths are identified north and south of the Brazil Current-Falkland (Malvinas) Current confluence zone. The northern Subtropical Front is displaced over a large part of the Argentine Basin from one observational period to the other. The shallow southe...

  20. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION IN THE FEE-FISHING LOCATED IN CORUMBATAI RIVER BASIN, SP (BRAZIL = AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA DOS PESQUE-PAGUE LOCALIZADOS NA BACIA DO RIO CORUMBATAÍ, SP (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Nadai Malagutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fee-fishing are comprised of ponds, where fish are raised used in sport fishing. In ponds, the stocking of fish may deteriorate the water quality with the enrichment of nutrients from feed, fertilizer and fish faeces and animals around. This study determined some of the biotic factors of effluent and surface water bodies directly related units fee-fishing. Initially it carried out a number of fee-fishing active in Corumbataí river basin. Subsequently, six fee-fishing were selected for monitoring bi-monthly, this carried out in nine samples. It collected samples of pond water to analyze the parameters: DBO, total pigments, total coliforms, E.coli, and toxicity tests. It was applied a principal component analysis to the values of the biotic fee-fishing studied. Most of the factors determined here were above the limit established by that law, demonstrating the need for greater control of ponds and the establishment of an Environmental Liability for this kind of activity. = Os pesque-pague são unidades compostas por viveiros, onde são criados peixes utilizados em pesca esportiva. Nos viveiros, a estocagem dos peixes pode deteriorar a qualidade da água com o enriquecimento de nutrientes, provenientes da ração, fertilização e das fezes dos peixes e animais do entorno. Este trabalho determinou algumas das variáveis bióticas dos efluentes e dos corpos de água superficiais relacionados diretamente com as unidades de pesque-pague. Inicialmente foi realizado um diagnóstico do número de pesque-pague em atividade na bacia do rio Corumbataí. Posteriormente, foram escolhidos 6 estabelecimentos para monitoramento bimestral, realizado em 9 coletas. Foram coletadas amostras de água dos viveiros para analisar as variáveis DBO, pigmentos totais, coliformes totais, E. coli, e realizados testes de toxicidade. Foi aplicada análise de componentes principais aos valores das variáveis bióticas dos pesque-pague estudados. Os resultados foram

  1. Temporal analysis of the connectivity and potential transport capacity of sediments in semiarid meso-basin, CE, Brazil. = Análise temporal da conectividade e da capacidade de transporte potencial de sedimentos em meso-bacia semiárida, CE, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wellington Batista Lopes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of energy and matter between two topographic units comprise the connectivity process. The identification of the connectivity patterns in the catchments allow to represent the linking degree between sediment producing areas and network drainage. The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal connectivity and estimate the potential capacity of sediment transport on a meso-semiarid Basin. The study area comprises the Representative Madalena Basin (RMB with area 124 km², located at federal state from Ceara, Brazil. The assessing the connectivity was done by using the quantitative index. The determination of peak discharge was by the method NRCS (Natural Resouces Conservation Service and the transport capacity (CT, t ha-1 yr-1 was calculated by the method of Morgan (2001. The results showed that: the connectivity potential index was not linearity, but a possible spatial distribution pattern of alternating between producing and receiving areas. The use and occupation of land is determinant in the spatial variation of peak flows; transportation capacity concerns associated with potential connectivity provides best estimates of erosion in the basin; in both models used, the use and occupation of soil was crucial in the results. = A transferência de energia e matéria entre duas unidades topográficas compreende o processo deconectividade. A identificação dos padrões de conectividade em uma bacia hidrográfica permite representar o grau de ligação entre áreas produtoras de sedimentos e a rede de drenagem. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa analisar a conectividade espaço-temporal e estimar a capacidade potencial de transporte de sedimentos em uma meso-baciasemiárida. A área foco do estudo compreende a Bacia Representativa de Madalena (BRM com área de 124 km², localizada no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: conectividade, o pico de descarga e a capacidade de transporte de escoamento da

  2. Efeito da variabilidade da precipitação pluvial e do uso e manejo do solo sobre o escoamento superficial e o aporte de sedimento de uma bacia hidrográfica do Distrito Federal Effect of rainfall variability and land use on runoff and sediment in the Pipiripau river basin, in the Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marinho Leite Chaves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variabilidade da precipitação sobre o escoamento direto e sobre o aporte de sedimento na bacia do rio Pipiripau (A = 235 km², no Distrito Federal. Cinco anos típicos da série de precipitação foram selecionados: o ano mais úmido, o ano mais seco, o ano médio e dois anos que representaram os desvios-padrão da série (médio-seco e médio-úmido. Depois de o modelo ser calibrado com dados diários de chuva e vazão da bacia, simulações foram realizadas para cada evento chuvoso de cada um dos cinco anos selecionados da série, e o escoamento direto e o aporte de sedimento da bacia foram calculados com a MUSLE em três diferentes cenários de uso e manejo do solo: o cenário atual, onde predomina o preparo convencional do solo (PC nas áreas de agricultura da bacia; o passado recente, em que predominava o Cerrado nativo (CER; e o cenário de plantio direto (PD, nas áreas de agricultura da bacia. Apesar de as vazões médias anuais observadas terem apresentado relação linear com os volumes de precipitação pluvial anual, em todos os cenários, o escoamento direto e o aporte de sedimento apresentaram aumento exponencial com o aumento da precipitação pluvial anual, sendo esse mais pronunciado na condição de preparo convencional (PC do que nos outros cenários estudados (CER e PD. O aumento observado pode ser explicado pela não-linearidade do modelo MUSLE ao volume de precipitação e ao volume de escoamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the rainfall variability on the runoff and sediment amount in the Pipiripau river basin (A = 235 km², in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. To represent the climatic variability of the historic precipitation series, 5 years were selected: the moistest, the driest, an average, and 2 years representing the standard deviations from the series (half-wet and half-dry. After the calibration of the model with basin rainfall and

  3. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  4. Analysis of the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine in Brazil; Analise da distribuicao de Radiofarmacos para servicos de Medicina Nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, Lilian T.; Correa, Eduardo L.; Potiens, Maria P.A., E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals produced by Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), as part of a project to develop a methodology for control and calibration of activimeters used by these Nuclear Medicine Services. This survey was conducted using registry data of registered customers and, with bases in such information, we analyzed the number of clinics all over the country. Considering the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals and what the most used in 2011, there was a total of 365 clinics, and this distribution as follows: Southeast with 56%, South 18%, Northeast 15%, North 4%, and Midwest with 7%. Among the various radioisotopes provided 26 were sold and most in demand are the {sup 67}Ga, {sup 131}I and IPEN-tec (technetium generator)

  5. An energetic analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in Brazil; Uma analise energetica de um biodigestor tipo chines no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, Antonio; Moreira, Marco A.R.G.; Rebello, Renata B.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The energetic analysis has proved to be an important instrument for the evaluation of energetic alternatives concerning strategies objectives through the analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in the Brazilian use situation this work demonstrates that the technology is viable for Brazilian countryside areas 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Energy analysis of the poultry rising located at the Sertao do Pajeu, Pernambuco, Brazil; Analise energetica de aviarios localizados no Sertao do Pajeu pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Lopes, Tiago Pessoa de Melo Queiroz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias]. E-mail: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    The activity of poultry raising is today an alternative for income generation in the backlands of Pajeu, State of Pernambuco. In the City of Sao Jose do Egito, distant 402 km from the State Capital Recife, there is a large poultry plant with 284 integrated poultry farms owned by small rural producers. Those poultry farms are built in masonry and lateral woven wire fencing within the standard size of 9 m X 125 m. Their capacity is 10,000 birds and they are equipped with drinking and feed boxes, silos, fans, nebuliser, motor-pumps, lights and heaters. In their first 18 days of the bird's life, called 'baby chick phase', it needs a warm environment temperature of about 34 deg C, which is fundamental for its survival. In that phase the energy consumption is mainly related to water pumping and lighting. From the 19th day up to the 45th day - the period called 'poultry phase' - the birds need lower temperatures. The feeders are automatic, fans and nebulizers are used to ease the air circulation and to improve the poultry comfort. This phase is the one, which requires more electric energy consumption. After 45 days the poultry is slaughtered with about 2.8 kg and the poultry farm comes into a time period of cleaning and resting called 'cleaning and resting phase', which takes from 15 to 28 days. This is the phase with the lowest energy consumption. Then the poultry farm cycle is completed, which takes about 70 days, that is, the time span of one year accounts for 5.5 cycles. In this work an energy consumption analysis for all phases of poultry raising is performed and alternative proposals for the energy conservation and energy consumption reduction is presented. (author)

  7. Analysis of the economic potential of the landfill in the municipality of Chapeco - SC, Brazil; Analise do potencial economico do aterro sanitario do municipio de Chapeco - SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansian, Maricy Moreno, Email: maricymc@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the economic and environmental viability of the exploitation of methane gas (CH4) - biogas - concentrated at the bottom of the mountains of waste from landfill Chapeco for power generation. The landfill receives approximately of 80 tons / day, the vast majority of domestic origin.

  8. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil; Analise de perigos e pontos criticos de controle para alimentos irradiados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-07-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)

  9. Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae,Austrolebias periodicus (Costa, 1999): Distribution extension in state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Volcan, M. V.; Lanés, L. E. K.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The present note extends the distribution of annual killifish Austrolebias periodicus, a endangered species,endemic of the Pampas region, in Ibicuí River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This information is neededto develop conservation strategies for this species and its habitat, which are at high risk due to the expansion of riceproduction and exotic forests in southern Brazil.

  10. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  11. Traces of a large crocodylian from the Lower Cretaceous Sousa Formation, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Herbert B.N.; da Silva, Rafael C.; Milàn, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Body imprints and tracks attributed to large crocodylians from the Lower Cretaceous Sousa Formation of Brazil are described and interpreted as having been produced in a subaqueous environment. In addition to the crocodylian tracks, the assemblage also comprises isolated tracks from medium......-sized theropods. The studied crocodylian traces are interpreted as subaqueous traces possibly produced by Mesoeucrocodylia crocodyles, during half-swimming and resting next to the margin of a lake. This is the first record of crocodylian traces in Brazil and confirms the potential for finds of new ichnosites in...... the Rio do Peixe basins of northeastern Brazil....

  12. Brazil's development plan centers on deepwater oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-03

    Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA continues to advance deepwater technology as it pushes the frontier in ultradeep waters of the Campos basin off Rio de Janeiro state. Petrobras holds many world records related to deepwater drilling and production. But the Campos basin campaign goes beyond technological bragging rights. The prolific basin, which accounts for more than half the country's crude oil production, is expected to be the cornerstone of Brazil's plans to boost production to 1 million b/d at year end 1993. Even with the surge to 1 million b/d, Brazil almost certainly will continue to be a net oil importer. The missed production targets result not from lack of identified oil reserves or technological capability, both of which Petrobras has in abundance in the Campos basin. The problem is lack of capital in the financially stressed country. Petrobras began reassessing its spending plans in 1992 after projections called for a need to spend about $18 billion on exploration and production to meet the target of 1 million b/d by 1995. Those plans are being further reassessed as Brazil's government indicates it might slash Petrobras's budget by half this year amid continuing economic turmoil. The funding dilemma also strengthens the case for at least partially privatizing the giant state petroleum concern, a controversial step at best. The paper discusses Campos surge in production, the Campos potential, deepwater record, Marlim Phase 1, Albacora field production, the possibility of foreign participation, and the Barracuda field pilot.

  13. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  14. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  15. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  16. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  17. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  18. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Reigosa; Anabele Stefânia Gomes; Alfredo Gui Ferreira; Fabian Borghetti

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a so...

  19. Midas: model of interchange and sub-systems analysis; Midas: modelo de intercambio e de analise a subsistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sureck, M.A.A.; Nascimento, P.R. [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Coelho, I.R.

    1987-12-31

    Models for the simulation of hydro-thermal generation systems have been extensively used in Brazil for studies concerning the planning of the expansion of the operation of the electric power system. This work aims to present in philosophical terms the methodology adopted in the existing implantation phase. 6 refs.

  20. Comparative analysis of the strategies for the utilization of wind power; Analise comparativa das estrategias para implantacao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Geraldo Martins [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The utilization of wind power in more than 40 countries was performed following several guidelines which are analysed in this work aiming the definition of a strategy which can be applied in Brazil. A brief explanation of these strategies used abroad is provided as well as a comparative analysis of them. The outline of a Brazilian strategy is provided 37 refs., 1 tab.

  1. A brief analysis of price lining at the domestic market; Uma breve analise do alinhamento de precos no mercado domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carla de Souza e

    2007-07-01

    The PETROBRAS price policy is a recurrent theme in the economic debate since the sector opening on 2002. In the last months, the theme obtained more importance because the Manguinhos refinery (Brazil) at the domestic market. This article aims to analyses the gasoline and diesel prices behavior during the first eight months of 2005.

  2. Caracterização dos argilominerais usados em matéria-prima cerâmica, da formação Rio do Rasto, Bacia do Paraná, no município de Turvo, SC Characterization of clay minerals used in the ceramic industry, from Rio do Rasto formation, Paraná basin, exploitation in Turvo, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No sudeste de Santa Catarina existem inúmeras minas de exploração de argilas destinadas à indústria cerâmica da região. Para o conhecimento desta matéria prima foi realizada a caracterização em detalhe de uma frente de lavra em atividade. A exploração é realizada em terrenos sedimentares da Formação Rio do Rasto (Permiano Superior na Bacia do Paraná que afloram como morros testemunho. Foram coletadas quatorze amostras representativas dos níveis desta mina composta de argilitos com intercalação de siltitos de pequena espessura. As amostras foram analisadas por difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó na rocha total e na fração In the southeastern part of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, many mines of clays used as raw material for the ceramic industry are found. A detail study of this material was developed in a mine in activity. The exploitation of clays is held in sedimentary rocks of Rio do Rasto Formation (Upper Permian in the Paraná Basin. The outcrops are in hills testimonies. Fourteen samples were collected and represent the levels of this mine which consisted of argillites with intercalation of slim siltite layer. These samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction using the powder method and in the fraction < 4 µm. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Petrographic observations in thin section were also performed. Scanning electron microscope images was obtained in samples fragments by secondary electron method. Electron microprobe microanalysis was performed in one thin section. The results showed large vertical variation in the mineralogy and it has been identified three different levels. Up to 2.00 m there is a predominance of smectite. Between 5.50 m 2.00 m the smectite is the main clay mineral, but with significant amounts of illite/mica and above 5.50 m occurs large increase in K-feldspar and detrital mica. Studies in detail by X-ray diffraction (determination of the b

  3. Análise do sistema de gerenciamento dos resíduos de serviços de saúde nos municípios da bacia hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Analysis of the management system of the healthcare waste in municipalities of Rio dos Sinos hydrographic basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paulo Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa focou-se o gerenciamento dos resíduos de serviços de saúde (RSS e especificamente aqueles do tipo perfurocortantes. Foram analisadas as formas atuais de gestão implementadas na bacia hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos (BHRS, a partir da aplicação de questionários nos estabelecimentos de saúde geradores de RSS. Os resultados indicam que 48,6% dos estabelecimentos de saúde atendem corretamente à legislação específica brasileira, verificando ainda uma melhor gestão para os estabelecimentos privados. Os estabelecimentos de saúde do tipo "laboratórios, bancos de sangue e farmácias" instalados nos municípios com mais de 20.000 habitantes e área municipal na BHRS dentro da faixa de 80 a 100% em relação à área total municipal apresentaram os piores resultados em termos de gestão de RSS. O grupo de atividades de serviços de saúde com o maior número de estabelecimentos na BHRS - "consultórios/clínicas de odontologia, clínicas veterinárias, drogarias e unidade móvel" - indicou um dos menores índices de conhecimento das exigências legais específicas relativas ao tema estudado.This research focused on the management of healthcare waste, specifically about the sharps types. The current ways of management in the Rio dos Sinos basin (BHRS were analyzed with the use of questionnaires in health establishments generators of healthcare waste. The results indicate that 48.6% of health facilities comply with the specific legislation in Brazil, also indicating a better management coming from private institutions. Health facilities of the type "labs, blood banks and pharmacies" installed in municipalities with over 20,000 inhabitants and municipal area in BHRS within the range of 80 to 100% relative to the total municipal area had the worst results in terms of healthcare waste management. The group activities of healthcare services with the highest number of establishments in BHRS - "dental offices/clinics, veterinary

  4. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country's nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country's economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U3O8 (100 thousand pounds). Brazil's state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U3O8 (600 million pounds U3O8) in reserves

  5. Estudo florístico do componente herbáceo e relação com solos em áreas de caatinga do embasamento cristalino e bacia sedimentar, Petrolândia, PE, Brasil Herbaceous floristic study and relationship with soil of crystalline shield and sedimentary basin caatinga areas at Petrolândia, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Andrade da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento florístico em áreas de caatinga do embasamento cristalino e de bacia sedimentar, em Petrolândia, Pernambuco, objetivando-se identificar diferenças na composição, hábito e forma de vida das herbáceas entre as duas áreas. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm. Foram estabelecidas 100 parcelas de 1×1 m em cada área e coletadas todas as espécies herbáceas. De modo geral, o solo da área do embasamento cristalino foi mais fértil, raso, com maior capacidade de reter água e maior porcentagem de argila. Os números de famílias, gêneros e espécies das áreas da bacia sedimentar e do embasamento cristalino foram 32, 62 e 78 e 31, 53 e 69, respectivamente. A similaridade florística entre as áreas foi alta (75%. A análise de agrupamento mostrou que os arranjos florísticos entre as parcelas amostradas são mais semelhantes dentro de cada área que entre áreas, sugerindo a existência de grupos distintos. Tipo de solo parece não ser um fator decisivo na similaridade florística, hábito e proporção de forma de vida das herbáceas da vegetação da caatinga quando as áreas são próximas, mas pode influenciar a ocorrência e a freqüência de algumas espécies.Floristic surveys were carried out in two close caatinga areas, one on the crystalline shield and the other on a sedimentary basin, both at Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil, with the objective of identifying differences between the two areas in composition, habit and life form of the herbaceous flora. One hundred 1×1 m plots were established in each area and all the herbaceous species were identified. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths. In general, the soil in the crystalline shield area was shallower, had greater clay content, with higher water holding capacity, and was more fertile. The number of families, genera and species in the sedimentary basin and crystalline shield areas were 32

  6. Karyotypical diversity of the red piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes, Characidae, Salobo river, Araguaia basin, Pará, Brazil Diversidade cariotípica de piranha vermelha (“Pygocentrus nattereri” (Characiformes, Characidae, rio Salobo, bacia do Araguaia, Pará, Brasil. DOI: 10.7902/ecb.v2i1.32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Passos Santana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Serrasalmideos are fish commonly known as pacus and piranhas, and include around 80 species and 15 generas. The generas are represented in the Amazon, Paraná-Paraguay and São Francisco basins. The objective of this work was to perform Karyotypical analyses and define the locations of the NOR sites in specimens of red piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri. Ten individuals of P. nattereri were collected in the Salobo River, Araguaia basin, in Rio Maria municipality, Pará, Brazil. Kidney cells were extracted from each specimen to obtain chromosomes in mitotic metaphases, and stained with silver nitrate to observe the NORs. The recorded photograph was made using an Olympus BX60 microscope, the photos were processed in Adobe Photoshop CS2 and the metaphases were mounted in Image-Pro Plus®. The specimens presented a 2n=60 diploid number and the chromosomal formula was 14m+22sm+14st+10a, with NF=100. The results of the NOR karyotypes are within the variation expected for this family, genus and species.

    Serrasalmideos são peixes conhecidos por pacus e piranhas, incluindo cerca de 80 espécies e 15 gêneros. Os gêneros estão representados na bacia Amazônica, Paraná-Paraguia e São Francisco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar análises cariotípicas e definir a localização dos sítios de NORs, em espécimes de piranha vermelha Pygocentrus nattereri. Foram analisados dez indivíduos de P. nattereri coletados no rio Salobo, bacia do Araguaia, no município de Rio Maria, Pará-Brasil. Os espécimes foram submetidos às técnicas de obtenção de cromossomos mitóticos metafásicos a partir de células do rim anterior e as NORs obtidas pela impregnação com nitrato de prata. O registro fotográfico feito em microscópio Olympus BX60, as fotos processadas em Adobe Photoshop CS2 e as metáfases montadas no Image-Pro Plus®. Os espécimes apresentaram 2n=60 e a fórmula cromossômica 14m+22sm+14st+10a, com NF=100. Os

  7. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  8. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, I.; L. Brandimarte; M. S. U. Perera; M. Peviani

    2012-01-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of th...

  9. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, I.; L. Brandimarte; Perera, M. S. U.; M. Peviani

    2012-01-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB) and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of t...

  10. Age and growth of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula (tetraodontiformes, balistidae of the central coast of Brazil

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    Albuquerque Cristiano Queiroz de

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal spines (n=649 of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula were collected between 1997 to 1999 at the central coast of Brazil and used to evaluate fish growth. The marginal increment analysis validated that 1 increment was formed annually (n=476, with minimum values observed at the summer, and coinciding with the maximum proportion of translucent growth bands. Fish's maximum fork length and age were 460 mm and 14 years respectively. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy function were: Fl∞ = 441.3 mm, K = 0.14 and T0= -1.8. Weight gain by year ranged from about 110 g yr-1 for age 5 to about 30 g yr-1 for age 14. Compared to other studies, B. vetula growth in the Central coast of Brazil was slow, which could be related to the influence of the oligotrophic water from Brazil current. Our results indicate that B. vetula's fisheries in the Central coast of Brazil until 1999 have caught mostly adult individuals over the sexual maturation lenght, 60% of them with ages from 6 to 8 yr.Entre 1997 e 1999 foram amostrados 649 espinhos de Balistes vetula na costa central do Brazil e foram utilizados para a avaliação de crescimento. A validação de anéis anuais de crescimento foi realizada através da analise de incrementos marginais, cujos valores mínimos foram observados durante o verão, coincidindo com a maior proporção de anéis translúcidos na borda do espinho. Portanto, forma-se um anel de crescimento a cada ano. A idade e o comprimento padrão máximos observados foram respectivamente 14 anos e 460 mm. Os parâmetros da equação de von-Bertalanffy foram: Fl∞ = 441,3 mm, K = 0,14 e T0= -1,8. O incremento anual em peso variou de 110 g yr-1 para a idade 5 a 30 g yr-1 para a idade 14. Comparados a outros estudos, nossos resultados indicam taxas de crescimento mais baixas, que podem ter sido induzidas pela influência oligotrófica da corrente do Brasil ao longo da costa central do Brasil. Nossos resultados indicam que a pesca do peroá at

  11. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Malm, O.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  12. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani de Oliveira Mendes-Neto; Marcelo Ricardo Vicari; Roberto Artoni; Orlando Moreira-Filho

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil. Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of H. regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of H. reg...

  13. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1; Diagnostico da mucoviscidose utilizando analise por ativacao com neutrons. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Bellido, Alfredo V

    1997-02-01

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author) 33 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Comparative analysis of strategies to wind energy implantation; Analise comparativa das estrategias para implantacao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, G.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The paper shows how several countries improved the use of wind power in their electrical grid stating model groups by adopting different strategies during the installations of wind electrical conversion systems coupled to their conventional electrical network. Also establishes a proposed model to be enforced in Brazil and analyses the Brazilian social and technical constraints, comparing strategies used in 18 countries. 37 refs., 1 tab

  15. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  16. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  17. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  18. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  19. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  20. Relações solo, superfície geomórfica e substrato geológico na microbacia do ribeirão Marins (Piracicaba - SP Soil, geological substrate and geomorphic surface relationships for the Marins river basin (Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Roberto Teramoto

    2001-06-01

    60-80cm é influenciada principalmente pela natureza química e física do substrato geológico, enquanto que os atributos morfológicos são determinados principalmente pelo relevo. Estas relações se repetem na paisagem da microbacia com características de solo, relevo e litologia semelhantes, permitindo sua extrapolação para outras áreas, contribuindo para futuros levantamentos detalhados de solos que possam vir a ser realizados na região.The relationships between soil, geology and geomorphic surface were studied in the Marins basin of Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil. Soils, parent material, geology and geomorphic surfaces were mapped. Two transects were studied to verify the lateral variation of the soils. Geology derives from Neo-Cenozoic superficial deposits of a loamy sand texture, sandstone belonging to the Piramboia Formation of the São Bento group, with siltstones and shales belonging to the Corumbatai Formation of the Passa Dois group, and colluvial and alluvial sediments. Five geomorphic surfaces were identified. The relationships between soil, parent material, geology and geomorphic surfaces were performed cross-referencing the different maps. These relations were analyzed by comparision to an "uniformity index", specialy developed to verify the inter-relation uniformity. Ten soil units were identified (Oxisol, Ultisol and Inceptisol orders. The Oxisol is related to the neocenozoic cover and surface I, were the relief is almost flat. The Ultisol, with a predominance of a sandy loam texture, is related to the Pirambóia formation sandstone and to surfaces II and III, with gentle slopes. The Incepstisol, with a clayey texture, are associated to the Corumbataí formation siltstone and silex, with IV and V surfaces (ondulating relief. The Incepitsols of varied textures are related to alluvium and colluvium deposits.The relation that exists between the soils and the geomorphic surfaces is represented by the tendency that, the older and more stable the surface

  1. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    augmentation of heterosexual transmission and IDUs as transmission groups, are described and analised. The geographical distribution of the AIDS cases registered between 1987-1993 in Brazil throughout the Brazilian States is evaluated by means of worksheets, maps, and non-parametric statistics. Results show that Gravimetric Centers (obtained by the use of the calculus spatial means of AIDS in Brazil are situated within a triangle the sides of which are formed lines joining the three main metropolitan areas of the wealthiest region of Brazil - the southeast, i.e. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. These especially S. Paulo, function as points of attraction for these Gravimetric Centers (GCs towards the south as compared with the GCs of the general population calculated ia accordance with data from the 1980 and 1991 censuses. It is possible to observe a displacement of the GCs toward the northwest over this period in accordance with the migration patterns of the Brazilian population in general, though with a dynamic of its own. These changes in the geographical, socio-demographic and transmission group patterns show the complex nature of the epidemic in Brazil and pose additional difficulties for the development of prevention strategies.

  2. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  3. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  4. Influence of urbanisation on water quality in the basin of the upper Uruguay River in western Santa Catarina, Brazil Influência da urbanização sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Zeni Ternus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the limnological characteristics of rivers flowing through urban and rural areas in the upper Uruguay River basin in western Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. METHODS: Sampling sites in the tributaries were selected along the longitudinal gradient and the different use of the soil in adjacent areas. Samples were collected bimonthly from March 2005 to August 2006. The following were analysed: depth, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus were analysed. RESULTS: In most of the rivers analysed, we found a continuum from the spring to the river mouth that was characterised by a gradual increase in electrical conductivity, COD, phosphorus, alkalinity, nitrite and nitrate. However, an alteration from this pattern was found in rivers passing through urban areas. This deviation was due to high organic matter input poured into the rivers from these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Degraded riparian forest was observed along most of the bodies of water, which facilitates the entry of pollutants. Although the studied area suffers from intense farming activity (agriculture and livestock and has the highest concentration of swine livestock in the country, the rivers that were most altered from their natural state were those that were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents from urban development.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as características limnológicas de rios que atravessam áreas rurais e urbanas na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pontos nos afluentes, obedecendo ao gradiente longitudinal e diferente uso do solo das áreas adjacentes. As amostragens foram bimestrais de março de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Foram analisadas as variáveis profundidade, pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido (OD

  5. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of the sedimentary zeolite occurrences in the Parnaiba Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the petrographical and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis through electronic microprobe realized in zeolites contained in the Corda Formation sandstones, in the northwestern portion of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil. The data presented here update and complete the information propagated by Rezende and Angelica (1995) and Angelica et al. (1995)

  7. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  8. Lessons from the Rain Forest : Experiences of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Amazon and Atlantic Forests of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The largest hydrographic basin in the world, the Amazon is the source of 20 percent of all the fresh water on the planet. The Basin covers some 600 million hectares in nine countries, over half of which are located within Brazil's national boundaries. A striking characteristic of the Amazon region is its tremendous biodiversity, which includes an estimated 50,000 species of plants, 3,000 s...

  9. Deepwater activities offshore Brazil: Evolution on drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos, A.; Awad, S.P.; Assuncao, R.B. [Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Petrobras started drilling deep water wells offshore Brazil in the mid-eighties. Nowadays, after ten years of experience, 180 wells have been drilled in water depths ranging from 400 m to 1,800 m. Several records have been broken since the Marlim Field Pilot System came on stream. Recent activities and new prospects are pushing on limits into even deeper waters, where Petrobras is committed to drill and produce wells in the near future. This paper addresses main problems faced in the Campos Basin area, southeast Brazil, during the deep water exploratory program and the solutions achieved to solve them. A brief description of the current field developments is also given. Finally, a point about the future challenges to be overcome is made.

  10. Maximum discharge and probable rainfall at Aiuruoca basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Campos Pinto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on rainfall and annual daily maximum discharge rates is essential to support decisions during the design of hydraulic structures. This study tested the adequacy of probability functions to predict the probable rainfall and discharge rates of the Aiuruoca River Basin in Minas Gerais State in Brazil. This basin is very important as starting point of the Rio Grande Basin that eventually discharges into the Parana River in the southern region of Brazil at the border with Argentina. It was found that the log-normal two parameters probability function provided the best fit to historical monthly rainfall series. For example, in the month of January, there is a 75% probability that 201 mm of rainfall will occur. This is the month with the highest volume of rainfall in the region. On another hand, for flow rate, the best fit was provided by the log-normal distribution with three parameters.

  11. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L.

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  12. Drought Preparedness in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ana Paula A.; Engle, Nathan L.; De Nys, Erwin; Molejón, Carmen; Sávio Martins, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Large portions of Brazil's Northeast have experienced an intense and prolonged drought for the majority of 2010–2013. This drought, along with other droughts that have hit the South in recent years, has sparked a new round of discussions to improve drought policy and management at the federal and state levels. To assist with these efforts, the World Bank recently conducted a series of evaluations on national and sub-national drought preparedness measures and approaches across five country cas...

  13. Brazil: Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues Paper discusses the macroeconomic implications of pension reforms in Brazil. It assesses empirically the relationship between fiscal policy and the real effective exchange rate in emerging markets and draws policy implications. It reviews the current status of local capital markets in the country, the key challenges, and policy options for further development. The paper also provides a detailed description of consumer credit developments and analyzes recent indicators of ...

  14. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  15. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  16. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  17. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)

  18. An analysis on the costs of Belo Monte hydroelectric power plant; Uma analise sobre os custos da hidreletrica Belo Monte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: energiapara@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The Belo Monte hydropower plant's low generation cost is among the arguments used by Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brazil (ELETRONORTE), a Brazilian state electric utility, to make possible its construction. This paper shows that the generation cost presented by ELETROBRAS is very low in relation to the world pattern of cost and probably unrealistic. It also shows that the generation cost cannot be used separately to determine the Belo Monte dam's economic feasibility. There is the need to include other costs, such as: socio environmental degradation and control, financial compensation for using the hydraulic resources, transmission and thermal backup stations, beyond, evidently, generation cost for assuring the credibility of the Belo Monte hydropower plant's economic analysis. (author)

  19. Benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa; Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we reflect on the benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil between 2013 and 2014, which affected the water supply in many regions and especially in the southeast region, with emphasis on the conflict between the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro over the right to use the water of the Paraíba do Sul River Basin. We analyze the current state of water resource management, the integrated use of water and energy and possible solutions to expand the availability of ...

  20. Benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial, we reflect on the benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil between 2013 and 2014, which affected the water supply in many regions and especially in the southeast region, with emphasis on the conflict between the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro over the right to use the water of the Paraíba do Sul River Basin. We analyze the current state of water resource management, the integrated use of water and energy and possible solutions to expand the availability of fresh water.

  1. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 (Pisces, Teleostei in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergam Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63 and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes, including the Rio Grande and Macacu river basins. In the Rio Doce basin, the patterns of genetic similarity of RAPD-PCR markers (individual fingerprinting and Nei?s genetic distance suggest the existence of two genetically different groups, one composed of the lacustrine populations Carioca and Dom Helvécio, and the other of riverine and the remaining lacustrine populations. The differences in the RAPD-PCR patterns may be explained by the existence of sub-basins within this lacustrine system. A maximum parsimony tree of cytochrome b fragment (383 base pairs supports the view that trahiras of the Rio Doce share a complex biogeographic history with those of neighboring basins. The phylogeographic patterns may be explained by a common history of the watersheds of the Rio Doce, Paraíba do Sul, and Rio Grande basins, corroborating the hypothesis of a Plio-Pleistocene separation of these drainage systems, forming the Mantiqueira "divortium aquarium".

  2. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  3. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  4. Microturbellarians (Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha) in Brazil: invisible organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, J A L; Amaral, S V; Leal-Zanchet, A M

    2016-06-01

    Microturbellarians typically belong to the benthos and may occur in a wide variety of environments. They are abundant in freshwater and marine ecosystems and may occur in moist terrestrial habitats. However, turbellarians are seldom taken into account in studies of biodiversity. Most studies on Brazilian microturbellarians had taxonomical purposes and were done in the years 1940-1950. Thus, information on their occurrence and ecological aspects are dispersed throughout several papers. We intend here to summarize the biogeographical distribution and ecological aspects of microturbellarians recorded for Brazil, indicating the main gaps in their knowledge and possible actions to enhance studies on this group. There are 239 species of microturbellarians registered for Brazil, with records distributed in 12 states. However, just three states located in southern Brazil have records of 94% of microturbellarian species. Thus, knowledge on the systematics and geographical distribution of Brazilian microturbellarians clearly reflect the scientific activity over many years or decades in two states of southeastern and southern Brazil. Considering the scant information on this group in Brazil, which is also the situation of the Neotropical microturbellarians in general, some actions should be proposed. First, it would be necessary to sample in the diverse biomes, as well as in the various river and sea basins, based on standardized sampling protocols. Second, it would be necessary to encourage diverse research groups to include microturbellarians and/or turbellarians in general into biodiversity inventories and studies on community structure of invertebrates. Third, it is necessary to increase the number of research groups on microturbellarians, in order to augment the studies on their morphology, systematics, and ecology. Considering their abundance, species richness and ecological importance in aquatic environments, despite some peculiarities regarding their sampling, sorting

  5. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...... basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  6. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  7. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  8. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  9. Tabanidae (Diptera of Maranhão state, Brazil. V. Description of Protosilvius gurupi sp. n. (Pangoniinae, Pangoniini and key to Protosilvius species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protosilvius gurupi sp. n. (Tabanidae, Pangoniinae is described and illustrated based on seven female and 53 male specimens collected in the Amazonian region at Reserva Biológica Gurupi, Centro Novo do Maranhão municipality, northwest Maranhão, Brazil. This is the first record of Protosilvius in northern Brazil and in the Amazon Basin. An illustrated key to all Protosilvius species is also presented.

  10. Economic approach of pipelines: TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia) case; Analise economica de gasoduto: o caso TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Celso P.; Pettendorfer, Erick P. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this paper is offer to the industry an example of successful project finance in an emergent country. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline was projected to develop an industry of natural gas in Brazil. The total costs invested was around US$ 1, 5 billion (Brazilian side) and BID, BIRD, CAF, BEI, BNDES- Finame, Marubeni, Mediocredito with main lenders. There are tree contracts with Ship or Pay clauses that are the main guarantees of the project. We will describe the mains variables of this project and the economic model that was created to calculate the tariff and project all financial reports of Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline. (author)

  11. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Marc Janssens

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i) agriculture, ii) gras...

  12. Astronomy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  13. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  14. Early Mesozoic basin aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Early Mesozoic basin aquifers in the states of Massachusettes, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,...

  15. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  16. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  17. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  18. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  19. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  20. The Ebro river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    River basins worldwide are under pressure from economic activities. In Europe, the two main factors hindering the achievement of good chemical and ecological status of European river basins are pollution, mainly coming from agriculture, and hydromorphology (e.g. for navigation, hydroelectricity and flood control). The economic activities affect the chemical and ecological status of rivers, lakes and groundwater and deplete available soil, sediments and water resources. The w...

  1. International comparative analysis of E and P regulatory issues; Analise comparativa internacional de aspectos regulatorios em E e P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Erica Cristina da Fonseca; Almedia, Mariana Lessa Rego de; Baleroni, Rafael Baptista [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the more global sectors of the economy, with its economic agents acting and competing at the same time in many countries. The limitation of available funds for investment and competition in global scale make the host countries adapt some elements of their concession instruments, as a way to attract greater investments. The comparison of legal framework of diverse host countries is an essential part in this process of decision and an indispensable tool to help the host countries in the dispute for the attraction of international investors. Therefore, to place Brazil in this process of global competition between States is necessary the knowledge and the comparison between the conditions offered for its legal system and offered for countries considered as models of attraction of investment. This work intends to offer a comparative study of relevant legal aspects for the oil industry, amongst them: characterization of the concession instrument; reach of the participation of the state-owned company; intervention of the State in the private management. The comparison will be made between countries with different characteristics, to obtain a consolidation of paradigms that helps the evolution of the Brazilian exploration and production legal framework. (author)

  2. Elementary analysis of human dental samples by using SRXRF; Analise elementar de amostras dentarias humanas usando SRXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcelino J.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Dias, Katia R. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2002-07-01

    Human teeth were analysed by {mu}SRXRF. The measurements were carried out in small areas of the teeth from enamel to root. The aim of this work was to evaluated the local elemental variations in the dental regions, enamel, dentine and pulp from patterns of relative intensities. The distributions of the elements Ca, Zn and Sr were studied. The samples (canine, premolars and molar teeth) were cross-sectioned along the vertical median plane, by polishing the whole tooth in order to obtain a smooth and plane surface, of about 1 mm thick. The measurements were carried out in the XRF beamline of the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil using a conventional collimation system (orthogonal slits 300 {mu}m x 300 {mu}m). The Ca concentration is quite constant and it is independent of the tooth type and individual characteristics. Ca and Sr distributions show a similar behavior. An increase of the Zn concentration was found for the pulp region and for untreated carious areas. (author)

  3. The production chain analysis of the Brazilian petroleum industry; Analise da cadeia produtiva da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Ana Amelia Magalhaes Gomes; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: mmartini@nitnet.com.br; adelaide@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    The production chain of the oil industry encompasses production systems that operate within different ecosystems. The industry can be split into exploration, production, transportation, refining and distribution, and its importance derives from the influence it has on the nation.s economy. The aim of this study is to provide a holistic view of the different links in the oil production chain, using bibliometric indicators for technological innovation. The methodology employed to analyze the production chain took as its starting point a study of demand, i.e. a characterization of the consumers and identification of the needs and expectations of this consumer market with respect to the products supplied by the different segments of the country.s oil industry. The data was first collected through bibliographical research and a search of specialized databases on the oil production chain in Brazil and worldwide, after which it was analyzed. The result was an identification of the critical competitive factors in the chain, and a tool to assist in the management of the oil industry, to improve its competitiveness and support public and private policy-making. This article is part of a broader study, which will constitute a doctoral thesis. (author)

  4. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  5. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  6. A new species of the genus Pimelodus La Cépède, 1803 from the rio Iguaçu basin and a reappraisal of Pimelodus ortmanni Haseman, 1911 from the rio Paraná system, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Pimelodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Garavello; Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2007-01-01

    A new species, Pimelodus britskii, is described from the rio Iguaçu in the rio Paraná drainage, on the border of Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil. Specimens of this species were wrongly included in the type series of Pimelodus ortmanni. Pimelodus britskii is distinguished from its congeners by color pattern, having circular dark brown blotches usually smaller than one orbital diameter, regularly and scattered along the trunk. Differs from P. ortmanni by the following characters: body ...

  7. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  8. Waste management in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management policies set up in developed countries have in general been used by other countries with less experience in the nuclear field as the basis for developing waste disposal rules or guidelines according to their particular political, social and economic conditions. The waste management question became a main concern in Brazil during the licensing period of the Angra I nuclear power plant and the other fuel cycle facilities envisaged under the Agreement between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany. Before the Angra I licensing period, all final waste products arising from nuclear activities were released into the environment because their radioactive levels were below the standard limits. The Research, Development and Demonstration (RDD) Project initiated by the National Nuclear Energy Commission has the purpose to provide information that may contribute to the formulation of recommendations for a waste disposal policy, as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of the Brazilian waste disposal concept. The paper briefly describes the waste management policy in some countries, their contributions to the studies carried out in the RDD Project, and the recommendations and mechanisms for implementing the waste management proposal, and presents general information concerning the Brazilian repository concept. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  9. Modeling the hydrological patterns on Pantanal wetlands, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A. A.; Cuartas, A.; Coe, M. T.; Koumrouyan, A.; Panday, P. K.; Lefebvre, P.; Padovani, C.; Costa, M. H.; de Oliveira, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Pantanal of Brazil is one of the world's largest wetland regions. It is located within the 370,000 km2 Alto Paraguai Basin (BAP). In wet years almost 15% of the total area of the basin can be flooded (approximately 53,000 km2). The hydrological cycle is particularly important in the Pantanal in the transport of materials, and the transfer of energy between atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial systems. The INLAND (Integrated Land Surface Model) terrestrial ecosystem model is coupled with the THMB hydrological model to examine the hydrological balance and water dynamics for this region. The INLAND model is based on the IBIS dynamic vegetation model, while THMB represents the river, wetland and lake dynamics of the land surface. The modeled hydrological components are validated with surface and satellite-based estimates of precipitation (gridded observations from CRU v. 3.21, reanalysis data from ERA-interim, and TRMM estimates), evapotranspiration (MODIS and Land Flux-Eval dataset), total runoff (discharge data from ANA-Agência Nacional das Águas - Brazil), and terrestrial water storage (GRACE). Results show that the coupled hydrological model adequately represents the water cycle components, the river discharge and flooded areas. Model simulations are further used to study the influences of climatic variations on the hydrological components, river network, and the inundated areas in the Pantanal.

  10. Crustal Structure of the PARANÁ Basin from Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaço, B.; Assumpcao, M.; Rosa, M. L.; Sanchez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Previous surface-wave tomography in South America (SA) (e.g., Feng et al., 2004; 2007) mapped the main large-scale features of the continent, such as the high lithospheric velocities in cratonic areas and low velocities in the Patagonian province. However, more detailed features such as the Paraná Basin, have not been mapped with good resolution because of poor path coverage, i.e. classic surface- wave tomography has low resolution in low-seismicity areas, like Brazil and the Eastern Argentina. Crustal structure in Southern Brazil is poorly known. Most paths used by Feng et al. (2007) in this region are roughly parallel, which prevents good spatial resolution in tomographic inversions. This work is part of a major project that will increase knowledge of crustal structure in Southern Brazil and Eastern Argentina and is being carried out by IAG-USP (Brazil) in collaboration with UNLP and INPRES (Argentina). To improve resolution for the Paraná Basin we used inter-station dispersion curves derived from correlation of ambient noise for new stations deployed with the implementation of the Brazilian Seismic Network (Pirchiner et al. 2011). This technique, known as ambient noise tomography (ANT), was first applied by Shapiro et al. (2005) and is now expanding rapidly, especially in areas with high density of seismic stations (e.g. Bensen et al. 2007, Lin et al. 2008, Moschetti et al. 2010). ANT is a well-established method to estimate short period (Petrobras with additional support from CNPq and FAPESP.

  11. Brazil nut stock and harvesting at different spatial scales in southeastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M.B.N.; Jorozolimski, A.; Robert, Pascale de; Magnusson, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of non-timber forest product (NTFP) extractive industries by traditional communities have focused on local effects, but effective conservation of species often requires evaluation at wider scales that can only be efficiently undertaken with the use of remote sensing. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa seed) is one of the most important NTFP in the Amazon basin and has received considerable attention from researchers aiming to guarantee its sustainability. However, mos...

  12. First thoughts on surface tonal patterns in Amawaka, a Panoan language of Peru and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amawaka ([ɑmɨ̃ˈwɐkɑ]) is a highly endangered and underdocumented tonal language of the Headwaters (Fleck 2011) subgroup of the Panoan family in the Southwest Amazon Basin, spoken by approximately 200 people. Undocumented phonetic and phonological phenomena of Amawaka include its tonal structure, both in terms of surface realizations and the patterns underlying these realizations. Original audiovisual data from the author’s fieldwork in various Amawaka communities at the Peru-Brazil border wil...

  13. The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author)

  14. Energy analysis of tubular digesters using swine residues; Analise energetica de biodigestores tubulares usando dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Grupo Pesquisador em Educacao Ambiental; Santos, Elenara Pinto dos; Casimiro, Evandro Luiz Nogarolli; Nagae, Ricardo Yuiti; Weiss Filho, Waldemiro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciecias Agraras

    2004-07-01

    Overcoming another financial crisis, the swine production has the great challenge, in this and next decades, of also reaching the sustainability in the ecosystem ambit. The Parana State/Brazil west area is known because of it's residues high production, with high pollution level, it possesses the added difficulty of presenting high concentration of animals, inserted in production centers in reduced areas. However, this situation reversion, changing the 'trouble called residue' in a 'energy source solution', by means of digesters, became a reality, with the initiative of some producers and researchers. Present work objective was to evaluate the energy production, by means of the digesters use, as alternative energy co-generation. The work was developed at a commercial farm located at the Parana State west area, with 1,700 sows, in an piglet unit producing, with production of 3,400 piglet per mouth. The studied system is constituted by two parallel digesters, with continuous flow and total capacity of 1,275 m3 per digester, with 30 days of hydraulic retention time. The generated biogas feeds a 4.1 cc engine, with six cylinders, 80 cv, 3,600 rpm, coupled to an generator, that constitutes an 50 kW electric engine. The system promoted a 58% reduction of chemical demand of oxygen. The daily gas production estimated was 208 m3, with production of electric energy of 35.2 kWh per day. For most of the year, the system has the potential of provisioning the farm of electricity for all its needs, promoting economy that is transformed into income for the activity. (author)

  15. Ensemble streamflow forecasting experiments in a tropical basin: The São Francisco river case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fernando Mainardi; Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Botelho, Luiz César Mendes

    2014-11-01

    The present study shows experiments of ensemble forecasting applied to a large tropical river basin, where such forecasting methodologies have many potential applications. The case study is the Três Marias hydroelectric power plant basin (Brazil), on the São Francisco river, where forecast results are particularly important for reservoir operation and downstream flood control. Results showed some benefits in the use of ensembles, particularly for the reservoir inflow on flooding events, and in comparison to the deterministic values given by the control member of the ensemble and by the ensemble mean. The study also discusses the improvements that must be tested and implemented in order to achieve better results, what is particularly important for the smaller basins within the study case. Despite the necessary improvements mentioned, the results suggest that benefits can result from the application of ensemble forecasts for hydropower plants with large basins within the Brazilian energy system.

  16. Labelling and Packaging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Tania M; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Brazil is the largest country in South America, with an area of 8 547 403.5 square kilometres and a population of 169 799 170 (IBGE, 2000). Its geopolitical structure com-prises 26 states and one Federal District, the capital of Brazil, Brasilia. Each state is divided into municipalities, of which there are a total of 5 507. The primary causes of death in Brazil are cardiovascular diseases and cancer and their major risk factor is tobacco use. Lung cancer is the...

  17. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  18. Evaluation of monotonic trends for streamflow in austral Amazon, Brazil: a case study for the Xingu and Tapajós rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L. Z.

    2015-06-01

    This paper has the goal of evaluating monotonic trends in the Xingu and Tapajós river basins in the Austral Amazon region, Brazil. Non-parametric statistical tests such as Mann-Kendall, Bootstrap Mann-Kendall, Sen and Bootstrap Sen are applied on streamflow gauging stations data, to determine the significance and magnitude of possible trends. Data in these river basins is relatively scarce, with time series ranging from twenty to forty years, having many gaps. Former studies indicate a decreasing trend for both annual average and minimum streamflow values in the Tapajós river basin, with 99% confidence level, and a decrease in maximum values in the Xingu river basin, with 90% confidence level. However, past analyses have only used one station near the basin outlet. This study uses data from 7 gauging stations in the Xingu basin and 14 stations in the Tapajós basin. Results indicate opposite trends at the 95% confidence level for different regions in the basins, and for different flow regimes. For the Xingu river basin, trends in the minimum flow for different sub-basins even out at the Altamira station, near its outlet. For the Tapajós river, the southeastern part of the basin has increasing trends, while the southwestern part decreases. At the Itaituba station, they also balance out.

  19. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  20. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  1. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  2. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  3. Matéria-prima da formação Corumbataí na região do pólo cerâmico de Santa Gertrudes, SP, com características naturais para fabricação de argila expandida Sedimentary rocks from Corumbataí formation (Paraná basin, Brazil with natural characteristics to produce expanded clay lightweight aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. T. Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se um material da base da Formação Corumbataí, proveniente de uma mineração de argila, que apresenta restrições de uso em cerâmica devido à sua dureza e, principalmente, ao alto conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Verificou-se que o material apresenta características naturais ótimas para a fabricação de argila expandida diretamente a partir de fragmentos de rocha, mostrando comportamento piroplástico com expansão significativa se submetido à queima rápida. A caracterização da matéria-prima e do produto foi realizada mediante análise de carbono orgânico, difração de raios X, microscopia ótica e testes de queima. Foram determinadas as condições de queima para obter argila expandida utilizando forno de queima rápida e forno a rolos, ambos de laboratório, obtendo corpos com densidade variável (que podem chegar a valores menores que 0,5 g.cm-3 até o limite de expansão. Esta densidade é obtida devido à formação de poros fechados e uma película externa vítrea, que proporcionam uma resistência mecânica alta aos fragmentos expandidos.This paper refers to the study of the material of the base of the Corumbataí formation (Parana Basin, Brazil of a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0.5 g.cm-3 because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles.

  4. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  5. Automobile Pollution Control in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Ferraz; Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have been rapidly increasing in the major urban areas of Brazil caused mainly by the increasing use of vehicles. In the presence of this negative externality, environmental regulation is required. Car emission control policies in Brazil have relied basically on mandatory emission standards and subsidies for specific cleaner technology resulting in substantial decrease of car emission rates. Nevertheless, car sale taxes, differentiated by vehicles’ size and fuel, h...

  6. The concentrations of heavy metals and the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes and liver EROD activity in two edible-fish from the Paraíba do Sul river basin in Brazil | Concentração de metais pesados e incidência de eritrócitos micronucleados e atividade de EROD hepática em duas espécies de peixes comestíveis na bacia do Rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Estevam Martins Parente

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul river (PSR basin crosses one of the most populated and industrialized regions of Brazil and receives effluent from the metallurgic, paper mill and agricultural industries. PSR water has multiple uses, including being a supply of potable water and riverine populations which consume some species of its fish. In the present study, we investigated the responses of two biomarkers of aquatic pollution, EROD activity in the liver and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood, as well as the concentrations of seven heavy metals in the muscle tissue of two species of fish native to the PSR: Geophagus brasiliensis and Hypostomus sp. Sampling was performed in both the wet and dry seasons of 2003, with a total of 339 fish collected from 16 sites along the PSR basin. Fish collected at Levy Gasparian, Barra Mansa and Três Rios both had higher EROD activity and micronuclei frequency. The results also suggested a moderate induction of EROD activity in fish collected from S.L. Paraitinga and Sapucaia. Micronuclei frequency was elevated in fish from S.J. Campos, Além Paraíba, Campos and S.J. Barra. In all cases, heavy metal concentrations did not exceed the maximum considered safe for fish meat consumption. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul (PSR atravessa uma das regiões mais povoadas e industrializadas do Brasil, recebendo efluentes de indústrias metalúrgicas, de papel e celulose e agrícolas. Os usos das águas do PSR são múltiplos, incluem o fornecimento de água potável, e as populações ribeirinhas consomem algumas de suas espécies de peixes. No presente trabalho foram investigadas as respostas de dois biomarcadores à poluição, a atividade hepática de EROD e a freqüência de micronúcleo em sangue periférico, e medidos os níveis de sete metais pesados no músculo de duas espécies de peixes nativas do PSR, Geophagus brasiliensis and

  7. WiBasin: basin management through an integrated platform

    OpenAIRE

    Llort Pavon, Xavier; Sánchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Sancho, David; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Sempere Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present WiBasin, a cloud platform for basin and dam management. It includes different sources of precipitation (both observed and forecasted), integration over the catchment domain (to provide an aggregated value of potential rainfall accumulated over the basin) , and a complete dissemination environment (web-viewer, capability of issuing hazard warnings with configurable thresholds, SMS, mails, etc.)

  8. Structural chromosome polymorphism in a Pimelodus maculatus La Cepède, 1803 population (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Paranapanema River basin, PR, Brazil Polimorfismo cromossômico estrutural em uma população de Pimelodus maculatus La Cèpede, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) da bacia do Rio Paranapanema, PR, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mazzuchelli; AC. Swarça; AL. Dias

    2007-01-01

    In the present cytogenetic study of Pimelodus maculatus, 13 specimens (8 males and 5 females) from the Congonhas Stream in Paraná State, Brazil, were examined using conventional staining. All of them showed a karyotype of 2n = 56, with a chromosome distribution of 20m + 20sm + 10st + 6a. However, four individuals (2 males and 2 females) were found to have a variant karyotype (cytotype) with two heteromorphic chromosomes in the group of submetacentric chromosomes - one of them corresponds to t...

  9. Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Thaines; Evaldo Muñoz Braz; Patricia Povoa Mattos; Andreia Aparecida Ribeiro Thaines

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Mana...

  10. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  11. Brazil advances subsea technology in Marlim pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-29

    Petroleum Brasileiro SA has extended several water depth records for subsea technology during a pilot project in giant Marlim oil field in the Campos basin off Brazil. Petrobras finished the 10 well Marlim pilot last December. The field's pilot phase was intended to begin early production and enable Petrobras to gather more reservoir data. Ten satellite wells, including two prepilot wells, were completed during the Marlim pilot phase with guidelineless (GLL) wet christmas trees designed and fabricated by FMC Corp., Houston, and CBV Industrial Mechanic SA, Rio de Janeiro. The subsea wells are producing 52,000 b/d of oil and 21.19 MMCfd of gas in water depths of 1,847-2,562 ft. Marlim pilot well flow is routed to a permanent semisubmersible floating production system (FPS). Oil moves from the FPS to a monobuoy that offloads to a shuttle tanker. In addition to marking the first successful uses of purpose-built GLL wet trees, FMC said the Marlim pilot project allowed GLL subsea technology to evolve from conceptual status into a proven deepwater completion method. The paper describes the project.

  12. Reversing the indus basin closure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    After independence, a swift and extensive development of Indus river basin has intensified commitment of water resources. During dry period, the indication of over commitment and basin closure are visible. In the beginning 2000s, he river basin water resources were committed to more than 99% without any environmental flows. The paper tries to unfold drivers closing the Indus basin and the scope for change. Defining and implementing water allocation mechanism to ascertain equity, sustainabilit...

  13. Ensemble flood forecasting on the Tocantins River - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fernando; Collischonn, Walter; Jiménez, Karena; Sorribas, Mino; Buarque, Diogo; Siqueira, Vinicius

    2014-05-01

    The Tocantins River basin is located in the northern region of Brazil and has about 300.000 km2 of drainage area upstream of its confluence with river Araguaia, its major tributary. The Tocantins River is intensely used for hydropower production, with seven major dams, including Tucuruí, world's fourth largest in terms of installed capacity. In this context, the use of hydrological streamflow forecasts at this basin is very useful to support the decision making process for reservoir operation, and can produce benefits by reducing damages from floods, increasing dam safety and upgrading efficiency in power generation. The occurrence of floods along the Tocantins River is a relatively frequent event, where one recent example is the year of 2012, when a large flood occurred in the Tocantins River with discharge peaks exceeding 16.000m³/s, and causing damages to cities located along the river. After this flooding event, a hydrological forecasting system was developed and is operationally in use since mid-2012 in order to assist the decision making of dam operation along the river basin. The forecasting system is based on the MGB-IPH model, a large scale distributed hydrological model, and initially used only telemetric data as observed information and deterministic rainfall forecasts from the Brazilian Meteorological Forecasting Centre (CPTEC) with 7-days lead time as input. Since August-2013 the system has been updated and now works with two new features: (i) a technique for merging satellite TRMM real-time precipitation estimative with gauged information is applied to reduce the uncertainty due to the lack of observed information over a portion of the basin, since the total number of rain gages available is scarce compared to the total basin area; (ii) rainfall ensemble forecasts with 16-days lead time provided by the Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFs), from the 2nd Generation of NOAA Global Ensemble Reforecast Data Set, maintained by the National Center for

  14. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  15. Receptor models for source apportionment of remote aerosols in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission), and PESA (proton elastic scattering analysis) method were used in conjunction with receptor models for source apportionment of remote aerosols in Brazil. The PIXE used in the determination of concentration for elements with Z >- 11, has a detection limit of about 1 ng/m3. The concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the fine fraction of Amazon Basin aerosols was measured by PESA. We sampled in Jureia (SP), Fernando de Noronha, Arembepe (BA), Firminopolis (GO), Itaberai (GO) and Amazon Basin. For collecting the airbone particles we used cascade impactors, stacked filter units, and streaker samplers. Three receptor models were used: chemical mass balance, stepwise multiple regression analysis and principal factor analysis. The elemental and gravimetric concentrations were explained by the models within the experimental errors. Three sources of aerosol were quantitatively distinguished: marine aerosol, soil dust and aerosols related to forests. The emission of aerosols by vegetation is very clear for all the sampling sites. In Amazon Basin and Jureia it is the major source, responsible for 60 to 80% of airborne concentrations. (Author)

  16. Season custom tariff analysis for electric power use in an agro-industry; Analise da tarifa horo-sazonal no uso da energia eletrica em uma agroindustria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, L.G.C.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation about the season custom tariffs in Brazil, and the research to achieve the electric parameters involved in its utilization is shown, analyzing the change of the conventional custom tariff for the blue and green season custom tariffs. This analysis made in a agro-industry where manioc flour is produced, located in Garca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A comparison between the blue and green custom tariff was accomplished in order to the better advantage in the system introduction, considering the use schedule and electric parameters involved. (author). 26 refs, 31 figs, 41 tabs, 3 apps

  17. Regulation of mature oil fields: a constitutional analysis; Regulacao de campos maduros de petroleo: uma analise a luz da Constituicao Federal de 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil activities in Brazil had been started in an intensive way by the years 30 and 40. During approximately 40 years only one agent had been executed the oil activities in this country: the PETROBRAS. Many of the fields explored in the past are nowadays in decline. These fields, not interesting for the majors, would be interesting for the small and medium enterprises. The present research analyses the mature oil fields and its regulation in Brazil, looking to the 'Constituicao Federal de 1988' and to the idea of social and economic development. (author)

  18. South Bohemian basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spudil, J.; Brož, B.; Dašková, Jiřina; Holcová, K.; Kvaček, Z.; Pešek, J.; Svobodová, Marcela; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 190-206 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Pasco Basin hydrometeorological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides detailed precipitation and evapotranspiration distributions for the Pasco Basin for use in groundwater recharge calculations. The results are shown on precipitation and evapotranspiration distribution maps. The parameters, calculation methods, sensitivity determinations, and fitting methods used in the development of these maps are also discussed

  20. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...