WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin arctic canada

  1. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  2. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Acquiring Marine Data in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Jackson, H. Ruth; Shimeld, John W.; Chapman, C. Borden; Childs, Jonathan R.; Funck, Thomas; Rowland, Robert W.

    2009-06-01

    Despite the record minimum ice extent in the Arctic Ocean for the past 2 years, collecting geophysical data with towed sensors in ice-covered regions continues to pose enormous challenges. Significant parts of the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean have remained largely unmapped because thick multiyear ice has limited access even by research vessels strengthened against ice [Jackson et al., 1990]. Because of the resulting paucity of data, the western Arctic Ocean is one of the few areas of ocean in the world where major controversies still exist with respect to its origin and tectonic evolution [Grantz et al., 1990; Lawver and Scotese, 1990; Lane, 1997; Miller et al., 2006]. This article describes the logistical challenges and initial data sets from geophysical seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and hydrographic surveys in the Canada Basin conducted by scientists with U.S. and Canadian government agencies (Figure 1a) to fulfill the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to determine sediment thickness, geological origin, and basin evolution in this unexplored part of the world. Some of these data were collected using a single ship, but the heaviest ice conditions necessitated using two icebreakers, similar to other recent Arctic surveys [e.g., Jokat, 2003].

  4. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  5. Future ocean acidification in the Canada Basin and surrounding Arctic Ocean from CMIP5 earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, N. S.; Christian, J. R.; Six, K. D.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Six Earth system models that include an interactive carbon cycle and have contributed results to the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated with respect to Arctic Ocean acidification. Projections under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 consistently show reductions in the bidecadal mean surface pH from about 8.1 in 1986-2005 to 7.7/7.9 by 2066-2085 in the Canada Basin, closely linked to reductions in the calcium carbonate saturation state ΩA,C from about 1.4 (2.0) to 0.7 (1.0) for aragonite (calcite) for RCP8.5. The large but opposite effects of dilution and biological drawdown of DIC and dilution of alkalinity lead to a small seasonal amplitude change in Ω, as well as intermodel differences in the timing and sign of the summer minimum. The Canada Basin shows a characteristic layering in Ω: affected by ice melt and inflowing Pacific water, shallow undersaturated layers form at the surface and subsurface, creating a shallow saturation horizon which expands from the surface downward. This is in addition to the globally observed deep saturation horizon which is continuously expanding upward with increasing CO2 uptake. The Eurasian Basin becomes undersaturated much later than the rest of the Arctic. These CMIP5 model results strengthen earlier findings, although large intermodel differences remain: Below 200 m ΩA varies by up to 1.0 in the Canada Basin and the deep saturation horizon varies from 2000 to 4000 m among the models. Differences of projected acidification changes are primarily related to sea ice retreat and responses of wind mixing and stratification.

  6. Mooring-based long-term observation of oceanographic condition in the Chukchi Ses and Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Itoh, Motoyo; Nishino, Shigeto; Watanabe, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea. In collaboration with Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) project, which is one of the tasks of Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON), we also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific

  7. Low pCO2 under sea-ice melt in the Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Naohiro; Sasano, Daisuke; Ishii, Masao; Nishino, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2017-12-01

    In September 2013, we observed an expanse of surface water with low CO2 partial pressure (pCO2sea) (Ocean. The large undersaturation of CO2 in this region was the result of massive primary production after the sea-ice retreat in June and July. In the surface of the Canada Basin, salinity was low ( 20 µmol kg-1) in the subsurface low pCO2sea layer in the Canada Basin indicated significant net primary production undersea and/or in preformed condition. If these low pCO2sea layers surface by wind mixing, they will act as additional CO2 sinks; however, this is unlikely because intensification of stratification by sea-ice melt inhibits mixing across the halocline.

  8. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares

  9. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Osadetz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2012), s. 667-682 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : climate change * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * permafrost Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2012

  10. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  11. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...resources extraction . In hydrocarbons alone, the United States Geological Survey estimates that there are approximately 90 billion barrels of oil...1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas , and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids currently undiscovered in the Arctic, with 84 percent lying in

  12. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  13. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majorowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane from episodic gas hydrate (GH destabilization, the "clathrate gun" hypothesis, is proposed to affect past climates, possibly since the Phanerozoic began or earlier. In the terrestrial Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB, GHs occur commonly below thick ice-bearing permafrost (IBP, but they are rare within it. Two end-member GH models, where gas is either trapped conventionally (Case 1 or where it is trapped dynamically by GH formation (Case 2, were simulated using profile (1-D models and a 14 Myr ground surface temperature (GST history based on marine isotopic data, adjusted to the study setting, constrained by deep heat flow, sedimentary succession conductivity, and observed IBP and Type I GH contacts in Mallik wells. Models consider latent heat effects throughout the IBP and GH intervals. Case 1 GHs formed at ~0.9 km depth only ~1 Myr ago by in situ transformation of conventionally trapped natural gas. Case 2 GHs begin to form at ~290–300 m ~6 Myr ago in the absence of lithological migration barriers. During glacial intervals Case 2 GH layers expand both downward and upward as the permafrost grows downward through and intercalated with GHs. The distinctive model results suggest that most BMB GHs resemble Case 1 models, based on the observed distinct and separate occurrences of GHs and IBP and the lack of observed GH intercalations in IBP. Case 2 GHs formed >255 m, below a persistent ice-filled permafrost layer that is as effective a seal to upward methane migration as are Case 1 lithological seals. All models respond to GST variations, but in a delayed and muted manner such that GH layers continue to grow even as the GST begins to increase. The models show that the GH stability zone history is buffered strongly by IBP during the interglacials. Thick IBP and GHs could have persisted since ~1.0 Myr ago and ~4.0 Myr ago for Cases 1 and 2, respectively. Offshore BMB IBP and GHs formed terrestrially during Pleistocene sea level low

  14. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  15. Rift systems of the Russian Eastern Arctic shelf and Arctic deep water basins: link between geological history and geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nikishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we have developed a new tectonic scheme of the Arctic Ocean, which is based mainly on seismic profiles obtained in the Arctic-2011, Arctic-2012 and Arctic-2014 Projects implemented in Russia. Having interpreted many seismic profiles, we propose a new seismic stratigraphy of the Arctic Ocean. Our main conclusions are drawn from the interpretation of the seismic profiles and the analysis of the regional geological data. The results of our study show that rift systems within the Laptev, the East Siberian and the Chukchi Seas were formed not earlier than Aptian. The geological structure of the Eurasian, Podvodnikov, Toll and Makarov Basins is described in this paper. Having synthesized all the available data on the study area, we propose the following model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean: 1. The Canada Basin formed till the Aptian (probably, during Hauterivian-Barremian time. 2. During the Aptian-Albian, large-scale tectonic and magmatic events took place, including plume magmatism in the area of the De Long Islands, Mendeleev Ridge and other regions. Continental rifting started after the completion of the Verkhoyansk-Chukotka orogenу, and rifting occurred on the shelf of the Laptev, East Siberian, North Chukchi and South Chukchi basins, and the Chukchi Plateau; simultaneously, continental rifting started in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 3. Perhaps the Late Cretaceous rifting continued in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 4. At the end of the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, the Makarov basin was formed by rifting, although local spreading of oceanic crust during its formation cannot be excluded. 5. The Eurasian Basin started to open in the Early Eocene. We, of course, accept that our model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean, being preliminary and debatable, may need further refining. In this paper, we have shown a link between the continental rift systems on the shelf and the formation history of the Arctic

  16. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  17. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010-2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69±6 µmol L-1, CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32±0.07 m-1 and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3±0.4 nmol L-1 and high spectral slope values (S275-295: 31.7±2.3 µm-1, indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108±9 µmol L-1 and lignin phenol concentrations (15±3 nmol L-1, high a325 values (1.36±0.18 m-1 and low S275-295 values (22.8±0.8 µm-1, indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea, a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas, and negligible change (deep basins in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, and the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65-70 µmol L-1 and lignin phenol concentrations (3-4 nmol L-1 and S275-295 values (22.9-23.7 µm-1. Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6-8 µmol L-1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036-0.039 µmol L-1 yr-1 in the deep Arctic were lower than those in other ocean

  18. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010–2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69 ± 6 μmol L−1), CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32 ± 0.07 m−1) and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3 ± 0.4 nmol L−1), and high spectral slope values (S275–295: 31.7 ± 2.3 μm−1), indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108 ± 9 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (15 ± 3 nmol L−1), high a325 values (1.36 ± 0.18 m−1), and low S275–295 values (22.8 ± 0.8 μm−1), indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea), a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas), and negligible change (deep basins) in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, but the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65–70 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (3–4 nmol L−1) and S275–295 values (22.9–23.7 μm−1). Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6–8 μmol L−1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036–0.039 μmol L−1

  19. Chukchi Borderland | Crustal Complex of the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, I.; Coakley, B.; Houseknecht, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, Chukchi Borderland separates the North Chukchi shelf and Toll deep basins to the west and Canada deep basin to the east. Existing plate reconstructions have attempted to restore this north-striking, fragments of the continental crust to all margins of the Amerasia Basin based on sparse geologic and geophysical measurements. Regional multi-channel seismic reflection and potential field geophysics, and geologic data indicate it is a high standing continental block, requiring special accommodation to create a restorable model of the formation of the Amerasia Basin. The Borderland is composed of the Chukchi Plateau, Northwind Basin, and Northwind Ridge divided by mostly north striking normal faults. These offset the basement and bound a sequence of syn-tectonic sediments. Equivalent strata are, locally, uplifted, deformed and eroded. Seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) are observed in the juncture between the North Chukchi, Toll basins, and southern Chukchi Plateau underlying a regional angular unconformity. This reveals that this rifted margin was associated with volcanism. An inferred condensed section, which is believed to be Hauterivian-Aptian in age, synchronous with the composite pebble shale and gamma-ray zone of the Alaska North Slope forms the basal sediments in the North Chukchi Basin. Approximately 15 km of post-rift strata onlap the condensed section, SDRs and, in part, the wedge sequence on the Chukchi Plateau from west to east, thinning to the north. These post-Aptian sediments imply that the rifted margin subsided no later than the earliest Cretaceous, providing a plausible time constraint for the inferred pre-Cretaceous rifting in this region. The recognition of SDRs and Hauterivian—Aptian condensed section, and continuity of the Early—Late Cretaceous post-rift strata along the margins of the Borderland, strike variations of the normal faults, absence of observable deformation along the Northwind Escarpment substantially constrain

  20. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  1. Variability of the Arctic Basin Oceanographic Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabinin, K

    1996-01-01

    ...." Special attention was paid to Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean which seems to be the main source of information in acoustic monitoring of the ocean, in the framework of the Arctic-ATOC program...

  2. Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: a case study from Arctic Bay, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.D.; Smit, B.; Wandel, J. [University of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Department of Geography

    2006-05-15

    This paper develops a vulnerability-based approach to characterize the human implications of climate change in Arctic Bay, Canada. It focuses on community vulnerabilities associated with resource harvesting and the processes through which people adapt to them in the context of livelihood assets, constraints, and outside influences. Inuit in Arctic Bay have demonstrated significant adaptability in the face of changing climate-related exposures. This adaptability is facilitated by traditional Inuit knowledge, strong social networks, flexibility in seasonal hunting cycles, some modern technologies, and economic support. Changing Inuit livelihoods, however, have undermined certain aspects of adaptive capacity, and have resulted in emerging vulnerabilities in certain sections of the community. (author)

  3. Debating the Arctic during the Ukraine Crisis – Comparing Arctic State Identities and Media Discourses in Canada and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    identities and foreign policy by showing that these identifications affected domestic media discourses about the Arctic in Canada and Norway during the first years (2014-16) of the Crisis. Canada’s territorial identification made it difficult for the newly elected Trudeau government to push for a less...... identities shape media debates, but that the identifications themselves can change. In general, the article advocates for a comparative approach towards the analysis of Arctic state identities.......Previous studies have argued that domestic factors, including each state’s Arctic state identities, may explain why some Western states (e.g. Canada) have been more critical of Russia in the Arctic than others (e.g. Norway). The present study analyses part of the link between Arctic state...

  4. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  5. Metabolic rate and thermal conductance of lemmings from high-arctic Canada and Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Agrell, J.; Lindström, A.

    2002-01-01

    The arctic climate places high demands on the energy metabolism of its inhabitants. We measured resting (RMR) and basal metabolic rates (BMR), body temperatures, and dry and wet thermal conductances in summer morphs of the lemmings Dicrostonyx groenlandicus and Lemmus trimucronatus in arctic Canada,

  6. Review of "Lock, Stock, and Icebergs: A History of Canada's Arctic Maritime Sovereignty"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Adam Lajeunesse’s new book, "Lock, Stock, and Icebergs: A History of Canada’s Arctic Maritime Sovereignty" provides an interesting and detailed account of the history of Canada’s approach toward establishing sovereignty over the waters of the Arctic region. The book primarily focuses on Canada...

  7. The measurement of I-129 in the Canadian Arctic basin and other Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilius, L.R.; Zhao, X.L.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first demonstration by accelerator mass spectrometry for the measurement of 129 I in oceanic systems, the use of 129 I as a long range tracer has become widespread because the constraint of large sample volumes has been removed. Following extensive measurements of 129 I in both the Barents and Kara Seas, seawater samples were collected within the Canadian Arctic Basin, and at a cruise from the Chuchi Sea, across the pole, to the Norwegian Sea. Only 450 ml samples were required for all AMS measurements of Arctic seawater. Enhanced concentrations of 129 I were observed. Based on 137 Cs measurements for the same samples, the 129 I/ 137 Cs ratios showed the signature of Sellafield reprocessing effluents as the primary source of this 129 I. Based on average estimates, 13% of the total Sellafield/La Hague 129 I emissions now resides within the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. 7 refs., 3 figs

  8. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  9. Initial opening of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Berglar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the transition from the NE Yermak Plateau into the oceanic Eurasian Basin sheds light on the Paleocene formation of this Arctic basin. Newly acquired multichannel seismic data with a 3600 m long streamer shot during ice-free conditions enables the interpretation of crustal structures. Evidence is provided that no major compressional deformation affected the NE Yermak Plateau. The seismic data reveal that the margin is around 80 km wide and consists of rotated fault blocks, major listric normal faults, and half-grabens filled with syn-rift sediments. Taking into account published magnetic and gravimetric data, this setting is interpreted as a rifted continental margin, implying that the NE Yermak Plateau is of continental origin. The transition from the Yermak Plateau to the oceanic Eurasian Basin might be located at a prominent basement high, probably formed by exhumed mantle. In contrast to the Yermak Plateau margin, the North Barents Sea continental margin shows a steep continental slope with a relatively abrupt transition to the oceanic domain. Based on one composite seismic line, it is speculated that the initial opening direction of the Eurasian Basin in the Arctic Ocean was highly oblique to the present day seafloor spreading direction.

  10. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  11. Large-scale temperature and salinity changes in the upper Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean at a time of a drastic Arctic Oscillation inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bourgain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2010, the Arctic Oscillation index over Arctic regions shifted from positive values corresponding to more cyclonic conditions prevailing during the 4th International Polar Year (IPY period (2007–2008 to extremely negative values corresponding to strong anticyclonic conditions in 2010. In this context, we investigated the recent large-scale evolution of the upper western Arctic Ocean, based on temperature and salinity summertime observations collected during icebreaker campaigns and from ice-tethered profilers (ITPs drifting across the region in 2008 and 2010. Particularly, we focused on (1 the freshwater content which was extensively studied during previous years, (2 the near-surface temperature maximum due to incoming solar radiation, and (3 the water masses advected from the Pacific Ocean into the Arctic Ocean. The observations revealed a freshwater content change in the Canadian Basin during this time period. South of 80° N, the freshwater content increased, while north of 80° N, less freshening occurred in 2010 compared to 2008. This was more likely due to the strong anticyclonicity characteristic of a low AO index mode that enhanced both a wind-generated Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre and a possible diversion of the Siberian River runoff toward the Eurasian Basin at the same time. The near-surface temperature maximum due to incoming solar radiation was almost 1 °C colder in the southern Canada Basin (south of 75° N in 2010 compared to 2008, which contrasted with the positive trend observed during previous years. This was more likely due to higher summer sea ice concentration in 2010 compared to 2008 in that region, and surface albedo feedback reflecting more sun radiation back in space. The Pacific water (PaW was also subjected to strong spatial and temporal variability between 2008 and 2010. In the Canada Basin, both summer and winter PaW signatures were stronger between 75° N and 80° N. This was more likely

  12. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  13. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  14. Decorrelation scales for Arctic Ocean hydrography - Part I: Amerasian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumata, Hiroshi; Kauker, Frank; Karcher, Michael; Rabe, Benjamin; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Behrendt, Axel; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Schauer, Ursula; Shimada, Koji; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Any use of observational data for data assimilation requires adequate information of their representativeness in space and time. This is particularly important for sparse, non-synoptic data, which comprise the bulk of oceanic in situ observations in the Arctic. To quantify spatial and temporal scales of temperature and salinity variations, we estimate the autocorrelation function and associated decorrelation scales for the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. For this purpose, we compile historical measurements from 1980 to 2015. Assuming spatial and temporal homogeneity of the decorrelation scale in the basin interior (abyssal plain area), we calculate autocorrelations as a function of spatial distance and temporal lag. The examination of the functional form of autocorrelation in each depth range reveals that the autocorrelation is well described by a Gaussian function in space and time. We derive decorrelation scales of 150-200 km in space and 100-300 days in time. These scales are directly applicable to quantify the representation error, which is essential for use of ocean in situ measurements in data assimilation. We also describe how the estimated autocorrelation function and decorrelation scale should be applied for cost function calculation in a data assimilation system.

  15. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. Diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus in high Arctic Greenland and Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the high Arctic Greenland and Canada are important for understanding behavioral adaptations and area utilization of this Arctic benthic feeder. Furthermore, such information along with estimations of annual......% CI: 1.0–2.6). Based on dive rates, time at depth, haul-out and percentage of feeding dives Alexandra Fjord and Princess Mary Bay in NE Canada and Carey Island in NW Greenland were identified as the most important areas for walrus feeding during summer. Walrus predation on the standing bivalve biomass...

  17. An environmental DNA assay for detecting Arctic grayling in the upper Missouri River basin, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; J. C. S. Dysthe; Michael Young; Kevin McKelvey; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    The upper Missouri River basin in the northwestern US contains disjunct Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) populations of conservation concern. To assist efforts aimed at understanding Artic grayling distribution, we developed a quantitative PCR assay to detect the presence of Arctic grayling DNA in environmental samples. The assay amplified low...

  18. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  19. Accumulation of PCBs and other POPs in Canada's Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been found in sea-food traditionally eaten by First Nations' people of the Arctic. Since PCBs have never been manufactured in the Arctic these high concentrations cannot be attributed to local sources; they must have been transported from other regions. Due to its cold climate, the Arctic acts a sink for contaminants such as PCBs, originating from around the world and carried by Arctic air masses. Semi-volatile compounds are carried to the Arctic by cycles of evaporation, transport and condensation. Rain, snow, ice and dry deposition capture the airborne contaminants and pollute the surface on which they settle. The contaminants are processed in rivers by sedimentation and resuspension of particles, and lakes, estuaries and deltas act as sinks. The effects of these contaminants is not fully understood, although it is clear that they accumulate in fatty tissues, thus posing special danger to First Nations people who are known to consume fatty sea mammals. Inuit adults from Arctic Quebec and Greenland have PCB concentrations in their blood seven times higher than found in North American adults; 35 times higher than Health Canada's 'level of concern' for women of reproductive age. The cleanup of all PCB and other POP sources is believed to be the only preventative solution, but agreement among countries about how to deal with the existing POPs in the environment to date has proven to be difficult.

  20. The palaeobiology of high latitude birds from the early Eocene greenhouse of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Thomas A; Eberle, Jaelyn J

    2016-02-12

    Fossils attributable to the extinct waterfowl clade Presbyornithidae and the large flightless Gastornithidae from the early Eocene (~52-53 Ma) of Ellesmere Island, in northernmost Canada are the oldest Cenozoic avian fossils from the Arctic. Except for its slightly larger size, the Arctic presbyornithid humerus is not distinguishable from fossils of Presbyornis pervetus from the western United States, and the Gastornis phalanx is within the known size range of mid-latitude individuals. The occurrence of Presbyornis above the Arctic Circle in the Eocene could be the result of annual migration like that of its living duck and geese relatives, or it may have been a year-round resident similar to some Eocene mammals on Ellesmere and some extant species of sea ducks. Gastornis, along with some of the mammalian and reptilian members of the Eocene Arctic fauna, likely over-wintered in the Arctic. Despite the milder (above freezing) Eocene climate on Ellesmere Island, prolonged periods of darkness occurred during the winter. Presence of these extinct birds at both mid and high latitudes on the northern continents provides evidence that future increases in climatic warming (closer to Eocene levels) could lead to the establishment of new migratory or resident populations within the Arctic Circle.

  1. Size distribution of absorbing and fluorescing DOM in Beaufort Sea, Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Guéguen, Céline

    2017-03-01

    The molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is considered as an important factor affecting the bioavailability of organic matter and associated chemical species. Colored DOM (CDOM) MW distribution was determined, for the first time, in the Beaufort Sea (Canada Basin) by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with online diode array ultra violet-visible photometer and offline fluorescence detectors. The apparent MW ranged from 1.07 to 1.45 kDa, congruent with previous studies using high performance size exclusion chromatography and tangential flow filtration. Interestingly, a minimum in MW was associated with the Pacific Summer Waters (PSW), while higher MW was associated with the Pacific Winter Waters (PWW). The Arctic Intermediate Waters (AIW) did not show any significant change in MW and fluorescence intensities distribution between stations, suggesting homogeneous DOM composition in deep waters. Three fluorescence components including two humic-like components and one protein-like component were PARAFAC-validated. With the increase of MW, protein-like fluorescence component became more dominant while the majority remained as marine/microbially derived humic-like components. Overall, it is concluded that water mass origin influenced DOM MW distribution in the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  3. Recontinentalizing Canada: Arctic Ice’s Liquid Modernity and the Imagining of a Canadian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Vannini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Studying mobile actor networks of moving people, objects, images, and discourses, in conjunction with changing time-spaces, offers a unique opportunity to understand important, and yet relatively neglected, “relational material” dynamics of mobility. A key example of this phenomenon is the recontinentalization of Canada amidst dramatically changing articulations of the meanings and boundaries of the Canadian land-ice-ocean mass. A notable reason why Canada is being re-articulated in current times is the extensiveness of Arctic thawing. The reconfiguration of space and “motility” options in the Arctic constitutes an example of how “materiality and sociality produce themselves together.” In this paper we examine the possibilities and risks connected to this recontinentalization of Canada’s North. In exploring the past, present, and immediate future of this setting, we advance the paradigmatic view that Canada’s changing Arctic is the key element in a process of transformation of Canada into a peninsular body encompassed within a larger archipelagic entity: a place more intimately attuned to its immense (and growing coastal and insular routes.

  4. Lumped hydrological models is an Occam' razor for runoff modeling in large Russian Arctic basins

    OpenAIRE

    Ayzel Georgy

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the possibility of three lumped hydrological models to predict daily runoff of large-scale Arctic basins for the modern period (1979-2014) in the case of substantial data scarcity. All models were driven only by meteorological forcing reanalysis dataset without any additional information about landscape, soil or vegetation cover properties of studied basins. We found limitations of model parameters calibration in ungauged basins using global optimization alg...

  5. Conventional natural gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of decline curve analysis to analyse and extrapolate the production performance of oil and gas reservoirs was discussed. This mathematical analytical tool has been a valid method for estimating the conventional crude oil resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it has failed to provide a generally acceptable estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the WCSB. This paper proposes solutions to this problem and provides an estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the basin by statistical analysis of the declining finding rates. Although in the past, decline curve analysis did not reflect the declining finding rates of natural gas in the WCSB, the basin is now sufficiently developed that estimates of conventional natural gas resources can be made by this analytical tool. However, the analysis must take into account the acceleration of natural gas development drilling that has occurred over the lifetime of the basin. It was concluded that ultimate resources of conventional marketable natural gas of the WCSB estimated by decline analysis amount to 230 tcf. It was suggested that further research be done to explain why the Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) estimate for Alberta differs from the decline curve analysis method. 6 refs., 35 figs

  6. Bacterial biogeography influenced by shelf-basin exchange in the Arctic surface sediment at the Chukchi Borderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dukki; Nam, Seung-Il; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyoungjun; Sadowsky, Michael J; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that continental shelves around the Arctic Ocean play a major role in the ventilation of the deep basins as a consequence of shelf-basin exchange. In the present study, we found that bacterial assemblage of the surface sediment was different from that of seawater while seawater harboured local bacterial assemblages in response to the Arctic hydrography. This finding suggests that the Arctic seafloor sediments may have distinctive bacterial biogeography. Moreover, the distribution of bacterial assemblages and physicochemical properties in surface sediments changed gradually from the Arctic continental shelf to deep-sea basin. Based on the results, bacterial biogeography in the Arctic seafloor sediments may be influenced by winnowing and re-deposition of surface sediments through the sediment gravity flow. The present study offers a deeper understanding of shelf convection and its role for the construction of bacterial assemblages in the Arctic Ocean. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Petroleum potential in western Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Osadetz, K.G.; Embry, A.F.; Gao, H.; Hannigan, P.K. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    The discovery of 19 major petroleum fields, including 8 crude oil and 25 natural gas pools was made possible by the drilling of 119 wells in the Mesozoic structural play of the western Sverdrup Basin in the Canadian Arctic. The discovery of total original in-place reserve at standard conditions represents 10 per cent of the conventional crude oil and 23 per cent of the natural gas national reserves remaining. It is expected that 93 fields will be in operation, including approximately 25 crude oil pools and 117 natural gas pools larger than or equal to the smallest oil and gas pools discovered. The largest natural gas pools were found efficiently, as indicated by the exploration data and resource assessment results. Also, the discovery of 9 of the 17 largest gas pools has already been made. It is believed that the Drake and Hecla fields represent the two largest natural gas pools. During the first nine years of exploration, no major oil pools were discovered, and the results seem to indicate that the oil pools were not found efficiently. It is believed that between 7 and 9 crude oil pools remain to be discovered, with five of the ten largest crude oil pools already discovered. One of the undiscovered oil pools is expected to be equal in size to the largest discovered crude oil pool at Cisco in the Awingak Formation. Confidence in the results increases with the ability to compare discovery process and volumetric methods of assessment. Each technique has advantages. A simultaneous analysis of oil and gas pools is possible with the Geo-anchored discovery process model. It also provides independent and objective estimates of numbers of accumulations. No reference to exploratory risk evaluations or efficiencies of geophysical prospecting are made. Recommendations for improvements to assessments were made. They included: obtaining unbiased distributions of reservoir volumetric parameters with the Multivariate Discovery Process Model, estimating simultaneously oil and gas

  8. Baseline monitoring of the western Arctic Ocean estimates 20% of Canadian basin surface waters are undersaturated with respect to aragonite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Robbins

    Full Text Available Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ≈ 20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean's largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater.

  9. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    , Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest......The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland...... regulations, long term monitoring of breeding colonies in remote coastal locations, reporting on emerging disease epidemics, and ongoing field studies which examine the impacts of polar bear predation under changing sea ice conditions. This presentation will review how working relationships were established...

  10. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  11. CO2 dynamics of tundra ponds in the low-Arctic, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Mary-Claire

    Extensive research has gone into measuring changes to the carbon storage capacity of Arctic terrestrial environments as well as large water bodies in order to determine a carbon budget for many regions across the Arctic. Inland Arctic waters such as small lakes and ponds are often excluded from these carbon budgets, however a handful of studies have demonstrated that they can often be significant sources of carbon to the atmosphere. This study investigated the CO2 cycling of tundra ponds in the Daring Lake area, Northwest Territories, Canada (64°52'N, 111°35'W), to determine the role ponds have in the local carbon cycle. Floating chambers, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors and headspace samples were used to estimate carbon fluxes from four selected local ponds. Multiple environmental, chemical and meteorological parameters were also monitored for the duration of the study, which took place during the snow free season of 2013. Average CO2 emissions for the two-month growing season ranged from approximately -0.0035 g CO2-C m-2 d -1 to 0.12 g CO2-C m-2 d-1. The losses of CO2 from the water bodies in the Daring Lake area were approximately 2-7% of the CO2 uptake over vegetated terrestrial tundra during the same two-month period. Results from this study indicated that the production of CO2 in tundra ponds was positively influenced by both increases in air temperature, and the delivery of carbon from their catchments. The relationship found between temperature and carbon emissions suggests that warming Arctic temperatures have the potential to increase carbon emissions from ponds in the future. The findings in this study did not include ebullition gas emissions nor plant mediated transport, therefore these findings are likely underestimates of the total carbon emissions from water bodies in the Daring Lake area. This study emphasizes the need for more research on inland waters in order to improve our understanding of the total impact these waters may have on the

  12. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  13. Atmospheric mercury accumulation between 5900 and 800 calibrated years BP in the high arctic of Canada recorded by Peat Hummocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first comprehensive long-term record of preanthropogenic rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in dated peat deposits for the High Arctic of Canada. Geochemical studies of two peat hummocks from Bathurst Island, Nunavut reveal substantial inputs from soil dust...... (titanium), marine aerosols (bromine), and mineral-water interactions (uranium). Mercury, however, was supplied to these peat mounds exclusively by atmospheric deposition. Mercury concentration measurements and age dating of the peat profiles indicate rather constant natural "background" mercury flux of ca....... 1 microgram per square meter per year from 5900 to 800 calibrated years BP. These values are well within the range of the mercury fluxes reported from other Arctic locations, but also by peat cores from southern Canada that provide a record of atmospheric Hg accumulation extending back 8000 years...

  14. Prediction in ungauged basins: approaches for Canada's cold regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietroniro, Alain; Pomeroy, John Willard; Spence, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In March, 2004, Water Survey of Canada and the Canadian Society for Hydrological Sciences co-hosted a workshop in Yellowknife to discuss how to improve our community's abilities to predict streamflow...

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) in Nunavut, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Simen [Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: simenpeders1@gmail.com; Lierhagen, Syverin [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, N-7485 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-09-15

    Accumulation of cadmium, mercury, lead, copper and zinc was studied in muscle, liver and kidney of 9 adult and 7 juvenile arctic hares (Lepus arcticus), collected in 2003 in the southwestern part of Nunavut, Canada. Our objective was to determine the level of heavy metal accumulation, and distribution among age groups and tissue. Concentrations of all metals varied among tissues, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn were higher in adults compared to juveniles. We found correlations in metal content among tissues, and among metals in kidneys. We also found the hares to have low concentration of most heavy metals except cadmium. We suggest that the high cadmium levels might be caused by the local geology, and the hares being adapted to these levels. The low levels of the other metals are probably due to low input of atmospheric contaminants. Only one of the individuals had Cd content slightly above the maximum contaminant levels recommended for human consumption of meat. There were no levels in meat above the recommended maximum for the rest of the metals surveyed. However the Cd levels in liver and kidney are orders of magnitude higher than the recommended maximum, and consumption of these organs should be avoided.

  16. Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY. Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the water to the Atlantic layer in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream, north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, suggesting a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600–800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending, saline boundary

  17. Factors Reducing Efficiency of the Operational Oceanographic Forecast Systems in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belokopytov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of the forecasted fields in the Arctic Basin is limited by a number of problems resulting, in the first turn, from lack of operational information. Due to the ice cover, satellite data on the sea level and the sea surface temperature is either completely not available or partially accessible in summer. The amount of CTD measuring systems functioning in the operational mode (3 – 5 probes is not sufficient. The number of the temperature-profiling buoys the probing depth of which is limited to 60 m, is not enough for the Arctic as well. Lack of spatial resolution of the available altimetry information (14 km, as compared to the Rossby radius in the Arctic Ocean (2 – 12 km, requires a thorough analysis of the forecasting system practical goals. The basic factor enhancing reliability of the oceanographic forecast consists in the fact that the key oceanographic regions, namely the eastern parts of the Norwegian and Greenland seas, the Barents Sea and the Chukchi Sea including the Bering Strait (where the Atlantic and Pacific waters flow in and transform, and the halocline structure is formed are partially or completely free of ice and significantly better provided with operational information.

  18. A Large Eddy Simulation Study of Heat Entrainment under Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, E.; Yang, D.; Gelderloos, R.; Meneveau, C. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice cover in the Arctic has declined rapidly in recent decades. The much faster than projected retreat suggests that climate models may be missing some key processes, or that these processes are not accurately represented. The entrainment of heat from the mixed layer by small-scale turbulence is one such process. In the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, relatively warm Pacific Summer Water (PSW) resides at the base of the mixed layer. With an increasing influx of PSW, the upper ocean in the Canadian Basin has been getting warmer and fresher since the early 2000s. While studies show a correlation between sea ice reduction and an increase in PSW temperature, others argue that PSW intrusions in the Canadian Basin cannot affect sea ice thickness because the strongly-stratified halocline prevents heat from the PSW layer from being entrained into the mixed layer and up to the basal ice surface. In this study, we try to resolve this conundrum by simulating the turbulent entrainment of heat from the PSW layer to a moving basal ice surface using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES model is based on a high-fidelity spectral approach on horizontal planes, and includes a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid model that reduces the need for empirical inputs for subgrid-scale viscosities and diffusivities. This LES tool allows us to investigate physical processes in the mixed layer at a very fine scale. We focus our study on summer conditions, when ice is melting, and show for a range of ice-drift velocities, halocline temperatures, and halocline salinity gradients characteristic of the Canadian Basin how much heat can be entrained from the PSW layer to the sea ice. Our results can be used to improve parameterizations of vertical heat flux under sea ice in coarse-grid ocean and climate models.

  19. Determining hydrological changes in a small Arctic treeline basin using cold regions hydrological modelling and a pseudo-global warming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, S. A.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are producing higher rainfall ratios, shorter snow-covered periods, permafrost thaw, more shrub coverage, more northerly treelines and greater interaction between groundwater and surface flow in Arctic basins. How these changes will impact the hydrology of the Arctic treeline environment represents a great challenge. To diagnose the future hydrology along the current Arctic treeline, a physically based cold regions model was used to simulate the hydrology of a small basin near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. The hydrological model includes hydrological processes such as snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, canopy interception of snow/rain and sublimation/evaporation, snowmelt energy balance, active layer freeze/thaw, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, evapotranspiration, horizontal flow through organic terrain and snowpack, subsurface flow and streamflow routing. The model was driven with weather simulated by a high-resolution (4 km) numerical weather prediction model under two scenarios: (1) control run, using ERA-Interim boundary conditions (2001-2013) and (2) future, using a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) approach based on the RCP8.5 projections perturbing the control run. Transient changes in vegetation based on recent observations and ecological expectations were then used to re-parameterise the model. Historical hydrological simulations were validated against daily streamflow, snow water equivalent and active layer thickness records, showing the model's suitability in this environment. Strong annual warming ( 6 °C) and more precipitation ( 20%) were simulated by the PGW scenario, with winter precipitation and fall temperature showing the largest seasonal increase. The joint impact of climate and transient vegetation changes on snow accumulation and redistribution, evapotranspiration, active layer development, runoff generation and hydrograph characteristics are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Baseline monitoring of the western Arctic Ocean estimates 20% of the Canadian Basin surface waters are undersaturated with respect to aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Lisle, John T.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu; Patsavas, Mark C.; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Takahashi, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index) for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ~20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean’s largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater.

  1. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  2. Diazotroph Diversity in the Sea Ice, Melt Ponds, and Surface Waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A; Buttigieg, Pier L; Rapp, Josephine Z; Krumpen, Thomas; Zehr, Jonathan P; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing toward a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77°N. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  3. Diazotroph diversity in the sea ice, melt ponds and surface waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing towards a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77ºN. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  4. The 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-11-15

    Professional Paper 1824 comprises 30 chapters by various U.S. Geological Survey authors, including introduction and methodology chapters, which together provide documentation of the geological basis and methodology of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, results of which were first released in August 2008.  Twenty-eight chapters summarize the petroleum geology and resource potential of individual, geologically defined provinces north of the Arctic Circle, including those of northern Alaska, northern Canada, east and west Greenland, and most of Arctic Russia, as well as certain offshore areas of the north Atlantic Basin and the Polar Sea. Appendixes tabulate the input and output information used during the assessment.

  5. Dissolved Fe in the Deep and Upper Arctic Ocean With a Focus on Fe Limitation in the Nansen Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha J. A. Rijkenberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming resulting from the release of anthropogenic carbon dioxide is rapidly changing the Arctic Ocean. Over the last decade sea ice declined in extent and thickness. As a result, improved light availability has increased Arctic net primary production, including in under-ice phytoplankton blooms. During the GEOTRACES cruise PS94 in the summer of 2015 we measured dissolved iron (DFe, nitrate and phosphate throughout the central part of the Eurasian Arctic. In the deeper waters concentrations of DFe were higher, which we relate to resuspension on the continental slope in the Nansen Basin and hydrothermal activity at the Gakkel Ridge. The main source of DFe in the surface was the Trans Polar Drift (TPD, resulting in concentrations up to 4.42 nM. Nevertheless, using nutrient ratios we show that a large under-ice bloom in the Nansen basin was limited by Fe. Fe limitation potentially prevented up to 54% of the available nitrate and nitrite from being used for primary production. In the Barents Sea, Fe is expected to be the first nutrient to be depleted as well. Changes in the Arctic biogeochemical cycle of Fe due to retreating ice may therefore have large consequences for primary production, the Arctic ecosystem and the subsequent drawdown of carbon dioxide.

  6. Comparative analysis of total mercury concentrations in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, S. van der; Evans, M.S.; Dempson, J.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Power, M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented that total mercury concentrations ([THg]) are lower in anadromous Arctic charr than in non-anadromous conspecifics, but the two life-history forms have rarely been studied together. Here, data from nine pairs of closely-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations were used to explore the impact of biological and life-history factors on individual [THg] across a range of latitudes (49–81° N) in eastern Canada. Unadjusted mean [THg] ranged from 20 to 114 ng/g wet weight (ww) in anadromous populations, and was significantly higher in non-anadromous populations, ranging from 111 to 227 ng/g ww. Within-population variations in [THg] were best explained by fish age, and were often positively related to fork-length and δ 15 N-inferred trophic level. Differences in [THg] were not related to differences in length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) among populations of either life-history type. Mercury concentrations were not related to site latitude in either the anadromous or non-anadromous fish. We conclude that the difference in Arctic charr [THg] with life-history type could not be explained by differences in fish age, fork-length, trophic position, or length-at-age, and discuss possible factors contributing to low mercury concentrations in anadromous, relative to freshwater, fish. - Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in 9 co-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations. ► Mean [THg] in non-anadromous populations exceeded mean [THg] in spatially paired anadromous populations. ► Among-individual variation in [THg] was best explained by fish age. ► The lower [THg] in anadromous fish could not be explained by differences in age, fork-length, trophic level, or growth rate. ► Variations in Arctic charr [THg] were independent of latitude (49–81° N) in eastern Canada

  7. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  8. Stimulating research and technology in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, H [Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-11

    The Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada prepared a survey as part of its investigation of the challenges and opportunities facing the oil and gas industry. This report includes a compilation of the 144 responses to the survey which was open for comment from May to early July 2003. The top technical challenges facing the conventional oil and gas industry were listed as being: improving conventional and heavy oil ultimate recovery; cost-effectively addressing environmental challenges including water, soil and air pollution and ecological impacts; life extension and cost reduction technologies; reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency; learning how to produce tight gas economically; using carbon dioxide injection for enhanced recovery; improving measurement-while-drilling techniques; and, improving seismic-while-drilling techniques. Other technical challenges include the development of hydrogen gas auto fuel; subsurface microbiology to enhance oil and gas quality; risk management; water conservation; and, coalbed methane. The report also listed a myriad of technologies with high potential for field testing. Many respondents strongly agreed that research and development incentive programs involving royalty tax credits or financial tax credits would result in greater resource recoverability. Respondents were also asked what additional role the government could play in resource development. The responses were numerous. The survey also also addressed the challenges associated with the service sector. figs.

  9. Canada’s 2009 Northern Strategy: Cold War Policy in a Warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    more harm than benefit to Northern peoples like the Inuit , the people most directly affected by Arctic activities. They argue there is no immediate...waterways of the Arctic Archipelago, the Canadian government re-settled eight native Inuit families from northern Quebec to Resolute Bay and Grise Ford...76 Initially the re-location was claimed to be a humanitarian effort intended to save the lives of starving Inuit by providing them with new

  10. Mesoscale dynamics in the Lofoten Basin - a sub-Arctic "hot spot" of oceanic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, D. L.; Belonenko, T. V.; Foux, V. R.

    2012-12-01

    A sub-Arctic "hot spot" of intense mesoscale variability is observed in the Lofoten Basin (LB) - a topographic depression with a maximum depth of about 3250 m, located in the Norwegian Sea. The standard deviation of sea surface height (SSH), measured with satellite altimetry, reaches nearly 15 cm in the center of the basin (Figure 1a). Using a space-time lagged correlation analysis of altimetry data, we discover a cyclonic propagation of the mesoscale SSH anomalies around the center of the LB with time-averaged phase speeds of 2-4 km/day, strongly linked to bottom topography (Figure 1c). The fact that surface drifter trajectories do not exhibit cyclonic circulation in the LB (Figure 1b) suggests that, at least in the upper ocean, satellite altimetry observes only the propagation of form without the corresponding transfer of mass. Linearly propagating wavelike disturbances that do not trap fluid inside are related to planetary or Rossby waves. Variations in topography may lead to the concentration of wave energy in certain regions or wave trapping. The dispersion analysis suggests that the observed wavelike cyclonic propagation of SSH anomalies in the LB is the manifestation of baroclinic topographic Rossby waves, that we term "the basin waves" in order to distinguish them from the other types of topographic waves, such as shelf or trench waves. We identify two modes of basin waves in the LB: a di-pole mode and a quadri-pole mode. The wavelength of each mode is about 500 km. The frequency of these modes is not constant and the phase speed varies from about 2 to 8 km/day. We show that the cyclonically rotating basin waves are responsible for the observed amplification of SSH variability in the LB. Because the baroclinic basin waves in the LB are probably associated with large vertical displacements of the thermocline and due to possible wave breaking events, they can play an important role in the mixing of the inflowing Atlantic Water with ambient water masses

  11. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  12. Genetic models and their impact on uranium exploration in the Athabasca sandstone basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    While the Beaverlodge area of Northern Saskatchewan became an important uranium-producing district during the 1950s, the Athabasca sandstone basin, located in the immediate vicinity, was considered to be non-prospective in Canada's regional assessment. Twenty years later, with the introduction of the supergene model into the basin's exploration strategy, the favourability of the host-rock for uranium deposits was shown. However, in some instances the search for local targets was enriched by implementing non-supergene models. Most geologists originally favoured the Middle Proterozoic (sub-Helikian) unconformity as a unique ore-controlling feature. Later, the concept of Lower Proterozoic (Aphebian) syngenetic protore, as represented by graphite-bearing strata in Archaean proximity, was added. In the author's view the combination of these factors is productive only within specialized segments of Archaean-Lower Proterozoic (Archaean-Aphebian) contact zones. (author)

  13. High resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy and glendonite occurrences of the Christopher Formation, Sverdrup Basin (Axel Heiberg Island, Canada): implications for mid Cretaceous high latitude climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrle, Jens O.; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Pugh, Adam T.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of Canada's Arctic region, as a crucial component of Earth's climate system, is fundamental to assess short and long-term climate, environmental, and paleogeographic change. However, the stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Cretaceous Arctic is poorly constrained and a detailed bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation of major mid-Cretaceous paleoceanographic turning points such as Oceanic Anoxic Events, cold snaps, and biotic turnovers with key locations of the high- and low latitudes is missing. Here we present for the first time a high resolution bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Arctic Albian Christopher Formation of the Sverdrup Basin at Glacier Fiord in the southern part of Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. By using these techniques we developed a high temporal framework to record major environmental changes as it is indicated by the occurrence of glendonites and sandstone intervals of our studied Albian succession. The Albian Christopher Formation is a shale dominated marine unit with a thickness of approximately 1200 m. Several transgressive/ regressive cycles can be recognized by prograding shoreface units that break up mudrock deposition. In addition, glendonites are mainly found in the lower part of the Christopher Formation. Glendonites are pseudomorphs of calcite, after the metastable mineral ikaite, and have been often described from high latitude Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous marine environments from the Canadian Arctic, Spitsbergen and Australia. The formation of glendonites takes place in the uppermost layer of the sediment and requires near-freezing temperatures, high salinity, and orthophosphate-rich bottom water. Although the presence of glendonites implies a range of paleoenvironmental conditions there is a consensus in the scientific literature that they reflect cooler paleoenvironmental conditions. Preliminary bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphic results suggest that the

  14. Early Triassic development of a foreland basin in the Canadian high Arctic: Implications for a Pangean Rim of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlari, Thomas; Dewing, Keith; Matthews, William A.; Alonso-Torres, Daniel; Midwinter, Derrick

    2018-06-01

    Following the amalgamation of Laurasia and Gondwana to form Pangea, some Triassic tectonic models show an encircling arc system called the "Pangean Rim of Fire". Here we show that the stratigraphy and Early Triassic detrital zircon provenance of the Sverdrup Basin in the Canadian Arctic is most consistent with deposition in a retro-arc foreland basin. Late Permian and Early Triassic volcanism was accompanied by relatively high rates of subsidence leading to a starved basin with volcanic input from a magmatic arc to the northwest. The mostly starved basin persisted through the Middle and Late Triassic with nearly continuous input of volcanic ash recorded as bentonites on the northwestern edge of the basin. In the latest Triassic it is interpreted that decreasing subsidence and a significant influx of sand-grade sediment when the arc was exhumed led to filling of the basin at the end of an orogenic cycle. Combined with other hints of Early Triassic arc activity along the western margin of Laurentia we propose that the Pangean Rim of Fire configuration spanned the entire Triassic. This proposed configuration represents the ring of external subduction zones that some models suggest are necessary for the breakup of supercontinents such as Pangea.

  15. Applying Binary Forecasting Approaches to Induced Seismicity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahue, R.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has been chosen as a focus due to an increase in the recent observed seismicity there which is most likely linked to anthropogenic activities related to unconventional oil and gas exploration. Seismicity caused by these types of activities is called induced seismicity. The occurrence of moderate to larger induced earthquakes in areas where critical infrastructure is present can be potentially problematic. Here we use a binary forecast method to analyze past seismicity and well production data in order to quantify future areas of increased seismicity. This method splits the given region into spatial cells. The binary forecast method used here has been suggested in the past to retroactively forecast large earthquakes occurring globally in areas called alarm cells. An alarm cell, or alert zone, is a bin in which there is a higher likelihood for earthquakes to occur based on previous data. The first method utilizes the cumulative Benioff strain, based on earthquakes that had occurred in each bin above a given magnitude over a time interval called the training period. The second method utilizes the cumulative well production data within each bin. Earthquakes that occurred within an alert zone in the retrospective forecast period contribute to the hit rate, while alert zones that did not have an earthquake occur within them in the forecast period contribute to the false alarm rate. In the resulting analysis the hit rate and false alarm rate are determined after optimizing and modifying the initial parameters using the receiver operating characteristic diagram. It is found that when modifying the cell size and threshold magnitude parameters within various training periods, hit and false alarm rates are obtained for specific regions in Western Canada using both recent seismicity and cumulative well production data. Certain areas are thus shown to be more prone to potential larger earthquakes based on both datasets. This has implications

  16. Depositional History of the Western Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean, and Implications for Neogene Climate and Oceanographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, J. R.; Castro, C. F.; Knutz, P. C.; Funck, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected in the western Amundsen Basin as part of the Law of the Sea program for the Kingdom of Denmark show a uniform and continuous cover of sediments over oceanic basement. An interpretation of seismic facies units shows that the depositional history of the basin reflects changing tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic conditions throughout the Cenozoic. In this contribution, the Miocene to present history is summarized. Two distinct changes in the depositional environment are proposed, first in response to the development of a deep water connection between the Arctic and North Atlantic, and the second in response to the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. In the early to mid-Miocene, a buildup of contourite deposits indicates a distinct change in sedimentation that is particularly well developed near the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge. It is suggested that this is a response to the opening of the Fram Strait and the establishment of geostrophic bottom currents that flowed from the Laptev Sea towards Greenland. These deposits are overlain by a seismic facies unit characterized by buried channels and erosional features. These include prominent basinward levee systems that suggest a channel morphology maintained by overbank deposition of muddy sediments carried by suspension currents periodically spilling over the channel pathway. These deposits indicate a change to a much higher energy environment that is proposed to be a response to brine formation associated with the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. This interpretation implies that the development of extensive sea ice cover results in a significant change in the energy environment of the ocean that is reflected in the depositional and erosional patterns observed. The lack of similar high energy erosional features and the presence of contourite deposits throughout most of the Miocene may indicate the Arctic Ocean was relatively ice-free until the very latest

  17. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  18. Characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia from Nunavik, Canada and comparison with Hia strains in other North American Arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond S.W. Tsang

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: One major clone of Hia appears to be causing invasive disease in Nunavik, Canada. Based on previous studies, Hia from Nunavut were also typed as ST-23, while invasive Hia isolates from Alaska belonged to either ST-23 or closely related STs. Thus invasive Hia in the North America Arctic belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex and lacked the IS1016-bexA partial deletion.

  19. Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Kruemmel, Eva; Lean, David; Poulain, Alexandre; Kinnard, Christophe; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of coliforms from glacial ice and water in Canada's High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; Shears, P; Platt, D J

    1997-05-01

    Ellesmere Island is the northern most member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago with over one-third of the land mass covered by ice. A joint services expedition to the island's Blue Mountains offered a unique opportunity for microbiological studies of resident bacteria in an environment uninhabited by man. Over 100 samples of water and ice were collected from stream, lake and glacier and the filtrate cultured under canvas. Bacterial growth was harvested onto swabs for transport back to the UK and 50 coliforms chosen at random for identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the glacial strains were capsulated, pigmented and some over 2000 years old. Genera such as Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Yersinia were found; speciation was inconclusive and some organisms remain unidentified. Ampicillin resistance was evident in 80% of water isolates as opposed to 30% of the glacial organisms, but the isolates were generally exquisitely susceptible to antibiotics. The facility for ampicillin resistance did not appear to be transferable. Plasmid DNA was found in 33% of the glacial organisms and over 50% of the water isolates. Similar profiles were identified within and apparently between species and required plasmid restriction analysis to help establish identity. Plasmid-free Serratia spp. were subjected to genomic fingerprinting. Indistinguishable patterns were found within sets of isolates both widely spaced by distance and collection date and it was postulated that coliforms able to survive an Arctic environment had spread extensively throughout the expedition area. In conclusion, this study contributes towards knowledge of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance, confirms the presence of plasmids and genotypic data provided evidence that potentially ancient organisms from glaciers can be cultured from water samples significantly distant.

  1. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  2. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  3. Fracture overprinting history using Markov chain analysis: Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Morgan E.; Waldron, John W. F.

    2018-03-01

    The deformation history of the Upper Paleozoic Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada, can be partially unraveled by examining fractures (joints, veins, and faults) that are well exposed on the shorelines of the macrotidal Bay of Fundy, in subsurface core, and on image logs. Data were collected from coastal outcrops and well core across the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, a subbasin in the Maritimes Basin, using the circular scan-line and vertical scan-line methods in outcrop, and FMI Image log analysis of core. We use cross-cutting and abutting relationships between fractures to understand relative timing of fracturing, followed by a statistical test (Markov chain analysis) to separate groups of fractures. This analysis, previously used in sedimentology, was modified to statistically test the randomness of fracture timing relationships. The results of the Markov chain analysis suggest that fracture initiation can be attributed to movement along the Minas Fault Zone, an E-W fault system that bounds the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin to the north. Four sets of fractures are related to dextral strike slip along the Minas Fault Zone in the late Paleozoic, and four sets are related to sinistral reactivation of the same boundary in the Mesozoic.

  4. Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

    2008-09-01

    A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

  5. Variability of sea ice deformation rates in the Arctic and their relationship with basin-scale wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variability of the moments of probability distribution functions (pdfs of total sea ice deformation rates in the Arctic is analyzed in the context of the basin-scale wind forcing acting on the ice. The pdfs are estimated for 594 satellite-derived sea ice deformation maps from 11 winter seasons between 1996/1997 and 2007/2008, provided by the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System. The temporal scale analyzed equals 3 days. The moments of the pdfs, calculated for a range of spatial scales (12.5–900 km, have two dominating components of variability: a seasonal cycle, with deformation rates decreasing throughout winter towards a minimum in March; and a short-term, synoptic variability, strongly correlated with the area-averaged magnitude of the wind stress over the Arctic, estimated based on the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis-2 data (correlation coefficient of 0.71 for the mean deformation rate. Due to scaling properties of the moments, logarithms of higher moments are strongly correlated with the wind stress as well. Exceptions are observed only at small spatial scales, as a result of extreme deformation events, not directly associated with large-scale wind forcing. By repeating the analysis within regions of different sizes and locations, we show that the wind–ice deformation correlation is largest at the basin scale and decreases with decreasing size of the area of study. Finally, we suggest that a positive trend in seasonally averaged correlation between sea ice deformation rates and the wind forcing, present in the analyzed data, may be related to an observed decrease in the multi-year ice area in the Arctic, indicating possibly even stronger correlations in the future.

  6. Arctic Tundra Flux Study in the Kuparuk River Basin (Alaska), 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: CO2 and water vapor fluxes and ecosystem characteristics were measured at 24 sites along a 317-km transect from the Arctic coast to the latitudinal...

  7. Scaling Laws in Arctic Permafrost River Basins: Statistical Signature in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Gangodagamage, C.; Wilson, C. J.; Prancevic, J. P.; Brumby, S. P.; Marsh, P.; Crosby, B. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic landscape has been shown to be fundamentally different from the temperate landscape in many ways. Long winters and cold temperatures have led to the development of permafrost, perennially frozen ground, that controls geomorphic processes and the structure of the Arctic landscape. Climate warming is causing changes in permafrost and the active layer (the seasonally thawed surface layer) that is driving an increase in thermal erosion including thermokarst (collapsed soil), retrogressive thaw slumps, and gullies. These geomorphic anomalies in the arctic landscapes have not been well quantified, even though some of the landscape geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics and changes are detectable by our existing sensor networks. We currently lack understanding of the fundamental fluvio-thermal-erosional processes that underpin Arctic landscape structure and form, which limits our ability to develop models to predict the landscape response to current and future climate change. In this work, we seek a unified framework that can explain why permafrost landscapes are different from temperate landscapes. We use high resolution LIDAR data to analyze arctic geomorphic processes at a scale of less than a 1 m and demonstrate our ability to quantify the fundamental difference in the arctic landscape. We first simulate the arctic hillslopes from a stochastic space-filling network and demonstrate that the flow-path convergent properties of arctic landscape can be effectively captured from this simple model, where the simple model represents a landscape flowpath arrangement on a relatively impervious frozen soil layer. Further, we use a novel data processing algorithm to analyze landscape attributes such as slope, curvature, flow-accumulation, elevation-drops and other geomorphic properties, and show that the pattern of diffusion and advection dominated soil transport processes (diffusion/advection regime transition) in the arctic landscape is substantially different

  8. Upper-Ocean Variability in the Arctic’s Amundsen and Nansen Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Toole, John M. WHOI132547SP Krishfield, Richard A. Se. TASK NUMBER Cole, Sylvia T. Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER...findings of the MIZ program to the European sector of the Arctic with its markedly different thermohaline stratification. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic

  9. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE IN MARINE MAMMALS OF NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC AND ARCTIC CANADA: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 85 POSTMORTEM INVESTIGATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurisano, Nicole D; Butler, Brian P; Stone, Diana; Hariharan, Harry; Fields, Paul J; Ferguson, Hugh W; Haulena, Martin; Cotrell, Paul; Nielsen, Ole; Raverty, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    :  Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids ( n=66), otariids ( n=12), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters ( Enhydra lutris; n=2). Pathologic manifestations of S. phocae-associated disease included localized, as well as systemic, inflammatory lesions with common findings of suppurative bronchopneumonia ( n=17) and bacteremia ( n=27). Lung lesions were frequently culture-positive for S. phocae, suggesting commensal colonization of the oropharynx with subsequent opportunistic infection of the respiratory tract during tissue injury, coinfection, immunosuppression, or other debilitating conditions. The presence of a positive spleen culture, and interpretations at necropsy and histopathology, were used to determine the presence of S. phocae bacteremia. Less frequent lesions that were culture positive for S. phocae included abscesses ( n=9), meningitis ( n=7), and cellulitis ( n=1). The majority of cases with S. phocae lesions featured pre-existing conditions that presumably contributed to some degree of debilitation or immunosuppression, including emaciation ( n=29), liver mercury accumulation ( n=29), trauma ( n=22), severe pulmonary or cardiovascular nematodiasis ( n=9), concurrent bacterial or viral infections ( n=8), or sarcocystosis ( n=6). These findings suggest that S. phocae could be characterized as an opportunistic pathogen, associated with debilitating conditions in stranded and rehabilitating marine mammals. Wildlife investigators

  10. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  11. On the changing contribution of snow to the hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, S. J.; Kang, D.; Shi, X.; Gao, H.

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present an application of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), Canada over the latter half of the 20th century. The Fraser River is the longest waterway in BC and supports the world's most abundant Pacific Ocean salmon populations. Previous modeling and observational studies have demonstrated that the FRB is a snow-dominated system but with climate change it may evolve to a pluvial regime. Thus the goal of this study is to evaluate the changing contribution of snow to the hydrology of the watershed over the latter half of the 20th century. To this end, a 0.25° atmospheric forcing dataset is used to drive the VIC model from 1948 to 2006 at a daily time step over a domain covering the entire FRB. A model evaluation is first conducted over 11 major sub-watersheds of the FRB to quantitatively assess the spatial variations of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. The ratio of the spatially averaged maximum SWE to runoff (RSR) is used to quantify the contribution of snow to the runoff in the 11 sub-watersheds of interest. From 1948 to 2006, RSR exhibits a significant decreasing trend in 9 of the 11 sub-watersheds (at a 0.05 of p-value according to the Mann-Kendall Test statistics). Changes in snow accumulation and melt lead to significant advances of the spring freshet throughout the basin. As the climate continues to warm, ecological processes and human usage of natural resources in the FRB may be substantially affected by its transition from a snow to a hybrid (nival/pluvial) and even a rain-dominated watershed.

  12. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogeologic framework of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; LeCain, Gary D.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sando, Roy; Long, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins within the United States and Canada are the uppermost principal aquifer systems and most accessible sources of groundwater for these energy-producing basins. The glacial aquifer system covers the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems are present in about 91,300 square miles (mi2) of the Williston structural basin and about 25,500 mi2 of the Powder River structural basin. Directly under these aquifer systems are 800 to more than 3,000 feet (ft) of relatively impermeable marine shale that serves as a basal confining unit. The aquifer systems in the Williston structural basin have a shallow (less than 2,900 ft deep), wide, and generally symmetrical bowl shape. The aquifer systems in the Powder River structural basin have a very deep (as much as 8,500 ft deep), narrow, and asymmetrical shape.

  14. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada; Origine et composition des fluides mineralisateurs dans le Bassin de l'Athabasca, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J. [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Milesi, J.P. [AREVA, BU Mines, Tour Areva, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  15. Late Holocene climate and chemical change at high latitudes: case studies from contaminated sites in subarctic and arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Cooney, Darryl; Crann, Carley; Falck, Hendrik; Howell, Dana; Jamieson, Heather; Macumber, Andrew; Nasser, Nawaf; Palmer, Michael; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parsons, Michael; Roe, Helen M.; Sanei, Hamed; Spence, Christopher; Stavinga, Drew; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability is occurring at unprecedented rates in northern regions of the Earth, yet little is known about the nature of this variability or its influence on chemical cycling in the environment, particularly in areas with a legacy of contamination from past resource development. We use a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct climate and chemical change over centuries and millennia at two sites in the mineral-rich Slave Geologic Province in Northern Canada heavily impacted by gold mining. Such an approach is necessary to define the cumulative effects of climate change on metal loading and can be used to define anthropogenic release of contaminants to support policy and regulation due to a paucity of long-term monitoring data. The Seabridge Gold Inc. Courageous Lake project is a gold exploration project 240 km north of Yellowknife in the central Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Mining operations took place within the claim area at the Tundra (1964-1968) and Salmita (1983-1987) mines. Giant Mine is located in the subarctic near the City of Yellowknife and mining at this site represents the longest continuous gold mining operation in Canada (1938 to 2002). Due to the refractory mineralogy of ore, gold was extracted from arsenopyrite by roasting, which resulted in release of substantial quantities of highly toxic arsenic trioxide to the environment. Arsenic (As) is also naturally elevated at these sites due its occurrence in Yellowknife Supergroup greenstone belts and surficial geologic deposits. To attempt to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of As and characterize the role of climate change on metalloid mobility we used a freeze coring technology to capture lake sediments from the properties. Sediments were analyzed for sedimentary grain size and bulk geochemistry using ICP-MS to reconstruct climate and chemical change. Micropaleontological analyses are on-going. Interpretations of the physical, chemical, and biological archive

  16. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Does Funding for Arctic Research Align with Research Priorities and Policy Needs? Trends in the USA, Canada and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. S.; Ibarguchi, G.; Rajdev, V.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past twenty years, increasing awareness and understanding of changes in the Arctic system, the stated desires of Arctic Peoples to be engaged in the research process, and a growing international interest in the region's resources have informed various stakeholders to undertake many Arctic science planning activities. Some examples of science planning include priority-setting for research, knowledge translation, stakeholder engagement, improved coordination, and international collaboration. The International Study of Arctic Change recently initiated an analysis of the extent to which alignment exists among stated science priorities, recognized societal needs, and funding patterns of the major North American and European agencies. In this paper, we present a decade of data on international funding patterns and data on two decades of science planning. We discuss whether funding patterns reflect the priority research questions and identified needs for information that are articulated in a myriad of Arctic research planning documents. The alignment in many areas remains poor, bringing into question the purpose of large-scale science planning if it does not lead to funding of those priorities identified by Arctic stakeholder communities (scientists, Arctic Peoples, planners, policy makers, the private sector, and others).

  18. Microbial diversity in Cenozoic sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge in the Central Arctic basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschner, Stephanie R; Sheffer, Roberta; Rowley, David C; Smith, David C

    2009-03-01

    The current understanding of microbes inhabiting deeply buried marine sediments is based largely on samples collected from continental shelves in tropical and temperate latitudes. The geographical range of marine subsurface coring was expanded during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition (IODP ACEX). This expedition to the ice-covered central Arctic Ocean successfully cored the entire 428 m sediment stack on the Lomonosov Ridge during August and September 2004. The recovered cores vary from siliciclastic sediment low in organic carbon ( 200 m below sea floor) sulfate reduction zone. The diversity of microbes within each zone was assessed using 16S rRNA phylogenetic markers. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were successfully amplified from each of the biogeochemical zones, while archaea was only amplified from the deep sulfate reduction zone. The microbial communities at each zone are phylogenetically different and are most closely related to those from other deep subsurface environments.

  19. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  20. Global warming impacts on the biogeochemical functioning of two arctic Cryo-sols in the Salluit region, Nunavik, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouche, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Increased organic matter decomposition rate in Arctic Cryo-sols due to warming and to permafrost thawing can lead to the release of greenhouse gases, thus potentially creating a positive feedback on climate change. We aim to assess the interactions between the thermal regime, the hydric behaviour and the biogeochemical functioning of two different permafrost-affected soils (i.e. Cryo-sols), one being developed in frozen peat (Histic Cryo-sol: H), the other being developed in post-glacial marine clays (Turbic Cryo-sol: T), both in natural conditions and under an experimental warming. Profiles were instrumented in Salluit (Nunavik, Canada; 62 deg. 14'N, 75 deg. 38'W) and monitored during summers 2010 and 2011. Both thermal monitoring and modeling results stressed differences between sites due to the insulating properties of dried peat in summer the active layer at the H site is thinner than at the T site. The induced warming increased CO 2 fluxes in both soils; this impact was however more striking at H even if ecosystem respiration (ER) was lower than at T. Temperature sensitivity of ER (Q 10 ), which decreased with warming, was higher at T than at H. We highlighted that diurnal ER cycles showed hysteretic loops as a function of soil surface temperatures. Linear models performed to explain ER variance were improved when we added daily minimum temperature and thaw front depth at H. In contrast at T, adding wind speed and solar radiation in models improved the ER variance explanation. We showed three specific CO 2 flux dynamics related to northern ecosystems: 1) the large difference of ER depending on soil properties and soil solution composition; 2) environmental variables strongly alter CO 2 fluxes and 3) the diurnal Q 10 variations and the inter annual variability of basal respiration. Our results support the assumption that organic matter decomposition might be the major source of CO 2 at H while plant-derived processes dominated ER at T. Finally, the

  1. An integrated quantitative basin analysis study of the northern part of the Arctic national Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lerche, Ian

    1992-06-01

    An integrated basin analysis was conducted using one- and two-dimensional quantitative dynamic models (1-D and 2-D) in the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Northeastern Alaska. Exploratory well data have been used in the reconstructions of: (1) geohistory including basement subsidence, sediment deposition, change of porosity and compaction, permeability, fluid pressure and fluid flow with time and depth; (2) thermal history including heat flux evolution with time, temperature change with time and depth, and thermal maturation history; and (3) hydrocarbon generation history including the change in the amount of hydrocarbons generated with time and depth, and determining the time and depth of peak hydrocarbon generation. 1-D and 2-D basin modeling codes were used with selected wells, and also with a 18 km section, west of ANWR, with five well controls. It is concluded that: (1) the main source rock west of ANWR area matured first about 40-30 Ma ago in the south and gradually to the north about 10-8 Ma ago on the coastal plain; (2) the modeled erosion thickness at Beli Unit-1 location, northeastern Brooks Range, was 1500-3000 m and at least 3000 m at Canning River Unit B-1; and (3) an overpressure zone within the Hue shale and the lowest part of the Canning Formation caused by rapid Tertiary deposition retained porosity, increased the temperature and speeded hydrocarbon generation in the lower part of the coastal plain.

  2. Tree-ring reconstruction of streamflow in the Snare River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. P.; Pisaric, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a component of many ecosystems in North America causing environmental and socioeconomical impacts. In the ongoing context of climatic and environmental changes, drought-related issues are becoming problematic in northern Canada, which have not been associated with drought-like conditions in the past. Dryer than average conditions threatens the energy security of northern canadian communities, since this region relies on the production of hydroelectricity as an energy source. In the North Slave Region of Northwest Territory (NWT), water levels and streamflows were significantly lower in 2014/2015. The Government of the NWT had to spend nearly $50 million to purchase diesel fuel to generate enough electricity to supplement the reduced power generation of the Snare River hydroelectric system, hence the need to better understand the multi-decadal variability in streamflow. The aims of this presentation are i) to present jack pine and white spruce tree-ring chronologies of Southern NWT; ii) to reconstruct past streamflow of the Snare River Basin; iii) to evaluate the frequency and magnitude of extreme drought conditions, and iv) to identify which large-scale atmospheric or oceanic patterns are teleconnected to regional hydraulic conditions. Preliminary results show that the growth of jack pine and white spruce populations is better correlated with precipitation and temperature, respectively, than hydraulic conditions. Nonetheless, we present a robust streamflow reconstruction of the Snare River that is well correlated with the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, albeit the strength of the correlation is non-stationary. Spectral analysis corroborate the synchronicity between negative NAO conditions and drought conditions. From an operational standpoint, considering that the general occurrence of positive/negative NAO can be predicted, it the hope of the authors that these results can facilitate energetic planning in the Northwest Territories through

  3. Long-term solute transport through thick Cretaceous shale in the Williston Basin Canada using naturally-occurring tracer profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, M. Jim; Novakowski, Kent; Smith, Laura; Koehler, Geoff; Wassenaar, L.I.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. The hydrogeologic evolution of sedimentary basins is generally determined from hydraulic and chemical data collected from aquifers. Hydraulic and chemical data from aquitards, which constitute a much greater volume of basins than aquifers and provide important controls on water and solute transport in the basins, are generally not collected nor studied. In this study we characterized the paleo-groundwater flow and solute transport controls through a vertical section of Cretaceous sediments in the Williston Basin, Canada located near Esterhazy, Saskatchewan. It consists of 384 m of thick argillaceous sediment (aquitard) overlying 93 m of heterogeneous calcareous silt, shale and sandstone (Mannville Fm.; aquifer). Paleo-hydrologic conditions were determined by interpreting high-resolution depth profiles of natural tracers of water isotopes (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H) and Cl- measured on (1) continuous core samples through the aquitard, upper aquifer, and thin Quaternary sediments, (2) water samples collected from monitoring wells installed in the aquifer and the Quaternary sediments, and (3) water samples collected from mine shaft inflows to 900 m below ground. 1D numerical transport modeling reproduced the measured profiles and yielded valuable information on the large-scale and long-term transport behavior in both the Cretaceous aquitard and the Basin. In the modeling, the shapes of the tracer profiles was explained by diffusion with paleo-events identified from the modeling including the introduction of fresher water into the aquifer possibly from the onset of glaciation (activation of the lower boundary) about 1 Ma ago and the impact of the most recent deglaciation about 10 ka ago (activation of the upper boundary). These findings show that the hydrogeologic conditions in deep, extensive basins, such as the Williston Basin, cannot be assumed to be static over geologic time. (authors)

  4. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  5. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  6. Characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) from Nunavik, Canada and comparison with Hia strains in other North American Arctic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Proulx, Jean-Francois; Hayden, Kristy; Shuel, Michelle; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Boisvert, Andree-Anne; Moore, Dorothy

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the microbiological characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenae serotype a (Hia) isolates from Nunavik (northern Quebec), Canada. The relationship between invasive Hia isolates from Nunavik, Nunavut, Canada, and Alaska, USA will be discussed. Twenty invasive Hia isolates were recovered from patients in Nunavik from 2010 to 2013 and characterized by biotype, multi-locus sequence typing, IS1016-bexA deletion, antibiotic susceptibility and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All 20 Hia isolates were biotype II, sequence type -23, did not have IS1016-bexA deletions and were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. PFGE showed only two patterns, with 19 isolates giving identical molecular fingerprints, and the remaining isolate gave a PFGE pattern >95% similar. One major clone of Hia appears to be causing invasive disease in Nunavik, Canada. Based on previous studies, Hia from Nunavut were also typed as ST-23, while invasive Hia isolates from Alaska belonged to either ST-23 or closely related STs. Thus invasive Hia in the North America Arctic belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex and lacked the IS1016-bexA partial deletion. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-01-01

    Arctic peoples are spread over eight countries and comprise 3.74 million residents, of whom 9% are indigenous. The Arctic countries include Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Although Arctic peoples are very diverse, there are a variety...... of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...

  8. Using technology for E and P success - the practices of leader companies in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, G.

    1997-01-01

    The technologies that create a competitive advantage for the leaders in various exploration and production (E and P) strategies were demonstrated. The western Canadian E and P industry has evolved since the oil price shock of 1986 and the gas price shock of 1990-92. Performance of the leaders in broadly defined E and P strategy areas in the western Canada Sedimentary Basin are compared. Success of the industry as a whole was evaluated based on measurement of one of the most critical success factors, technology utilization

  9. Using technology for E and P success - the practices of leader companies in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eynon, G. [Ziff Energy Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The technologies that create a competitive advantage for the leaders in various exploration and production (E and P) strategies were demonstrated. The western Canadian E and P industry has evolved since the oil price shock of 1986 and the gas price shock of 1990-92. Performance of the leaders in broadly defined E and P strategy areas in the western Canada Sedimentary Basin are compared. Success of the industry as a whole was evaluated based on measurement of one of the most critical success factors, technology utilization.

  10. Diagnosis of the hydrology of a small Arctic basin at the tundra-taiga transition using a physically based hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Sebastian A.; Pomeroy, John W.; Marsh, Philip

    2017-07-01

    A better understanding of cold regions hydrological processes and regimes in transitional environments is critical for predicting future Arctic freshwater fluxes under climate and vegetation change. A physically based hydrological model using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model platform was created for a small Arctic basin in the tundra-taiga transition region. The model represents snow redistribution and sublimation by wind and vegetation, snowmelt energy budget, evapotranspiration, subsurface flow through organic terrain, infiltration to frozen soils, freezing and thawing of soils, permafrost and streamflow routing. The model was used to reconstruct the basin water cycle over 28 years to understand and quantify the mass fluxes controlling its hydrological regime. Model structure and parameters were set from the current understanding of Arctic hydrology, remote sensing, field research in the basin and region, and calibration against streamflow observations. Calibration was restricted to subsurface hydraulic and storage parameters. Multi-objective evaluation of the model using observed streamflow, snow accumulation and ground freeze/thaw state showed adequate simulation. Significant spatial variability in the winter mass fluxes was found between tundra, shrubs and forested sites, particularly due to the substantial blowing snow redistribution and sublimation from the wind-swept upper basin, as well as sublimation of canopy intercepted snow from the forest (about 17% of snowfall). At the basin scale, the model showed that evapotranspiration is the largest loss of water (47%), followed by streamflow (39%) and sublimation (14%). The models streamflow performance sensitivity to a set of parameter was analysed, as well as the mean annual mass balance uncertainty associated with these parameters.

  11. Collaboration During the NASA ABoVE Airborne SAR Campaign: Sampling Strategies Used by NGEE Arctic and Other Partners in Alaska and Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Baltzer, J. L.; Berg, A. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Jafarov, E. E.; Marsh, P.; Miller, C. E.; Schaefer, K. M.; Siqueira, P.; Wilson, C. J.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    There is considerable interest in using L- and P-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to monitor variations in aboveground woody biomass, soil moisture, and permafrost conditions in high-latitude ecosystems. Such information is useful for quantifying spatial heterogeneity in surface and subsurface properties, and for model development and evaluation. To conduct these studies, it is desirable that field studies share a common sampling strategy so that the data from multiple sites can be combined and used to analyze variations in conditions across different landscape geomorphologies and vegetation types. In 2015, NASA launched the decade-long Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) to study the sensitivity and resilience of these ecosystems to disturbance and environmental change. NASA is able to leverage its remote sensing strengths to collect airborne and satellite observations to capture important ecosystem properties and dynamics across large spatial scales. A critical component of this effort includes collection of ground-based data that can be used to analyze, calibrate and validate remote sensing products. ABoVE researchers at a large number of sites located in important Arctic and boreal ecosystems in Alaska and western Canada are following common design protocols and strategies for measuring soil moisture, thaw depth, biomass, and wetland inundation. Here we elaborate on those sampling strategies as used in the 2017 summer SAR campaign and address the sampling design and measurement protocols for supporting the ABoVE aerial activities. Plot size, transect length, and distribution of replicates across the landscape systematically allowed investigators to optimally sample a site for soil moisture, thaw depth, and organic layer thickness. Specific examples and data sets are described for the Department of Energy's Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project field sites near Nome and Barrow, Alaska. Future airborne and satellite

  12. Geochemical element mobility during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary basins. The purpose of this study is to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study some natural analogues of deep geological nuclear waste storage. Five research topics were studied: 3D modelling of the distribution of normative minerals and trace elements on a basin-wide scale; U-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics; average chemical age estimation; thermodynamic modelling of the major mineralogical assemblages; U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides. Some elements have remained immobile (Zr) since their initial sedimentary deposition, or were transferred from one phase to another (Al, Th). Other elements have been transported during fluid flow events that occurred: (1) on a basin wide scale during diagenesis (REE, Y, Sr, Fe), (2) at the unconformity and in the vicinity of the fault zones that represent preferential fluid flow pathways between the basement and the sandstone cover (U, Ni, As, B, Mg, K, Fe, Sr, REE), (3) during the late fault reactivation events associated with the basin uplift (U, Pb, Ni, S, Sr, REE). The successive tectonic events related to the geodynamical context that lead to the formation of these high-grade U concentrations (1460 Ma, 1335 Ma and 1275 Ma in the McArthur River deposit), did not however systematically occur in the whole basin (1275 Ma only at Shea Creek). The exceptionally high grade and tonnages of some deposits seem to be related to a larger number of U

  13. Mercury genomics in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K.; Lamborg, C. H.; Collins, E.; Hammerschmidt, C. R.; Agather, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl-mercury production in the ocean is likely dependent on microbial activity, however, methylation pathways remain elusive. In the Arctic, high concentrations of methyl-mercury are found in top predator marine mammals and seabirds. As a result of seafood consumption, pregnant women and women of child-bearing age in the Arctic often have blood Hg concentrations that exceed U.S. and Canadian safety guidelines. To understand the chemical cycling of mercury in the Arctic Ocean we participated in the 2015 U.S. GEOTRACES Arctic expedition (GN01) to measure Hg speciation in the water column of the Bering Sea, Makarov basin, and Canada basin between Dutch Harbor, Alaska and the North Pole. At select stations, seawater was filtered through 0.22 µm Sterivex filters and genomic DNA was collected using a phenol-chloroform extraction. Broad-range degenerate PCR primers were used to detect the presence of hgcAB, and clade-specific degenerate quantitative PCR primers were used to determine the abundance of hgcA. Metagenomic sequencing was done at three stations to identify taxonomic and functional groups, and to search for hgcA-like genes that the PCR primers may have missed.

  14. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  15. Geochemical elements mobility during the history of a paleo-Proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, P.

    2003-10-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary. The purpose of this study was to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study the mobility of some elements in a context that shows analogies with deep geological nuclear waste disposals. The natural analogies of interest include (i) uranium oxide and spent nuclear fuel; (ii) clay alteration halo and near field barrier, (iii) Athabasca sandstone cover and far-field barrier. Five research axis: (1) 3D modelling of the distribution of the main minerals and of some trace elements (U, Pb, Zr, Th, REE, Y, Rb, Sr) on a basin-wide scale and in the U mineralized zones, using the Gocad software. The models have been compared with detailed mineralogical studies performed on selected samples. (2) Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics by TIMS (3) Mass balance calculation of the average Pb/U ratio at the scale of the deposit to evaluate whether the present day amount of radiogenic lead is sufficient to explain a U deposition in one or several episodes (geostatistical tools on Gocad) (4) Thermodynamic modelling of the mineralogical evolution of the Athabasca basin, considering the main mineral present in the sandstone (Phreeqc and Supcrt softwares) (5) U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides using a 3 step approach: (i) optical and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) electron microprobe; (iii) ion microprobe (SIMS). The purpose was to study the long term stability of the uranium oxides and to characterise the

  16. Canadian Unilateralism in the Arctic: Using Scenario Planning to Help Canada Achieve Its Strategic Goals in the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Delegation," Government of Canada, http://www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca/ app -acq/sam- mps/nouinfor-novadel-eng.html (accessed January 20, 2013). 103 Michael Byers...cooperation as countries’ focus on sustaining their economic revitalization after the global recession kicked off in 2008 finally ended in 2016. Global...34Briefing for Nova Scotia Government Delegation." Government of Canada. http://www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca/ app -acq/sam- mps/nouinfor-novadel-eng.html

  17. The late Wisconsinan and Holocene record of Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) from North America: A review with new data from Arctic and Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, A.S.; Hooper, J.; Harington, C.R.; Savelle, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Late Wisconsinan and Holocene record of the Atlantic walrus is known from numerous collections of bones and tusks from Arctic Canada and south to North Carolina, as well as from many archaeological sites in the Arctic and Subarctic. In contrast, the Pacific walrus has no dated Late Wisconsinan or early Holocene record in North America, and it may have been displaced into the northwest Pacific at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Atlantic walrus rapidly exploited newly deglaciated territory, moving northward from its LGM refugium and reaching the Bay of Fundy by 12800 B.P., the Grand Banks by 12500 B.P., southern Labrador by 11500 B.P., and the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) by 9700 B.P. Its southern range limit may have retracted to the Bay of Fundy by ca. 7500 B.P. Within the CAA, walrus remains cluster in two main age groups: 9700 to 8500 B.P. and 5000 to 4/3000 B.P. This pattern strongly resembles the distribution of bowhead whale radiocarbon ages from the same area, which suggests a common control by sea-ice conditions. Walrus remains occur in Indian culture archaeological sites as old as 7500 B.P. and, in some cases (Namu, British Columbia, and Mackinac Island, Michigan), they evidently represent long-distance human transport. They are much more common in Paleoeskimo and Neoeskimo culture sites. However, they occur in very low abundances, and generally as debitage, in sites older than Dorset (2500 B.P.). The walrus, therefore, may not have been hunted by early Paleoeskimos. Beginning with Early Dorset, walrus remains occur in definite diet-related contexts. Middle Dorset (2300 to 1500 B.P.) and late Thule (High Arctic, and there may be a similar gap in the middle Pre-Dorset (3400 to 2600 B.P.). Sea-ice conditions at these times may have adversely affected availability of walrus and other marine mammal resources. Walrus is a prominent faunal element in Middle Dorset sites on the Labrador coast; this is consistent with a southward displacement of

  18. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  19. An Ocean Basin of Dirt? Using Molecular Biomarkers and Radiocarbon to Identify Organic Carbon Sources and their Preservation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H.; Belicka, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    In the modern Arctic Ocean, primary production in waters over the broad continental shelves and under ice contributes an estimated 250 Mt/yr of POC to Arctic waters. The delivery of terrestrial material from large rivers, ice transport and through coastal erosion adds at least an additional 12 Mt/yr of POC. Although the marine organic carbon signal in Arctic Ocean exceeds that of terrestrial carbon by an order or magnitude or more, recent evidence suggests that this balance is not maintained and significant fractions of terrestrial carbon is preserved in sediments. Using an integrated approach combining lipid biomarkers and radiocarbon dating in particles and sediments, the process of organic carbon recycling and historical changes in its sources and preservation has been examined. A suite of lipid biomarkers in particles and sediments of western Arctic shelves and basins were measured and principle components analysis (PCA) used to allow a robust comparison among the 120+ individual compounds to assign organic sources and relative inputs. Offshore particles from the chlorophyll maximum contained abundant algal markers (e.g. 20:5 and 22:6 FAMEs), low concentrations of terrestrial markers (amyrins and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3b-ol), and reflected modern 14C values. Particles present in deeper halocline waters also reflect marine production, but a portion of older, terrestrial carbon accompanies the sinking of the spring bloom. Surface and deeper sediments of basins contain older organic carbon and low concentrations of algal biomarkers, suggesting that marine carbon produced in surface waters is rapidly recycled. Taken together, these observations suggest that marine derived organic matter produced in shallow waters fuels carbon cycling, but relatively small amounts are preserved in sediments. As a result, the organic carbon preserved in sediments contrasts sharply to that typically observed in lower latitudes, with an increasing terrestrial signature with distance

  20. The geology and hydrocarbon possibilities of the Triassic-Jurassic Fundy Basin, eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.A.; Fensome, R.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre; Brown, D.E. [Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The development of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins beneath the waters of the eastern coast of North America was discussed. These basins have been linked to the rifting of the central part of Pangaea during Mid and Late Triassic time that ended in the formation of a series of grabens extending from Florida to The Grand Banks of Newfoundland, one of them being the Bay of Fundy Basin which is about 16,500 square kilometres in size. Onshore and offshore geologic mapping and seismic interpretations have shown their age range to be from the Mid Triassic Anisian or Ladinian to Mid Jurassic. Up to 12 km of Mesozoic rocks were deposited in the basin with up to 9 km still present. The depositional history of the area was described. The two areas with greatest hydrocarbon potential are the Bay of Fundy and the Chignecto subbasins.

  1. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  2. Petroleum prospectivity of the onshore Gaspe and offshore Anticosti Basins, eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durling, P.; Martel, T.; Waldron, J.W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The development of oil and gas reserves on the Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland has sparked a renewed interest in the onshore Gaspe-Connecticut Valley Synclinorium (GCVS) and the offshore Anticosti Basin. The geologic history of each basin was described and some of the geological relationships that suggest the presence of hydrocarbon resources in the area were reviewed. The Anticosti Basin developed in a rift and open marine shelf environment during the early Cambrian period. Petroleum exploration in the Basin began in the early 1960s when Imperial Oil collected 435 km of single channel seismic reflection data - enough to identify several drilling locations. Eight wells were drilled on the island which resulted in a number of shows of oil and gas. The GCVS was developed within the Appalachian Orogen and is comprised of fine grained siliciclastic turbidites. The structural geology of the GCVS is more complicated than the Anticosti Basin. Petroleum exploration in the GCVS has, for the most part, been in the eastern part of the Gaspe Peninsula where one producing well is located. The central part is mainly unexplored for petroleum resources

  3. The relation between Arctic Ocean circulation and the Arctic Oscillation as revealed by satellite altimetry and gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J.; Kwok, R.; Peralta Ferriz, C.; Dickinson, S.; Morison, D.; Andersen, R.; Dewey, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Ocean circulation is commonly characterized by the persistent anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre in the Canada Basin and the Transpolar Drift. While these are clearly important features, their role in changing Arctic Ocean circulation is at times distorted by sampling biases inherent in drifting buoy and standard shipboard measurements of western nations. Hydrographic measurements from SCICEX submarine cruises for science in the early 1990s revealed an increasingly cyclonic circulation along the Russian side of the Arctic Ocean related to the low sea level pressure pattern in the same region associated with a high Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. More recently satellite altimetry (ICESat and CryoSat2) and gravimetry (GRACE) have provided the basin-wide observational coverage needed to see shifts to increased cyclonic circulation in 2004 to 2008 and decreased cyclonic circulation in 2008 to 2015. These shifts are related to changes in the AO and are important for their effect on the trajectories of sea ice and freshwater through the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Fungal colonization and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica on deglaciated moraines in high-Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Hirose, Dai; Uchida, Masaki; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Fungal colonization, succession, and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica were studied to estimate the roles of fungi in the decomposition processes in the high Arctic. The samples were collected from five moraines with different periods of development since deglaciation to investigate the effects of ecosystem development on the decomposition processes during the primary succession. The total hyphal lengths and the length of darkly pigmented hyphae increased during decomposition of leaves and stems and were not varied with the moraines. Four fungal morphotaxa were frequently isolated from both leaves and stems. The frequencies of occurrence of two morphotaxa varied with the decay class of leaves and/or stems. The hyphal lengths and the frequencies of occurrence of fungal morphotaxa were positively or negatively correlated with the contents of organic chemical components and nutrients in leaves and stems, suggesting the roles of fungi in chemical changes in the field. Pure culture decomposition tests demonstrated that the fungal morphotaxa were cellulose decomposers. Our results suggest that fungi took part in the chemical changes in decomposing leaves and stems even under the harsh environment of the high Arctic.

  5. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth surface at its maximum seasonal extent. For decades sea ice was assumed to be an impermeable and inert barrier for air - sea exchange of CO2 so that global climate models do not include CO2 exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere in the polar regions. However, uptake of atmospheric CO2 by sea ice cover was recently reported raising the need to further investigate pCO2 dynamics in the marine cryosphere realm and related air-ice CO2 fluxes. In addition, budget of CO2 fluxes are poorly constrained in high latitudes continental shelves [Borges et al., 2006]. We report measurements of air-ice CO2 fluxes above the Canadian continental shelf and compare them to previous measurements carried out in Antarctica. We carried out measurements of pCO2 within brines and bulk ice, and related air-ice CO2 fluxes (chamber method) in Antarctic first year pack ice ("Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica -SIMBA" drifting station experiment September - October 2007) and in Arctic first year land fast ice ("Circumpolar Flaw Lead" - CFL, April - June 2008). These 2 experiments were carried out in contrasted sites. SIMBA was carried out on sea ice in early spring while CFL was carried out in from the middle of the winter to the late spring while sea ice was melting. Both in Arctic and Antarctic, no air-ice CO2 fluxes were detected when sea ice interface was below -10°C. Slightly above -10°C, fluxes toward the atmosphere were observed. In contrast, at -7°C fluxes from the atmosphere to the ice were significant. The pCO2 of the brine exhibits a same trend in both hemispheres with a strong decrease of the pCO2 anti-correlated with the increase of sea ice temperature. The pCO2 shifted from a large over-saturation at low temperature to a marked under-saturation at high temperature. These air-ice CO2 fluxes are partly controlled by the permeability of the air-ice interface, which depends of the temperature of this one. Moreover, air-ice CO2 fluxes are

  6. The Arctic Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    In October 2006, representatives of the Arctic governments met in Salekhard in northern Siberia for the biennial Arctic Council ministerial meeting to discuss how the council could combat regional climate change, among other issues. While most capitals were represented by their foreign minister......, a few states – Canada, Denmark, and the United States – sent other representatives. There was nothing unusual about the absence of Per Stig Møller, the Danish foreign minister – a Danish foreign minister had only once attended an Arctic Council ministerial meeting (Arctic Council 2016). Møller......’s nonappearance did, however, betray the low status that Arctic affairs had in the halls of government in Copenhagen. Since the end of the Cold War, where Greenland had helped tie Denmark and the US closer together due to its geostrategically important position between North America and the Soviet Union, Arctic...

  7. Models of talik, permafrost and gas hydrate histories - Beaufort Mackenzie Basin, Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Osadetz, K.; Šafanda, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2015), s. 6738-6764 ISSN 1996-1073 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : gas hydrates * permafrost * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * taliks Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2015

  8. Vascular plant biodiversity of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity (Nunavut, Canada: an annotated checklist of an Arctic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Saarela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coppermine River in western Nunavut is one of Canada’s great Arctic rivers, yet its vascular plant flora is poorly known. Here, we report the results of a floristic inventory of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity, including Kugluk (Bloody Falls Territorial Park and the hamlet of Kugluktuk. The study area is approximately 1,200 km2, extending from the forest-tundra south of the treeline to the Arctic coast. Vascular plant floristic data are based on a review of all previous collections from the area and more than 1,200 new collections made in 2014. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including citation of all specimens examined, comments on taxonomy and distribution, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora comprises 300 species (311 taxa, a 36.6% increase from the 190 species documented by previous collections made in the area over the last century, and is considerably more diverse than other local floras on mainland Nunavut. We document 207 taxa for Kugluk (Bloody Falls Territorial Park, an important protected area for plants on mainland Nunavut. A total of 190 taxa are newly recorded for the study area. Of these, 14 taxa (13 species and one additional variety are newly recorded for Nunavut (Allium schoenoprasum, Carex capitata, Draba lonchocarpa, Eremogone capillaris subsp. capillaris, Sabulina elegans, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Epilobium cf. anagallidifolium, Botrychium neolunaria, Botrychium tunux, Festuca altaica, Polygonum aviculare, Salix ovalifolia var. arctolitoralis, Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia and Stuckenia pectinata, seven species are newly recorded for mainland Nunavut (Carex gynocrates, Carex livida, Cryptogramma stelleri, Draba simmonsii, Festuca viviparoidea subsp. viviparoidea, Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. americanus and Salix pseudomyrsinites and 56 range extensions are reported. The psbA-trnH and rbcL DNA sequence data were used to help identify the three Botrychium

  9. Three-ring stable oxygen isotope ratios indicating cooler and wetter climate conditions and high flood frequency periods in the Red River Basin, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, W.M.; Harms, P.; Marcino, D.; Mayer, B.; St. George, S.; Nielsen, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the Red River region of southern Manitoba, Canada, the frequency of flood events tends to increase during cooler and wetter climate conditions. Predictably, recorded Red River flood stages are primarily a result of meteorological conditions which produce an increase runoff due to excess snowmelt and heavy spring precipitation. Winter skewed precipitation periods corresponding to cooler and wetter conditions in the Red River Basin may provide traceable oxygen isotope signals in hydrologically sensitive trees occupying the basin. To test this hypothesis, three overlapping oak tree-ring chronologies (KPO1: 1990 to 1795; STVO1: 1985 to 1797; STVO2: 1990 to 1845) were annually sampled and processed for their cellulose

  10. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengwei; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Yanguang; Dong, Linsen; Jiao, Liping; Hu, Limin; Fan, Dejiang

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluate their potential ecological risks, the concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in 43 surface sediment samples from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean. Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations ranged from 36.95 to 150.21 ng/g (dry weight). In descending order, the surface sediment tPAH concentrations were as follows: Canada Basin>northern Chukchi Sea>Chukchi Basin>southern Chukchi Sea>Aleutian Basin>Makarov Basin>Bering Sea shelf. The Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean mainly received PAHs of pyrogenic origin due to pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The concentrations of PAHs in the sediments of the study areas did not exceed effects range low (ERL) values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrology signal from GRACE gravity data in the Nelson River basin, Canada: a comparison of two approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanghua; Wu, Patrick; Wang, Hansheng; Jia, Lulu; Steffen, Holger

    2018-03-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission measures the combined gravity signal of several overlapping processes. A common approach to separate the hydrological signal in previous ice-covered regions is to apply numerical models to simulate the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signals related to the vanished ice load and then remove them from the observed GRACE data. However, the results of this method are strongly affected by the uncertainties of the ice and viscosity models of GIA. To avoid this, Wang et al. (Nat Geosci 6(1):38-42, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1652; Geodesy Geodyn 6(4):267-273, 2015) followed the theory of Wahr et al. (Geophys Res Lett 22(8):977-980, 1995) and isolated water storage changes from GRACE in North America and Scandinavia with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Lambert et al. (Postglacial rebound and total water storage variations in the Nelson River drainage basin: a gravity GPS Study, Geological Survey of Canada Open File, 7317, 2013a, Geophys Res Lett 40(23):6118-6122, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL057973, 2013b) did a similar study for the Nelson River basin in North America but applying GPS and absolute gravity measurements. However, the results of the two studies in the Nelson River basin differ largely, especially for the magnitude of the hydrology signal which differs about 35%. Through detailed comparison and analysis of the input data, data post-processing techniques, methods and results of these two works, we find that the different GRACE data post-processing techniques may lead to this difference. Also the GRACE input has a larger effect on the hydrology signal amplitude than the GPS input in the Nelson River basin due to the relatively small uplift signal in this region. Meanwhile, the influence of the value of α , which represents the ratio between GIA-induced uplift rate and GIA-induced gravity-rate-of-change (before the correction for surface uplift), is more obvious in

  12. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  13. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  14. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  15. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James; Lardeau, Marie-Pierre; Vanderbilt, Will

    2012-06-21

    Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access.

  16. Conservation of Peary caribou based on a recalculation of the 1961 aerial survey on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of 25 845 Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi on the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI in the Canadian High Arctic in summer 1961 is the only nearly range-wide 'benchmark' for the past number of caribou. No variances or confidence intervals were calculated for this estimate and no estimates were calculated for Peary caribou on the three major islands of Ellesmere, Devon, and Axel Heiberg. We reexamined the 1961 raw data by grouping the QEI into five island-complexes ('eco-units' and calculating, for each unit, the estimated number of caribou and the standard error, and the 95% confidence interval of the estimate, using a 'bootstrap' technique with 100 000 replications. Our goal was to provide an ecological basis for evaluating subsequent changes in numbers rather than relying on single-island evaluations. Our bootstrap reanalysis produced an estimate of 28 288 ± 2205 SE with a 95% CI of 20 436—37 031 Peary caribou on the QEI in summer 1961. Substantial differences in density were apparent among the five eco-units, with about a 50-fold difference from 0.01 caribou • km-2 in the Eastern eco-unit to 0.5 caribou • km-2 in the Northwestern eco-unit. The 1961 findings, with our subsequent reexamination, are crucial to any evaluation of trends for the number of Peary caribou on the QEI and the relative importance of individual eco-units for these animals. These findings also allow a more accurate evaluation of the magnitude of the subsequent decline of Peary caribou on the QEI during the last four decades and may help predict future potential levels for caribou in each of the five eco-units.

  17. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  18. Romantic notions about the arctic must include indigenous rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic plays a big role in Canada's national identity. But as Canada's relationship with the region evolves, the interests of Indigenous peoples must be better represented. This article summarizes the research in my book 'International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic: Arctic...

  19. Canada's Fraser River Basin transitioning from a nival to a hybrid system in the late 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Dery, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) is the largest river draining to the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and it provides the world's most abundant salmon populations. With recent climate change, the shifting hydrologic regime of the FRB is evaluated using hydrological modeling results over the period 1949 to 2006. To quantify the contribution of snowmelt to runoff generation, the ratio RSR, defined as the division of the sum of the snowmelt across the watershed by the integrated runoff over the water year, is employed. Modeled results for RSR at Hope, BC — the furthest downstream hydrometric station of the FRB — show a significant decrease (from 0.80 to 0.65) in the latter part of the 20th century. RSR is found to be mainly suppressed by a decrease of the snowmelt across the FRB with a decline with 107 mm by 26 % along the simulation period. There is also a prominent shift in the timing of streamflow, with the spring freshet at Hope, BC advancing 30 days followed by reduced summer flows for over two months. The timing of the peak spring freshet becomes even earlier when moving upstream of the FRB owing to short periods of time after melting from the snow source to the rivers.

  20. Organic Fe speciation in the Eurasian Basins of the Arctic Ocean and its relation to terrestrial DOM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, H.A.; Reader, H.E.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The bio-essential trace metal iron (Fe) has poor inorganic solubility in seawater, and therefore dissolution is dependent on organic complexation. The Arctic Ocean is subject to strong terrestrial influences which contribute to organic solubility of Fe, particularly in the surface. These influences

  1. Sub-arctic hydrology and climate change : a case study of the Tana River Basin in Northern Fennoscandia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Rutger

    2002-01-01

    The most significant changes in climate, due to the well-known enhanced greenhouse effect, are generally expected to occur at northern high latitudes. Sub-arctic environments, that are dominated by the presence of a seasonal snow cover, may therefore be particularly sensitive to global warming. The

  2. Migration of global radioactive fallout to the Arctic Ocean (on the example of the Ob's river drainage basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, A; Semenkov, I

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an assessment of the impact of global fallout on (137)Cs contamination in the bottom sediments of Kara Sea. The erosiveness of 10th-level river basins was estimated by landscape-geochemical and geomorphological characteristics. All 10th-level basins (n=154) were separated into three groups: mountain, mountain-lowland and plain. Four different types of basins were identified depending on the geochemical conditions of the migration of radiocaesium in the plain and mountain-lowland. Classifications of types were carried out using the geographic information systems-based approach. The Ob River's macroarena covers 3.5 million km(2). Internal drainage basins cover 23 % of the macroarena and accumulate whole radiocaesium from the global fallout. The remaining territory is transitional for the (137)Cs. The field research works performed in the three plain first-level basins allow one to estimate the radiocaesium run-off. The calculations show that 7 % of (137)Cs was removed from the first-level basin in arable land. Accumulation of radiocaesium in the first-level basin under undisturbed forest is 99.8 %. The research shows that (137)Cs transfer from the humid basins is in the range of 6.9-25.5 TBq and for semi-humid basins 5.6-285.5 TBq. The areas of these basins cover 40 and 8 % of the Ob River's macroarena, respectively. Drainage lakes and reservoir drainage basins make up 22 % of the macroarena. Mountainous and semi-arid drainage basins cover 7 % of the macroarena.

  3. Estimating annual high-flow statistics and monthly and seasonal low-flow statistics for ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Curran, Janet H.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating daily mean flow-duration statistics for seven regions in Alaska and low-flow frequencies for one region, southeastern Alaska, were developed from daily mean discharges for streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 15-, 10-, 9-, 8-, 7-, 6-, 5-, 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-percent duration flows were computed for the October-through-September water year for 222 stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows were computed for the individual months of July, August, and September for 226 stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows were computed for the season July-through-September for 65 stations in southeastern Alaska. The 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low-flow frequencies for the season July-through-September were computed for 65 stations for most of southeastern Alaska. Low-flow analyses were limited to particular months or seasons in order to omit winter low flows, when ice effects reduce the quality of the records and validity of statistical assumptions. Regression equations for estimating the selected high-flow and low-flow statistics for the selected months and seasons for ungaged sites were developed from an ordinary-least-squares regression model using basin characteristics as independent variables. Drainage area and precipitation were significant explanatory variables for high flows, and drainage area, precipitation, mean basin elevation, and area of glaciers were significant explanatory variables for low flows. The estimating equations can be used at ungaged sites in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada where streamflow regulation, streamflow diversion, urbanization, and natural damming and releasing of water do not affect the streamflow data for the given month or season. Standard errors of estimate ranged from 15 to 56 percent for high-duration flow

  4. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  5. Gas hydrate formation and dissipation histories in the northern margin of Canada: Beaufort-Mackenzie and the Sverdrup Basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Osadetz, K.; Šafanda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 1 (2012), 879393/1-879393/17 ISSN 1687-8833 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : gas hydrates * Canadian Arctic continental margin * permafrost Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  6. Regional variations in provenance and abundance of ice-rafted clasts in Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for the configuration of late Quaternary oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.L.; Grantz, A.

    2001-01-01

    The composition and distribution of ice-rafted glacial erratics in late Quaternary sediments define the major current systems of the Arctic Ocean and identify two distinct continental sources for the erratics. In the southern Amerasia basin up to 70% of the erratics are dolostones and limestones (the Amerasia suite) that originated in the carbonate-rich Paleozoic terranes of the Canadian Arctic Islands. These clasts reached the Arctic Ocean in glaciers and were ice-rafted to the core sites in the clockwise Beaufort Gyre. The concentration of erratics decreases northward by 98% along the trend of the gyre from southeastern Canada basin to Makarov basin. The concentration of erratics then triples across the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge and siltstone, sandstone and siliceous clasts become dominant in cores from the ridge and the Eurasia basin (the Eurasia suite). The bedrock source for the siltstone and sandstone clasts is uncertain, but bedrock distribution and the distribution of glaciation in northern Eurasia suggest the Taymyr Peninsula-Kara Sea regions. The pattern of clast distribution in the Arctic Ocean sediments and the sharp northward decrease in concentration of clasts of Canadian Arctic Island provenance in the Amerasia basin support the conclusion that the modem circulation pattern of the Arctic Ocean, with the Beaufort Gyre dominant in the Amerasia basin and the Transpolar drift dominant in the Eurasia basin, has controlled both sea-ice and glacial iceberg drift in the Arctic Ocean during interglacial intervals since at least the late Pleistocene. The abruptness of the change in both clast composition and concentration on the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge also suggests that the boundary between the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift has been relatively stable during interglacials since that time. Because the Beaufort Gyre is wind-driven our data, in conjunction with the westerly directed orientation of sand dunes that formed during

  7. Cesium-137 contamination in Arctic Ocean ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meese, D.; Tucker, W.; Cooper, L.; Larsen, I.L.; Grebmeier, J.

    1995-01-01

    Sea ice and ice-borne sediment samples were collected across the western Arctic basin on the joint US/Canada Arctic Ocean Section during August 1994. Samples were processed on board and returned at the completion of the cruise to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis. Sediment was observed on the surface and in the ice from the southern ice limit in the Chukchi Sea to the North Pole. Preliminary results on the ice-borne sediment samples show widespread elevated concentrations of 137 Cs, ranging from 4.9 to 73 mBq g dry weight -1 . An analysis of the measurements indicate that sea ice is primary transport mechanism by which contaminated sediments are redistributed throughout the Arctic Ocean and possibly exported into the Greenland Sea and North Atlantic through Fram Strait. The wide variability in the ice-borne sediment concentrations of 137 Cs measured along the transect argues that contaminants incorporated on the Siberian shelves can follow much more variable trajectories than is suggested by mean ice drift calculations. 2 figs

  8. Sea-ice cover anomalies in the Arctic Basin associated with atmospheric variability from multi-decadal trends to intermittent quasi-biennial oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyoshi Ikeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Ocean sea ice has been diminishing since 1970, as shown by National Snow and Ice Data Center data. In addition to decadal variability, low ice anomalies in the Pacific–Siberian region have been occurring at shorter timescales. The influence of the widely-known Northern Annular Mode (NAM occurs across all seasons. In this study, empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis was applied to sea-level pressure in National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data for 1960–2007, showing the NAM to be the leading mode of variability and the Arctic Dipole Mode (ADM to be the second leading mode. The ADM changes markedly across seasons. In autumn–winter, it has a pole over Siberia and a pole over Greenland, at opposite signs at a several-year scale, whereas the spring–summer ADM (ADMSS has a pole over Europe and a pole over Canada. In the 1980s, the most influential mode shifted from the NAM to the ADM, when the Pacific sector had low ice cover at a 1-year lag from the positive ADM, which was marked by low pressure over Siberia. In years when the ADMSS was pronounced, it was responsible for distinct ice variability over the East Siberian–Laptev seas. The frequency separation in this study identified the contributions of the ADM and ADMSS. Effects of the latter are difficult to predict since it is intermittent and changes its sign biennially. The ADM and ADMSS should be closely watched in relation to the ongoing ice reduction in the Pacific–Siberian region.

  9. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  10. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  11. Arctic whaling : proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, H.K. s'; Snoeijing, K

    1984-01-01

    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the

  12. On the origin of the Amerasia Basin and the High Arctic Large Igneous Province-Results of new aeromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Jackson, H.R.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 2.5 million km2 Amerasia Basin (sensu lato) is in many ways the least known in the global tectonic system. Radically different hypotheses proposed to explain its origin are supported only by inconclusive and/or indirect observations and several outstanding issues on the origin...... and Lomonosov Ridges, enabling the tectonic origin of both the Amerasia Basin and the HALIP to be constrained. A landward Lower Cretaceous ( ~ 138 - 125(120) Ma) giant dyke swarm (minimum 350×800km2) and tentative oceanward Barremian (or alternatively lower Valanginian-Barremian) seafloor spreading anomalies...

  13. Organic Fe speciation in the Eurasian Basins of the Arctic Ocean and its relation to terrestrial DOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagter, H. A.; Reader, H. E.; Rijkenberg, M. J.A.

    2017-01-01

    -binding organic ligands were measured for 11 stations, good agreement to previous studies was found with ligand concentrations between 0.9 and 2.2. equivalent. nM of Fe (Eq.nM. Fe) at depths. >. 200. m. We found nutrient-like profiles of Fe in the Atlantic-influenced Nansen basin, surface enrichment...

  14. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    .025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96 was associated...... with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 g Hg km(-2) yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred...... in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial...

  15. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  16. Arctic action against climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njaastad, Birgit

    2000-01-01

    The articles describes efforts to map the climatic changes in the Arctic regions through the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Project which is a joint venture between eight Arctic countries: Denmark, Canada, the USA, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. The project deals with the consequences of the changes such as the UV radiation due to diminishing ozone layers. The aims are: Evaluate and integrate existing knowledge in the field and evaluate and predict the consequences particularly on the environment both in the present and the future and produce reliable and useful information in order to aid the decision-making processes

  17. Developmental geology of coalbed methane from shallow to deep in Rocky Mountain basins and in Cook Inlet-Matanuska Basin, Alaska, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Flores, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain basins of western North America contain vast deposits of coal of Cretaceous through early Tertiary age. Coalbed methane is produced in Rocky Mountain basins at depths ranging from 45 m (150 ft) to 1981 m (6500 ft) from coal of lignite to low-volatile bituminous rank. Although some production has been established in almost all Rocky Mountain basins, commercial production occurs in only a few. despite more than two decades of exploration for coalbed methane in the Rocky Mountain region, it is still difficult to predict production characteristics of coalbed methane wells prior to drilling. Commonly cited problems include low permeabilities, high water production, and coals that are significantly undersaturated with respect to methane. Sources of coalbed gases can be early biogenic, formed during the early stages of coalification, thermogenic, formed during the main stages of coalification, or late stage biogenic, formed as a result of the reintroduction of methane-gnerating bacteria by groundwater after uplift and erosion. Examples of all three types of coalbed gases, and combinations of more than one type, can be found in the Rocky Mountain region. Coals in the Rocky Mountain region achieved their present ranks largely as a result of burial beneath sediments that accumulated during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through the end of the eocene) or shortly after. Thermal events since the end of the orogeny have also locally elevated coal ranks. Coal beds in the upper part of high-volatile A bituminous rank or greater commonly occur within much more extensive basin-centered gas deposits which cover large areas of the deeper parts of most Rocky Mountain basins. Within these basin-centered deposits all lithologies, including coals, sandstones, and shales, are gas saturated, and very little water is produced. The interbedded coals and carbonaceous shales are probably the source of much of this gas. Basin-centered gas deposits become overpressured

  18. The Arctic Region: A Requirement for New Security Architecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    cooperation and mutually beneficial partnerships . Denmark’s security policy states that existing international law and established forums of cooperation...increase leadership in multinational forum and, develop comprehensive partnerships without the need to create a new security organization. Figure 3...Arctic region. Endnotes 1 Government of Canada, “Canada’s Arctic foreign policy” (Ottawa, Canada, 2007), 2. 2 WWF Global, “Arctic oil and gas”, http

  19. Finite-frequency P-wave tomography of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Implications for the lithospheric evolution in Western Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunfeng; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Hung, Shu-Huei

    2017-02-01

    The lithosphere beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has potentially undergone Precambrian subduction and collisional orogenesis, resulting in a complex network of crustal domains. To improve the understanding of its evolutionary history, we combine data from the USArray and three regional networks to invert for P-wave velocities of the upper mantle using finite-frequency tomography. Our model reveals distinct, vertically continuous high (> 1%) velocity perturbations at depths above 200 km beneath the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane, Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block, which sharply contrasts with those beneath the Canadian Rockies (Medicine Hat Block (200 km). These findings are consistent with earlier theories of tectonic assembly in this region, which featured distinct Archean and Proterozoic plate convergences between the Hearne craton and its neighboring domains. The highly variable, bimodally distributed craton thicknesses may also reflect different lithospheric destruction processes beneath the western margin of Laurentia.

  20. Integration of seismic data and a triple porosity model for interpretation of tight gas formations in the Western Canada sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Fernando; Aguilera, Roberto; Lawton, Don [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the increased global demand for oil and gas, companies are looking to unconventional methods for exploring, drilling and refining these products. Unconventional reservoirs are found in the form of shale gas, coal bed methane and tight gas. This paper presents a model for evaluating various tight gas reservoirs in the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB) by developing an equation. The proposed method integrates a triple porosity model with sonic, density and resistivity logs. The model uses petrographic data from work in the WCSB to determine the types of pores that are present in the tight rocks. The process also provides information on inter-well formation resistivity, porosity and water saturation to allow estimation of the amount of original gas in place. The results calculated from this study agreed with the actual deep resistivities of the WCSB Nikanassin group. This model can also be applied to other regions of the world that have similar characteristics to those of the WCSB.

  1. The Arctic : the great breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact that climate change has had on the famous Northwest passage in Canada's Arctic was discussed. The water channel through the Arctic Islands is now navigable during the summer and it has been predicted that in 40 years, it may be navigable throughout the entire year. Although the Arctic is still covered with snow, the icebergs which navigators have feared no longer exist. Environment Canada has cautioned that Canada's extreme north would be most at risk from global warming, with temperatures increasing by 6 degrees, or 3 times higher than in moderate zones. The joint Canadian-United States program Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic has also confirmed that the waters of the Beaufort Sea are less salty and relatively warmer. Climatologists also project that the predicted increase in snowfall will act as an insulation blanket, thereby preventing the ice from thickening. Scientists stated that the gigantic polar cap, which has been frozen for the past 3.2 million years, will have fissures everywhere by 2080. The Northwest passage will become easily accessible in less than 10 years. This article raised questions regarding the role of the Northwest passage as an international maritime route. It presented the case of the first successful passage of a U.S. commercial oil tanker in 1969 which created controversy regarding Canada's territorial waters. Fourty years later, this issue is still not resolved. The article questioned whether there should be more cooperation on both the Canadian and American sides in light of the shared common interests such as commerce, science and security. It was noted that although Canada has sovereignty of the Arctic Islands, there are eight other countries who share the Arctic. 4 figs

  2. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Past, Present and Future Changes in Arctic Terrestrial and Marine Systems" (Kananaskis, Alberta/Canada, February 2012). During these workshops, key areas and key scientific themes as well as drilling and site-survey strategies were discussed. Major scientific themes for future Arctic drilling will include: - The Arctic Ocean during the transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions and millennial scale climate changes; - Physical and chemical changes of the evolving Polar Ocean and Arctic gateways; - Impact of Pleistocene/Holocene warming and sea-level rise on upper continental slope and shelf gas hydrates and on shelf permafrost; - Land-ocean interactions; - Tectonic evolution and birth of the Arctic Ocean basin: Arctic ridges, sea floor spreading and global lithosphere processes. When thinking about future Arctic drilling, it should be clearly emphasized that for the precise planning of future Arctic Ocean drilling campaigns, including site selection, evaluation of proposed drill sites for safety and environmental protection, etc., comprehensive site survey data are needed first. This means that the development of a detailed site survey strategy is a major challenge for the coming years. Here, an overview of perspectives and plans for future Arctic Ocean drilling will be presented.

  3. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...... and influence policies relating to the Arctic. But each country’s approach is quite different, writes Aki Tonami....

  4. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  5. North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, D.B.; Lottes, A.L.; Ziegler, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1) North America and Eurasia remained relatively fixed to each other until the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene opening of the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay and Greenland-Norwegian and Eurasian basins (earlier convergence between North America and Eurasia in the Bering Sea region shown on many reconstructions are artifacts of incorrect plate reconstructions); (2) the North Slope-Seward-Chukotka block has constituted an isthmus connection between North America and northeast Asia since at least the middle Paleozoic and did not rotate away from the Canadian Arctic; (3) the Canada basin opened behind a clockwise-rotating Alpha Cordillera-Mendeleyev ridge arc during the Early to middle Cretaceous and consumed older, Paleozoic(.) Makarov basin ocean floor (the Chukchi cap is a detached continental fragment derived from the Beaufort Sea; the North Slope Arctic margin is a left-lateral transform fault associated with the opening of the Canada basin); and (4) the Nares Strait fault has a net relative displacement of approximately 25 km, but actual motion between Greenland and northern Ellesmere was about 250 km of strongly transpressive motion that resulted in the Eurekan and Svalbardian orogenies.

  6. Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David G.; Hop, Haakon; Mundy, Christopher J.; Else, Brent; Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Ehn, Jens K.; Assmy, Philipp; Daase, Malin; Candlish, Lauren M.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly due to a warming Arctic climate with commensurate reductions in sea ice extent and thickness. This Pan-Arctic review summarizes the main changes in the Arctic ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface, with implications for primary- and secondary producers in the ice and the underlying water column. Changes in the Arctic MIZ were interpreted for the period 1979-2010, based on best-fit regressions for each month. Trends of increasingly open water were statistically significant for each month, with quadratic fit for August-November, illustrating particularly strong seasonal feedbacks in sea-ice formation and decay. Geographic interpretations of physical and biological changes were based on comparison of regions with significant changes in sea ice: (1) The Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean including the Canada Basin and the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas; (2) The Canadian Arctic Archipelago; (3) Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay; and (4) the Barents and Kara seas. Changes in ice conditions in the Barents sea/Kara sea region appear to be primarily forced by ocean heat fluxes during winter, whereas changes in the other sectors appear to be more summer-autumn related and primarily atmospherically forced. Effects of seasonal and regional changes in OSA-system with regard to increased open water were summarized for photosynthetically available radiation, nutrient delivery to the euphotic zone, primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton, ice-associated fauna and zooplankton, and gas exchange of CO2. Changes in the physical factors varied amongst regions, and showed direct effects on organisms linked to sea ice. Zooplankton species appear to be more flexible and likely able to adapt to variability in the onset of primary production. The major changes identified for the ice-associated ecosystem are with regard to production timing and abundance or biomass of ice flora and fauna, which are related to

  7. Quaternary geology of the Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, Arctic Canada: a re-investigation of a critical terrestrial type locality for glacial and interglacial events bordering the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J. A.; England, John H.; La Farge, Catherine; Coulthard, Roy D.; Lakeman, Thomas R.; Vaughan, Jessica M.

    2014-05-01

    Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, is a primary section (8 km long and 60 m high) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago exposing a long record of Quaternary sedimentation adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. A reinvestigation of Duck Hawk Bluffs demonstrates that it is a previously unrecognized thrust-block moraine emplaced from the northeast by Laurentide ice. Previous stratigraphic models of Duck Hawk Bluffs reported a basal unit of preglacial fluvial sand and gravel (Beaufort Fm, forested Arctic), overlain by a succession of three glaciations and at least two interglacials. Our observations dismiss the occurrence of preglacial sediments and amalgamate the entire record into three glacial intervals and one prominent interglacial. The first glacigenic sedimentation is recorded by an ice-contact sandur containing redeposited allochthonous organics previously assigned to the Beaufort Fm. This is overlain by fine-grained sediments with ice wedge pseudomorphs and well-preserved bryophyte assemblages corresponding to an interglacial environment similar to modern. The second glacial interval is recorded by ice-proximal mass flows and marine rhythmites that were glacitectonized when Laurentide ice overrode the site from Amundsen Gulf to the south. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically reversed (>780 ka). The third interval of glacigenic sedimentation includes glacifluvial sand and gravel recording the arrival of Laurentide ice that overrode the site from the northeast (island interior) depositing a glacitectonite and constructing the thrust block moraine that comprises Duck Hawk Bluffs. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically normal (Banks Island coalesced with an ice stream in Amundsen Gulf, depositing the interlobate Sachs Moraine that contains shells as young as ˜24 cal ka BP (Late Wisconsinan). During deglaciation, meltwater emanating from these separating ice lobes deposited outwash that extended to deglacial

  8. Continental Margins of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David

    2016-04-01

    A coastal State must define the outer edge of its continental margin in order to be entitled to extend the outer limits of its continental shelf beyond 200 M, according to article 76 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. The article prescribes the methods with which to make this definition and includes such metrics as water depth, seafloor gradient and thickness of sediment. Note the distinction between the "outer edge of the continental margin", which is the extent of the margin after application of the formula of article 76, and the "outer limit of the continental shelf", which is the limit after constraint criteria of article 76 are applied. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of continental margin types reflecting both its complex tectonic origins and its diverse sedimentation history. These factors play important roles in determining the extended continental shelves of Arctic coastal States. This study highlights the critical factors that might determine the outer edge of continental margins in the Arctic Ocean as prescribed by article 76. Norway is the only Arctic coastal State that has had recommendations rendered by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS). Russia and Denmark (Greenland) have made submissions to the CLCS to support their extended continental shelves in the Arctic and are awaiting recommendations. Canada has yet to make its submission and the US has not yet ratified the Convention. The various criteria that each coastal State has utilized or potentially can utilize to determine the outer edge of the continental margin are considered. Important criteria in the Arctic include, 1) morphological continuity of undersea features, such as the various ridges and spurs, with the landmass, 2) the tectonic origins and geologic affinities with the adjacent land masses of the margins and various ridges, 3) sedimentary processes, particularly along continental slopes, and 4) thickness and

  9. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)

    2013-03-01

    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  10. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  11. Seasonal evolution of the effective thermal conductivity of the snow and the soil in high Arctic herb tundra at Bylot Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domine, Florent; Barrere, Mathieu; Sarrazin, Denis

    2016-11-01

    The values of the snow and soil thermal conductivity, ksnow and ksoil, strongly impact the thermal regime of the ground in the Arctic, but very few data are available to test model predictions for these variables. We have monitored ksnow and ksoil using heated needle probes at Bylot Island in the Canadian High Arctic (73° N, 80° W) between July 2013 and July 2015. Few ksnow data were obtained during the 2013-2014 winter, because little snow was present. During the 2014-2015 winter ksnow monitoring at 2, 12 and 22 cm heights and field observations show that a depth hoar layer with ksnow around 0.02 W m-1 K-1 rapidly formed. At 12 and 22 cm, wind slabs with ksnow around 0.2 to 0.3 W m-1 K-1 formed. The monitoring of ksoil at 10 cm depth shows that in thawed soil ksoil was around 0.7 W m-1 K-1, while in frozen soil it was around 1.9 W m-1 K-1. The transition between both values took place within a few days, with faster thawing than freezing and a hysteresis effect evidenced in the thermal conductivity-liquid water content relationship. The fast transitions suggest that the use of a bimodal distribution of ksoil for modelling may be an interesting option that deserves further testing. Simulations of ksnow using the snow physics model Crocus were performed. Contrary to observations, Crocus predicts high ksnow values at the base of the snowpack (0.12-0.27 W m-1 K-1) and low ones in its upper parts (0.02-0.12 W m-1 K-1). We diagnose that this is because Crocus does not describe the large upward water vapour fluxes caused by the temperature gradient in the snow and soil. These fluxes produce mass transfer between the soil and lower snow layers to the upper snow layers and the atmosphere. Finally, we discuss the importance of the structure and properties of the Arctic snowpack on subnivean life, as species such as lemmings live under the snow most of the year and must travel in the lower snow layer in search of food.

  12. Basal mercury concentrations and biomagnification rates in freshwater and marine food webs: Effects on Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, S. van der; Dempson, J.B.; Evans, M.S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Power, M.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) biomagnification were investigated in six pairs of co-located lacustrine and marine food webs supporting a common predator, Arctic charr. Mercury biomagnification rates (the slope of log Hg concentration versus δ 15 N-inferred trophic level) did not differ significantly between the two feeding habitats for either THg or MeHg, but THg and MeHg concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in the lacustrine environment than in the marine environment. The proportion of THg as MeHg was related to trophic level, and the relationship was statistically similar in the lacustrine and marine habitats. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats. We conclude that the known difference in Hg concentration between anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr is driven by differential Hg concentrations at the base of the lacustrine and marine foodwebs, and not by differential biomagnification rates. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and methylmercury ([MeHg]) were measured in 6 paired lacustrine and marine food webs. ► Biomagnification rates (slopes of [THg] or [MeHg] versus δ 15 N-inferred trophic level) were similar in the two habitat types. ► Mercury concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in lacustrine than in marine food webs. ► The percentage of methylated mercury increased with trophic level similarly in the two habitat types. ► The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats

  13. Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosol, Renata; Powell-Hellyer, Stephanie; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Data collected during the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.

  14. Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rosol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Methods: Data collected during the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. Results: A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. Conclusions: If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.

  15. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  16. Paleoclimate records at high latitude in Arctic during the Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpin, Marie; Schnyder, Johann; Baudin, François; Suan, Guillaume; Labrousse, Loïc; Popescu, Speranta; Suc, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Paleoclimate records at high latitude in Arctic during the Paleogene SALPIN Marie1,2, SCHNYDER Johann1,2, BAUDIN François1,2, SUAN Guillaume3, LABROUSSE Loïc1,2, POPESCU Speranta4, SUC Jean-Pierre1,4 1: Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7193, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP), F 75005, Paris, France 2: CNRS, UMR 7193, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP), F 75005 Paris, France 3: UCB Lyon 1, UMR 5276, LGLTPE, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France 4: GEOBIOSTRATDATA.CONSULTING, 385 Route du Mas Rillier 69140 Rillieux la Pape, France The Paleogene is a period of important variations of the Earth climate system either in warming or cooling. The climatic optima of the Paleogene have been recognized both in continental and marine environment. This study focus on high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, in the Arctic Basin. The basin has had an influence on the Cenozoic global climate change according to its polar position. Is there a specific behaviour of the Arctic Basin with respect to global climatic stimuli? Are there possible mechanisms of coupling/decoupling of its dynamics with respect to the global ocean? To answer these questions a unique collection of sedimentary series of Paleogene age interval has been assembled from the Laurentian margin in Northern Yukon (Canada) and from the Siberian margin (New Siberian Islands). Selected continental successions of Paleocene-Eocene age were used to study the response of the Arctic system to known global events, e.g. the climatic optima of the Paleogene (the so-called PETM, ETM2 or the Azolla events). Two sections of Paleocene-Eocene age were sampled near the Mackenzie delta, the so-called Coal Mine (CoMi) and Caribou Hills (CaH) sections. The aim of the study is to precise the climatic fluctuations and to characterise the source rock potential of the basin, eventually linked to the warming events. This study is based on data of multi-proxy analyses: mineralogy on bulk and clay

  17. Hydrogeologic controls imposed by mechanical stratigraphy in layered rocks of the Chateauguay River Basin, a U.S.-Canada transborder aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Godin, Rejean; Nastev, Miroslav; Rouleau, Alain

    2007-01-01

    [1] The Châteauguay River Basin delineates a transborder watershed with roughly half of its surface area located in northern New York State and half in southern Québec Province, Canada. As part of a multidisciplinary study designed to characterize the hydrogeologic properties of this basin, geophysical logs were obtained in 12 wells strategically located to penetrate the four major sedimentary rock formations that constitute the regional aquifers. The layered rocks were classified according to their elastic properties into three primary units: soft sandstone, hard sandstone, and dolostone. Downhole measurements were analyzed to identify fracture patterns associated with each unit and to evaluate their role in controlling groundwater flow. Fracture networks are composed of orthogonal sets of laterally extensive, subhorizontal bedding plane partings and bed-delimited, subvertical joints with spacings that are consistent with rock mechanics principles and stress models. The vertical distribution of transmissive zones is confined to a few select bedding plane fractures, with soft sandstone having the fewest (one per 70-m depth) and hard sandstone the most (five per 70-m depth). Bed-normal permeability is examined using a probabilistic model that considers the lengths of flow paths winding along joints and bedding plane fractures. Soft sandstone has the smallest bed-normal permeability primarily because of its wide, geomechanically undersaturated joint spacing. Results indicate that the three formations have similar values of bulk transmissivity, within roughly an order of magnitude, but that each rock unit has its own unique system of groundwater flow paths that constitute that transmissivity.

  18. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km 2 , is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses. PMID:27667721

  20. Identifiation of Phymatolithon lamii (Me. Lemoine Y.M. Chamberlain 1991 following bleaching in the upper intertidal zone of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Keith Quinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify an unusual encrusting calcareous organism found growing on upper intertidal rocks along the coast of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada, which was thought to potentially represent a new, perhaps invasive species to the area. Methods: Observations were made of the organism growing in situ and of intact and dissected specimens under microscopes in the laboratory. Taxonomic keys were used to determine probable identity of the organism as a tunicate, sponge, bryozoan, marine lichen, or coralline red alga. These keys were then further used to identify samples to species. Results: The organism was determined to be Phymatolithon lamii (Me. Lemoine Y.M. Chamberlain 1991, an encrusting coralline red alga native to the study region. This species normally occurs in the subtidal zone, so its occurrence in the high intertidal zone was unusual and resulted in the alga becoming bleached and taking on an unusual appearance. Conclusions: The sample did not represent a new or invasive species to the study area. However, occurrence of this species on the high intertidal zone was novel and may have resulted from unusual climatic and/or oceanographic conditions in the study area in 2015 that allowed this alga to settle and grow in the intertidal zone for a time before death and bleaching occurred. Events such as this resulting from climate change may negatively impact recruitment to populations of coastal marine species and should be investigated further.

  1. Seismic and Thermal Structure of the Arctic Lithosphere, From Waveform Tomography and Thermodynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Fullea, J.; Pease, V.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal structure of the lithosphere is reflected in the values of seismic velocities within it. Our new tomographic models of the crust and upper mantle of the Arctic are constrained by an unprecedentedly large global waveform dataset and provide substantially improved resolution, compared to previous models. The new tomography reveals lateral variations in the temperature and thickness of the lithosphere and defines deep boundaries between tectonic blocks with different lithospheric properties and age. The shape and evolution of the geotherm beneath a tectonic unit depends on both crustal and mantle-lithosphere structure beneath it: the lithospheric thickness and its changes with time (these determine the supply of heat from the deep Earth), the crustal thickness and heat production (the supply of heat from within the crust), and the thickness and thermal conductivity of the sedimentary cover (the insulation). Detailed thermal structure of the basins can be modelled by combining seismic velocities from tomography with data on the crustal structure and heat production, in the framework of computational petrological modelling. The most prominent lateral contrasts across the Arctic are between the cold, thick lithospheres of the cratons (in North America, Greenland and Eurasia) and the warmer, non-cratonic blocks. The lithosphere of the Canada Basin is cold and thick, similar to old oceanic lithosphere elsewhere around the world; its thermal structure offers evidence on its lithospheric age and formation mechanism. At 150-250 km depth, the central Arctic region shows a moderate low-velocity anomaly, cooler than that beneath Iceland and N Atlantic. An extension of N Atlantic low-velocity anomaly into the Arctic through the Fram Strait may indicate an influx of N Atlantic asthenosphere under the currently opening Eurasia Basin.

  2. Arctic Ocean UNCLOS Article 76 Work for Greenland Starts on Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jensen, T.; Marcussen, C.; Jackson, R.; Voss, P.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most lonely and desolate stretches of coastline on the planet has become the target for UNCLOS article 76 related research. The Danish Continental Shelf Project has launched a work program to investigate the possibilities for Greenland to claim an area outside the 200 nm limit in the Arctic Ocean. The role of the Lomonosov Ridge as a Natural Prolongation of Greenland/Canada is an important issue, and in order to better evaluate the connection between Greenland and the Lomonosov Ridge the nature of not only the ridge but also of Northern Greenland is the target of deep crustal investigations. The North Greenland Fold belt covers the ice-free part of North Greenland and continues west in the Canadian Arctic. The foldbelt was formed during the Ellesmerian orogeny, where sediments from the Franklinian Basin where compressed and deformed. The deep structure of basin and its subsequent closure are broadly unknown. Three broad band earthquake seismological stations where installed in North Greenland to supplement the existing stations at Alert (Canada) and Station Nord to the east, and the first data was available summer 2005. Crustal thickness data from these first results are presented. Plans for the spring 2006 consist of wide-angle acquisition on the sea ice from the Greenland-Canadian mainland out onto the Lomonosov Ridge, a joint Danish - Canadian project with a 400 km long profile over difficult ice conditions, 18 tons of explosives, three helicopters, a Twin Otter and about 30 participants.

  3. Processes of multibathyal aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J. G.; Robbins, L. L.; Anderson, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    During 3 years of study (2010-2012), the western Arctic Ocean was found to have unique aragonite saturation profiles with up to three distinct aragonite undersaturation zones. This complexity is produced as inflow of Atlantic-derived and Pacific-derived water masses mix with Arctic-derived waters, which are further modified by physiochemical and biological processes. The shallowest aragonite undersaturation zone, from the surface to ˜30 m depth is characterized by relatively low alkalinity and other dissolved ions. Besides local influence of biological processes on aragonite undersaturation of shallow coastal waters, the nature of this zone is consistent with dilution by sea-ice melt and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. A second undersaturated zone at ˜90-220 m depth (salinity ˜31.8-35.4) occurs within the Arctic Halocline and is characterized by elevated pCO2 and nutrients. The nature of this horizon is consistent with remineralization of organic matter on shallow continental shelves bordering the Canada Basin and the input of the nutrients and CO2 entrained by currents from the Pacific Inlet. Finally, the deepest aragonite undersaturation zone is at greater than 2000 m depth and is controlled by similar processes as deep aragonite saturation horizons in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The comparatively shallow depth of this deepest aragonite saturation horizon in the Arctic is maintained by relatively low temperatures, and stable chemical composition. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of these aragonite undersaturation zones, and the time scales over which they operate will be crucial to refine predictive models.

  4. Processes of multibathyal aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J.G.; Robbins, L.L.; Anderson, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    During 3 years of study (2010–2012), the western Arctic Ocean was found to have unique aragonite saturation profiles with up to three distinct aragonite undersaturation zones. This complexity is produced as inflow of Atlantic-derived and Pacific-derived water masses mix with Arctic-derived waters, which are further modified by physiochemical and biological processes. The shallowest aragonite undersaturation zone, from the surface to ∼30 m depth is characterized by relatively low alkalinity and other dissolved ions. Besides local influence of biological processes on aragonite undersaturation of shallow coastal waters, the nature of this zone is consistent with dilution by sea-ice melt and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. A second undersaturated zone at ∼90–220 m depth (salinity ∼31.8–35.4) occurs within the Arctic Halocline and is characterized by elevated pCO2 and nutrients. The nature of this horizon is consistent with remineralization of organic matter on shallow continental shelves bordering the Canada Basin and the input of the nutrients and CO2 entrained by currents from the Pacific Inlet. Finally, the deepest aragonite undersaturation zone is at greater than 2000 m depth and is controlled by similar processes as deep aragonite saturation horizons in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The comparatively shallow depth of this deepest aragonite saturation horizon in the Arctic is maintained by relatively low temperatures, and stable chemical composition. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of these aragonite undersaturation zones, and the time scales over which they operate will be crucial to refine predictive models.

  5. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  6. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Italy as permanent observers in the Arctic Council has increased the international status of this forum significantly. This chapter aims to explain the background for the increased international interest in the Arctic region through an analysis...

  7. Stable isotopes and heavy metal distribution in Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussels) from western basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Aasm, I.S.; Clarke, J.D.; Fryer, B.J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-02-01

    Dreissena polymorpha is an exotic freshwater bivalve species which was introduced into the Great Lakes system in the fall of 1985 through the release of ballast water from European freighters. Utilizing individual growth rings of the shells, the stable isotope distribution ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) was determined for the life history of selected samples which were collected from the western basin of Lake Erie. These bivalves deposit their shell in near equilibrium with the ambient water and thus reflect any annual variation of the system in the isotopic records held within their shells. Observed values for {delta}{sup 18}O range from -6.64 to -9.46 permille with an average value of -7.69 permille PDB, while carbon values ranged from -0.80 to -4.67 permille with an average value of -1.76 permille PDB. Dreissena polymorpha shells incorporate metals into their shells during growth. Individual shell growth increments were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cd, Cu, and V concentrations. The shells show increased uptake of certain metals during periods of isotopic enrichment which correspond with warmer water temperatures. Since metals are incorporated into the shells, the organism may be useful as a biomonitor of metal pollution within aquatic environments. (orig.)

  8. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group...... in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  9. Multielement statistical evidence for uraniferous hydrothermal activity in sandstones overlying the Phoenix uranium deposit, Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shishi; Hattori, Keiko; Grunsky, Eric C.

    2018-04-01

    The Phoenix U deposit, with indicated resources of 70.2 M lb U3O8, occurs along the unconformity between the Proterozoic Athabasca Group sandstones and the crystalline basement rocks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the compositions of sandstones overlying the deposit. Among PCs, PC1 accounts for the largest variability of U and shows a positive association of U with rare earth elements (REEs) + Y + Cu + B + Na + Mg + Ni + Be. The evidence suggests that U was dispersed into sandstones together with these elements during the uraniferous hydrothermal activity. Uranium shows an inverse association with Zr, Hf, Th, Fe, and Ti. Since they are common in detrital heavy minerals, such heavy minerals are not the major host of U. The elements positively associated with U are high in concentrations above the deposit, forming a "chimney-like" or "hump-like" distribution in a vertical section. Their enrichment patterns are explained by the ascent of basement fluids through faults to sandstones and the circulation of basinal fluids around the deposit. The Pb isotope compositions of whole rocks are similar to expected values calculated from the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb except for sandstones close to the deposit. The data suggest that in situ decay of U and Th is responsible for the Pb isotope compositions of most sandstones and that highly radiogenic Pb dispersed from the deposit to the proximal sandstones long after the mineralization. This secondary dispersion is captured in PC8, which has low eigenvalue. The data suggests that the secondary dispersion has minor effect on the overall lithogeochemistry of sandstones.

  10. Empirical assessment of effects of urbanization on event flow hydrology in watersheds of Canada's Great Lakes-St Lawrence basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M. P.; Richardson, Murray

    2016-10-01

    We conducted an empirical hydrological analysis of high-temporal resolution streamflow records for 27 watersheds within 11 river systems in the Greater Toronto Region of the Canadian Great Lakes basin. Our objectives were to model the event-scale flow response of watersheds to urbanization and to test for scale and threshold effects. Watershed areas ranged from 37.5 km2 to 806 km2 and urban percent land cover ranged from less than 0.1-87.6%. Flow records had a resolution of 15-min increments and were available over a 42-year period, allowing for detailed assessment of changes in event-scale flow response with increasing urban land use during the post-freshet period (May 26 to November 15). Empirical statistical models were developed for flow characteristics including total runoff, runoff coefficient, eightieth and ninety-fifth percentile rising limb event runoff and mean rising limb event acceleration. Changes in some of these runoff metrics began at very low urban land use (acceleration increased with increasing urban cover, thus causing 80th percentile runoff depths to be reached sooner. These results indicate the potential for compromised water balance when cumulative changes are considered at the watershed scale. No abrupt or threshold changes in hydrologic characteristics were identified along the urban land use gradient. A positive interaction of urban percent land use and watershed size indicated a scale effect on total runoff. Overall, the results document compromised hydrologic stability attributable to urbanization during a period with no detectable change in rainfall patterns. They also corroborate literature recommendations for spatially distributed low impact urban development techniques; measures would be needed throughout the urbanized area of a watershed to dampen event-scale hydrologic responses to urbanization. Additional research is warranted into event-scale hydrologic trends with urbanization in other regions, in particular rising limb event

  11. Silicic magmatism associated with Late Cretaceousrifting in the Arctic Basin – petrogenesis of the Kap Kane sequence, the Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Holm, Paul Martin; Duprat, Helene Inga

    2011-01-01

    The bimodal, Late Cretaceous–Palaeocene (71–61 Ma) Kap Washington Group volcanic sequence on the north coast of Greenland was erupted in a continental rift setting during the opening of the Arctic Ocean. On Kap Kane ca. 70 Ma silicic lavas and ignimbrites dominate over mildly alkaline basalts...

  12. Prediction of shale prospectivity from seismically-derived reservoir and completion qualities: Application to a shale-gas field, Horn River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Cheol Hoon; Lee, Gwang H.; Jeoung, Taek Ju; Ko, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ki Soo; Park, Kyung-sick; Shin, Chang Hoon

    2018-04-01

    Prospective shale plays require a combination of good reservoir and completion qualities. Total organic carbon (TOC) is an important reservoir quality and brittleness is the most critical condition for completion quality. We analyzed seismically-derived brittleness and TOC to investigate the prospectivity of the Horn River Group shale (the Muskwa, Otter Park, Evie shales) of a shale-gas field in the western Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada. We used the λρ-μρ brittleness template, constructed from the mineralogy-based brittleness index (MBI) and elastic logs from two wells, to convert the λρ and μρ volumes from prestack seismic inversion to the volume for the brittleness petrotypes (most brittle, intermediate, and least brittle). The probability maps of the most brittle petrotype for the three shales were generated from Bayesian classification, based on the λρ-μρ template. The relationship between TOC and P-wave and S-wave velocity ratio (VP/VS) at the wells allowed the conversion of the VP/VS volume from prestack inversion to the TOC volume, which in turn was used to construct the TOC maps for the three shales. Increased TOC is correlated with high brittleness, contrasting with the commonly-held understanding. Therefore, the prospectivity of the shales in the study area can be represented by high brittleness and increased TOC. We propose a shale prospectivity index (SPI), computed by the arithmetic average of the normalized probability of the most brittle petrotype and the normalized TOC. The higher SPI corresponds to higher production rates in the Muskwa and Evie shales. The areas of the highest SPI have not been fully tested. The future drilling should be focused on these areas to increase the economic viability of the field.

  13. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Al...

  14. The Experience of Using Autonomous Drifters for Studying the Ice Fields and the Ocean Upper Layer in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructional and operational features of the BTC60/GPS/ice temperature-profiling drifters, developed in Marine Hydrophysical institute RAS for investigation of polar areas, are considered in this article. The drifters operated in completely automatic mode measuring air pressure, water temperatures at 17 depths down to 60 m, ocean pressures at 20, 40 and 60 m nominal depths and current locations. Accuracies of measurements were: +/-2 hPa for air pressure, +/-0.1°C for temperatures, +/-30 hPa for ocean pressure, 60 m for locations. Iridium satellite communication system was used for data transfer. Time delay between sample and delivery to a user did not exceed 10 minutes. More than 30 thermodrifters were developed in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin and central Arctic for the period from September 2012 to September 2014. Total duration of drifting buoys in operation was more of 4800 days. It was accepted the data of hourly samples about variability of ice-flows and ice field as a whole movements, thermo processes within upper water layer below ice, air pressure in near surface atmosphere of the Arctic region. The article includes some results of statistical analysis of data from drifter ID247950, the 3-year trajectory of which depended on the processes of transfer and evolution of ice fields in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin. Over a long period of time the Arctic buoy in-situ experiments allowed resulting about capability and reasonability to create reliable, technological and low-cost buoy network on basis of BTC60/GPS/ice drifters to monitor Arctic area of the World Ocean.

  15. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  16. Methane leakage during the evolution of petroleum systems in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Central Graben area of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, L. A.; di Primio, R.; Anka, Z.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Around 500 to 600 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of methane enter the atmosphere every year, mainly as product of microbial processes and combustion of fossil fuels and burning biomass. The importance of another source, the geologic emissions of methane, is up to now only loosely constrained. In this study, we addressed the potential methane emissions during the geological evolution of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB), which holds the largest oil sand accumulations in the world, and the Central Graben area of the North Sea. In the case of the WCSB, thermogenic gas generation and leakage at the sediment surface were addressed through 3D petroleum systems modeling. In this basin, the accumulated oil experienced intense biodegradation that resulted in large masses of biogenic methane. We quantified this latter mass though a two-step mass balance approach. Firstly, we estimated the rate of petroleum degradation and the magnitude of petroleum loss. After this, we calculated the mass of biogenic methane generated using a model that assumes hexadecane (C16H34) as representative of the saturated compounds (Zengler et al., 1999). Our 3D model suggests that 90000-150000 Tg of dry gas (mostly methane) could have leaked during the interval from 80 Ma to 60 Ma. Therefore, uniform leakage rates would have been in the order of 10-3-10-2 Tg yr-1. Biogenic methane generation could have taken place at rates of 10-4 to 10-2 Tg yr-1. However, the effective mass of thermogenic and biogenic methane reaching the atmosphere might have been up to 90% lower than calculated here due to methanotrophic consumption in soils (Etiope and Klusman, 2002). We addressed the thermogenic gas generation and leakage in the Central Graben through two different methods. The first is based on a previous 3D petroleum system modeling of the region (Neumann, 2006). The second consisted of calculating the mass of generated petroleum based on source rock extension and properties (Schmoker, 1994), and then

  17. Tectonique dans la région de la mer de Beaufort (Arctique canadien (résumé Tectonism in the Beaufort Sea - Region of Arctic Canada (Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroszczak W. E.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Le delta de la Mackenzie et la mer de Beaufort qui en sont encore au début de l'exploration, peuvent devenir une région pétrolière majeure dans les années 1980. Ce vaste bassin tertiaire est situé dans un environnement arctique ; il a demandé et nécessitera dans l'avenir de nouvelles technologies pour développer et produire les hydrocarbures si l'exploration est couronnée de succès. L'exploration pour l'huile et le gaz a été active dans cette région depuis 1965 bien que les facteurs climatiques et économiques aient eu tendance à freiner cette exploration, particulièrement en mer. L'auteur présente un bref historique des recherches comprenant les derniers résultats des sondage dans la mer de Beaufort forés par Dome Petroleum et ses partenaires. On discute aussi l'origine des structures en mer, en commentant les données sismiques. La structuration est considérée comme le résultat d'une sédimentation rapide de clastiques au Tertiaire dans un bassin dont le substratum serait formé d'une épaisse série d'argiles sous-compactées d'âge jurassique ou crétacé. The Mackenzie Delta and offshore Beaufort Sea Region which is at a very early stage of exploration, may become a major source of hydrocarbons in the 1980's This large Tertiary basin is situated in an Arctic environment and has required, and will require in the future, new technology to develop and produce hydrocarbons if exploration is successful. Exploration for oil and gas has been active in the area since 1965 with climatic and economic factors contributing ta a slow pace of exploration, particularly in the offshore area. A brief history of exploration with and update of the latest results of drilling in the Beaufort by Dome Petroleum and its partners is presented. Using seismic data, the genesis of structures found in the offshore area is discussed. These are believed to be the result of rapid Tertiary clastic deposition in a basin underlain by a thick section of

  18. Construction and calibration of a groundwater-flow model to assess groundwater availability in the uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Williston Basin, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.

    2018-05-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater-flow model for the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability in the area. The assessment was done because of the potential for increased demands and stresses on groundwater associated with large-scale energy development in the area. As part of this assessment, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed as a tool that can be used to simulate how the groundwater-flow system responds to changes in hydrologic stresses at a regional scale.The three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s numerical finite-difference groundwater model with the Newton-Rhapson solver, MODFLOW–NWT, to represent the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems for steady-state (mean) hydrological conditions for 1981‒2005 and for transient (temporally varying) conditions using a combination of a steady-state period for pre-1960 and transient periods for 1961‒2005. The numerical model framework was constructed based on existing and interpreted hydrogeologic and geospatial data and consisted of eight layers. Two layers were used to represent the glacial aquifer system in the model; layer 1 represented the upper one-half and layer 2 represented the lower one-half of the glacial aquifer system. Three layers were used to represent the lower Tertiary aquifer system in the model; layer 3 represented the upper Fort Union aquifer, layer 4 represented the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit, and layer 5 represented the lower Fort Union aquifer. Three layers were used to represent the Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the model; layer 6 represented the upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit, layer 7 represented the lower Hell Creek aquifer, and layer 8 represented the Fox

  19. Tsunami in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    rate of 10-3 per year. Additional tsunami threat might arise from rare earthquake occurrences within the continental slope of deep-sea basin of the Arctic Ocean and near the coast of the continent, where high probability of triggering submarine landslides exists that can generate even more dangerous tsunamis than those of seismotectonic origin. The most reliable information about the manifestation of the tsunami in the Arctic is associated with submarine landslide Storegga located on the continental slope of the Norwegian Sea and collapsed 8,200 years ago. Traces of sediment left behind by the tsunami waves on the coast, show that the maximum vertical tsunami runup could reach 20 meters. Factors causing the potential tsunami thread of landslides in Russian Arctic are sedimentation processes that can be associated with the formation of the alluvial fans of the great Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisei and Lena.

  20. Space-for-time substitution in predicting the state of picoplankton and nanoplankton in a changing Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, William K. W.; Carmack, Eddy C.; McLaughlin, Fiona A.; Nelson, R. John; Williams, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly but there are no long-term time series observations on the state of the phytoplankton community that could allow a link to be made from physical/chemical pressures to the impact on marine ecosystems. Here, we test the idea that space-for-time (SFT) substitution might predict temporal change in the Canada Basin premised on differences in the present state of phytoplankton in other geographic zones, specifically the ratio in the abundance of picophytoplankton to nanophytoplankton (Pico:Nano). We compared the change in Pico:Nano observed in the Canada Basin from 2004 to 2012 to the different average states of this ratio in 26 other ocean ecological regions. Our results show that as upper ocean nitrate concentration changed in the Canada Basin from year to year, the concomitant change in Pico:Nano was statistically commensurate with the difference that this ratio exhibits between Longhurst ecological provinces in relation to nitrate concentration. Lower average concentration of nitrate in the upper water column is associated with a higher value of Pico:Nano, a result consistent with resource control of phytoplankton size structure in the ocean. We suggest that SFT substitution allows an explanation of temporal progression from spatial pattern as a test of mechanism, but such statistical prediction is not necessarily a projection of future states.

  1. Dissolved iron in the Arctic Ocean : Important role of hydrothermal sources, shelf input and scavenging removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M. B.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Bakker, K.

    2012-01-01

    Arctic Ocean waters exchange with the North Atlantic, and thus dissolved iron (DFe) in the Arctic has implications for the global Fe cycle. We present deep water (>250 m) DFe concentrations of the Central Arctic Ocean (Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov Basins). The DFe concentration in the deep waters

  2. Transnational Sea-Ice Transport in a Warmer, More Mobile Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R.; Tremblay, B.; Pfirman, S. L.; DeRepentigny, P.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic sea ice thins, summer ice continues to shrink in its area, and multi-year ice becomes rarer, winter ice is not disappearing from the Arctic Basin. Rather, it is ever more dominated by first year ice. And each summer, as the total coverage withdraws, the first year ice is able travel faster and farther, carrying any ice-rafted material with it. Micro-organisms, sediments, pollutants and river runoff all move across the Arctic each summer and are deposited hundreds of kilometers from their origins. Analyzing Arctic sea ice drift patterns in the context of the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the Arctic nations raises concerns about the changing fate of "alien" ice which forms within one country's EEZ, then drifts and melts in another country's EEZ. We have developed a new data set from satellite-based ice-drift data that allows us to track groups of ice "pixels" forward from their origin to their destination, or backwards from their melting location to their point of formation. The software has been integrated with model output to extend the tracking of sea ice to include climate projections. Results indicate, for example, that Russian sea ice dominates "imports" to the EEZ of Norway, as expected, but with increasing ice mobility it is also is exported into the EEZs of other countries, including Canada and the United States. Regions of potential conflict are identified, including several national borders with extensive and/or changing transboundary sea ice transport. These data are a starting point for discussion of transborder questions raised by "alien" ice and the material it may import from one nation's EEZ to another's.

  3. Black Carbon in Arctic Snow: Preliminary Results from Recent Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.; Grenfell, T. C.; Radionov, V. F.; Clarke, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    Annual snowpacks act to amplify variations in regional solar heating of the surface due to positive feedback processes associated with areal melting and precipitation. Small amounts of black carbon (BC) in the snow can reduce the albedo and modulate shortwave absorption and transmission affecting the onset of melt and heating of the snow pack. The effect of black carbon on the albedo of snow in the Arctic is estimated to be up to a few percent. The only prior survey of arctic snow was that of Clarke and Noone in 1983-84. We have begun a wide- area survey of the BC content of arctic snow in order to update and expand the 1983/84 survey. Samples of snow have been collected in mid to late spring when the entire winter snowpack was accessible. The samples have been melted and filtered, and the filters analyzed for absorptive impurities. To date, sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and in the Arctic Basin have been sampled. In March and April 2007 we also carried out a field program at four sites in northwestern Russia as part of the International Polar Year. Preliminary results based on visual comparison with the standard filters indicate that the snow cover in arctic North America and the Beaufort Sea have lower BC concentrations now than 20 years ago while levels in Greenland are about the same. Background levels of BC in Russia are approximately twice those in North America consistent with modeling predictions of Flanner et al., 2007. More accurate values of absorption will be obtained by measurement of spectral transmission of the filters, which will also allow the relative contributions of BC and soil dust to be determined.

  4. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.; Meltofte, H.; Rysgaard, S.; Rasch, M.; Jonasson, S.; Christensen, T.R.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.; Pedersen, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  5. Seismic stratigraphy and regional unconformity analysis of Chukchi Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasheva, Mariia; Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Russian Chukchi Sea Shelf one of petroleum potential province and still one of the most uninvestigated area. North and Sough Chukchi Trough that separated by Wrangel-Hearld Arch have different origin. The main challenge is stratigraphic sequences determination that filled North and South Chukchi basins. The joint tectonic evolution of the territory as Canada basin opening and Brooks Range-Wrangel Herald orogenic events enable to expect the analogous stratigraphy sequences in Russian Part. Analysis of 2D seismic data of Russian and American Chukchi Sea represent the major seismic reflectance that traced throughout the basins. Referring to this data North Chukchi basin includes four seismic stratigraphic sequences - Franklian (pre-Mississippian), Ellesmirian (Upper Devonian-Jurassic), Beaufortian (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and Brookian (Lower Cretaceous-Cenozoic), as it is in North Slope Alaska [1]. South Chukchi basin has different tectonic nature, representing only Franclian basement and Brookian sequences. Sedimentary cover of North Chukchi basins starts with Ellesmirian sequence it is marked by bright reflector that separates from chaotic folded Franklian sequence. Lower Ellesmirian sequence fills of grabens that formed during upper Devonian rifting. Devonian extension event was initiated as a result of Post-Caledonian orogenic collapse, terminating with the opening of Arctic oceans. Beaufortian sequence is distinguished in Colville basin and Hanna Trough by seismically defined clinoforms. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are eroded by regional Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU) linked with Canada basin opening. LCU is defined at seismic by angular unconformity, tracing at most arctic basins. Lower Cretaceous erosion and uplift event are of Hauterivian to Aptian age in Brooks Range and the Loppa High uplift refer to the early Barremian. The Lower Cretaceous clinoform complex downlaps to LCU horizon and filling North Chukchi basin (as in Colville basin Alska

  6. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  7. Freshwater Export from the Arctic Ocean and its Downstream Effect on Labrador Sea Deep Convection in a High-Resolution Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Arctic has been observed in the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago ( Bourke and McLaren 1992). There, thick multiyear ice of Arctic origin encounters...Affairs, 87(2), 63-77. 172 Bourke , R. H., and A. S. McLaren, 1992: Contour mapping of Arctic Basin ice draft and roughness parameters. J. Geophys

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of Heat Entrainment Under Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Gelderloos, Renske; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly in recent decades. The faster than projected retreat suggests that free-running large-scale climate models may not be accurately representing some key processes. The small-scale turbulent entrainment of heat from the mixed layer could be one such process. To better understand this mechanism, we model the Arctic Ocean's Canada Basin, which is characterized by a perennial anomalously warm Pacific Summer Water (PSW) layer residing at the base of the mixed layer and a summertime Near-Surface Temperature Maximum (NSTM) within the mixed layer trapping heat from solar radiation. We use large eddy simulation (LES) to investigate heat entrainment for different ice-drift velocities and different initial temperature profiles. The value of LES is that the resolved turbulent fluxes are greater than the subgrid-scale fluxes for most of our parameter space. The results show that the presence of the NSTM enhances heat entrainment from the mixed layer. Additionally there is no PSW heat entrained under the parameter space considered. We propose a scaling law for the ocean-to-ice heat flux which depends on the initial temperature anomaly in the NSTM layer and the ice-drift velocity. A case study of "The Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012" gives a turbulent heat flux from the mixed layer that is approximately 70% of the total ocean-to-ice heat flux estimated from the PIOMAS model often used for short-term predictions. Present results highlight the need for large-scale climate models to account for the NSTM layer.

  9. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  10. Microsatellite assessment of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus stocks in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron BA Shafer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Walruses in Canada are currently subdivided into seven stocks based on summering areas; Western Jones Sound (WJS, Baffin Bay (BB, Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound (PS-LS, North Foxe Basin (N-FB, Central Foxe Basin (C-FB, Hudson Bay Davis Strait (HB-DS and Southern and Eastern Hudson Bay (SE-HB. In this study, walrus were sampled from six of the seven stocks (SE-HB samples were not available and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. All stocks were genetically diverse (average heterozygosity of 0.58 with no evidence of inbreeding (average FIS of 0.03. We detected significant genetic differentiation among the stocks and a pattern of genetic spatial autocorrelation that suggests a moderate effect of geographic distance on gene flow among stocks. Bayesian clustering suggested the six recognized stocks were elements of two larger genetic clusters - a northern Arctic population (containing BB, WJS, and PS-LS stocks and a central Arctic population (containing C-FB, N-FB, and HB-DS stocks. These populations are moderately differentiated (FST = 0.07, but based on evidence of contemporary movement from assignment tests, are not completely isolated. There was support for maintaining the WJS stock and a combined BB+PS-LS stock, although the latter conclusion is based on a small sample size. Similarly, there was some evidence suggesting separation of the Foxe Basin stocks from the HB-DS but not the N-FB from the C-FB stock. However, given that there are morphological and chemical differences between N-FB and C-FB stocks, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a revision of the current stock designations.

  11. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  12. Review of Arctic fox. Life at the top of the world, by Gary Hamilton

    OpenAIRE

    Ims, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic fox is the only truly Arctic species among the terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the world. It is distributed across the circumpolar Arctic region. Like polar bears, Arctic foxes regularly traverse the pack ice of the polar basin, a fact that astonished Fridtjof Nansen during his attempt to reach the North Pole more than 100 years ago. However, despite its unique lifestyle, which in some respects is more fascinating than that of the polar bear, there has been no popular book (exce...

  13. The crustal structure of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada—teleseismic mapping across a remote intraplate orogenic belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Oakey, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Ellesmere Island in Arctic Canada displays a complex geological evolution. The region was affected by two distinct orogenies, the Palaeozoic Ellesmerian orogeny (the Caledonian equivalent in Arctic Canada and Northern Greenland) and the Palaeogene Eurekan orogeny, related to the opening of Baffin...

  14. THE ARCTIC: A DIALOGUE FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Mazurov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2010, Moscow hosted the International Arctic Forum “The Arctic—Territory of Dialogue.” The Arctic Forum focused its attention on elements of sustainable development in the Arctic region, i.e., ecology, economics, infrastructure, social services, security, and geopolitics. Many Russian experts and many well-known politicians and experts from leading research centers of the Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and USA, as well as by participants from France, Germany, Netherlands, and other countries attended the forum. Scholars and public figures from the European countries, representatives of the NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and other institutions were also present at the conference. In his key-note speech the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Vladimir V. Putin formulated the principles of Russian national policy in the Arctic. Russian and foreign participants supported the idea of continuing dialogue on the Arctic under the RGS’s aegis and the transformation of the Arctic Forum into a permanent platform for discussions on the most urgent issues of the region.

  15. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  16. Changes in the marine carbonate system of the western Arctic: patterns in a rescued data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Miller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A recently recovered and compiled set of inorganic carbon data collected in the Canadian Arctic since the 1970s has revealed substantial change, as well as variability, in the carbonate system of the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin. Whereas the role of this area as a net atmospheric carbon sink has been confirmed, high pCO2 values in the upper halocline underscore the potential for CO2 outgassing as sea ice retreats and upwelling increases. In addition, increasing total inorganic carbon and decreasing alkalinity are increasing pCO2 and decreasing CaCO3 saturation states, such that undersaturation with respect to aragonite now occurs regularly in both deep waters and the upper halocline.

  17. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O' Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G

    2003-04-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by {delta}{sup 15}N) is positively correlated with increasing {delta}{sup 13}C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCB) > chlordane-related compounds ({sigma}CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane ({sigma}HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) {>=}chlorobenzenes ({sigma}ClBz) > DDT-related isomers ({sigma}DDT). In liver, {sigma}CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by {sigma}PCB > TOX > {sigma}HCH > {sigma}ClBz > {sigma}DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While {sigma}PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  18. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  19. 50 Myr of pulsed mafic magmatism in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Dockman, D. M.; Heaman, L. M.; Gibson, S. A.; Sarkar, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive and voluminous Cretaceous mafic magmatism in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada forms the circum-Arctic High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The small number of published high-precision ages for this LIP indicate its eruption over a considerable timespan raising concerns over whether the HALIP can be strictly defined as a single LIP and questioning the role of a single or multiple plumes in its genesis. Here we present an integrated geochemical and geochronological study to better constrain the timing and cause of mafic magma genesis in the Canadian HALIP. Six new U-Pb and four 40Ar/39Ar ages of mafic lavas and intrusive sheets range from 121 Ma to 78 Ma. The U-Pb ages are the first analyzed from the mafic intrusions of Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Islands. The new geochronology, combined with other published high-precision ages, reveal a > 50 Myr duration of mafic magmatism in the HALIP defined by three main pulses. Tholeiites dominate the initial 25 Myr of magmatism, transitioning to coeval emplacement of alkali and tholeiitic basalts. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope ratios indicate that both magma types are derived from a similar source dominated by convecting mantle. Rare-earth-element inversion models reveal that the alkalic and tholeiitic magmas were generated beneath a bimodal lithospheric `lid' thickness of 65 ± 5 and 45 ± 4 km, respectively. We suggest that the early 128 - 122 Ma tholeiitic event is primarily plume-generated and correlates across the circum-Arctic with the other HALIP tholeiites. Younger HALIP magmatism, with coeval alkalic and tholeiitic magmas erupting over 25 Myr, may be explained by alternating modes of edge-driven mantle convection as the primary control on magma genesis. A distal plume may have intensified magma production by edge-driven convection.

  20. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Arctic and sub-Arctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John

    2015-04-01

    Six major factors consistently emerge as controls on the spatial and temporal variability in sediment and solute fluxes in cold climates. They are climatic, geologic, physiographic or relief, biologic, hydrologic, and regolith factors. The impact of these factors on sediment and solute mass transfer in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments is examined. Comparison of non-glacierized Arctic vs. subarctic drainage basins reveals the effects of these controls. All drainage basins exhibit considerable variability in rates of sediment and solute fluxes. For the non-glacierized drainage basins there is a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope processes and fluvial processes as relief increases. Similarly, a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope and fluvial processes is observed as total precipitation increases. Similar patterns are also observed with respect to solute transport and relief and precipitation. Lithologic factors are most strongly observed in the contrast between volcanic vs. plutonic igneous bedrock substrates. Basins underlain by volcanic rocks display greater mass transfers than those underlain by plutonic rocks. Biologic influences are most strongly expressed by variations in extent of vegetation cover and the degree of human interference, with human impacted basins generating greater fluxes. For glacierized basins the fundamental difference to non-glacierized basins is an overall increase in mean annual mass transfers of sediment and a generally smaller magnitude solute transfer. The principal role of geology is observed with respect to lithology. Catchments underlain by limestone demonstrate substantially greater solute mass transfers than sediment transfer. The influence of relief is seen in the contrast in mass transfers between upland and lowland drainage basins with upland basins generating greater sediment and solute transfers than lowland basins. For glacierized basins the effects of biology and regolith appear to be

  1. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  2. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    This report forms part of the ambitious CBS Maritime research initiative entitled “Competitive Challenges and Strategic Development Potential in Global Maritime Industries” which was launched with the generous support of the Danish Maritime Fund. The competitiveness initiative targets specific ma......, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  3. US energy policy and Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a perspective of Arctic energy resource development and the impact that science and technology will have on the American National Energy Policy (NEP). The role of the NEP is to provide energy security for the United States by ensuring dependable, affordable and sustainable energy for the future. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) conducts a wide range of energy and research activities that contribute to energy efficiency advances that help meet rising energy demand and reduce pollution emissions. In May 2001, the NEP proposed 100 recommendations, of which half focus on energy efficiency and developing renewable energy sources. The Clean Coal Power Initiative is also based on technological innovation and focuses on a program called FutureGen to build and operate a zero emission coal-fired power plant to produce both electricity and hydrogen. These initiatives could result in major changes in America's energy scenario. The provisions of the Energy Bill in streamlining the regulatory process for the proposed Alaska gas pipeline were outlined. The 2004 Annual Energy Outlook for the United States indicates that a pipeline from the Mackenzie Delta to Alberta would be constructed first, followed by one from Alaska. The North Slope Alaska natural gas pipeline will likely be operational by 2018 and add 4.5 BCF per day to meet growing natural gas demand in the United States. The National Petroleum Council's report on America's long-term natural gas supply and demand situation claims that lower-48 and traditional Canadian natural gas basins will be able to supply 75 per cent of the U.S. demand by the year 2025. The remainder will be made up by Alaskan natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas from new sources in Canada such as coalbed methane, methane hydrates, and oil sands

  4. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  5. A Compendium of Arctic Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    shoulders if it is facing you. Do not try a shot to the head unless you are absolutely sure of a hit . It is better to hit one of the two recommended areas...pp. 29-49, in Japanese. Sater, J. E. (ed.) (1969). The Arctic Basin. Arctic Inst. of North Am., Washington, D.C. Tabata , T., Y. Nohuguchi, and...T. Saito (1980). Observed Sea Ice Thickness in the Northern Okhotsk Sea. Low Temp. Sci. Ser. A, (Japan), n. 39, pp. 153-158. Tabata , Tadashi (1979

  6. Geophysical reassessment of the role of ancient crustal structures on the development of western Laurentia and Selwyn Basin, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, N.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the western margin of the North American craton (Laurentia) in the northern Canadian Cordillera and its role in the development of the Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Selwyn Basin are reassessed through 3D inversion of a new compilation of aeromagnetic data and archival Bouguer gravity data. The region's tectonic history is obscured by partial burial beneath Selwyn Basin, and a tectonic overprint that includes terrane accretion, regional plutonism, and strike-slip faults with displacements of 100s and perhaps 1000s of kilometers. Despite the implied complexity, preliminary geological and geophysical based interpretations of the structure of the western margin of Laurentia, have been adopted with few refinements in over two decades. Regionally continuous, NE-trending, crustal lineaments, including the Fort Norman line and Leith Ridge fault, were interpreted as having had long-standing influence on the craton development, its western margin, and overlapping sedimentary basin. New results reveal limited evidence for the regional continuity of the NE-trending lineaments. Instead, models suggest that the structure of the Laurentian margin is characterised by segmentation on numerous shorter structures of varied strike. The western margin of the craton and its structures are bound by a NW-trending structure that connects with the Richardson Trough to the north and may have been active during rifting of the Misty Creek embayment. This boundary also marks the easternmost limit of both granitic intrusions in Selwyn Basin, which gravity models suggest are of greater extent than reflected on geological maps, and SEDEX occurrences. An ENE-trending structure beneath northern Selwyn Basin is interpreted as marking the southern edge of a previously unidentified cratonic promontory, akin to the Liard line that marks a transfer fault that bounds the promontory of the Macdonald Platform, south of Selwyn Basin. The ENE-trending structure is traced from the Tintina

  7. The thermal evolution and timing of hydrocarbon generation in the Maritimes Basin of eastern Canada: evidence from apatite fission track data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grist, A.M.; Zentilli, M.

    1995-01-01

    Sandstone drill core and/or cuttings from six wells in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and cabot Strait have been analyzed using the apatite fission track (AFT) method. Measured AFT ages for the late Paleozoic sandstones range from 26 ±7 to 184 ±28 Ma (2-σ errors). The AFT data indicate that most Maritimes Basin strata were heated to temperatures in excess of 100-150 o C very soon after their deposition. The strata also attained significant vitrinite reflectance (R 0 ) levels (i.e., reaching the oil window) early in the burial history. These findings imply the generation of hydrocarbons and coalbed methane in the early basin history (pre-250 Ma). In the Maritimes Basin AFT and R 0 data provide complementary information about the integrated thermal history, including maximum burial temperatures (from R 0 data), and information on the subsequent cooling history from AFT analysis. The present study also supports the proposal made previously by others that substantial erosion of the Eastern Canadian margin (up to 4 km) has occurred since the Permian and extends the AFT evidence for this erosional event to include the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence area. Thermal models of the AFT data demonstrate that they are consistent with a history of exhumation of basin strata since late Permian time. The model-predicted AFT age and track length histograms closely correspond to the measured AFT parameters. AFT analysis also indicates present-day geothermal gradients of less than 40 o C/km. (author). 42 refs.,3 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Trends in Arctic Ocean bottom pressure, sea surface height and freshwater content using GRACE and the ice-ocean model PIOMAS from 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Morison, James; Zhang, Jinlun; Bonin, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    The variability of ocean bottom pressure (OBP) in the Arctic is dominated by the variations in sea surface height (SSH) from daily to monthly timescales. Conversely, OBP variability is dominated by the changes in the steric pressure (StP) at inter-annual timescales, particularly off the continental shelves. The combination of GRACE-derived ocean bottom pressure and ICESat altimetry-derived sea surface height variations in the Arctic Ocean have provided new means of identifying inter-annual trends in StP (StP = OBP-SSH) and associated freshwater content (FWC) of the Arctic region (Morison et al., 2012). Morison et al. (2012) showed that from 2004 to 2008, the FWC increased in the Beaufort Gyre and decreased in the Siberian and Central Arctic, resulting in a relatively small net basin-averaged FWC change. In this work, we investigate the inter-annual trends from 2008 to 2012 in OBP from GRACE, SSH from the state-of-the-art pan-Arctic ocean model PIOMAS -validated with tide and pressure gauges in the Arctic-, and compute the trends in StP and FWC from 2008-2012. We compare these results with the previous trends from 2005-2008 described in Morison et al. (2012). Our initial findings suggest increased salinity in the entire Arctic basin (relative to the climatological seasonal variation) from 2008-2012, compared to the preceding four years (2005-2008). We also find that the trends in OBP, SSH and StP from 2008-2012 present a different behavior during the spring-summer and fall-winter, unlike 2005-2008, in which the trends were generally consistent through all months of the year. It seems since 2009, when the Beaufort Gyre relaxed and the export of freshwater from the Canada Basin into the Canadian Archipelago and Fram Strait, via the Lincoln Sea, was anomalously large (de Steur et al., 2013), the Arctic Ocean has entered a new circulation regime. The causes of such changes in the inter-annual trends of OBP, SSH and StP -hence FWC-, associated with the changes in the

  9. Polar bears from space: Assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth P.; LaRue, Michelle A.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Garshelis, David L.; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark- recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  10. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stapleton

    Full Text Available Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105 was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152. Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  11. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth; LaRue, Michelle; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen; Garshelis, David; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  12. The Arctic : the great breakup; Arctique : la grande debacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, R.

    2007-05-15

    The impact that climate change has had on the famous Northwest passage in Canada's Arctic was discussed. The water channel through the Arctic Islands is now navigable during the summer and it has been predicted that in 40 years, it may be navigable throughout the entire year. Although the Arctic is still covered with snow, the icebergs which navigators have feared no longer exist. Environment Canada has cautioned that Canada's extreme north would be most at risk from global warming, with temperatures increasing by 6 degrees, or 3 times higher than in moderate zones. The joint Canadian-United States program Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic has also confirmed that the waters of the Beaufort Sea are less salty and relatively warmer. Climatologists also project that the predicted increase in snowfall will act as an insulation blanket, thereby preventing the ice from thickening. Scientists stated that the gigantic polar cap, which has been frozen for the past 3.2 million years, will have fissures everywhere by 2080. The Northwest passage will become easily accessible in less than 10 years. This article raised questions regarding the role of the Northwest passage as an international maritime route. It presented the case of the first successful passage of a U.S. commercial oil tanker in 1969 which created controversy regarding Canada's territorial waters. Fourty years later, this issue is still not resolved. The article questioned whether there should be more cooperation on both the Canadian and American sides in light of the shared common interests such as commerce, science and security. It was noted that although Canada has sovereignty of the Arctic Islands, there are eight other countries who share the Arctic. 4 figs.

  13. The role of the thermal convection of fluids in the formation of unconformity-type uranium deposits: the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, A. A.; Malkovsky, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    In the global production of uranium, 18% belong to the unconformity-type Canadian deposits localized in the Athabasca Basin. These deposits, which are unique in terms of their ore quality, were primarily studied by Canadian and French scientists. They have elaborated the diagenetic-hydrothermal hypothesis of ore formation, which suggests that (1) the deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin near an unconformity surface dividing the folded Archean-Proterozoic metamorphic basement and a gently dipping sedimentary cover, which is not affected by metamorphism; (2) the spatial accommodation of the deposits is controlled by the rejuvenated faults in the basement at their exit into the overlying sedimentary sequence; the ore bodies are localized above and below the unconformity surface; (3) the occurrence of graphite-bearing rocks is an important factor in controlling the local structural mineralization; (4) the ore bodies are the products of uranium precipitation on a reducing barrier. The mechanism that drives the circulation of ore-forming hydrothermal solutions has remained one of the main unclear questions in the general genetic concept. The ore was deposited above the surface of the unconformity due to the upflow discharge of the solution from the fault zones into the overlying conglomerate and sandstone. The ore formation below this surface is a result of the downflow migration of the solutions along the fault zones from sandstone into the basement rocks. A thermal convective system with the conjugated convection cells in the basement and sedimentary fill of the basin may be a possible explanation of why the hydrotherms circulate in the opposite directions. The results of our computations in the model setting of the free thermal convection of fluids are consistent with the conceptual reasoning about the conditions of the formation of unique uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. The calculated rates of the focused solution circulation through the fault

  14. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anonymous

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  15. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  16. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  17. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  18. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH2/CH3 ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College of Cape Breton, PO Box 5300, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 Sydney (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, 47405-2208 Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed.

  20. Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents on Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M.; Zhong, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Seven different methods, with and without including geostrophic currents, were used to explore Ekman dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean for the period 1992-2014. Results show that surface geostrophic currents have been increasing and are much stronger than Ekman layer velocities in recent years (2003-2014) when the oceanic Beaufort Gyre (BG) is spinning up in the region. The new methods that include geostrophic currents result in more realistic Ekman pumping velocities than a previous iterative method that does not consider geostrophic currents and therefore overestimates Ekman pumping velocities by up to 52% in the central area of the BG over the period 2003-2014. When the BG is spinning up as seen in recent years, geostrophic currents become stronger, which tend to modify the ice-ocean stress and to cause an Ekman divergence that counteracts wind-driven Ekman convergence in the Canada Basin. This is a mechanism we have identified to play an important and growing role in stabilizing the Ekman convergence and therefore the BG in recent years. This mechanism may be used to explain three scenarios that describe the interplay of changes in wind forcing, sea ice motion, and geostrophic currents that control the variability of the Ekman dynamics in the central BG during 1992-2014. Results also reveal several upwelling regions in the southern and northern Canada Basin and the Chukchi Abyssal Plain which may plays a significant role in biological processes in these regions.

  1. Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents in Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenli; Steele, Michael; Zhang, Jinlun; Zhao, Jinping

    2018-01-01

    Seven different methods, with and without including geostrophic currents, were used to explore Ekman dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean for the period 1992-2014. Results show that surface geostrophic currents have been increasing and are much stronger than Ekman layer velocities in recent years (2003-2014) when the oceanic Beaufort Gyre (BG) is spinning up in the region. The new methods that include geostrophic currents result in more realistic Ekman pumping velocities than a previous iterative method that does not consider geostrophic currents and therefore overestimates Ekman pumping velocities by up to 52% in the central area of the BG over the period 2003-2014. When the BG is spinning up as seen in recent years, geostrophic currents become stronger, which tend to modify the ice-ocean stress and moderate the wind-driven Ekman convergence in the Canada Basin. This is a mechanism we have identified to play an important and growing role in stabilizing the Ekman convergence and therefore the BG in recent years. This mechanism may be used to explain three scenarios that describe the interplay of changes in wind forcing, sea ice motion, and geostrophic currents that control the variability of the Ekman dynamics in the central BG during 1992-2014. Results also reveal several upwelling regions in the southern and northern Canada Basin and the Chukchi Abyssal Plain which may play a significant role in physical and biological processes in these regions.

  2. Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Next Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Stein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The modern Arctic Ocean appears to be changing faster than any other region on Earth. To understand the potential extent of high latitude climate change, it is necessary to sample the history stored in the sediments filling the basins and covering the ridges of the Arctic Ocean. These sediments have been imaged with seismic reflection data, but except for the superficial record, which has been piston cored, they have been sampled only on the Lomonosov Ridge in 2004 during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX-IODP Leg 302; Backman et al., 2006 and in 1993 in the ice-free waters in the Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau area (ODP Leg 151; Thiede et al., 1996.Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last few decades, the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution are poorly known compared to the other oceans. Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the database we have from this area is still very weak. Large segments of geologic time have not been sampled in sedimentary sections. The question of regional variations cannot be addressed.

  3. New aero-gravity results from the Arctic: Linking the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plate kinematics of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Hopper, J.R.; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard

    2013-01-01

    The tectonic history of the Arctic Ocean remains poorly resolved and highly controversial. Details regarding break up of the Lomonosov Ridge from the Barents-Kara shelf margins and the establishment of seafloor spreading in the Cenozoic Eurasia Basin are unresolved. Significantly, the plate...... tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic Amerasia Basin is essentially unknown. The Arctic Ocean north of Greenland is at a critical juncture that formed at the locus of a Mesozoic three-plate setting between the Lomonosov Ridge, Greenland, and North America. In addition, the area is close to the European plate...... plateau against an important fault zone north of Greenland. Our results provide new constraints for Cretaceous-Cenozoic plate reconstructions of the Arctic. Key Points Presentation of the largest aero-gravity survey acquired over the Arctic Ocean Plate tectonic link between Atlantic and Arctic spreading...

  4. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  5. Ecomorphodynamic Response of Foreshore Saltmarsh to the Implementation of Flood and Erosion Mitigation and Adaptation Structures in a Hypertidal Estuary: Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, G.; van Proosdij, D.; Ross, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flood and erosion mitigations and adaptation structures are often implemented in anthropogenically modified coastal regions, such as dykelands, to protect against coastal hazards. If saltmarshes are to be incorporated into a coastal management plan as a source of coastal defence, it is paramount to understand how ecomorphodynamic feedbacks triggered by implementing these structures can impact saltmarshes. This study examines how these structures, in combination with natural drivers, have precipitated changes in foreshore saltmarsh erosion and progradation rates over varying spatial scales in the hypertidal Minas Basin, located in the upper Bay of Fundy, during the past 80 years. Foreshore change rates (in 25m segments) are obtained using empirical field measurements, geomatics techniques in a geographical information system (GIS), as well as imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Furthermore, UAV DSMs were used to determine infill rates and short-term sediment budgets in saltmarsh borrow pits. Natural cyclical foreshore change rates are observed in the Minas Basin, but are often augmented by the presence of anthropogenic structures. Erosion and progradation rates in individual transects have been observed to be as much as -14.9m/yr and 20.1m/yr, respectively. In individual saltmarsh communities, average change rates have been observed to be as much -3.4m/yr and 2.1m/yr across the entire foreshore. Furthermore, results suggest that under specific environmental conditions some structures (e.g. kickers) work in tandem with saltmarshes to protect the upland by precipitating ecomorphodynamic feedbacks that promote saltmarsh progradation. Conversely, other structures (e.g. foreshore rocking) can exacerbate natural cycles of erosion, locally. Borrow pit studies reveal that although local suspended sediment concentrations, which can vary from 50mg/l to 50000mg/l, play an integral role in pit sedimentation, channel geometry

  6. The Experience of Barometric Drifter Application for Investigating the World Ocean Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the problem solution to create a regionally-oriented data computing system for marine dynamics and ecosystem evolution modeling and forecasting (that should be capable for providing reliable information for managerial decision making, justifying future economic projects and adjusting the existing ones depends on development level of observational systems, environmental evolution, mathematical models and techniques for observational data assimilation. The analysis of the system as an observational segment of modern geo-informational technology allows us to draw a conclusion that the system of drifter observations is one of the most effective ones nowadays. Surface drifter network, continuously operating in the World Ocean, provides systematic operational data on the surface water circulation, thermal processes in the upper ocean and air pressure. Drifter data, acquired over the past 15 years, allowed one to improve and even change the existing concepts of patterns and mechanisms of regional climatic trend and hydrometeorological anomaly formation under effect of global processes in the Ocean – Atmosphere model (in the high latitudes as well. In the present paper the principle results of the analysis of expediency and feasibility of drifting systematic operative pressure field monitoring establishment in the near-surface atmosphere layer over the Arctic Ocean and the seas of the Russian Federation Arctic Zone have been considered. More than 30 drifters of BTC60/GPS/ice type, whose summarized lifetime as for June 2015 exceeded 6500 days, were deployed in the Arctic in 2012–2015. According to data acquired from the drifters, more than 155 000 air pressure readings were received. The most intensive drifter observations were carried out in two regions: in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin and in the Central Arctic. The results of experiments revealed that hardware-software solutions implemented in polar modifications of barometric

  7. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  8. Impact assessment of offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    The global demand for oil and gas has lead to a notable increase in interest for oil and gas exploration in the Arctic. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the legislation for impact assessment in Greenland, Denmark, Norway, Alaska (USA) and Canada. The point of departure...

  9. Inuit outside the Arctic : Migration, identity and perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Tekke

    2015-01-01

    Today many Inuit live outside the Arctic. This research deals with the experiences of these migrants. The focus is on Greenlanders in Denmark, but their experiences are compared to those of Inuit in southern Canada. However, various of the themes discussed in this study also apply to other groups of

  10. Radio-positioning for arctic seismic refraction surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearnley-Davison, J. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)); Forsyth, D.A. (Continental Geoscience Div., Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    The full extent of hydrocarbon reserves within Canada's Arctic margin is not appreciated at present. With the exception of the southern Beaufort Sea, the crustal structure of most of Canada's offshore polar margin remains a mystery, even at reconnaissance level. Navigation to support offshore Arctic surveys have required a special application and adaptation of the conventional SYLEDIS (SYsteme LEgere de DIStance) range-range navigational system to perform under the northeast Actic margin's environment. Once adapted, the system has proven very effective with a few Arctic environment servicing problems. The total number of locations involved in the earlier surveys ranged from 20 to aproximately 50 per project in a season. The SYLEDIS operation has enabled real-time positioning with a precision of better than 10 metres for approximately 350 separate sites in the 1985 and 1986 surveys inclusive. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Using 137Cs as a tool for the assessment and the management of erosion/sedimentation risks in view of the restoration of the Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) fish population in the Boyer River basin (Quebec, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Laverdiere, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Boyer River (Quebec, Canada) drains a 217 km 2 watershed that is under cultivation at 60%. The last 2 km of the river bed has always been used as a spawning ground by Rainbow Smelts (Osmerus mordax). This fish population, which plays an important ecological role in the St. Lawrence River estuary, has dramatically declined over the last decades. Siltation and excessive algal growth in the spawning area were identified as the most probable causes of the fish population decline; suggesting that soil erosion, nutrient and sediment transport are major factors underlying the environmental problem. In this context, 137 Cs provides an effective tool for investigating the magnitude and spatial distribution of long-term soil redistribution taking place in the watershed. Sampling of cultivated fields, riverbanks, bottom sediments and forested sites were thus undertaken to help understand the erosive behaviour of the watershed. Results obtained so far suggest in-field erosion rates of up to 13 t ha -1 yr -1 with net outputs reaching 11 t ha -1 yr -1 . These results agree well with estimates obtained from the USLE. The 137 Cs data indicate that fields located in the upstream half of the basin produce smaller sediment loadings than those in the downstream portion, despite higher soil erodibilities and more frequent use for annual crops. They also suggest that more than 75% of the sediment deposited in the spawning area originates from cultivated fields, and less than 25% from streambanks. (author)

  12. Survival of ship biofouling assemblages during and after voyages to the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Farrah T; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Bailey, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Human-mediated vectors often inadvertently translocate species assemblages to new environments. Examining the dynamics of entrained species assemblages during transport can provide insights into the introduction risk associated with these vectors. Ship biofouling is a major transport vector of nonindigenous species in coastal ecosystems globally, yet its magnitude in the Arctic is poorly understood. To determine whether biofouling organisms on ships can survive passages in Arctic waters, we examined how biofouling assemblage structure changed before, during, and after eight round-trip military voyages from temperate to Arctic ports in Canada. Species richness first decreased (~70% loss) and then recovered (~27% loss compared to the original assemblages), as ships travelled to and from the Arctic, respectively, whereas total abundance typically declined over time (~55% total loss). Biofouling community structure differed significantly before and during Arctic transits as well as between those sampled during and after voyages. Assemblage structure varied across different parts of the hull; however, temporal changes were independent of hull location, suggesting that niche areas did not provide protection for biofouling organisms against adverse conditions in the Arctic. Biofouling algae appear to be more tolerant of transport conditions during Arctic voyages than are mobile, sessile, and sedentary invertebrates. Our results suggest that biofouling assemblages on ships generally have poor survivorship during Arctic voyages. Nonetheless, some potential for transporting nonindigenous species to the Arctic via ship biofouling remains, as at least six taxa new to the Canadian Arctic, including a nonindigenous cirripede, appeared to have survived transits from temperate to Arctic ports.

  13. The Arctic--A Global Hot Spot: Resources for Teaching the Geography of the Contemporary Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Betsy; Sotherden, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Canadian geography is a fascinating topic, particularly the Canadian North. The North is central to Canadian identity as can be seen by the choice of the far north "inukshuk" standing stones as the emblem for the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, southern British Columbia. Canada's Arctic is receiving increasing attention by media,…

  14. Atmospheric contribution to hydrologic variations in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.E.; Zhou, X.; Portis, D. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Serreze, M.C. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Science

    1994-12-31

    A study, using high-latitude rawinsonde data, was carried out to compute the atmospheric moisture flux convergence over the Arctic Ocean and the Mackenzie River drainage basin. Operational analyses spanned an 18-year period (1973-1990). The objectives were to assess interannual variability and to compare the macroscale hydrologic regimes of the two regions. The moisture flux convergence was positive in all months with a late summer maximum over the Arctic Ocean, but was occasionally negative during summer with a late summer minimum over the Mackenzie Basin. The annual totals of the flux convergence were correlated with station-derived precipitation over the Mackenzie Basin and with yearly variations of the Mackenzie discharge. The moisture flux convergence over the Mackenzie Basin suggested that station reports underestimated precipitation during the winter months by several centimeters per year. 29 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  15. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  16. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    internationally). The workshop brought together approximately 40 participants, with roughly equal numbers from North America and Europe/Scandinavia, and included representatives from Canada, Russia, Germany, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark/Greenland, and the US. This talk will focus on findings of the workshop, highlighting advances in Arctic research that have taken flight over the last decade, specifically stimulated by considering the hydrologic cycle as an integrating force and fundamental building block uniting atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric and terrestrial domains of the pan-Arctic system. The authors will present a future vision for systems-level science of Arctic hydrology and affiliated energy and carbon cycles. A scientific roadmap will be introduced, outlining the main research priorities, robust global and regional geo-information data products, improved models and effective data assimilation systems to forward the science of water in the Arctic.

  17. Collaboration across the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huppert, Verena Gisela; Chuffart, Romain François R.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic is witnessing the rise of a new paradigm caused by an increase in pan-Arctic collaborations which co-exist with the region’s traditional linkages with the South. Using an analysis of concrete examples of regional collaborations in the Arctic today in the fields of education, health...... and infrastructure, this paper questions whether pan-Arctic collaborations in the Arctic are more viable than North-South collaborations, and explores the reasons behind and the foreseeable consequences of such collaborations. It shows that the newly emerging East-West paradigm operates at the same time...... as the traditional North-South paradigm, with no signs of the East-West paradigm being more viable in the foreseeable future. However, pan-Arctic collaboration, both due to pragmatic reasons and an increased awareness of similarities, is likely to increase in the future. The increased regionalization process...

  18. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  19. The future of Arctic benthos: Expansion, invasion, and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Paul E.; Sejr, Mikael K.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Sirenko, Boris; Ellingsen, Ingrid H.

    2015-12-01

    One of the logical predictions for a future Arctic characterized by warmer waters and reduced sea-ice is that new taxa will expand or invade Arctic seafloor habitats. Specific predictions regarding where this will occur and which taxa are most likely to become established or excluded are lacking, however. We synthesize recent studies and conduct new analyses in the context of climate forecasts and a paleontological perspective to make concrete predictions as to relevant mechanisms, regions, and functional traits contributing to future biodiversity changes. Historically, a warmer Arctic is more readily invaded or transited by boreal taxa than it is during cold periods. Oceanography of an ice-free Arctic Ocean, combined with life-history traits of invading taxa and availability of suitable habitat, determine expansion success. It is difficult to generalize as to which taxonomic groups or locations are likely to experience expansion, however, since species-specific, and perhaps population-specific autecologies, will determine success or failure. Several examples of expansion into the Arctic have been noted, and along with the results from the relatively few Arctic biological time-series suggest inflow shelves (Barents and Chukchi Seas), as well as West Greenland and the western Kara Sea, are most likely locations for expansion. Apparent temperature thresholds were identified for characteristic Arctic and boreal benthic fauna suggesting strong potential for range constrictions of Arctic, and expansions of boreal, fauna in the near future. Increasing human activities in the region could speed introductions of boreal fauna and reduce the value of a planktonic dispersal stage. Finally, shelf regions are likely to experience a greater impact, and also one with greater potential consequences, than the deep Arctic basin. Future research strategies should focus on monitoring as well as compiling basic physiological and life-history information of Arctic and boreal taxa, and

  20. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  1. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  2. Drill site selection process using geophysical (seismic, EM, magnetic) surveys and regional geochemical uranium deposit vectors within the Keefe Lake Uranium Property and its vicinity – Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.; Annesley, I.; Takacs, E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was initiated at the request of Athabasca Uranium Inc. of Vancouver, Canada. The area of investigation is around 4000 km"2 and includes the Keefe Lake (KL) property of the Company, located at the southeastern flank of the Athabasca Basin in Northern Saskatchewan. The intention of the program was multi-fold: to establish trends of regional uranium mineralization vectors, and incorporate these findings into the multidimensional integrated analysis of the currently available KL data set with an aim of providing an advanced priority ranking of drill hole selection process for the upcoming drilling programs. The information adapted for this investigation includes data from 450 boreholes, as well as drilling results of a recent KL prospect; data obtained from 114 Assessment Reports of the Saskatchewan Mineral Assessment Data Base (SMAD), and the analyses of 4 highresolution 2D seismic profiles within the claims of Athabasca Uranium Inc. To establish more effective spatial perspectives, the results of the regional lithology study (investigating alteration, graphitic, structural, pelitic, and pegmatitic features) were displayed along with the EM conductors, whereas basement lithology and faults were obtained from the Geological Atlas of Saskatchewan (southeastern segment of the Athabasca Basin). The regional investigation also included a study of the depth variations of the unconformity (UC), spatial vectors in geochemistry of the indicative path finder elements (U, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, and B), and also the clay mineralization (illite and kaolinite) indicative of uranium mineralization related to alteration zones. Local area investigations consisted of integrating the AEROTEM (2009) and VTEM (2013) airborne EM data, the associated magnetic observations, and computation of relevant attributes. The comprehensive synthesis of the above geophysical information incorporated all the available and derived geological perspectives. The high-resolution 2D seismic data

  3. Changing Arctic: A Strategic Analysis of United States Arctic Policy and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    is below the constellation Ursa Minor, or the Great Bear . Hence, the word Arctic comes from the Greek word arktos or “ bear .” 7 The generally...13 David Curtis Wright , Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute., and Canadian Electronic Library (Firm), "The Panda ... Bear Readies to Meet the Polar Bear China and Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty Challenge," Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, p. 4 67

  4. Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Gilman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of halogen oxidation on the variabilities of ozone (O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs within the Arctic and sub-Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated using field measurements from multiple campaigns conducted in March and April 2008 as part of the POLARCAT project. For the ship-based measurements, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98 for 544 data points collected north of 68° N was observed between the acetylene to benzene ratio, used as a marker for chlorine and bromine oxidation, and O3 signifying the vast influence of halogen oxidation throughout the ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Concurrent airborne and ground-based measurements in the Alaskan Arctic substantiated this correlation and were used to demonstrate that halogen oxidation influenced O3 variability throughout the Arctic boundary layer during these springtime studies. Measurements aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans provided a unique view of the transport of O3-poor air masses from the Arctic Basin to latitudes as far south as 52° N. FLEXPART, a Lagrangian transport model, was used to quantitatively determine the exposure of air masses encountered by the ship to first-year ice (FYI, multi-year ice (MYI, and total ICE (FYI+MYI. O3 anti-correlated with the modeled total ICE tracer (r = −0.86 indicating that up to 73% of the O3 variability measured in the Arctic marine boundary layer could be related to sea ice exposure.

  5. Oil and gas developments in western Canada in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    In 1981 there was a marked slump in drilling activity in western Canada, resulting from the combined effects of the National Energy Program (NEP), economic recession and a worldwide oil surplus. The number of wells drilled dropped by 22% to a total of 6,904. Exploratory drilling decreased 19% to 3,074 wells, and development drilling decreased 25% to 3,830 wells. The exploratory success rate also decreased to 62% in 1981, based on 740 oil discoveries and 1,172 gas discoveries. The development success rate decreased slightly to 88%, with 1,334 oil discoveries and 2,034 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in four of the five western areas, but total revenue from land sales plummetted to half of the previous years' record totals. Average price per hectare also dropped. In Alberta, significant exploration activity was centred in the Shekilie, Golden-Evi and West Pembina areas, while major gas discoveries were made at Whiskey and Elmworth, and oil discoveries at Tangent. No significant new discoveries were made in British Columbia or Saskatchewan, but the 1980 Manitoba oil discovery at Waskada continued to stimulate activity. Preliminary results from the Nechako Basin drilling in central British Columbia proved to be disappointing with three successive dry holes. In the Arctic Islands, two major oil discoveries were made at Skate and Cisco, off Lougheed Island and a gas discovery at MacLean. Beaufort Sea drilling was hampered by weather, but nonetheless resulted in major oil discoveries a Koakoak and at a Kopanoar follow-up well. The year 1981 will probably be viewed as a major turning point in exploration in western Canada, with interest shifting from the provinces to the frontiers, and the participants now mainly Canadian-controlled companies.

  6. Molecules in the mud: Combining ancient DNA and lipid biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation response to climate variability during the Last Interglacial and the Holocene on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, S. E.; Sepúlveda, J.; Bunce, M.; Miller, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Modern ecological studies are revealing that the "greening" of the Arctic, resulting from a poleward shift in woody vegetation ranges, is already underway. The increasing abundance of shrubs in tundra ecosystems plays an important role in the global climate system through multiple positive feedbacks, yet uncertainty in future predictions of terrestrial vegetation means that climate models are likely not capturing these feedbacks accurately. Recently developed molecular techniques for reconstructing past vegetation and climate allow for a closer look at the paleo-record in order to improve our understanding of tundra community responses to climate variability; our current research focus is to apply these tools to both Last Interglacial and Holocene warm times. Here we present initial results from a small lake on southern Baffin Island spanning the last 7.2 ka. We reconstruct climate with both bulk geochemical and biomarker proxies, primarily using biogenic silica and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) as temperature indicators. We assess shifts in plant community using multivariate analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding data. This combination of approaches reveals that the vegetation community has responded sensitively to early Holocene warmth, Neoglacial cooling, and possibly modern anthropogenic warming. To our knowledge, this represents the first combination of a quantitative, biomarker-based climate reconstruction with a sedaDNA-based paleoecological reconstruction, and offers a glimpse at the potential of these molecular techniques used in tandem.

  7. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as applied adjustments.

  8. Hydrogeochemical modeling of large fluvial basins: impact of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, E.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical weathering of continental surfaces represents the one of carbon sinks at the Earth's surface which regulates the climate through feedback mechanism. The weathering intensity is controlled by climate but also by lithology, vegetal cover, hydrology and presence of smectites and acids in soils. In this work, a study at global scale on grid cells highlighted that a CO 2 concentration increase in the atmosphere would involve a decrease of evapotranspiration due to stomatal progressive closure, and a rise of soil acidity related to enhanced bio-spheric productivity. These changes would promote the silicates chemical weathering and as a result, would lead to CO 2 consumption increase by 3% for 100 ppmv of CO 2 concentration rise in the atmosphere. Then, the study on the one of the most important catchments located in arctic environment, the Mackenzie basin (Canada), showed the high sensitivity of chemical weathering to sulfuric acid production. Indeed, the Mackenzie mean CO 2 consumption has decreased by 56%, taking account the pyrite presence in the catchment. In addition, the mean CO 2 consumption of this basin could rise by 53% between today climate and a climatic scenario predicted for the end of century. (author)

  9. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  10. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  11. Origin of freshwater and polynya water in the Arctic Ocean halocline in summer 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, D.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Andersen, N.; Torres-Valdes, S.; Bakker, K.; Abrahamsen, E.Povl

    2011-01-01

    Extremely low summer sea-ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean in 2007 allowed extensive sampling and a wide quasi-synoptic hydrographic and delta O-18 dataset could be collected in the Eurasian Basin and the Makarov Basin up to the Alpha Ridge and the East Siberian continental margin. With the aim of

  12. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Arctic carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Torben R; Rysgaard, SØREN; Bendtsen, JØRGEN; Else, Brent; Glud, Ronnie N; van Huissteden, J.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Sachs, Torsten; Vonk, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, with large regional differences in uptake rates. More regional modelling and observational studies are required to reduce the uncertainty among current estimates. Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbon sink may evolve in the future are

  14. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayden, Meredith G., E-mail: meredith.clayden@gmail.com [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Arsenault, Lilianne M. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ{sup 15}N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas.

  15. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayden, Meredith G.; Arsenault, Lilianne M.; Kidd, Karen A.; O'Driscoll, Nelson J.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ 15 N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas

  16. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Gobal climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80?? N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Arctic Haze Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  18. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  19. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. Distribution and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, Dan

    1998-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations have been determined in seawater and sediment samples collected in 1991, 1994 and 1996 in the Eurasian Arctic shelf and interior. Global fallout, releases from European reprocessing plants and the Chernobyl accident are identified as the three main sources. From measurements in the Eurasian shelf seas it is concluded that the total input of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 90 Sr from these sources has been decreasing during the 1990's, while 129 I has increased. The main fraction of the reprocessing and Chernobyl activity found in Arctic Ocean surface layer is transported from the Barents Sea east along the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas to the Laptev Sea before entering the Nansen Basin. This inflow results in highest 137 Cs, 129 I and 90 Sr concentrations in the Arctic Ocean surface layers, and continuously decreasing concentrations with depth. Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs appeared in the central parts of the Arctic Ocean around 1991, and in the mid 1990's the fraction to total 137 Cs was approximately 30% in the entire Eurasian Arctic region. The transfer times for releases from Sellafield are estimated to be 5-7 years to the SE Barents Sea, 7-9 years to the Kara Sea, 10-11 years to the Laptev Sea and 12-14 years to the central Arctic Ocean. Global fallout is the primary source of plutonium with highest concentrations found in the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. When transported over the shallow shelf seas, particle reactive transuranic elements experience an intense scavenging. A rough estimate shows that approximately 75% of the plutonium entering the Kara and Laptev Seas are removed to the sediment. High seasonal riverine input of 239 , 240 Pu is observed near the mouths of the large Russian rivers. Sediment inventories show much higher concentrations on the shelf compared to the deep Arctic Ocean. This is primarily due to the low particle flux in the open ocean

  20. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  1. Lacking Community Out-Reach of Chinese Mining Investors in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Jesper Willaing

    Lacking Community Out-Reach of Chinese Mining Investors in the Arctic Despite China’s bad reputation as a mining investor, in a context of dramatically falling mineral prices, Chinese investments seem to be needed in order to realize most new mining projects across the globe. In Greenland...... and Arctic Canada, potential Chinese investors have been met with even more suspicion than elsewhere. National governments are worried about what state owned Chinese investors will mean for their control over national resources while local governments and the public fear what Chinese investors will mean...... for labour conditions and local environment. They fear a lack of social corporate responsibility (CSR) from Chinese investors. This paper assumes that the possible interest in Arctic mineral resources by the Chinese state combined with a strong demand from Greenland and Canada would make the Arctic a most...

  2. Persistent maritime traffic monitoring for the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmke, M.; Battistello, G.; Biermann, J.; Mohrdieck, C.; Pelot, R.; Koch, W.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results of the Canadian-German research project PASSAGES (Protection and Advanced Surveillance System for the Arctic: Green, Efficient, Secure)1 on an advanced surveillance system for safety and security of maritime operations in Arctic areas. The motivation for a surveillance system of the Northwest Passage is the projected growth of maritime traffic along Arctic sea routes and the need for securing Canada's sovereignty by controlling its arctic waters as well as for protecting the safety of international shipping and the intactness of the arctic marine environment. To ensure border security and to detect and prevent illegal activities it is necessary to develop a system for surveillance and reconnaissance that brings together all related means, assets, organizations, processes and structures to build one homogeneous and integrated system. The harsh arctic conditions require a new surveillance concept that fuses heterogeneous sensor data, contextual information, and available pre-processed surveillance data and combines all components to efficiently extract and provide the maximum available amount of information. The fusion of all these heterogeneous data and information will provide improved and comprehensive situation awareness for risk assessment and decision support of different stakeholder groups as governmental authorities, commercial users and Northern communities.

  3. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  4. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCTIC TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article and summarized the regularities of formation of foreign experience and trends of development of Arctic territories. Set out the important points predetermine orientation and specificity of manifestations of national interests – potential participants of the subsoil in the Arctic zone. On the basis of the illuminated materials were obtained the following conclusions: Signifi cant interest in the Arctic show today, not only the fi ve countries (Russia, USA, Canada, Norway, Denmark, who own Arctic territories, but also polar state (Iceland, Sweden, Finland, the European Union and Asia. As a consequence of that, it is expected that in the XXI century the Arctic region will be the focus of attention as an official Arctic 45, and a number of states whose territory is quite removed from it; For Russia, given the current, acute political conditions (sanctions, confrontation with the West, Ukrainian crisis and war in the Middle East development of Arctic territories, some moved away, moved on tomorrow and the day after tomorrow on the agenda. This approach is fundamentally fl awed and fraught with a number of threats, because other countries do not decrease, but only increase their interest in this issue; Territorial opposition to all those involved in the topic of causing instability in the Arctic region, but does not represent a real threat for the emergence of large-scale conflict. Therefore, making the choice between the hard pressure of national interests and the interests of harmonization of the Arctic states, Russia must be based on international cooperationand mutual consideration of interests in the development of its Arctic strategy; Considering the cooperation of the countries of the Arctic Council and their cooperation in the framework of a global economic forum G8, there are prerequisites for the decision of the Arctic confl ict through negotiation and compromise. In this context it is very important to develop

  5. The crustal structure of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada—teleseismic mapping across a remote intraplate orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell; Oakey, Gordon N.; Jacobsen, Bo H.

    2016-03-01

    Ellesmere Island in Arctic Canada displays a complex geological evolution. The region was affected by two distinct orogenies, the Palaeozoic Ellesmerian orogeny (the Caledonian equivalent in Arctic Canada and Northern Greenland) and the Palaeogene Eurekan orogeny, related to the opening of Baffin Bay and the consequent convergence of the Greenland plate. The details of this complex evolution and the present-day deep structure are poorly constrained in this remote area and deep geophysical data are sparse. Receiver function analysis of seven temporary broad-band seismometers of the Ellesmere Island Lithosphere Experiment complemented by two permanent stations provides important data on the crustal velocity structure of Ellesmere Island. The crustal expression of the northernmost tectonic block of Ellesmere Island (˜82°-83°N), Pearya, which was accreted during the Ellesmerian orogeny, is similar to that at the southernmost part, which is part of the Precambrian Laurentian (North America-Greenland) craton. Both segments have thick crystalline crust (˜35-36 km) and comparable velocity-depth profiles. In contrast, crustal thickness in central Ellesmere Island decreases from ˜24-30 km in the Eurekan fold and thrust belt (˜79.7°-80.6°N) to ˜16-20 km in the Hazen Stable Block (HSB; ˜80.6°-81.4°N) and is covered by a thick succession of metasediments. A deep crustal root (˜48 km) at ˜79.6°N is interpreted as cratonic crust flexed beneath the Eurekan fold and thrust belt. The Carboniferous to Palaeogene sedimentary succession of the Sverdrup Basin is inferred to be up to 1-4 km thick, comparable to geologically-based estimates, near the western margin of the HSB.

  6. The Contribution to Arctic Climate Change from Countries in the Arctic Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T.; MacCracken, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The conventional accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions used today, established under the Kyoto Protocol 25 years ago, exclude short lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), and do not include regional effects on the climate. However, advances in climate science now suggest that mitigation of SLCPs can reduce up to 50% of global warming by 2050. It has also become apparent that regions such as the Arctic have experienced a much greater degree of anthropogenic warming than the globe as a whole, and that efforts to slow this warming could benefit the larger effort to slow climate change around the globe. A draft standard for life cycle assessment (LCA), LEO-SCS-002, being developed under the American National Standards Institute process, has integrated the most recent climate science into a unified framework to account for emissions of all radiatively significant GHGs and SLCPs. This framework recognizes four distinct impacts to the oceans and climate caused by GHGs and SLCPs: Global Climate Change; Arctic Climate Change; Ocean Acidification; and Ocean Warming. The accounting for Arctic Climate Change, the subject of this poster, is based upon the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential, which considers the incremental change to the Arctic surface temperature resulting from an emission of a GHG or SLCP. Results are evaluated using units of mass of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), which can be used by a broad array of stakeholders, including scientists, consumers, policy makers, and NGOs. This poster considers the contribution to Arctic Climate Change from emissions of GHGs and SLCPs from the eight member countries of the Arctic Council; the United States, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Of this group of countries, the United States was the largest contributor to Arctic Climate Change in 2011, emitting 9600 MMT CO2e. This includes a gross warming of 11200 MMT CO2e (caused by GHGs, black and brown carbon, and warming effects

  7. Long-range air transport of dioxin from North American sources to ecologically vulnerable receptors in Nunavut, Arctic Canada. Final report to the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B.; Woods Bartlett, P.; Eisl, H.; Couchot, K. [City University of New York, Queens College, Center for Biology of Natural Systems, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (NACEC). It was designed to model on a continental scale the rates of deposition of airborne dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDD/PCDF) in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut and to identify the major contributing North American sources. The study was commissioned in response to findings showing twice the level of dioxin concentration in the milk of Inuit mothers than that observed in southern Quebec, despite the fact that there are no significant sources of dioxin in Nunavut or within 500 kms of its boundaries. This high concentration is attributed to indigenous diet, i. e. traditional foods such as caribou, fish and marine mammals, which in turn ingest it from airborne sources through the terrestrial food chain, chiefly through lichen, mosses, shrubs and marine algae. Since these avenues of entry into the food chain cannot be protected from airborne pollutants, remedial action must be directed at the sources that emit dioxin. Results of the study show that of the total North American annual emission of airborne dioxin (4,713 grams toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ)), Canadian sources account for 364 grams TEQ, United States sources for 2,937 TEQ, Mexican sources 1.412 grams TEQ, and emissions from sources within Nunavut a total of 0.12 grams TEQ. The North American national dioxin inventories include 44,091 sources, of which 5,343 are individual facilities such as trash-burning incinerators, the rest are sources such as backyard trash-burning in the United States and Mexico, but only a handful of sources are responsible for the deposition in Nunavut. The overall conclusion of the study confirm that atmospheric and ecological processes that carry dioxin from its numerous sources through terrestrial and marine food chains to human beings is a problem of continental dimensions. The challenge is to establish analytical methods and

  8. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  9. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the

  10. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the remaining world reserves of natural gas and ten percent

  11. Fine-scale population genetic structure of arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sandra; Quiles, Adrien; Lambourdière, Josie; Berteaux, Dominique; Lalis, Aude

    2017-12-01

    The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a circumpolar species inhabiting all accessible Arctic tundra habitats. The species forms a panmictic population over areas connected by sea ice, but recently, kin clustering and population differentiation were detected even in regions where sea ice was present. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of a population in the High Arctic using a robust panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites. We analyzed the genotypes of 210 individuals from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, using 15 microsatellite loci. No pattern of isolation-by-distance was detected, but a spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) revealed the presence of genetic subdivisions. Overall, the sPCA revealed two spatially distinct genetic clusters corresponding to the northern and southern parts of the study area, plus another subdivision within each of these two clusters. The north-south genetic differentiation partly matched the distribution of a snow goose colony, which could reflect a preference for settling into familiar ecological environments. Secondary clusters may result from higher-order social structures (neighbourhoods) that use landscape features to delimit their borders. The cryptic genetic subdivisions found in our population may highlight ecological processes deserving further investigations in arctic foxes at larger, regional spatial scales.

  12. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructed...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context....

  13. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to gain new insights into seasonal patterns of stream DOC concentrations in an alpine, headwater catchment underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian subarctic is experiencing rapid climate warming resulting in decreased depth and duration of snowcover, decreased permafrost extent and time span of seasonal frozen ground resulting in increased active layer depth, and increased frequency and magnitude of rainfall events during the growing season. These changes challenge our conceptual models of permafrost hydrology as comparisons between recent and historical streamflow records show an emerging secondary post-freshet peak in flow in recent years along with enhanced winter flows. Long-term monitoring of Granger Creek (7.6km2), an alpine watershed underlain by discontinuous permafrost located within Wolf Creek Research Basin (176km2) in Yukon Territory, Canada provided a multi-decadal record of hydro-meteorological measurements. Granger Creek experienced warmer and wetter summers in 2015-6 compared to 2001-8, and an altered streamflow pattern with an earlier spring freshet and peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC concentrations post-freshet remained low at both the headwater and meso-catchment scale, which contradicts trends of increasing DOC concentrations observed in larger river systems. Hysteresis loops of sub-hourly measurements of streamflow, salinity and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed to provide new insights into how hydrological connectivity at the headwater scale affected the timing of solute release with supporting information from optical indices calculated from fluorescence spectroscopy. These indices provided a more nuanced view of catchment dynamics than the DOC concentrations. The composition and quality of DOM varied throughout the growing season with the delivery of older, terrestrially-derived material corresponding to high DOC concentrations at the onset of spring freshet when the catchment was initially being flushed. The origin and quality of stream DOM shifted throughout the rest of the season to newer, more easily mobilized DOM

  14. Marine distribution of arctic seabirds over six decades: changes and conservation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, SNP; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Lieske, DJ

    Climate change is causing rapid changes in Arctic marine ecosystems and understanding its impacts on wildlife is critical for conservation management, especially as the decline in sea ice leads to increased development and vessel traffic. The Arctic supports hundreds of millions of seabirds, which...... collected from 1988 to 2015 and covering a combined 185,000 linear km, we examined the marine distribution of seabirds in sub-arctic and Arctic waters between Canada and Greenland, an area covering over 5,000,000 km2. We developed a predictive model to investigate how ice cover and ocean processes influence...... the distribution of arctic seabirds in summer and autumn and identified existing areas of high density. Comparing these results to at-sea surveys conducted in the same waters from 1966 - 1987, we examined how seabird distribution has changed over the last six decades. Understanding how changes in the marine...

  15. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  16. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Skoglund, Pontus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Grønnow, Bjarne; Appelt, Martin; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Friesen, T Max; Fitzhugh, William; Malmström, Helena; Rasmussen, Simon; Olsen, Jesper; Melchior, Linea; Fuller, Benjamin T; Fahrni, Simon M; Stafford, Thomas; Grimes, Vaughan; Renouf, M A Priscilla; Cybulski, Jerome; Lynnerup, Niels; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Arneborg, Jette; Metspalu, Mait; Cornejo, Omar E; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Wang, Yong; Rasmussen, Morten; Raghavan, Vibha; Hansen, Thomas V O; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Pierre, Tracey; Dneprovsky, Kirill; Andreasen, Claus; Lange, Hans; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Coltrain, Joan; Spitsyn, Victor A; Götherström, Anders; Orlando, Ludovic; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Crawford, Michael H; Nielsen, Finn C; Dissing, Jørgen; Heinemeier, Jan; Meldgaard, Morten; Bustamante, Carlos; O'Rourke, Dennis H; Jakobsson, Mattias; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-08-29

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  18. Biological monitoring of the micro watershed - Canada del Dragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, H.; Rossetti, K.; Caceres, T.; Palma, R.; Garcia, P.; De la Rosa, A.; Seoane, I.

    2012-01-01

    The working group under the Uruguay RCA L-5053 project is about La canada del Dragon (located in Santa Lucia basin - Uruguay) evaluation using benthic macro invertebrates. The main problems of the study area were the riverbanks expansion, the erosion and the pesticides impact on the native fish. The group implemented the water quality evaluation through the study of the invertebrates in the basin.

  19. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  20. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  1. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  2. Library holdings for The Hidden Ocean: Explorations Under the Ice of the Western Arctic - The Pelagic Fauna: Phase II on the USCGC Healy in the Canada Basin between June 27, 2005 and July 26, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  3. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  4. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  5. Arctic Operations: Don’t Forget Cultural Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    26 Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada, “The Inuit Way: A Guide to Inuit Culture,” 2006: 4. Accessed 18 April 2014, http://www.uqar.ca/files/boreas...Russia." Accessed 27 April 2014. http://www.iwgia.org/regions/arctic/russia. Inuit Circumpolar Council. "ICC Charter." Accessed 30 March 2014...28/Documents/2014 NC SASC Posture Statement.pdf. Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada. “The Inuit Way: A Guide to Inuit Culture.” last modified

  6. Preliminary Modeling of Acoustic Detection Capability for the Drifting Arctic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Sedimentary Basins in the Arctic, Polarforschung, 69, 243–249. [22] Poore, Richard Z, Ishman, Scott E, Phillips, R Lawrence, and McNeil, David H (1994...93, 1784. [28] Metzler, Adam M, Collis , Jon M, and Siegmann, William L (2012), Modeling low-frequency seismo-acoustic propagation in the Arctic using a...Atlantic. [50] Shnidman, David A (1998), Binary integration for Swerling target fluctuations, Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

  7. Water balance of the Arctic drainage system using GRACE gravimetry products

    OpenAIRE

    Frappart, F; Ramillien, G; Famiglietti, JS

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Land water and snow mass anomalies versus time were computed from the inversion of 50 GRACE geoids (August 2002 to February 2007) from the RL04 GFZ release and used to characterize the hydrology of the Arctic drainage system. GRACE-based time series have been compared to snow water equivalent and snow depth climatologies, and snowfall for validation purpose. Time series of regional averages of water volume were estimated for the 11 largest Peri-Arctic basins. Strong co...

  8. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  9. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the crustal and tectonic structure of the Arctic region north of 60° N latitude, constrained as a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World. The region is largely...... formed by (i) Archean-Paleoproterozoic shields and platforms, (ii) orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic ages overlain by platform and basin sediments, (iii) Cenozoic rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic Ocean...... and thickness of the sedimentary cover and presents tectonic regionalization based on 18 major crustal types (oceanic, transitional, and continental) recognized in the Arctic. A 7600. km-long crustal geotransect across the region illustrates the details of its crustal and tectonic structure. We discuss...

  10. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  11. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  12. Recent changes in spring snowmelt timing in the Yukon River basin detected by passive microwave satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Semmens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spring melt is a significant feature of high latitude snowmelt dominated drainage basins influencing hydrological and ecological processes such as snowmelt runoff and green-up. Melt duration, defined as the transition period from snowmelt onset until the end of the melt refreeze, is characterized by high diurnal amplitude variations (DAV where the snowpack is melting during the day and refreezing at night, after which the snowpack melts constantly until depletion. Determining trends for this critical period is necessary for understanding how the Arctic is changing with rising temperatures and provides a baseline from which to assess future change. To study this dynamic period, brightness temperature (Tb data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I 37 V-GHz frequency from 1988 to 2010 were used to assess snowmelt timing trends for the Yukon River basin, Alaska/Canada. Annual Tb and DAV for 1434 Equal-Area Scalable Earth (EASE-Grid pixels (25 km resolution were processed to determine melt onset and melt refreeze dates from Tb and DAV thresholds previously established in the region. Temporal and spatial trends in the timing of melt onset and melt refreeze, and the duration of melt were analyzed for the 13 sub-basins of the Yukon River basin with three different time interval approaches. Results show a lengthening of the melt period for the majority of the sub-basins with a significant trend toward later end of melt refreeze after which the snowpack melts day and night leading to snow clearance, peak discharge, and green-up. Earlier melt onset trends were also found in the higher elevations and northernmost sub-basins (Porcupine, Chandalar, and Koyukuk rivers. Latitude and elevation displayed the dominant controls on melt timing variability and spring solar flux was highly correlated with melt timing in middle (∼600–1600 m elevations.

  13. A History of Coastal Research in the Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.; McGraw, M.

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory in 1947. Although these organizations were broad based, they occasionally had research projects devoted to arctic shorelines. In the USSR, research by Felix Are on shore retreat in the Arctic set the pattern for detail. Because the concentration of people (native as well as non-native) in the Arctic tends to be along the coast(such as Barrow, Alaska and Tuktoyaktuk, Canada) or rivers, some of the earliest research dealt with erosion that threatened settlements. In the process, consideration was given to such factors as sea ice, ground ice and permafrost, sediment type, long-shore drift, tides, wave action, and river discharge. Although there were scattered relevant projects, it was not until the last quarter of the 20th century that teamwork on arctic coastal research began to make its mark. Especially notable are the Russian-German cooperative study of the Lena Delta in 1998 and the International Arctic Science Committee's project on Arctic Coastal Dynamics. The number of detailed studies from such initiatives has increased during the last two decades.

  14. Arctic deep-water ferromanganese-oxide deposits reflect the unique characteristics of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James; Konstantinova, Natalia; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Lam, Phoebe; Jensen, Laramie T.; Xiang, Yang; Gartman, Amy; Cherkashov, Georgy; Hutchinson, Deborah; Till, Claire P.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about marine mineral deposits in the Arctic Ocean, an ocean dominated by continental shelf and basins semi-closed to deep-water circulation. Here, we present data for ferromanganese crusts and nodules collected from the Amerasia Arctic Ocean in 2008, 2009, and 2012 (HLY0805, HLY0905, HLY1202). We determined mineral and chemical compositions of the crusts and nodules and the onset of their formation. Water column samples from the GEOTRACES program were analyzed for dissolved and particulate scandium concentrations, an element uniquely enriched in these deposits.The Arctic crusts and nodules are characterized by unique mineral and chemical compositions with atypically high growth rates, detrital contents, Fe/Mn ratios, and low Si/Al ratios, compared to deposits found elsewhere. High detritus reflects erosion of submarine outcrops and North America and Siberia cratons, transport by rivers and glaciers to the sea, and distribution by sea ice, brines, and currents. Uniquely high Fe/Mn ratios are attributed to expansive continental shelves, where diagenetic cycling releases Fe to bottom waters, and density flows transport shelf bottom water to the open Arctic Ocean. Low Mn contents reflect the lack of a mid-water oxygen minimum zone that would act as a reservoir for dissolved Mn. The potential host phases and sources for elements with uniquely high contents are discussed with an emphasis on scandium. Scandium sorption onto Fe oxyhydroxides and Sc-rich detritus account for atypically high scandium contents. The opening of Fram Strait in the Miocene and ventilation of the deep basins initiated Fe-Mn crust growth ∼15 Myr ago.

  15. Transitions of social-ecological subsistence systems in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitions of social-ecological systems (SES expose governance systems to new challenges. This is particularly so in the Arctic where resource systems are increasingly subjected to global warming, industrial development and globalization which subsequently alter the local SES dynamics. Based on common-pool resource theory, we developed a dynamic conceptual model explaining how exogenous drivers might alter a traditional subsistence system from a provisioning to an appropriation actions situation. In a provisioning action situation the resource users do not control the resource level but adapt to the fluctuating availability of resources, and the collective challenge revolve around securing the subsistence in the community. An increased harvest pressure enabled by exogenous drivers could transform the SES to an appropriation action situation where the collective challenge has changed to avoid overuse of a common-pool resource. The model was used as a focal lens to investigate the premises for broad-scale transitions of subsistence-oriented SESs in Arctic Alaska, Canada and Greenland. We synthesized data from documents, official statistics and grey and scientific literature to explore the different components of our model. Our synthesis suggests that the traditional Arctic subsistence SESs mostly comply with a provisioning action situation. Despite population growth and available technology; urbanization, increased wage labor and importation of food have reduced the resource demand, and we find no evidence for a broad-scale transition to an appropriation action situation throughout the Western Arctic. However, appropriation ­challenges have emerged in some cases either as a consequence of commercialization of the resource or by severely reduced resource stocks due to various exogenous drivers. Future transitions of SESs could be triggered by the emergence of commercial local food markets and Arctic warming. In particular, Arctic warming is an

  16. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  17. Climate change research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The current consensus on climatic change in Canada is briefly summarized, noting the results of modelling of the effects of a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 , the nonuniformity of climate change across the country, the uncertainties in local responses to change, and the general agreement that 2-4 degrees of warming will occur for each doubling of CO 2 . Canadian government response includes programs aimed at reducing the uncertainties in the scientific understanding of climate change and in the socio-economic response to such change. Canadian climate change programs include participation in large-scale experiments on such topics as heat transport in the ocean, and sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; development of next-generation climate models; studying the social and economic effects of climate change in the Great Lakes Basin and Mackenzie River Basin; investigation of paleoclimates; and analysis of climate data for long-term trends

  18. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  19. Modeling Lake Storage Dynamics to support Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, S.; Bowling, L. C.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and Boreal Zone (ABZ) of Canada and Alaska includes vast areas of permafrost, lakes, and wetlands. Permafrost thawing in this area is expected to increase due to the projected rise of temperature caused by climate change. Over the long term, this may reduce overall surface water area, but in the near-term, the opposite is being observed, with rising paludification (lake/wetland expansion). One element of NASA's ABoVE field experiment is observations of lake and wetland extent and surface elevations using NASA's AirSWOT airborne interferometric radar, accompanied by a high-resolution camera. One use of the WSE retrievals will be to constrain model estimates of lake storage dynamics. Here, we compare predictions using the lake dynamics algorithm within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface scheme. The VIC lake algorithm includes representation of sub-grid topography, where the depth and area of seasonally-flooded areas are modeled as a function of topographic wetness index, basin area, and slope. The topography data used is from a new global digital elevation model, MERIT-DEM. We initially set up VIC at sites with varying permafrost conditions (i.e., no permafrost, discontinuous, continuous) in Saskatoon and Yellowknife, Canada, and Toolik Lake, Alaska. We constrained the uncalibrated model with the WSE at the time of the first ABoVE flight, and quantified the model's ability to predict WSE and ΔWSE during the time of the second flight. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of the VIC-lakes model and compared the three permafrost conditions. Our results quantify the sensitivity of surface water to permafrost state across the target sites. Furthermore, our evaluation of the lake modeling framework contributes to the modeling and mapping framework for lake and reservoir storage change evaluation globally as part of the SWOT mission, planned for launch in 2021.

  20. Modes of Arctic Ocean Change from GRACE, ICESat and the PIOMAS and ECCO2 Models of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Ferriz, C.; Morison, J. H.; Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.; Kwok, R.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    EOF analysis of month-to-month variations in GRACE derived Arctic Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) with trend and seasonal variation removed yield three dominant modes. The first mode is a basin wide variation in mass associated with high atmospheric pressure (SLP) over Scandinavia mainly in winter. The second mode is a shift of mass from the central Arctic Ocean to the Siberian shelves due to low pressure over the basins, associated with the Arctic Oscillation. The third mode is a shift in mass between the Eastern and Western Siberian shelves, related to strength of the Beaufort High mainly in summer, and to eastward alongshore winds on the Barents Sea in winter. The PIOMAS and ECCO2 modeled OBP show fair agreement with the form of these modes and provide context in terms of variations in sea surface height SSH. Comparing GRACE OBP from 2007 to 2011 with GRACE OBP from 2002 to 2006 reveals a rising trend over most of the Arctic Ocean but declines in the Kara Sea region and summer East Siberian Sea. ECCO2 bears a faint resemblance to the observed OBP change but appears to be biased negatively. In contrast, PIOMAS SSH and ECCO2 especially, show changes between the two periods that are muted but similar to ICESat dynamic ocean topography and GRACE-ICESat freshwater trends from 2005 through 2008 [Morison et al., 2012] with a rising DOT and freshening in the Beaufort Sea and a trough with decreased freshwater on the Russian side of the Arctic Ocean. Morison, J., R. Kwok, C. Peralta-Ferriz, M. Alkire, I. Rigor, R. Andersen, and M. Steele (2012), Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways, Nature, 481(7379), 66-70.

  1. Application of global datasets for hydrological modelling of a remote, snowmelt driven catchment in the Canadian Sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, David; Werner, Micha; Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modelling in the Canadian Sub-Arctic is hindered by the limited spatial and temporal coverage of local meteorological data. Local watershed modelling often relies on data from a sparse network of meteorological stations with a rough density of 3 active stations per 100,000 km2. Global datasets hold great promise for application due to more comprehensive spatial and extended temporal coverage. A key objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of global datasets and data assimilation techniques for hydrological modelling of a data sparse, Sub-Arctic watershed. Application of available datasets and modelling techniques is currently limited in practice due to a lack of local capacity and understanding of available tools. Due to the importance of snow processes in the region, this study also aims to evaluate the performance of global SWE products for snowpack modelling. The Snare Watershed is a 13,300 km2 snowmelt driven sub-basin of the Mackenzie River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. The Snare watershed is data sparse in terms of meteorological data, but is well gauged with consistent discharge records since the late 1970s. End of winter snowpack surveys have been conducted every year from 1978-present. The application of global re-analysis datasets from the EU FP7 eartH2Observe project are investigated in this study. Precipitation data are taken from Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) and temperature data from Watch Forcing Data applied to European Reanalysis (ERA)-Interim data (WFDEI). GlobSnow-2 is a global Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) measurement product funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and is also evaluated over the local watershed. Downscaled precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation datasets are used as forcing data in a distributed version of the HBV model implemented in the WFLOW framework. Results demonstrate the successful application of global datasets in local watershed modelling, but

  2. TRISTEN/FRAM II Cruise Report, East Arctic, April 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-13

    is not readily accessible by air from Alaska. The Eurasia Basin contains the Arctic Midoceanic Ridge, which extends in a straight line for 2000 km...13 6 Bottom Refraction - Shot- Lines Overlain on FRAM II Positions 14 7 Waterfall Display of Successive Spectral Estimates of Single...Northeast leg of the array was oriented 341T and the NW leg 304 ’T. After a windstorm and flow break-up on 16 April, hydrophones 11 and 12 and 21-24 were

  3. An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    discussed by DRI participants may aid our understanding as well, e.g. those conducted in the Hamburg Ship Model Basin. Our theoretical advances benefit...the project are – continued modifications to the Arctic wide WIM code in association with advances relating to a new ice/ocean model known as... Auckland , December 2014. Montiel, F. Transmission of ocean waves through a row of randomly perturbed circular ice floes. Minisymposium on Wave Motions of

  4. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    The Azolla interval, as encountered in Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean, is characterized by organic rich sediments ( 4wt% Corg). In general, high levels of organic matter may be caused by increased productivity, i.e. extensive growth of Azolla, and/or enhanced preservation of organic matter, or a combination of both. Anoxic (bottom) water conditions, expanded oxygen minimum zones, or increased sedimentation rates all potentially increase organic matter preservation. According to plate tectonic, bathymetric, and paleogeographic reconstructions, the Arctic Ocean was a virtually isolated shallow basin, with one possible deeper connection to the Nordic Seas represented by a still shallow Fram Strait (Jakobsson et al., 2007), hampering ventilation of the Arctic Basin. During the Azolla interval surface waters freshened, while at the same time bottom waters appear to have remained saline, indicating that the Arctic was highly stratified. The restricted ventilation and stratification in concert with ongoing export of organic matter most likely resulted in the development of anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column. Whereas the excess precipitation over evaporation maintained the freshwater lid, sustained input of Nordic Sea water is needed to keep the deeper waters saline. To which degree the Arctic Ocean exchanged with the Nordic Seas is, however, still largely unknown. Here we present a high-resolution trace metal record (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) for the expanded Early/Middle Eocene section capturing the Azolla interval from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 (ACEX) drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean. Euxinic conditions throughout the interval resulted in the efficient removal of redox sensitive trace metals from the water column. Using the sedimentary trace metal record we also constrained circulation in the Arctic Ocean by assessing the relative importance of trace metal input sources (i.e. fluvial, eolian, and

  5. Pliocene palaeoceanography of the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Jens; Knies, Jochen; Vogt, Christoph; Stein, Ruediger

    2009-01-13

    The Pliocene is important in the geological evolution of the high northern latitudes. It marks the transition from restricted local- to extensive regional-scale glaciations on the circum-Arctic continents between 3.6 and 2.4Ma. Since the Arctic Ocean is an almost land-locked basin, tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations controlled the geometry of ocean gateways and continental drainage systems, and exerted a major influence on the formation of continental ice sheets, the distribution of river run-off, and the circulation and water mass characteristics in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of a water mass exchange restricted to the Bering and Fram Straits on the oceanography is unknown, but modelling experiments suggest that this must have influenced the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Cold conditions associated with perennial sea-ice cover might have prevailed in the central Arctic Ocean throughout the Pliocene, whereas colder periods alternated with warmer seasonally ice-free periods in the marginal areas. The most pronounced oceanographic change occurred in the Mid-Pliocene when the circulation through the Bering Strait reversed and low-salinity waters increasingly flowed from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The excess freshwater supply might have facilitated sea-ice formation and contributed to a decrease in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

  6. The Indigenous Observation Network: Collaborative, Community-Based Monitoring in the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Mutter, E. A.; Wilson, N. J.; Toohey, R.; Schuster, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indigenous Observation Network (ION) is a collaborative Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) program with both permafrost and water-quality monitoring components operating in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) of Alaska and Canada. ION is jointly facilitated by the Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council (YRITWC), an indigenous non-profit organization, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), a federal agency. The YRB is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America encompassing 855,000 square kilometers in northwestern Canada and central Alaska and is essential to the ecosystems of the Bering and Chuckchi Seas. Water is also fundamental to the subsistence and culture of the 76 Tribes and First Nations that live in the YRB providing sustenance in the form of drinking water, fish, wildlife, and vegetation. Despite the ecological and cultural significance of the YRB, the remote geography of sub-Arctic and Arctic Alaska and Canada make it difficult to collect scientific data in these locations and led to a lack of baseline data characterizing this system until recently. In response to community concerns about the quality of the YR and a desire by USGS scientists to create a long term water-quality database, the USGS and YRITWC collaborated to create ION in 2005. Surface water samples are collected by trained community technicians from Tribal Environmental Programs or First Nation Lands and Resources staff from over 35 Alaska Native Tribes and First Nations that reside along the YR and/or one of the major tributaries. Samples are analyzed at USGS laboratories in Boulder, CO and results are disseminated to participating YRB communities and the general public. This presentation will focus on the factors that have enabled the longevity and success of this program over the last decade, as well as the strategies ION uses to ensure the credibility of the data collected by community members and best practices that have facilitated the collection of surface water data in remote

  7. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures......, an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...

  8. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  9. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  10. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  11. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.

  12. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  13. Genomics of Arctic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  14. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.

    2009-12-01

    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  15. Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is an accepted fact that the Earth’s climate is warming. Recent research has demonstrated the direct links between the Arctic regions and the rest of the planet. We have become more aware that these regions are feeling the effects of global climate change more intensely than anywhere else on Earth -- and that they are fast becoming the new frontiers for resources and political disputes. This paper examines some of the potential climate change impacts in the Arctic and how the science of climate change can be used to develop policies that will help mitigate some of these impacts. Despite the growing body of research we do not yet completely understand the potential consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Climate models predict significant changes and impacts on the northern physical environment and renewable resources, and on the communities and societies that depend on them. Policies developed and implemented as a result of the research findings will be designed to help mitigate some of the more serious consequences. Given the importance of cost in making policy decisions, the financial implications of different scenarios will need to be considered. The Arctic Ocean Basin is a complex and diverse environment shared by five Arctic states. Cooperation among the states surrounding the Arctic Ocean is often difficult, as each country has its own political and social agenda. Northerners and indigenous peoples should be engaged and able to influence the direction of northern adaptation policies. Along with climate change, the Arctic environment and Arctic residents face many other challenges, among them safe resource development. Resource development in the Arctic has always been a controversial issue, seen by some as a solution to high unemployment and by others as an unacceptably disruptive and destructive force. Its inherent risks need to be considered: there are needs for adaptation, for management frameworks, for addressing cumulative effects, and for

  16. Active Layer Monitoring, Arctic and Subarctic Canada, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project involves measuring regional and site variability in maximum annual active layer development and vertical surface movement over permafrost, and...

  17. The Biogeochemical Response to Inter-decadal Atmospheric Forcing Across Watershed Scales in Canada's Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid landscape changes in the circumpolar north have been documented, including degradation of permafrost and alteration of vegetation communities. These are widely expected to have profound impacts on the freshwater fluxes of solutes, carbon and nitrogen across the Arctic domain. However, there have been few attempts to document trends across the diversity of landscapes in the circumpolar north, mostly due to a dearth of long term data. Some of the fastest rates of warming over the last thirty years have occurred in Canada's Northwest Territories, so this region should already exhibit changes in aquatic chemistry. Observations of chemical loads in streams draining the ice-poor discontinuous permafrost subarctic Canadian Shield region were analyzed with the goal of determining how basins across scales have responded to changes in atmospheric forcing. Smaller streams, with much closer linkages to terrestrial processes, experienced a synchrony among hydrological and biogeochemical processes that enhanced chemical flux above that in their larger counterparts. This demonstrates that there are differences in resiliency and resistance across scales to climate change. These results highlight the importance of biogeochemical process understanding to properly explain and predict how chemical loading scales from headwaters to river mouths. This is important information if society is to properly adapt policies for effluent discharge, nearshore marine management, among others.

  18. Contribution of Arctic seabird-colony ammonia to atmospheric particles and cloud-albedo radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B.; Wentworth, G. R.; Martin, R. V.; Leaitch, W. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Murphy, B. N.; Kodros, J. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Pierce, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic region is vulnerable to climate change and able to affect global climate. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions, which have poorly understood climate impacts related to atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we show that ammonia from seabird-colony guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of newly formed particles, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. Our chemical-transport model simulations indicate that the pan-Arctic seabird-influenced particles can grow by sulfuric acid and organic vapour condensation to diameters sufficiently large to promote pan-Arctic cloud-droplet formation in the clean Arctic summertime. We calculate that the resultant cooling tendencies could be large (about −0.5 W m−2 pan-Arctic-mean cooling), exceeding −1 W m−2 near the largest seabird colonies due to the effects of seabird-influenced particles on cloud albedo. These coupled ecological–chemical processes may be susceptible to Arctic warming and industrialization. PMID:27845764

  19. Shallow freshwater ecosystems of the circumpolar Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautio, Milla; Dufresne, France; Laurion, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    to large annual temperature fluctuations, a short growing season, and freeze-up and desiccation stress in winter, these ecosystems are strongly regulated by the supply of organic matter and its optical and biogeochemical properties. Dissolved organic carbon affects bacterial diversity and production......This review provides a synthesis of limnological data and conclusions from studies on ponds and small lakes at our research sites in Subarctic and Arctic Canada, Alaska, northern Scandinavia, and Greenland. Many of these water bodies contain large standing stocks of benthic microbial mats that grow...... in relatively nutrient-rich conditions, while the overlying water column is nutrient-poor and supports only low concentrations of phytoplankton. Zooplankton biomass can, however, be substantial and is supported by grazing on the microbial mats as well as detrital inputs, algae, and other plankton. In addition...

  20. Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Sobek, Anna; Salvadó, Joan A; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-07-18

    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑ 6 DDT (0.10-66 pg L -1 ) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  1. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  2. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  3. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. Distribution and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, Dan

    1998-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations have been determined in seawater and sediment samples collected in 1991, 1994 and 1996 in the Eurasian Arctic shelf and interior. Global fallout, releases from European reprocessing plants and the Chernobyl accident are identified as the three main sources. From measurements in the Eurasian shelf seas it is concluded that the total input of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from these sources has been decreasing during the 1990`s, while {sup 129}I has increased. The main fraction of the reprocessing and Chernobyl activity found in Arctic Ocean surface layer is transported from the Barents Sea east along the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas to the Laptev Sea before entering the Nansen Basin. This inflow results in highest {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I and {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the Arctic Ocean surface layers, and continuously decreasing concentrations with depth. Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs appeared in the central parts of the Arctic Ocean around 1991, and in the mid 1990`s the fraction to total {sup 137}Cs was approximately 30% in the entire Eurasian Arctic region. The transfer times for releases from Sellafield are estimated to be 5-7 years to the SE Barents Sea, 7-9 years to the Kara Sea, 10-11 years to the Laptev Sea and 12-14 years to the central Arctic Ocean. Global fallout is the primary source of plutonium with highest concentrations found in the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. When transported over the shallow shelf seas, particle reactive transuranic elements experience an intense scavenging. A rough estimate shows that approximately 75% of the plutonium entering the Kara and Laptev Seas are removed to the sediment. High seasonal riverine input of {sup 239}, {sup 240}Pu is observed near the mouths of the large Russian rivers. Sediment inventories show much higher concentrations on the shelf compared to the deep Arctic Ocean. This is primarily due to the low particle flux in the open ocean

  5. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  6. Contamination of the Arctic by exotic air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.; Landers, D.

    1991-01-01

    Various kinds of atmospheric pollutants are commonly known to occur in arctic environments. These include organic contaminants, pollutants associated with fossil fuel combustion, smelting, industrial development, and radionuclides. Recently, additional concern has arisen from studies suggesting that at least some atmospheric contaminants may be susceptible to poleward redistribution as a result of their physical and chemical properties. Thus, contamination of the arctic may be exacerbated by the tendency of selected contaminants produced at lower latitudes to be transported to polar regions and incorporated into high latitude food chains. Although awareness of exotic contaminants in high latitude food chains is not new, regional baseline data are needed to document the spatial extent and magnitude of this potentially serious problem. The US Arctic is little studied in this regard relative to several other circumpolar nations (e.g., Canada, Sweden); over the next year the authors will be designing a regional survey to begin remedying this information gap. A major focus of this activity will be to ensure compatibility with both ongoing international studies of arctic contamination, and the USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Issues related to sampling design will be outlined and discussed

  7. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  8. Engaging new generation of Arctic researchers: 14 years and counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Hock, R.; Loucks, D. J.; Kaden, U.

    2016-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to explain changes in the Arctic and understand their implications for the human environment. Advanced training and active involvement of early-career scientists is an important component of this cross-disciplinary approach. This effort led by the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) started in 2003. The NSF supported project that started in 2013 conducted four summer schools (one per year) focused on four themes in four different Arctic locations. It provided the participants with an interdisciplinary perspective on Arctic change and its impacts on diverse sectors of the North. It is linked to other ongoing long-term observational and educational programs (e.g. NABOS, Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System; LTER, Long Term Environmental Research) and targets young scientists by using the interdisciplinary and place-based setting to broaden their perspective on Arctic change and to enhance their communication skills. Each course for 15-25 people consisted of classroom and hands-on components and work with a multidisciplinary group of mentors on projects devoted to themes exemplified by the location. A specialist from the School of Education at UAF evaluated student's progress during the summer schools. Additionally, an anthropologist attended the 2016 summer school to study how students learn to build and assess models, as well as examine students' and instructors' attitudes toward science communication, which provided additional feedback about learning and teaching in these settings. Lessons learned during the 14 years of conducting summer schools, methods of attracting in-kind support and approaches to teaching students are prominently featured in this study. Activities during the two most recent schools, one conducted at the Toolik Lake Field Station on the Alaskan North Slope and another at the International Arctic Research Center

  9. Pan-Arctic Distribution of Bioavailable Dissolved Organic Matter and Linkages With Productivity in Ocean Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl; Fichot, Cédric G.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2018-02-01

    Rapid environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean affect plankton productivity and the bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that supports microbial food webs. We report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and yields of amino acids (indicators of labile DOM) in surface waters across major Arctic margins. Concentrations of DOC and bioavailability of DOM showed large pan-Arctic variability that corresponded to varying hydrological conditions and ecosystem productivity, respectively. Widespread hot spots of labile DOM were observed over productive inflow shelves (Chukchi and Barents Seas), in contrast to oligotrophic interior margins (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Beaufort Seas). Amino acid yields in outflow gateways (Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay) indicated the prevalence of semilabile DOM in sea ice covered regions and sporadic production of labile DOM in ice-free waters. Comparing these observations with surface circulation patterns indicated varying shelf subsidies of bioavailable DOM to Arctic deep basins.

  10. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.

  12. Multimodel simulations of Arctic Ocean sea surface height variability in the period 1970-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Serra, Nuno; Koehl, Armin

    2014-01-01

    analysis of the three time periods 1987-1992, 1993-2002, and 2003-2009, corresponding to the transition times between cyclonic and anticyclonic regimes of the atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, revealed an unusual increase of SSH in the Amerasian basin during 2003-2009. Results from this model...

  13. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  14. A model study of the first ventilated regime of the Arctic Ocean during the early Miocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy Thompson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic opening of Fram Strait during the Neogene was a significant geological event that transferred the Arctic Ocean from a poorly ventilated enclosed basin, with weak exchange with the North Atlantic, to a fully ventilated “ocean stage”. Previous tectonic and physical oceanographic analyses suggest that the early Miocene Fram Strait was likely several times narrower and less than half as deep as the present-day 400 km wide and 2550 m deep strait. Here we use an ocean general circulation model with a passive age tracer included to further address the effect of the Fram Strait opening on the early Miocene Arctic Ocean circulation. The model tracer age exhibits strong spatial gradient between the two major Arctic Ocean deep basins: the Eurasian and Amerasian basins. There is a two-layer stratification and the exchange flow through Fram Strait shows a bi-layer structure with a low salinity outflow from the Arctic confined to a relatively thin upper layer and a saline inflow from the North Atlantic below. Our study suggests that although Fram Strait was significantly narrower and shallower during early Miocene, and the ventilation mechanism quite different in our model, the estimated ventilation rates are comparable to the chemical tracer estimates in the present-day Arctic Ocean. Since we achieved ventilation of the Arctic Ocean with a prescribed Fram Strait width of 100 km and sill depth of 1000 m, ventilation may have preceded the timing of a full ocean depth connection between the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic established through seafloor spreading and the development of the Lena Trough.

  15. Shallow methylmercury production in the marginal sea ice zone of the central Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sonke, Jeroen E; Cossa, Daniel; Point, David; Lagane, Christelle; Laffont, Laure; Galfond, Benjamin T; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers

    2015-05-20

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic compound that threatens wildlife and human health across the Arctic region. Though much is known about the source and dynamics of its inorganic mercury (Hg) precursor, the exact origin of the high MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota remains uncertain. Arctic coastal sediments, coastal marine waters and surface snow are known sites for MeHg production. Observations on marine Hg dynamics, however, have been restricted to the Canadian Archipelago and the Beaufort Sea (Ocean (79-90 °N) profiles for total mercury (tHg) and MeHg. We find elevated tHg and MeHg concentrations in the marginal sea ice zone (81-85 °N). Similar to other open ocean basins, Arctic MeHg concentration maxima also occur in the pycnocline waters, but at much shallower depths (150-200 m). The shallow MeHg maxima just below the productive surface layer possibly result in enhanced biological uptake at the base of the Arctic marine food web and may explain the elevated MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota. We suggest that Arctic warming, through thinning sea ice, extension of the seasonal sea ice zone, intensified surface ocean stratification and shifts in plankton ecodynamics, will likely lead to higher marine MeHg production.

  16. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  17. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  18. Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Arctic Rabies Viruses and Their Reservoir Hosts in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hanke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV lineage (arctic-3, but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4 with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population

  19. Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.

    2007-12-01

    BACKGROUND International Polar Year, which was launched in March 2007, is an international program of coordinated, interdisciplinary scientific research on Earth's polar regions. The northern regions of the eight Arctic States (Canada, Alaska (USA), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland. Iceland and Greenland (Denmark) have significant indigenous populations. The circumpolar Arctic is one of the least technologically connected regions in the world, although Canada and others have been pioneers in developing and suing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in remote areas. The people living in this vast geographic area have been moving toward taking their rightful place in the global information society, but are dependent on the outreach and cooperation of larger mainstream societies. The dominant medium of communication is radio, which is flexible in accommodating multiple cultures, languages, and factors of time and distance. The addition of newer technologies such as streaming on the Internet can increase access and content for all communities of interest, north and south. The Arctic Circle of Indigenous Communicators (ACIC) is an independent association of professional Northern indigenous media workers in the print, radio, television, film and Internet industries. ACIC advocates the development of all forms of communication in circumpolar North areas. It is international in scope. Members are literate in English, French, Russian and many indigenous languages. ACIC has proposed the establishment of a headquarters for monitoring IPY projects are in each area, and the use of community radio broadcasters to collect and disseminate information about IPY. The cooperation of Team IPY at the University of Colorado, Arctic Net at Laval University, and others, is being developed. ACIC is committed to making scientific knowledge gained in IPY accessible to those most affected - residents of the Arctic. ABSTRACT The meeting of the American Geophysical Union will be held

  20. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, new aerogeophysical surveys of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasia Basin produced the first collocated gravity and magnetic measurements over the western half of the basin. These data increase the density and extend the coverage of the U.S. Navy acromagnetic data from the 1970s. The new...... data reveal prominent bends in the isochrons that provide solid geometrical constraints for plate reconstructions. Tentative identification of anomaly 25 in the Eurasia Basin links early basin opening to spreading in the Labrador Sea before the locus of spreading in the North Atlantic shifted...... to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. With the opening of the Labrador Sea, Greenland began similar to200 km of northward movement relative to North America and eventually collided with Svalbard, Ellesmere Island, and the nascent Eurasia ocean basin. Both gravity and magnetic data sets reconstructed to times prior...

  1. Trichinellosis acquired in Nunavut, Canada in September 2009: meat from grizzly bear suspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S; Ancelle, T; Matra, R; Boceno, C; Carlier, Y; Gajadhar, A A; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2009-11-05

    Five cases of trichinellosis with onset of symptoms in September 2009, were reported in France, and were probably linked to the consumption of meat from a grizzly bear in Cambridge Bay in Nunavut, Canada. Travellers should be aware of the risks of eating raw or rare meat products in arctic regions, particularly game meat such as bear or walrus meat.

  2. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  3. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  4. Atmospheric transport, clouds and the Arctic longwave radiation paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlar, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Clouds interact with radiation, causing variations in the amount of electromagnetic energy reaching the Earth's surface, or escaping the climate system to space. While globally clouds lead to an overall cooling radiative effect at the surface, over the Arctic, where annual cloud fractions are high, the surface cloud radiative effect generally results in a warming. The additional energy input from absorption and re-emission of longwave radiation by the clouds to the surface can have a profound effect on the sea ice state. Anomalous atmospheric transport of heat and moisture into the Arctic, promoting cloud formation and enhancing surface longwave radiation anomalies, has been identified as an important mechanism in preconditioning Arctic sea ice for melt. Longwave radiation is emitted equally in all directions, and changes in the atmospheric infrared emission temperature and emissivity associated with advection of heat and moisture over the Arctic should correspondingly lead to an anomalous signal in longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). To examine the role of atmospheric heat and moisture transport into the Arctic on TOA longwave radiation, infrared satellite sounder observations from AIRS during 2003-2014 are analyzed for summer (JJAS). Thermodynamic metrics are developed to identify months characterized by a high frequency of warm and moist advection into the Arctic, and segregate the 2003-14 time period into climatological and anomalously warm, moist summer months. We find that anomalously warm, moist months result in a significant TOA longwave radiative cooling, which is opposite the forcing signal that the surface experiences during these months. At the timescale of the advective events, 3-10 days, the TOA cooling can be as large as the net surface energy budget during summer. When averaged on the monthly time scale, and over the full Arctic basin (poleward of 75°N), summer months experiencing frequent warm, moist advection events are

  5. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  6. Humidity estimate for the middle Eocene Arctic rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Silveira Lobo Sternberg, Leonel

    2003-05-01

    The exquisite preservation of fossilized Metasequoia trees that grew near 80°N latitude during the middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma) in Nunavut, Canada, allowed for δD and δ18O analyses of cellulose, techniques previously restricted to wood <30,000 yr old. From the isotopic results, we determined that the middle Eocene Arctic atmosphere contained ˜2× the water found in the region's atmosphere today. This water vapor contributed to a middle Eocene greenhouse effect that insulated the polar region during dark polar winters.

  7. Polar politics : sovereignty tussles over Arctic territory threaten to impede oil and gas exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Competition to secure oil and gas leases is concerning scientists who believe that the exploitation of mineral resources in the Arctic will damage the region faster than climate change. Scientists in the region have noted that hydrogen sulphide induced by sulphur-oxidizing bacteria are now thriving within glaciers in the Arctic. Imperial Oil and ExxonMobil Canada recently purchased 205,000 hectares in the Beaufort Sea, and the purchase is seen as a harbinger of further development in the region. Disputes between Canada and the United States are now beginning to cause controversy in the region. Climatic change may mean that the region will be ice-free in 50 years. Climatic change will also result in the destabilization of permafrost and in rises in sea levels. Melting of permafrost could cause subsidence and further difficulties for exploration engineers. If Canada is not able to convince the United Nations that the Northwest Passage constitutes internal waters, the environmental impacts of Russian resource development could be profound. In addition, offshore boundaries between the Yukon and Alaska are interpreted differently by Canadians and Americans. It was suggested that discussions are needed to ensure Canada's role in the Arctic. 2 figs

  8. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  9. Measurements to understand the role of the sub Arctic environment on boundary layer ozone, gaseous mercury and bromine oxide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netcheva, S.; Bottenheim, J.; Staebler, R.; Steffen, A.; Bobrowski, N.; Moores, J.

    2009-04-01

    Marine Boundary Layer spring time ozone (O3) and Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) depletion episodes in Polar Regions and the role played by reactive halogen species have been studied for several years. Understanding of the photochemistry involved has improved significantly in the last few years, but many questions remain. The key in filling many gaps of information is in conducting systematic measurements over freezing and thawing surfaces of big water basins in Polar Regions where depletion episodes are thought to originate. Regardless of extensive research in the field, data sets collected over the ice are limited due to logistics and engineering challenges. The fast changing Arctic environment with its potential implications for climate change and human and ecosystem health demand urgent development of a predictive capability that could only be achieved by complete quantitative understanding of these phenomena. The Out On The Ice (OOTI) mini atmospheric chemistry laboratory was developed in 2004 specifically to permit collecting data at remote locations in an autonomous way. The system is battery powered, easily transported by snowmobile and quickly deployed at a target location. The equipment has undergone multiple engineering and instrumentation improvements. In its current version, it conducts fully automated measurements of O3, GEM and carbon dioxide (CO2) simultaneously at two levels: right above a surface of interest and at 2.5 meters. This is accomplished by utilizing two identical sets of instruments (2B for O3 and Gardis for GEM), or by continuous valve switching (CO2). A vertical profile of bromine oxide is determined by scanning the collecting optics of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer through different elevation angles. Furthermore a full set of meteorological data is acquired in parallel with the chemical measurements in order to evaluate environmental and air mass transport contributions. We will present results from data collected

  10. Using Inuit traditional ecological knowledge for detecting and monitoring avian cholera among Common Eiders in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A. Henri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has played an increasing role in wildlife management and biodiversity conservation in Canada and elsewhere. This study examined the potential contribution that Inuit TEK (which is one aspect of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit or Inuit traditional knowledge could offer to detect and monitor avian cholera and other disease-related mortality among Northern Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Avian cholera is an infectious disease (Pasteurella multocida that has been a major conservation issue because of its potential to cause high rates of disease and mortality in several bird species in repeating epizootics; it has spread geographically in North America since the 1940s. In 2004, Inuit hunters from Ivujivik, Nunavik, Québec, were the first to detect avian disease outbreaks among Northern Common Eiders nesting in northeastern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. Laboratory analysis of bird tissues confirmed avian cholera in that region. From 2007 to 2009, we collected Inuit TEK about mortality among Common Eiders and other bird species north and west of where the outbreaks were first detected. During interviews in the communities of Kimmirut, Cape Dorset, Coral Harbour, and Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada (n = 40, Inuit participants reported seeing a total of 8 Common Eiders and 41 specimens of other bird species either sick or dead in northern Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Foxe Basin. Most of the observed disease and mortality events were at sea, on sea ice, or on small nesting islands. Such events probably would have gone undetected by biologists, who were mainly monitoring avian cholera outbreaks on large nesting islands in that region. Inuit participants readily recalled details about the timing, location, and numbers of sick and dead birds that they observed. Some reported signs of disease that were consistent with avian cholera. Inuit also revealed

  11. Geology and geochemistry of the Arctic prospect, Ambler District, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. M.

    The Arctic volcanogenic massive sulfide prospect is the largest known (40 million ton) deposit hosted by the low greenschist grade, latest Devonian Ambler Sequence of bimodal, basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, pelitic, graphitic and calcareous metasediments. Detailed field mapping, core logging, petrography, X-ray diffractometry, electron microprobe analyses and whole-rock major element analyses of hydrothermally altered rocks were used to determine the emplacement history and setting of sulfide deposition. Low greenschist grade metamorphism was essentially isochemical on a macroscopic scale, and preserved volcanic compositions, the major element chemistry of alteration and the compositions of individual metamorphic, alteration and relict igneous minerals. Mineralization at Arctic was formed along a synvolcanic fault in a tectonically and volcanically active basin within a rifted continental margin, possibly related to an actively spreading oceanic rift.

  12. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  13. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  14. Distribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Heim, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high- ground ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate a relatively stable landform and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in riparian zones effectively insulates channel ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2°C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools thermally stratify, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m/s, yet channel runs still move water rapidly

  15. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  16. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  17. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  18. What Drives the Variability of the Atlantic Water Circulation in the Arctic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lique, C.; Johnson, H. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Water (AW) layer in the Arctic Basin is isolated from the atmosphere by the overlaying surface layer; yet observations of the AW pan-Arctic boundary current have revealed that the velocities in this layer exhibit significant variations on all timescales. Here, analysis of a global ocean/sea ice model hindcast, complemented by experiments performed with an idealized process model, are used to investigate what controls the variability of AW circulation, with a focus on the role of wind forcing. The AW circulation carries the imprint of wind variations, both remotely over the Nordic and Barents seas where they force variability on the AW inflow to the Arctic Basin, and locally over the Arctic Basin through the forcing of the wind-driven Beaufort gyre, which modulates and transfers the wind variability to the AW layer. Our results further suggest that understanding variability in the large amount of heat contained within the AW layer requires a better understanding of the circulation within both AW and surface layers.

  19. Principles of economic evaluation of uranium resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.

    1998-01-01

    The uranium resources of Canada occur in deposits associated with unconformities in Proterozoic basins and adjacent areas. Classification of the resources is based on the confidence in the estimates and on their economic viability. The system is fully compatible with IAEA/NEA classified systems. The methods of estimating and classifying the Canadian resources is described. (author)

  20. All projects related to Canada | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-26

    The flood-prone Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, accounting for 9% of the drainage area of the Yangtze River Basin. End Date: January 26, 2017. Topic: WATER MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURE, POLICY MAKING, Climate change, ADAPTATION. Region: China, Canada. Program: Climate Change.

  1. LNG in eastern Canada and New England : market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the gas markets in North America and discussed the rationale for developing the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market with reference to competitive issues, challenges and global dimensions. LNG is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America and the increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will increase in 2002. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, with most being located along the Gulf Coast. A novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification was also discussed. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies. Pricing patterns are also expected to change. It was noted that the increased energy demand will enable Arctic gas supplies to enter markets. As such, Arctic gas pipelines will enter service in the next decade and Alberta's importance as a hub will grow. It was also noted that Arctic gas will not have a significant influence on reducing LNG import volumes. figs

  2. High Arctic summer warming tracked by increased Cassiope tetragona growth in the world's northernmost polar desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Buchwal, Agata; Blok, Daan; Löffler, Jörg; Elberling, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Rapid climate warming has resulted in shrub expansion, mainly of erect deciduous shrubs in the Low Arctic, but the more extreme, sparsely vegetated, cold and dry High Arctic is generally considered to remain resistant to such shrub expansion in the next decades. Dwarf shrub dendrochronology may reveal climatological causes of past changes in growth, but is hindered at many High Arctic sites by short and fragmented instrumental climate records. Moreover, only few High Arctic shrub chronologies cover the recent decade of substantial warming. This study investigated the climatic causes of growth variability of the evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona between 1927 and 2012 in the northernmost polar desert at 83°N in North Greenland. We analysed climate-growth relationships over the period with available instrumental data (1950-2012) between a 102-year-long C. tetragona shoot length chronology and instrumental climate records from the three nearest meteorological stations, gridded climate data, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices. July extreme maximum temperatures (JulT emx ), as measured at Alert, Canada, June NAO, and previous October AO, together explained 41% of the observed variance in annual C. tetragona growth and likely represent in situ summer temperatures. JulT emx explained 27% and was reconstructed back to 1927. The reconstruction showed relatively high growing season temperatures in the early to mid-twentieth century, as well as warming in recent decades. The rapid growth increase in C. tetragona shrubs in response to recent High Arctic summer warming shows that recent and future warming might promote an expansion of this evergreen dwarf shrub, mainly through densification of existing shrub patches, at High Arctic sites with sufficient winter snow cover and ample water supply during summer from melting snow and ice as well as thawing permafrost, contrasting earlier notions of limited shrub growth sensitivity to

  3. Participatory Methods in Arctic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Louise

    2018-01-01

    collection, analysis and conclusions and / or knowledge dissemination. The book aims to collect and share experiences from researchers active in engaging research in the Arctic. The articles reflect on the inclusive methods used in the Arctic research, on the cause and purpose thereof, while the methods......This book is a collection of articles written by researchers at Aalborg University, affiliated with AAU Arctic. The articles are about how the researchers in their respective projects work with stakeholders and citizens in different ways, for example in connection with problem formulation, data...... are exemplified to serve as inspiration for other researchers....

  4. The Arctic Vegetation Type Change retrieved from Spaceborne Observations and its Influence on the Simulation of Permafrost Thawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The vegetation types change in Arctic has been studied using 10 years of MODIS land cover product (MCD12Q1). The shrub expansion is observed in Alaska and Northeast Asia, while shrub fraction decreases in North Canada and Southwest Arctic Eurasia. The total Arctic shrub fraction increases 3% in 10 years. The tundra decreases where the shrub expands, and thrives where the shrub retreats. In order to isolate the influence of the vegetation dynamic on the permafrost thawing, the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem in recent decades will be simulated using the Community Land Model (CLM) with and without the vegetation type changes. The energy and carbon exchange on the land surface will also be simulated and compared. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI, PN17081) and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015R1C1A2A01054800).

  5. Long-wave Irradiance Measurement and Modeling during Snowmelt, a Case Study in the Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J.; Essery, R.; Pomeroy, J.

    2004-12-01

    At high latitudes, long-wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere and solar radiation can provide similar amounts of energy for snowmelt due to the low solar elevation and the high albedo of snow. This paper investigates temporal and spatial variations of long-wave irradiance at the snow surface in an open sub-Arctic environment. Measurements were conducted in the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada (60°36'N, 134°57'W) during the springs of 2002, 2003 and 2004. The main causes of temporal variability are air temperature and cloud cover, especially in the beginning of the melting period when the atmosphere is still cold. Spatial variability was investigated through a sensitivity study to sky view factors and to temperatures of surrounding terrain. The formula of Brutsaert gives a useful estimation of the clear-sky irradiance at hourly time steps. Emission by clouds was parameterized at the daily time scale from the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation. The inclusion of air temperature variability does not much improve the calculation of cloud emission.

  6. Integrating geologic and engineering data into 3-D reservoir models: an example from norman wells field, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yose, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)

  7. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  8. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

  9. Metals and alloys for Arctic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, R C.A. [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The northlands of Canada can be regarded as a vast, but not inexhaustible, storehouse of mineral, oil and gas reserves. At the same time, this area is a delicate ecology that can easily be irreversibly damaged. It is vitally important that industrial activity associated with these reserves should proceed with a maximum of safety and a minimum risk of pollution, with optimum utilization of materials. In order to facilitate these objectives, appropriate technical information is required on the characteristics of available engineering metals and alloys with respect to service in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments. The body of this monograph consists of data sheets on irons and steels, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, copper, lead, tin, nickel and zinc alloys. Background information is given on the general characteristics of the various alloy systems, their advantages and disadvantages, on typical engineering applications, and on potential problem areas. Human difficulties associated with low temperature will exert some measure of control over the available construction periods, and may influence the techniques and materials used. A second important factor is the general inaccessibility of the northern regions. The designer must pay attention to reliability, ease of maintenance and ease of transportation. A premium is placed on the lightness and compactness of equipment, and may emphasize low density or high strength materials. Easy installation and removal is advantageous, due to the temporary nature of many operations, and the limited local labor available. Pollution avoidance must be considered, and aspects such as scrap recovery value and rate of degradation are important. In cases with little recovery value, corrosion resistance may be a disadvantage rather than an advantage. 238 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. The case history of the first pipeline installed in the Arctic and subsequent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Large reserves of gas and oil have been discovered in Arctic areas which have led various companies to initiate research and development in ways to produce and transport these resources to market. The primary mode of transportation is by pipelines. The main problem is that these areas are remote and transportation systems are long and expensive, especially when considering conventional methods of pipeline construction. The reserves in Canada's Arctic areas are large but, at this time, gas cannot be delivered to market at prices competitive with other gas supplies being completed. This, however, is changing as gas and oil reserves in the lower Arctic have increased, and the combining of a transportation system for both, improves the economics for their development. This paper discusses some of the initial works which have been completed to the stage of an actual pipeline installation, and the planned techniques envisioned for future field developments and for long distance transmission systems

  12. Arctic Ocean surface geostrophic circulation 2003–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. K. Armitage

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the surface circulation of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is generally limited in space, time or both. We present a new 12-year record of geostrophic currents at monthly resolution in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from satellite radar altimetry and characterise their seasonal to decadal variability from 2003 to 2014, a period of rapid environmental change in the Arctic. Geostrophic currents around the Arctic basin increased in the late 2000s, with the largest increases observed in summer. Currents in the southeastern Beaufort Gyre accelerated in late 2007 with higher current speeds sustained until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003–2006. The strength of the northwestward current in the southwest Beaufort Gyre more than doubled between 2003 and 2014. This pattern of changing currents is linked to shifting of the gyre circulation to the northwest during the time period. The Beaufort Gyre circulation and Fram Strait current are strongest in winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the atmospheric circulation. We find high eddy kinetic energy (EKE congruent with features of the seafloor bathymetry that are greater in winter than summer, and estimates of EKE and eddy diffusivity in the Beaufort Sea are consistent with those predicted from theoretical considerations. The variability of Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation highlights the interplay between seasonally variable atmospheric forcing and ice conditions, on a backdrop of long-term changes to the Arctic sea ice–ocean system. Studies point to various mechanisms influencing the observed increase in Arctic Ocean surface stress, and hence geostrophic currents, in the 2000s – e.g. decreased ice concentration/thickness, changing atmospheric forcing, changing ice pack morphology; however, more work is needed to refine the representation of atmosphere–ice–ocean coupling in models before we can fully

  13. A SCAT manual for Arctic regions and cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Sergy, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) has been used on many oil spills in a variety of ways to meet a broad range of specific spill conditions. SCAT was created in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska. Environment Canada developed generic second-generation SCAT protocols to standardize the documentation and description of oiled shorelines. As the SCAT process becomes more widely accepted and used during spill response operations, the need for flexibility and modifications has grown. For that reason, the Arctic SCAT Manual was created to address the need for guidelines, standardized definitions, standardized terminology and forms that can be applied for oiled shorelines or riverbanks in Arctic environments and cold climates. Unique Arctic shoreline types such as tundra cliffs, inundated low-lying tundra and peat shorelines are included in the manual along with a new set of shoreline oiling forms for marine coasts, tidal flats, wetlands, lake shores, riverbanks, and stream banks. A First Responders guide has been included with the manual to help local inhabitants during the initial phases of an oiled shoreline assessment. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs

  14. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P.

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  15. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  16. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...

  17. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  18. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  19. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  20. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  2. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  3. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  4. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  5. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  6. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  7. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  8. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  9. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  10. Evaluation of CORDEX-Arctic daily precipitation and temperature-based climate indices over Canadian Arctic land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Mailhot, Alain; Brown, Ross; Chaumont, Diane

    2018-03-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of daily precipitation and temperature climate indices and extremes simulated by an ensemble of 12 Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations from the ARCTIC-CORDEX experiment with surface observations in the Canadian Arctic from the Adjusted Historical Canadian Climate Dataset. Five global reanalyses products (ERA-Interim, JRA55, MERRA, CFSR and GMFD) are also included in the evaluation to assess their potential for RCM evaluation in data sparse regions. The study evaluated the means and annual anomaly distributions of indices over the 1980-2004 dataset overlap period. The results showed that RCM and reanalysis performance varied with the climate variables being evaluated. Most RCMs and reanalyses were able to simulate well climate indices related to mean air temperature and hot extremes over most of the Canadian Arctic, with the exception of the Yukon region where models displayed the largest biases related to topographic effects. Overall performance was generally poor for indices related to cold extremes. Likewise, only a few RCM simulations and reanalyses were able to provide realistic simulations of precipitation extreme indicators. The multi-reanalysis ensemble provided superior results to individual datasets for climate indicators related to mean air temperature and hot extremes, but not for other indicators. These results support the use of reanalyses as reference datasets for the evaluation of RCM mean air temperature and hot extremes over northern Canada, but not for cold extremes and precipitation indices.

  11. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  12. Changes in Ocean Circulation with an Ice-Free Arctic: Reconstructing Early Holocene Arctic Ocean Circulation Using Geochemical Signals from Individual Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livsey, C.; Spero, H. J.; Kozdon, R.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of sea ice decrease and consequent hydrologic changes in the Arctic Ocean will be experienced globally as ocean and atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, though it is not evident to what extent. Understanding the structure of the Arctic water column during the early/mid Holocene sea ice minimum ( 6-10 kya), a post-glacial analogue of a seasonally ice-free Arctic, will help us to predict what the changes we can expect as the Earth warms over the next century. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral; Nps) is a species of planktonic foraminifera that dominates assemblages in the polar oceans. This species grows its chambers (ontogenetic calcite) in the surface waters and subsequently descends through the water column to below the mixed layer where it quickly adds a thick crust of calcite (Kohfeld et al., 1996). Therefore, geochemical signals from both the surface waters and sub-mixed layer depths are captured within single Nps shells. We were able to target ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), therefore capturing signals from both the ontogenetic and crust calcite in single Nps shells. This data was combined with laser ablation- inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) Mg/Ca profiles of trace metals through the two layers of calcite of the same shells, to determine the thermal structure of the water column. Combining δ18O, temperature, and salinity gradients from locations across the Arctic basin allow us to reconstruct the hydrography of the early Holocene Arctic sea ice minimum. These results will be compared with modern Arctic water column characteristics in order to develop a conceptual model of Arctic Ocean oceanographic change due to global warming. Kohfeld, K.E., Fairbanks, R.G., Smith, S.L., Walsh, I.D., 1996. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma(sinistral coiling) as paleoceanographic tracers in polar oceans: Evidence from northeast water polynya plankton tows, sediment traps, and surface sediments. Paleoceanography 11, 679-699.

  13. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  14. Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

  15. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  16. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  17. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes...... retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later......Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea...

  18. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  19. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  20. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  1. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  3. Aufeis accumulations in stream bottoms in arctic and subarctic environments as a possible indicator of geologic structure: Chapter F in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Day, Warren C.; Gough, Larry P.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    Thick accumulations of ice, called “aufeis,” form during winter along stream and river valleys in arctic and subarctic regions. In high-gradient alpine streams, aufeis forms mostly as a result of ground-water discharge into the stream channel. The ice occludes this discharge, perturbing the steady-state condition, and causing an incremental rise in the local water table until discharge occurs higher on the stream bank above the previously formed ice. Successive freezing of onlapping ice layers can lead to aufeis accumulations several meters thick.

  4. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjöberg, Ylva; Günther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349" target="_blank">https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349.

  5. Sustainable development in the Arctic in a legal and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyck, L.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is discussed with a focus on making it operational. A critique of the concept indicates that one of the problems is the theoretical treatment of intergenerational equity in a legal perspective. There is a need for change in decision making towards greater emphasis on long-term perspectives and the possibility of using environmental impact assessments to achieve this emphasis is outlined. The concept of sustainable development is then applied to the Arctic regions. The main impacts met by the Arctic from pollution and economic development are presented and analyzed in the context of sustainable development. It is concluded that the Russian Federation will develop an energy supply similarly to the USA and Canada, but lessons learned from the development of the Arctic, notably from Prudhoe Bay, will give the unambiguous signal that increased cooperation between nations and large corporations is necessary to give room for sustainable development with respect to investments within a frame work of even economic growth. Environmental standards and safeguards of Arctic species and environment will improve, influenced by lobbying from Arctic organizations and environmental groups. 19 refs

  6. Redefining U.S. Arctic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    responsibility shifts 21 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. The Anti-Access Challenge you’re not thinking...International Affairs 85, no. 6 (2009). 38 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. THE ANTI-ACCESS CHALLENGE YOU’RE NOT THINKING ABOUT, 05 May 2015...and Rescue in the Arctic, 22 June 2011. Arctic Council Secretariat. About the Arctic Council, Arctic Council, 2011. Barno, David and Nora

  7. The non-agricultural areas of Canada and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhof, Dorothy; Marshall, Heather

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 90% of the Canadian land mass is non-agricultural. It is a source of food to native peoples and sport hunters. Although agricultural areas have been extensively monitored for the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain, very little work has been done on radionuclides in the natural environment in Canada. The exceptions are specific problems such as radiocesium in the lichen-caribou food chain in the Arctic and natural radioactivity in the vicinity of uranium mines. A systematic study of natural food chains is being initiated. This paper presents the results of the study so far and proposed future directions. (author)

  8. Patterns and trends of macrobenthic abundance, biomass and production in the deep Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Degen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution and dynamics of macrobenthic communities of the deep Arctic Ocean. The few previous studies report low standing stocks and confirm a gradient with declining biomass from the slopes down to the basins, as commonly reported for deep-sea benthos. In this study, we investigated regional differences of faunal abundance and biomass, and made for the first time ever estimates of deep Arctic community production by using a multi-parameter artificial neural network model. The underlying data set combines data from recent field studies with published and unpublished data from the past 20 years, to analyse the influence of water depth, geographical latitude and sea-ice concentration on Arctic benthic communities. We were able to confirm the previously described negative relationship of macrofauna standing stock with water depth in the Arctic deep sea, while also detecting substantial regional differences. Furthermore, abundance, biomass and production decreased significantly with increasing sea-ice extent (towards higher latitudes down to values <200 ind m−2, <65 mg C m−2 and <73 mg C m−2 y−1, respectively. In contrast, stations under the seasonal ice zone regime showed much higher standing stock and production (up to 2500 mg C m−2 y−1, even at depths down to 3700 m. We conclude that particle flux is the key factor structuring benthic communities in the deep Arctic Ocean as it explains both the low values in the ice-covered Arctic basins and the higher values in the seasonal ice zone.

  9. Sea surface salinity of the Eocene Arctic Azolla event using innovative isotope modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Reichart, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions regarding Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. Our present research focuses on constraining the actual salinity of, and water sources for, the Eocene Arctic basin through the application of stable water isotope tracers. Precipitation pathways potentially strongly affect the final isotopic composition of water entering the Arctic Basin. Therefore we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3), developed by NCAR, combined with a recently developed integrated isotope tracer code to reconstruct the isotopic composition of global Eocene precipitation and run-off patterns. We further addressed the sensitivity of the modeled hydrological cycle to changes in boundary conditions, such as pCO2, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice formation. In this way it is possible to assess the effect of uncertainties in proxy estimates of these parameters. Overall, results of all runs with Eocene boundary conditions, including Eocene topography, bathymetry, vegetation patterns, TEX86 derived SSTs and pCO2 estimates, show the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. Enriched, precipitation weighted, isotopic values of around -120‰ are reported for the Arctic region. Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses (δD) on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model outcomes make it possible to verify climate reconstructions for the middle Eocene Arctic. Furthermore, recently, characteristic long-chain mid-chain ω20 hydroxy wax constituents of Azolla were found in ACEX sediments. δD values of these C32 - C36 diols provide insight into the isotopic composition of the Eocene Arctic surface water. As the isotopic signature of the runoff entering the Arctic is modelled, and the final isotopic composition of

  10. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  11. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  12. Increased Surface Wind Speeds Follow Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduszewski, J.; Vavrus, S. J.; Wang, M.; Holland, M. M.; Landrum, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice through the end of the 21st century indicate the likelihood of a strong reduction in ice area and thickness in all seasons, leading to a substantial thermodynamic influence on the overlying atmosphere. This is likely to have an effect on winds over the Arctic Basin, due to changes in atmospheric stability and/or baroclinicity. Prior research on future Arctic wind changes is limited and has focused mainly on the practical impacts on wave heights in certain seasons. Here we attempt to identify patterns and likely mechanisms responsible for surface wind changes in all seasons across the Arctic, particularly those associated with sea ice loss in the marginal ice zone. Sea level pressure, near-surface (10 m) and upper-air (850 hPa) wind speeds, and lower-level dynamic and thermodynamic variables from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project (CESM-LE) were analyzed for the periods 1971-2000 and 2071-2100 to facilitate comparison between a present-day and future climate. Mean near-surface wind speeds over the Arctic Ocean are projected to increase by late century in all seasons but especially during autumn and winter, when they strengthen by up to 50% locally. The most extreme wind speeds in the 90th percentile change even more, increasing in frequency by over 100%. The strengthened winds are closely linked to decreasing lower-tropospheric stability resulting from the loss of sea ice cover and consequent surface warming (locally over 20 ºC warmer in autumn and winter). A muted pattern of these future changes is simulated in CESM-LE historical runs from 1920-2005. The enhanced winds near the surface are mostly collocated with weaker winds above the boundary layer during autumn and winter, implying more vigorous vertical mixing and a drawdown of high-momentum air.The implications of stronger future winds include increased coastal hazards and the potential for a positive feedback with sea ice by generating higher winds and

  13. Past Changes in Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Climate and UV Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, Terry V. [Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko (Sweden); Bjoern, Lars Olof [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Organism Biology; Chernov, Yuri [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Severtsov Inst. of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    At the last glacial maximum, vast ice sheets covered many continental areas. The beds of some shallow seas were exposed thereby connecting previously separated landmasses. Although some areas were ice-free and supported a flora and fauna, mean annual temperatures were 10-13 deg C colder than during the Holocene. Within a few millennia of the glacial maximum, deglaciation started, characterized by a series of climatic fluctuations between about 18,000 and 11,400 years ago. Following the general thermal maximum in the Holocene, there has been a modest overall cooling trend, superimposed upon which have been a series of millennial and centennial fluctuations in climate such as the 'Little Ice Age' spanning approximately the late 13th to early 19th centuries. Throughout the climatic fluctuations of the last 150,000 years, Arctic ecosystems and biota have been close to their minimum extent within the most recent 10,000 years. They suffered loss of diversity as a result of extinctions during the most recent large-magnitude rapid global warming at the end of the last glacial stage. Consequently, Arctic ecosystems and biota such as large vertebrates are already under pressure and are particularly vulnerable to current and projected future global warming. Evidence from the past indicates that the treeline will very probably advance, perhaps rapidly, into tundra areas, as it did during the early Holocene, reducing the extent of tundra and increasing the risk of species extinction. Species will very probably extend their ranges northwards, displacing Arctic species as in the past. However, unlike the early Holocene, when lower relative sea level allowed a belt of tundra to persist around at least some parts of the Arctic basin when treelines advanced to the present coast, sea level is very likely to rise in future, further restricting the area of tundra and other treeless Arctic ecosystems. The negative response of current Arctic ecosystems to global climatic

  14. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  15. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  16. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  17. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  18. The polar year starts in March. Arctics promises. When the North path will be opened to maritime traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Remoue, A.

    2007-01-01

    From Greenland to Alaska and from the Barents sea to the Okhotsk sea, oil companies are performing exploratory drillings looking for the North pole black gold. Far away from being an utopia, this new conquest of the great north is organizing yet. The Arctic hydrocarbon reserves may represent 10% of the world reserves. Moreover, with the increasing melting of ice sheets, the Arctic path will be opened to navigation and exploration in less than 25 years. The great north territories are shared between eight countries (USA, Canada, Denmark, Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia) and leads to disputes about the limits of territorial waters. (J.S.)

  19. Stability Zone of Natural Gas Hydrates in a Permafrost-Bearing Region of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin: Study of a Feasible Energy Source (Geological Survey of Canada Contribution No.1999275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of geological and geophysical data from 150 wells in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region(study area between 68 deg. 30'-70 deg. 00'N and 131 deg. -39 deg. W) led to reinterpretation of the depth of methane hydrate stability and construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost. Calculations were based on construction of temperature-depth profiles incorporating regional heat-flow values, temperature at the base of ice-bearing permafrost, and models relating thermal conductivity with depth. Data analysis indicates the presence and extent of the methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost development and less so by the relatively small regional variations of temperature gradients. Analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone allows reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences. Log analysis indicates that in the onshore and shallow sea area of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 27 wells. Fifteen of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections reveals that hydrates are related mainly to sandy deltaic and delta-plain deposits in Iperk, Kugmallit, and Reindeer sequences although additional hydrate picks have been inferred in other sequences, such as Richards. Overlying permafrost may act as seal for hydrate accumulations; however, the thickness of permafrost and its related hydrate stability zone fluctuated during geological time. It is interpreted that only in the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene), conditions for hydrates changed from nonstable to stable. During Early and Late

  20. NATIONAL ATLAS OF THE ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Atlas of the Arctic is a set of spatio-temporal information about the geographic, ecological, economic, historical-ethnographic, cultural, and social features of theArcticcompiled as a cartographic model of the territory. The Atlas is intended for use in a wide range of scientific, management, economic, defense, educational, and public activities. The state policy of theRussian Federationin the Arctic for the period until 2020 and beyond, states that the Arctic is of strategic importance forRussiain the 21st century. A detailed description of all sections of the Atlas is given. The Atlas can be used as an information-reference and educational resource or as a gift edition.

  1. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean Mapping Group has been collecting data in the Arctic since 2003 and there are approximately 2,000 basemaps. In the current online storage format used by the OMG, it is difficult to view the data and users cannot easily pan and zoom. The purpose of this research is to investigate...... the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...

  2. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how...... they vary in time, and how they are changing with current environmental change: firstly, the high arctic interaction webs are much more complex than previously envisaged, and with a structure mainly dictated by its arthropod component. Secondly, the dynamics of species within these webs reflect changes...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  3. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  4. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  5. Energy and the future : Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymont, M.

    2005-01-01

    The rise in global energy consumption is driven by economic growth, particularly in developing countries. It is expected that by 2030, the world population will consume 50 per cent more energy than today. This increase in global energy demand can no longer be met through the business as usual approach. Graphs depicting emerging energy demand in Asia were presented for nuclear energy, coal, natural gas, oil and renewables. The issue of how China can meet it's growing energy demand was discussed with reference to energy consumed by its industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The author emphasized the uneven distribution of resources, where consuming areas do not coincide with producing areas. It is expected that traditional energy sources will still supply most of the world's energy need for the foreseeable future, but they will leave less of an environmental impact. The author suggested that renewable energy sources will also increase but will comprise less than 20 per cent of the world supply in 2050. The author also discussed the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Kyoto obligations and projections of what will happen with Kyoto post 2012. Canada's GHG record and recent environmental findings were also discussed with reference to Arctic ice coverage and the decline in average winter temperature. It was suggested that technology is the key to the energy shortage the environment and security. With declining conventional oil reserves, old nuclear technology and aging electric power technology, new technology must be used to address supply issues, distribution, interconversion, environmental impacts and risks. It was emphasized that since the energy sector is Canada's greatest economic driver, Canada should focus on energy technologies to build a more competitive energy sector. Huge export opportunities also exist for energy technologies. The role of industry and governments in achieving this goal was also discussed. figs

  6. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  7. Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean observed by satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Prandi, P.; Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Picot, N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from observations. Variability estimates are derived both at the basin scale and on smaller local spatial scales. The periods of the signals studied vary from high frequency (intra-annual) to long term trends. We also investigate the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Different data types are used, the main one being a recent reprocessing of satellite altimetry data...

  8. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  9. Dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the winter Arctic Oscillation on summer sea ice extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Stewart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, we explore the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15cm and 10cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the (upward) surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice-albedo feedback in late spring-summer, leading to an additional 8-10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = -0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from year 1980 to 2015.

  10. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  11. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  12. Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell, Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Climate change is being experienced particularly intensely in the Arctic. Arctic average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as that of the rest of the world in the past few decades. Widespread melting of glaciers and sea ice and rising permafrost temperatures present additional evidence of strong Arctic warming. These changes in the Arctic provide an early indication of the environmental and societal significance of global consequences. The Arctic also provides important natural resources to the rest of the world (such as oil, gas, and fish) that will be affected by climate change, and the melting of Arctic glaciers is one of the factors contributing to sea level rise around the globe. An acceleration of these climatic trends is projected to occur during this century, due to ongoing increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. These Arctic changes will, in turn, impact the planet as a whole.

  13. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  14. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  15. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  16. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of

  17. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  18. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  19. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  20. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  1. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic...

  2. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and

  3. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I

    2016-01-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method. (paper)

  4. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  6. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  7. Arctic landfast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  8. Atmospheric Bromine in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.W.; Sperry, P.D.; Rahn, K.A.; Gladney, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    We report the first measurements of both particulate and gas phase bromine in the Arctic troposphere. Data from continuous sampling of the Arctic aerosol over a period of 4 years (1976--1980) indicate that the bromine content in the aerosol averages 6 +- 4 ngBr/SCM (5 +- 3 pptm Br) for 9 months of every year. During the 3-month period between February 15 and May 15, however, we observed an annual sharp maximum in particulate bromine with levels exceeding 100 ngBr/SCM (82 pptm Br). The Arctic aerosol showed no bromine enrichment relative to seawater except for this 3 month peak period. During the bromine maximum, enrichment factors reached 40 with average values near 10. Calculations of the amount of excess bromine in the Arctic aerosol showed that over 90% of the peak bromine had an origin other than from direct bulk seawater injection. Total levels of gas phase bromine in the Arctic troposphere found during the peak aerosol period averaged 422 +- 48 ngBr/SCM (118 +- 14 pptv). Total bromine content during this period averaged 474 +- 49 ngBr/SCM with gas-to-particle ratios ranging from 7 to 18. A measurement under nonpeak conditions showed total bromine levels at <25 ngBr/SCM. The possibility that local contamination contributed to the seasonal development of the 3-month bromine peak was carefully considered and ruled out. Elevated particualte bromine levels, with peak values ranging from 22 to 30 ngBr/SCM, were also found at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen (Norway). The apparent seasonal nature of this bromine peak suggests that the large bromine maximum observed at Barrow is not an isolated or unique phenomenon characteristic of that sampling location

  9. Boundary layer and free-tropospheric dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Burkart, Julia; Rempillo, Ofelia; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Thomas, Jennie L.; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Levasseur, Maurice; Staebler, Ralf M.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-07-01

    Vertical distributions of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS(g)) were sampled aboard the research aircraft Polar 6 near Lancaster Sound, Nunavut, Canada, in July 2014 and on pan-Arctic flights in April 2015 that started from Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen, and passed through Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Larger mean DMS(g) mixing ratios were present during April 2015 (campaign mean of 116 ± 8 pptv) compared to July 2014 (campaign mean of 20 ± 6 pptv). During July 2014, the largest mixing ratios were found near the surface over the ice edge and open water. DMS(g) mixing ratios decreased with altitude up to about 3 km. During April 2015, profiles of DMS(g) were more uniform with height and some profiles showed an increase with altitude. DMS reached as high as 100 pptv near 2500 m. Relative to the observation averages, GEOS-Chem (www.geos-chem.org) chemical transport model simulations were higher during July and lower during April. Based on the simulations, more than 90 % of the July DMS(g) below 2 km and more than 90 % of the April DMS(g) originated from Arctic seawater (north of 66° N). During April, 60 % of the DMS(g), between 500 and 3000 m originated from Arctic seawater. During July 2014, FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) simulations locate the sampled air mass over Baffin Bay and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 4 days back from the observations. During April 2015, the locations of the air masses 4 days back from sampling were varied: Baffin Bay/Canadian Archipelago, the Arctic Ocean, Greenland and the Pacific Ocean. Our results highlight the role of open water below the flight as the source of DMS(g) during July 2014 and the influence of long-range transport (LRT) of DMS(g) from further afield in the Arctic above 2500 m during April 2015.

  10. An assessment of coalbed methane exploration projects in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F.M.; Marchioni, D.L.; Anderson, T.C.; McDougall, W.J. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A critical assessment of coalbed methane exploration opportunities is presented. Geological and production data from 59 well bores drilled in Canada's major coal basins are evaluated to assess the coalbed methane potential of the deposits. Data acquisition, geology, gas content, coal quality, adsorption isotherms, formation testing, and a technical assessment are presented for each area. Areas with the best potential for economic coalbed methane accumulations are indicated. 6 refs., 153 figs., 99 tabs.

  11. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  12. Petroleum contamination movement into permafrost in the high Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggar, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination that has penetrated the active layer into the permafrost at sites where spills have occurred in Canada's Arctic was discussed. There was evidence to suggest that hydrocarbon contamination may enter the permafrost layer through gravity drainage and cap suction through fissures in the frozen soil, and perhaps by diffusion through the unfrozen water of fine-grained soils. Core samples were taken in frozen silty clay to be sectioned and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons, using ultrasonic solvent extraction and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. It was concluded that it is possible for petroleum contamination in permafrost to migrate by gravity drainage down soil fissures and then diffuse into surrounding soil. 2 figs

  13. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  14. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from arctic mudboils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.S.; Humphreys, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-rich ecosystems in the Arctic have large stores of soil carbon. However, small changes in climate have the potential to change the carbon (C) balance. This study examined how changes in ecosystem structure relate to differences in the exchange of greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), between the atmosphere and soil. In particular, it examined low-center mudboils to determine the influence that this distinct form of patterned ground in the Arctic may have on the overall C balance of Tundra ecosystems. The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) was measured along with methane efflux along a 35-m transect intersecting two mudboils in a wet sedge fen in Canada's Southern Arctic during the summer of 2008. Mudboil features revealed significant variations in vegetation, soil temperature and thaw depth, and soil organic matter content along this transect. Variations in NEE were attributed to changes in the amount of vascular vegetation, but CO 2 and CH 4 effluxes were similar among the two mudboil and the sedge fen sampling areas. The study showed that vegetation played a key role in limiting temporal variations in CH 4 effluxes through plant mediated transport in both mudboil and sedge fen sampling areas. The negligible vascular plant colonization in one of the mudboils was likely due to more active frost heave processes. Growth and decomposition of cryptogamic organisms along with inflow of dissolved organic C and warmer soil temperatures may have been the cause of the rather high CO 2 and CH 4 efflux in this mudboil area.

  15. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Karnachev, Igor P; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980-2010. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers' rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices--violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3-6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  16. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Acc