WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin actors networks

  1. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive...

  2. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kamali, Maryam; Petre, Luigia; Sere, Kaisa; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.4

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between...

  3. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative...... data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  4. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Aslam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  5. Multidimensionality of Actors in Business Networks: The Influence of Social Action in Pharmacy Networks in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Steinby, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    In the markets-as-networks approach business networks are conceived as dynamic actor structures, giving focus to exchange relationships and actors’ capabilities to control and co-ordinate activities and resources. Researchers have shared an understanding that actors’ actions are crucial for the development of business networks and for network dynamics. However, researchers have mainly studied firms as business actors and excluded individuals, although both firms and individuals can be see...

  6. Using Actor Network Theory to Understand Information Security Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hedström, Karin; Dhillon, Gurpreet; Karlsson, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an Actor Network Theory (ANT) analysis of a computer hack at a large university. Computer hacks are usually addressed through technical means thus ensuring that perpetrators are unable to exploit system vulnerabilities. We however argue that a computer hack is a result of different events in a heterogeneous network embodying human and non-human actors. Hence a secure organizational environment is one that is characterized by 'stability' and 'social order', which is a resul...

  7. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    of a critical literature review and discussion. Findings – Since the early 1990s, actor-network theory, particularly the work of Bruno Latour, has inspired accounting researchers and led to a number of innovative studies of accounting phenomena. In particular, Latour's book, Science in Action, has been......Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...... number of accounting papers that apply actor-network theory. A different sample might have given a somewhat different picture. Furthermore, it focuses on the influence of Latour's work and refrains from discussing how the writings of Michel Callon, John Law or other thinkers within the actor...

  8. The role of HR actors in knowledge networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Zupan; Robert Kaše

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to examine structural positions of individuals, especially HR actors (line managers and HR specialists) within relational networks for creating and sharing knowledge and to explore implications for designing and implementing HR practices in knowledge-intensive firms (KIF). Design/methodology/approach – This article used exploratory research design conducting a single case study of a KIF. Social network analysis (SNA) – network centrality measures and visualization too...

  9. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watkins Q learning. They introduce deep Q networks (DQN) that learn to associate High dimensional inputs with Q values in order to produce discrete actions, allowing the system to learn complex strategi...

  10. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watki

  11. Actor-Network Theory and Tourism : Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Jóhannesson, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    The recent surfacing of actor-network theory (ANT) in tourism studies correlates to a rising interest in understanding tourism as emergent thorough relational practice connecting cultures, natures and technologies in multifarious ways. Despite the widespread application of ANT across the social scie

  12. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  13. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  14. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  15. Mining and Visualizing Research Networks using the Artefact-Actor-Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Wilke, Adrian; Moi, Matthias; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Wilke, A., Moi, M., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Mining and Visualizing Research Networks using the Artefact-Actor-Network Approach. In A. Abraham (Ed.), Computational Social Networks. Mining and Visualization (pp. 233-268). Springer. Also available at http://www.springer.com/computer/communication+networks/book/978-1-4471-4053-5

  16. Actor-Network Theory: sensitive terms and enduring tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, A.

    2010-01-01

    ANT is not a "theory", or, if it is, then a "theory" does not necessarily offer a coherent framework, but may as well be an adaptable, open repository. A list of terms. A set of sensitivities. If ANT is a theory, then a theory helps to tell cases, draw contrasts, articulate silent layers, turn questions upside down, focus on the unexpected, add to one’s sensitivities, propose new terms, and shift stories from one context to another. In this presentation of "Actor Network Theory" the terms "ac...

  17. AUTOMATIC RECOVERING NODE FAILURE IN WIRELESS SENSOR ACTOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.Subasini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recovering node failure in wireless sensor actor network to identify the cutvertex and to meet to the node failure. The network consists of many nodes that are constructed into a tree structure. Once the tree has been constructed the shortest path is found by the Aodv protocol.If a node failure occurs in the shortest path then the cut-vertex could be recovered and the data can be securely passed on to the destination in an alternative route obtained from the routing table. Heartbeat messages acknowledge the node failure. The feasible path is not found by the protocol, and then the network is divided into two or many parts. The MLeDir algorithm is used to identify the network failure and disjoint block of the network. The disjoint block is identified by the MLeDir algorithm and to rectify the disjoint block of failure network nodes. MLeDir algorithm is moving only the respective nodes from source to destination.

  18. Ship Finds and Their Management as Actor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2012-12-01

    Ship finds in Norwegian waters that are more than 100 years old came under the jurisdiction of the Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) in 1963, when section 12a of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage Act was implemented. As a consequence, a functional division between land and sea was created where management objects receive different values depending on whether or not they belong to a ship. The objective of this paper is to review Norwegian CHM underwater policy, and discuss the creation of a new management object and its borders with the introduction of a section on ship finds specifically focusing on Actor Network Theory. It is argued that the understanding of the ship find and its belongings can not be understood as something based on inherent qualities to the management object. Instead this paper proposes to comprehend the ship find as a phenomenon held together within a heterogeneous network.

  19. Reassembling the Social - An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Bruno

    2005-09-01

    Reassembling the Social is a fundamental challenge from one of the world's leading social theorists to how we understand society and the 'social'. Bruno Latour's contention is that the world 'social' as used by Social Scientists has become laden with assumptions to the point where it has become misnomer. When the adjective is applied to a phenomenon, it is used to indicate a stabilized state of affairs, a bundle of ties that in due course may be used to account for another phenomenon. But Latour also finds the word used as if it described a type of material, in a comparable way to an adjective such as 'wooden' or 'steely'. Rather than simply indicating what is already assembled together, it is now used in a way that makes assumptions about the nature of what is assembled. It has become a word that designates two distinct things: a process of assembling: and a type of material, distinct from others. Latour shows why 'the social' cannot be thought of as a kind of material or domain, and disputes attempts to provide a 'social explanation' of other states of affairs. While these attempts have been productive (and probably necessary) in the past, the very success of the social sciences mean that they are largely no longer so. At the present stage it is no longer possible to inspect the precise constituents entering the social domain. Latour returns to the original meaning of 'the social' to redefine the notion and allow it to trace connections again. It will then be possible to resume the traditional goal of the social sciences, but using more refined tools. Drawing on his extensive work examining the 'assemblages' of nature, Latour finds it necessary to scrutinize thoroughly the exact content of what is assembled under the umbrella of Society. This approach, a 'sociology of associations' has become known as Actor-Network-Theory, and this book is an essential introduction both for those seeking to understand Actor-Network-Theory, or the ideas of one of its most

  20. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  1. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs, as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical. The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature.

  2. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunho; Lee, Soojin

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have bee...

  3. Clarifying the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    DEHKORDI, Bahareh Banitalebi; ROODPOSHTI, Fraydoon Rahnamay; NIKOMARAM, Hashem; TALEBNIA, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this research is paid to clarify the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran with the aim of the determining of the human and non-human actors effective on the accounting information systems, the analysis of relationships between the human and non-human actors on the net and to determine the effective factors on the accounting information systems in terms of types of actors for the first time in Iran. In this research which is done in t...

  4. Essays on actor models in exchange networks and social dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Assen, Marcus Adrianus Leonardus Maria van

    2001-01-01

    A central problem in economics and sociology is that of explaining or predicting phenomena at the macro-level. One possible mode of explanation or prediction of macro-level phenomena entails examining processes internal to the system that involve actors at the micro-level. In this dissertation complexities were added to the model of the actor on the micro-level in order to better predict and understand two macro-level phenomena that receive a lot of attention in social science research in gen...

  5. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yunho

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSANs secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides differ...

  6. Using Actor-Network Theory to Understanding Virtual Community Networks of Older People Using the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Lepa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Older people around the world are adopting the Internet at an increasing rate, and in the process are forming virtual community networks in a way that would not otherwise have been possible. Internet interactions by this group include e-mail, chat groups, community forums and discussion groups as well as the individual use of the Web for information purposes. Some of these virtual networks relate older people to other older people, while other networks span age groups as when, for instance, a grandmother communicates by e-mail with her grandchildren. But linking to the Internet is not always straightforward as family members, friends and the technology, along with other non-human actors, often intrude. This highlights the socio-technical nature of these networks and the need to investigate them in a way that allows this to be seen. To attempt an understanding of the formation and operation of virtual networks of older people, and the interactions involved, a socio-technical approach is required and this paper will attempt such an analysis based on research, in an Australian context, undertaken by the authors.

  7. Actor-networking ceta-sociality, or, what is sociological about contemporary whales?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    to near-sacrosanct agent, is far from self-evident. This article advocates a change of theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of actor-network theorists Bruno Latour and Michel Callon. Rather than focussing solely on the ‘humanity' of human-animal relations, as does most of sociology, actor......-network theory (ANT) allows for the inclusion of non-human ‘actants' (like whales) into the fabric of sociality. In the ontology of ANT, sociality emerges as semiotic-material configurations of humans, animals and technologies. Starting from a critical review of the work by Adrian Franklin on growing...... ‘zoocentrism' in late modernity, the article proceeds by demonstrating how an ‘ecologised' ANT sociology contributes towards a better understanding of the emergence of whale ‘actor-hood' in global society. In broader terms, the article argues that as societies themselves ecologise by weaving ever...

  8. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated. PMID:23975479

  9. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  10. Management in Networks On multi-actor decision making

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Getting what you want - even if you are the boss - isn't always easy. Almost every organization, big or small, works among a network of competing interests. Whether it's governments pushing through policies, companies trying to increase profits, or even families deciding where to move house, rarely can decisions be made in isolation from competing interests both within the organization and outside it. In this accessible and straightforward account, Hans de Bruijn and Ernst ten Heuvelhof cast light on multi-stakeholder decision-making. Shunning simplistic model talk, they reveal the nuts and bo

  11. American Long-Distance Locomobility and the Spaces of Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Minn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the discourse surrounding national intercity passenger rail service in the United States revolves around why it has lagged so far behind European and Asian counterparts. However, a more interesting question might be why it has survived despite competition from faster, more nimble transport modes, discriminatory public policy, and the ascension of neoliberal discourse hostile to public endeavor. This paper uses the concept of durability in actor-network theory to offer some insights into how the system has achieved a remarkable but problematic stability, and how that durability relates to an imagined role for national intercity passenger rail in a future of increasingly constrained material resources. This paper also demonstrates the application of actor-network theory (ANT in a way that can serve as a useful introduction to and template for the use of that methodology.

  12. Monitoring communication outbreaks among an unknown team of actors in dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the detection of communication outbreaks among a small team of actors in time-varying networks. We propose monitoring plans for known and unknown teams based on generalizations of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistic. For unknown teams, we propose an efficient neighborhood-based search to estimate a collection of candidate teams. This procedure dramatically reduces the computational complexity of an exhaustive search. Our procedure consists of two steps: communication counts between actors are first smoothed using a multivariate EWMA strategy. Densely connected teams are identified as candidates using a neighborhood search approach. These candidate teams are then monitored using a surveillance plan derived from a generalized EWMA statistic. Monitoring plans are established for collaborative teams, teams with a dominant leader, as well as for global outbreaks. We consider weighted heterogeneous dynamic networks, where the expected communication count between each p...

  13. OUTDOOR RECREATION THROUGH THE PRISM OF ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

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    Yohann Rech

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory (ANT shows how scientific and technical innovations may take the form of a socio-technical network, by the aggregation of humans and non-humans (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1989. This article reflects on the contributions and limits of ANT to examine a particular object of research presenting regular innovations: the outdoor recreation. Firstly, the integration of non-humans to the analysis (Latour, 2006 is relevant in the study of nature sports because physical entities transform the action and involve specific associations. Then it is a particular epistemological positioning that shakes the dichotomies up and givesimportance to the reflexive activity of actors. Finally, understanding the development of collectives is useful for the study of nature sports. The construction of a social coexistence between different activities (sports activities and other activities strongly questions the political transformation of contemporary democracy, including the establishment of a participatory management.

  14. Symmetrical twins: On the relationship between Actor-Network theory and the sociology of critical capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenheim, Michael; Pottast, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the elective affinities between Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and the sociology of critical capacities. It argues that these two research programmes can be understood as symmetrical twins. We show the extent to which the exchange between Bruno Latour and Luc Boltanski has influenced their respective theoretical developments. Three strong encounters between the twin research programmes may be distinguished. The first encounter concerns explanations for social change. The sec...

  15. Technological change and users: An actor-network perspective on the digitalization of video surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Benjamin; Lahtinen, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of technological change and the path towards institutionalization of new innovations, with a focus on how users matter and are part of the co-construction of such change. An empirical example from the security industry is used to illustrate how two distinct phases in the analog-to-digital shift in video surveillance technology have had very different outcomes with respect to the pace and nature of user adoption. The notions of actor- networks and communities of pr...

  16. Restructuring and territorial governance: the contribution of actor-network theory

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, Mélanie; Dalon, Gelica

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed light, in an exploratory manner, on the role of the choices made in terms of governance in reorganisation projects initiated on territories affected by companies' restructuring. Actor-network theory is used to analyse the dynamics present on three territories concerned by the restructuring of a same company. It allows to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the territorial reorganisation's modes of management and to highlight their decisive influence on th...

  17. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  18. Reputation management in online social networks for governmental actors: opportunities and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of social networks as factors of restoring and maintaining balance in a system of communication marked of conflicts and biased attitudes. Online social networks offer for governmental actors the possibility to interact in a two-way model with publics, transforming “politics” in “policies” by stimulating feed-back and participation. The data was collected from an empirical case, a project of reputation management for a minister in a former government in a South-Eas...

  19. Actors, argumentation and agenda in the territory management of the lower basin of Luján river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Nafría

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actors within the soil management sub-system, their logic, interests and controversial relations in the process of urban transformation and current use pattern formation of the Luján river lower basin during the last ten years were identified within the conceptual framework of public policies. These interest groups’ discourse and arguments have an impact on agenda creation, which is understood as the process of interest aggregation reflecting both the order of priority of social problems and the government’s opinion of the situation. This paper analyzes written and oral texts and traces the various actors within this area of study as factors contributing to explain the reasons why certain topics are adopted as public problems and added to the government’s agenda

  20. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Ac...

  1. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often used...... to study hidden populations, for example, groups of homosexual people, drug users or people with sexually transmitted diseases. By use of a snowball sampling approach, this study mapped municipal social networks of educational actors, who were otherwise hidden to the researchers. Subsequently, the...... populations in educational settings, but also that qualitative studies are needed in order to interpret the networks in real-life contexts....

  2. A spiking neural network model of an actor-critic learning agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potjans, Wiebke; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2009-02-01

    The ability to adapt behavior to maximize reward as a result of interactions with the environment is crucial for the survival of any higher organism. In the framework of reinforcement learning, temporal-difference learning algorithms provide an effective strategy for such goal-directed adaptation, but it is unclear to what extent these algorithms are compatible with neural computation. In this article, we present a spiking neural network model that implements actor-critic temporal-difference learning by combining local plasticity rules with a global reward signal. The network is capable of solving a nontrivial gridworld task with sparse rewards. We derive a quantitative mapping of plasticity parameters and synaptic weights to the corresponding variables in the standard algorithmic formulation and demonstrate that the network learns with a similar speed to its discrete time counterpart and attains the same equilibrium performance. PMID:19196231

  3. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  4. Disconnection of the ‘organic’ food production from the ‘organic network’? - A Danish actor network case study

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, Egon

    2002-01-01

    The Danish case of organic agriculture is generally regarded as a success story. But the enrolment of new actors and the growing economic interest may lead to a change of the ideological foundation of organic agriculture. The scope of this paper is to explore what happens to organic agriculture through the process of dissemination of the organic mode of farming and enrolment of conventional farmers into organic farming from an Actor Network Theory (ANT) approach. This is explored through an i...

  5. Reputation management in online social networks for governmental actors: opportunities and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social networks as factors of restoring and maintaining balance in a system of communication marked of conflicts and biased attitudes. Online social networks offer for governmental actors the possibility to interact in a two-way model with publics, transforming “politics” in “policies” by stimulating feed-back and participation. The data was collected from an empirical case, a project of reputation management for a minister in a former government in a South-Eastern European country. Findings show that social networks’ communication might have a strong internal and external impact, but the extent of the impact depends on several independent factors, as the previous reputation or the media agenda.

  6. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted. PMID:26531190

  7. Multirate parallel distributed compensation of a cluster in wireless sensor and actor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-xi; Huang, Ling-yun; Zhang, Hao; Hua, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilisation problem for one of the clusters with bounded multiple random time delays and packet dropouts in wireless sensor and actor networks is investigated in this paper. A new multirate switching model is constructed to describe the feature of this single input multiple output linear system. According to the difficulty of controller design under multi-constraints in multirate switching model, this model can be converted to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. By designing a multirate parallel distributed compensation, a sufficient condition is established to ensure this closed-loop fuzzy control system to be globally exponentially stable. The solution of the multirate parallel distributed compensation gains can be obtained by solving an auxiliary convex optimisation problem. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show, compared with solving switching controller, multirate parallel distributed compensation can be obtained easily. Furthermore, it has stronger robust stability than arbitrary switching controller and single-rate parallel distributed compensation under the same conditions.

  8. Towards a new perspective of managing ideas in front-end innovation as actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn, Anna Rose; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv

    2013-01-01

    been identified as front-end innovation processes. The front-end innovation is distinguished from linear product development and characterised as more informal, unstructured, and unpredictable. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front......For decades the innovation process in R&D organisations has been discussed. Product development processes is well-established in R&D organisations and improvements has been implemented through theories as Lean product development and agile methods. In recent decades, more diffuse processes have......-end innovation of R&D organisations. Through theoretical and empirical investigations of managing activities of idea processes an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organisational...

  9. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense. PMID:23371512

  10. Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob

    2010-05-01

    The UK National Health Service is grappling with various large and controversial IT programmes. We sought to develop a sharper theoretical perspective on the question "What happens - at macro-, meso- and micro-level - when government tries to modernise a health service with the help of big IT?" Using examples from data fragments at the micro-level of clinical work, we considered how structuration theory and actor-network theory (ANT) might be combined to inform empirical investigation. Giddens (1984) argued that social structures and human agency are recursively linked and co-evolve. ANT studies the relationships that link people and technologies in dynamic networks. It considers how discourses become inscribed in data structures and decision models of software, making certain network relations irreversible. Stones' (2005) strong structuration theory (SST) is a refinement of Giddens' work, systematically concerned with empirical research. It views human agents as linked in dynamic networks of position-practices. A quadripartite approcach considers [a] external social structures (conditions for action); [b] internal social structures (agents' capabilities and what they 'know' about the social world); [c] active agency and actions and [d] outcomes as they feed back on the position-practice network. In contrast to early structuration theory and ANT, SST insists on disciplined conceptual methodology and linking this with empirical evidence. In this paper, we adapt SST for the study of technology programmes, integrating elements from material interactionism and ANT. We argue, for example, that the position-practice network can be a socio-technical one in which technologies in conjunction with humans can be studied as 'actants'. Human agents, with their complex socio-cultural frames, are required to instantiate technology in social practices. Structurally relevant properties inscribed and embedded in technological artefacts constrain and enable human agency. The fortunes

  11. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciesielczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  12. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  13. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Gene Co-Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Actor-Semiotic Networks and Centrality Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C.Y. Fung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Because of its high prevalence in developing nations, there have been numerous efforts made in the molecular characterization of primary HCC. However, a better understanding into the pathology of HCC required software-assisted network modeling and analysis. In this paper, the author presented his first attempt in exploring the biological implication of gene co-expression in HCC using actor-semiotic network modeling and analysis. The network was first constructed by integrating inter-actor relationships, e.g. gene co-expression, microRNA-to-gene, and protein interactions, with semiotic relationships, e.g. gene-to-Gene Ontology Process. Topological features that are highly discriminative of the HCC phenotype were identified by visual inspection. Finally, the author devised a graph signature- based analysis method to supplement the network exploration.

  15. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Prenkert

    2013-01-01

    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  16. Research Note: The consequences of different methods for handling missing network data in Stochastic Actor Based Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, John R.; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Although stochastic actor based models (e.g., as implemented in the SIENA software program) are growing in popularity as a technique for estimating longitudinal network data, a relatively understudied issue is the consequence of missing network data for longitudinal analysis. We explore this issue in our research note by utilizing data from four schools in an existing dataset (the AddHealth dataset) over three time points, assessing the substantive consequences of using four different strateg...

  17. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances’ in research on mobile learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Steve; Parchoma, Gale

    2011-01-01

    How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-network...

  18. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-01-01

    Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 ...

  19. Pessoas sem voz, redes indizíveis e grupos descartáveis: os limites da teoria do actor-rede Voiceless people, unnamable networks and disposable groups: the limits of actor-network theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de Oliveira Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se a uma reflexão crítica sobre a teoria do actor-rede de Michel Callon e Bruno Latour. Salienta-se a necessidade de incorporar no estudo do social as emoções e a imponderabilidade.Tendo como referência a análise de situações de catástrofe ou de acontecimentos extremos, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre o trabalho político que coloca fora das redes sociais, como irrecuperáveis e descartáveis, todos os que não criam ou não possuem valor na perspectiva hegemónica e que, por conseguinte, não são construídos como portadores de direitos sociais e políticos, tornando-se invisíveis e ausentes das análises convencionais propostas pela teoria do actor-rede.In this paper a critical analysis of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon’s actor-network theory is proposed. It is argued that studies about the social must incorporate emotions and imponderability. Focusing on the analysis of catastrophes and extreme events, a reflection on the political work that excludes from the social networks, as irretrievable and disposable, all those that do not create or do not carry value in the hegemonic perspective and, therefore, are not construed as having social and political rights is presented. These irretrievable and disposable persons and groups become invisible and absent in the conventional analyses proposed by actor-network theory.

  20. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  1. The Influence of the Actor Network on the Innovative Process of Transgenic Soybean in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande do Sul was the first Brazilian state to plant genetically modified soybean. The sowing occurred in 1998 with Roundup Ready soybean seeds from Monsanto smuggled from Argentina. The aim of this study is to investigate how this innovative process of planting transgenic soybean came about in Rio Grande do Sul based on the actor network involved in the period 1998 to 2003. Although the innovative process has been discussed in the literature on innovation management since the work of Schumpeter, there is still no clear understanding of the issues of interests and power that involve the innovative process. Given this, from within the literature we have sought a perspective that would understand the innovative process as being political. We adopted Actor Network Theory as a base for the discussion of the primary and secondary data obtained regarding the controversy surrounding transgenic soybean in RS. The results point to the existence of two translation chains that contribute towards the formation of actor networks.

  2. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  3. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  4. Teachers' professional development in a community: A study of the central actors, their networks and web-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Lallimo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to study teachers' professional development related to web-based learning in the context of the teacher community. The object was to learn in what kind of networks teachers share the knowledge of web-based learning and what are the factors in the community that support or challenge teachers professional development of web-based learning. The findings of the study revealed that there are teachers who are especially active, called the central actors in this study, in the teacher community who collaborate and share knowledge of web-based learning. These central actors share both technical and pedagogical knowledge of web-based learning in networks that include both internal and external relations in the community and involve people, artefacts and a variety of media. Furthermore, the central actors appear to bridge different fields of teaching expertise in their community.According to the central actors' experiences the important factors that support teachers' professional development of web-based learning in the community are; the possibility to learn from colleagues and from everyday working practices, an emotionally safe atmosphere, the leader's personal support and community-level commitment. Also, the flexibility in work planning, challenging pupils, shared lessons with colleagues, training events in an authentic work environment and colleagues' professionalism are considered meaningful for professional development. As challenges, the knowledge sharing of web-based learning in the community needs mutual interests, transactive memory, time and facilities, peer support, a safe atmosphere and meaningful pedagogical practices.On the basis of the findings of the study it is suggested that by intensive collaboration related to web-based learning it may be possible to break the boundaries of individual teachership and create such sociocultural activities which support collaborative professional development in the teacher

  5. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 to 2013. Findings provided a strong indication of ANT’s role in key areas of current cybercrime, namely, cyber bullying, cyber theft, and cyber terrorism and cyber espionage. More specifically, ANT was applied within cyber criminology research to address complex problems involving human-technological interactions, advance alternative models and theoretical perspectives, compare ANT with existing models and theoretical perspectives, and leverage understanding of network influences on actors. Recommendations are provided to help optimize the application of ANT to cybercrime research and practice. This paper helps advance knowledge at the intersection of ANT and the study of cyber criminology.

  6. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  7. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-03-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  8. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  9. Actor-network procedures: Modeling multi-factor authentication, device pairing, social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    As computation spreads from computers to networks of computers, and migrates into cyberspace, it ceases to be globally programmable, but it remains programmable indirectly: network computations cannot be controlled, but they can be steered by local constraints on network nodes. The tasks of "programming" global behaviors through local constraints belong to the area of security. The "program particles" that assure that a system of local interactions leads towards some desired global goals are called security protocols. As computation spreads beyond cyberspace, into physical and social spaces, new security tasks and problems arise. As networks are extended by physical sensors and controllers, including the humans, and interlaced with social networks, the engineering concepts and techniques of computer security blend with the social processes of security. These new connectors for computational and social software require a new "discipline of programming" of global behaviors through local constraints. Since the n...

  10. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  11. Visualization of Evolving Social Networks using Actor-Level and Community-Level Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Oliveira; João Gama

    2012-01-01

    In recent years we witnessed an impressive advance in the social networks field, which became a "hot" topic and a focus of considerable attention. Also, the development of methods that focus on the analysis and understanding of the evolution of data are gaining momentum. In this paper we present an approach to visualize the evolution of dynamic social networks by using Tucker decomposition and the concept of temporal trajectory. Our visualization strategy is based on the definition of traject...

  12. The use of social network analysis in innovation studies: Mapping actors and technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of social network analysis (SNA) in policy development and evaluation is still very limited. The aim of this paper is to identify research themes in innovation that may benefit from the application of SNA, and to examine implications for management and policy that are derived from th

  13. Simposio Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Borge

    2008-01-01

    Participación en el Simposio Internacional "Changing Politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Florencia los días 5 y 6 de octubre del 2007.

  14. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  15. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  16. Understanding Responsible Innovation in Small Producers’ Clusters in Vietnam through Actor-Network Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap Voeten; Job de Haan; Gerard de Groot; Nigel Roome

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is increasingly recognised as an alternative for poverty alleviation in developing countries. However, cases of innovation in small producers’ clusters in Vietnam imply negative externalities that conflict with today’s notions of sustainable and inclusive development. This article analyses how small producers innovate while taking environmental and social considerations into account through an interactive societal process towards a community network, conceptualised as responsible i...

  17. The Adoption Of Tailor-made IT-based Accounting Systems Within Indonesian SMEs From Actor Network Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiaji Sarosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the adoption process of computer-based accounting information systems within Indonesian SMEs. The analysis was conducted using theoretical framework proposed by Slappendel [1] which is interactive process. Interactive process argues that adoption of innovation (IT in particular should be viewed as an interactive process between individual member, organization, and its environment. One of the emerging theories within interactive process is Actor Network Theory (ANT proposed by Latour, Callon, and Law[2-7]. ANT classified adoption process as four stages process, namely problematisation, interrestment, enrolment, and mobilization. We used qualitative approach to gather data, analyze and draw conclusion. As the result we come up with factors that influencing the adoption process along with the failure and success of such endeavour. We argues that ANT is better in explaining the adoption of IT compared to other model due its ability to identified not only the factors but also the process of adoption and explaining the success or failure of the process.

  18. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  19. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance of ecosystem or multiple stakeholder perspectives on technology development and technology adoption. At the same time the variety of technology adoption contexts would easily undermine the credibility...

  20. Mapping the water chemistry of the Clyde Basin drainage network

    OpenAIRE

    Bearcock, Jenny; Smedley, Pauline; Everett, Paul; Ander, Louise; Fordyce, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the chemistry of stream and river water across the Clyde Basin serves both to characterise the water quality and assess the dominant controls. Surveys of the Clyde drainage network, undertaken between 2003 and 2010, have generated data encompassing rural and urban streams, rivers, and estuarine water. Mapping displays the large spatial variability in chemical composition across the Basin and the varying influences of controls such as rainfall, land cover and geology. They also display...

  1. Discutindo a aprendizagem sob a perspectiva da teoria ator-rede Discussing learning under actor-network theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Aranha de Queiroz e Melo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, discutimos as aprendizagens como um fenômeno dinâmico e multifacetado, produto de uma série de condições que emergem numa causalidade em redes, tomando o corpo enquanto uma instância mediadora que se afeta como um todo nas interações com o mundo. Apoiamo-nos no conceito de tradução defendido pela Teoria Ator-Rede, buscando seus desdobramentos no campo da Psicologia para entender a construção das identidades como apostas sempre provisórias das mesclas de materialidade e socialidade que vão se processando ao longo das biografias dos humanos. Valemo-nos dos princípios Stengers-Despret, atualizados por Latour, apontando para uma epistemologia política alternativa ao fazer uma reflexão sobre o ensinar, o aprender e construir conhecimento: enquanto um processo necessariamente vinculado e sintonizado com outros; enquanto uma empreitada de riscos que leva em conta, como estratégia de sobrevivência, as recalcitrâncias em humanos e não humanos; que oferece ocasiões para diferir num movimento em que todos os envolvidos se modificam pelos efeitos que causam reciprocamente uns nos outros; enquanto uma prática plural e inclusiva, tendo, finalmente, um mundo comum como o objetivo maior destas construções.In this paper, we pose learning as a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon, which is the product of a series of conditions emerging from a networking causality, taking body as a mediating instance between subject and the world, affecting reciprocally each other. Based on concept of translation, defended by Actor-Network Theory, we searched their unfolding in Psychology field in order to understand the construction of identities as bets, always temporaries, of materiality and sociality processed mixtures, during human biography lifetime. We used Stengers-Despret principles, brought up to date for Latour, pointing to an alternative political epistemology reflecting on teaching, learning and knowledge construction: while a

  2. Blowing against the wind-An exploratory application of actor network theory to the analysis of local controversies and participation processes in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the deployment of wind power and the related local controversies using actor-network theory (ANT). ANT provides conceptual instruments for a fine-tuned analysis of the contingencies that condition a project's success or failure by focusing on the micro-decisions that intertwine the material aspects of the technology, the site where it is implemented, the participation process, and the social relations in which they are embedded. By considering controversies as alternative efforts of competing networks of actors to 'frame' the reality and enroll others, ANT sheds light on the complex and political nature of planning a wind farm project, insofar as it consist in aligning material and human behaviours into a predictable scenario. 'Overflows' occur when actors do not conform to expectations, adopt conflicting positions and develop their own interpretations of the project, thus obliging designers to adapt their frames and change their plans. To demonstrate this framework, we apply it to the case of a wind farm project in the South of France, near Albi. Our analysis suggests a new approach to examining wind power projects in terms of the interaction between globally circulating technologies, unique characteristics of the site, the participation process and the social dynamics that emerge when these are combined.

  3. Analysis of the text of a textbook of biology oriented by actor-network theory: a study on the theme “biological evolution”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ângelo Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a strategy for analyzing the text of the textbook based on principles of Actor-Network Theory. This theory seeks to understand central claims about knowledge, subjectivity, society and nature, as effects of an interaction network. By analyzing the argumentative strategies employed by the authors of the text analyzed, we found that there is a process of strengthening the scientific explanation that construct a conception of science and which leaves religious conceptions isolated. In this process, the authors establish a network that exclude religious explanation of the field of rationality and interdict the rationality of religion. We wondered whether this is the best attitude when considering the diversity present in school.

  4. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  5. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Parchoma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  6. Performing Sociology Through Actor-Network Theory: From Impressionist Cartography to the Dirtiness of Mediations Hacer sociología a través de la teoría del actor-red: de la cartografía impresionista a la suciedad de las mediaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muriel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to outline the existence of certain problems I have found during my research work, within sociology discipline, when it comes to follow some of the main threads of the complex fabric that constitutes the Actor-Network Theory (ANT. In the same way, I suggest some possible subterfuges to go around those problems. Two are the problems and two are the subterfuges as well destined to tackle them. On the one hand, I face the problem of the magnitude and fidelity that ANT's descriptions demand, thoroughly detailed and local, which clashes with the requirements of sociological theory that seeks abstractions and regularities. The subterfuge I propose is the one called "impressionist cartography". On the other hand, I bump into the difficulty of the irreversibility of mediations and the sanitized representations carried out, sometimes, by ANT. In order to fight this, I use the subterfuge oriented to adopt the premise of the "inevitable dirtiness of mediations". En este artículo intento proponer un esbozo de ciertos problemas que me he encontrado en el transcurro de mi investigación, dentro de la disciplina de la sociología, cuando he intentado seguir algunas de las principales tramas del complejo entramado de la teoría del actor-red (ANT, así como de los subterfugios que planteo para bordearlos. Dos son los problemas y dos los posibles subterfugios para abordarlos. Por un lado, me encuentro con el problema de la envergadura y fidelidad de las descripciones que exige la ANT, muy localizadas y minuciosas, que choca con los requerimientos de la teoría sociológica que busca regularidades y abstracciones. El subterfugio que planteo es el de la "cartografía impresionista". Por otro lado, me topo con la dificultad de la

  7. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance of...... ecosystem or multiple stakeholder perspectives on technology development and technology adoption. At the same time the variety of technology adoption contexts would easily undermine the credibility of any methodology pretending to possess the ability to adequately address all possible contexts and research...... challenges. This is why in this special issue we have focused on exploring, in parallel to ANT, other approaches that have also proven valuable in studying technology adoption and human-technology interaction. Some of these approaches share significant common ground with ANT. They also diverge in some...

  8. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  9. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse and...... understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  10. National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Monitoring Network Basin Boundary Geospatial Dataset, 2008–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report and the accompanying geospatial data were created to assist in analysis and interpretation of water-quality data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and by the U.S. Coastal Waters and Tributaries National Monitoring Network (NMN), which is a cooperative monitoring program of Federal, regional, and State agencies. The report describes the methods used to develop the geospatial data, which was primarily derived from the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. The geospatial data contains polygon shapefiles of basin boundaries for 33 NASQAN and 5 NMN streamflow and water-quality monitoring stations. In addition, 30 polygon shapefiles of the closed and noncontributing basins contained within the NASQAN or NMN boundaries are included. Also included is a point shapefile of the NASQAN and NMN monitoring stations and associated basin and station attributes. Geospatial data for basin delineations, associated closed and noncontributing basins, and monitoring station locations are available at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/metadata/usgswrd/XML/ds641_nasqan_wbd12.xml.

  11. Collaboration and entanglement: An actor-network theory analysis of team-based intraprofessional care for patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, A; Goldszmidt, M; Kinsella, E A; Smith, S; Lingard, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite calls for more interprofessional and intraprofessional team-based approaches in healthcare, we lack sufficient understanding of how this happens in the context of patient care teams. This multi-perspective, team-based interview study examined how medical teams negotiated collaborative tensions. From 2011 to 2013, 50 patients across five sites in three Canadian provinces were interviewed about their care experiences and were asked to identify members of their health care teams. Patient-identified team members were subsequently interviewed to form 50 "Team Sampling Units" (TSUs), consisting of 209 interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. Results are gathered from a focused analysis of 13 TSUs where intraprofessional collaborative tensions involved treating fluid overload, or edema, a common HF symptom. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), the analysis focused on intraprofessional collaboration between specialty care teams in cardiology and nephrology. The study found that despite a shared narrative of common purpose between cardiology teams and nephrology teams, fluid management tools and techniques formed sites of collaborative tension. In particular, care activities involved asynchronous clinical interpretations, geographically distributed specialist care, fragmented forms of communication, and uncertainty due to clinical complexity. Teams 'disentangled' fluid in order to focus on its physiological function and mobilisation. Teams also used distinct 'framings' of fluid management that created perceived collaborative tensions. This study advances collaborative entanglement as a conceptual framework for understanding, teaching, and potentially ameliorating some of the tensions that manifest during intraprofessional care for patients with complex, chronic disease. PMID:27490299

  12. The political history of biofuels in the European Union - Actors, Networks and Strategies; Den politiska historien om biodrivmedel i den Europeiska Unionen - Aktoerer, naetverk och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordangaard, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    The story of biofuels in the European Union is about much more than simply replace petroleum in the transport sector. It is rather a complex story accompanied by an overall desire to change the world's political architecture. This change has been made in order to address global environmental problems such as climate change while creating frameworks and certifications for the global trade in commodities such as palm oil and soy. The process has been full of contradictions in what biofuels can solve and given rise to exaggerated rhetoric about the fuel's environmental benefits versus its harmful impact on the environment and food prices. Doomsday reeking arguments about climate disasters, oil shortages and the destruction of the world's rain forests have been used alternately in diverse contexts. In this process, various market interests have come to stand against each other in the battle for the raw materials used in biofuel production. Good intentions to protect the priceless nature from industrial exploitation has been used as a way to disadvantage certain raw materials as an energy crop. This has given rise to the unholy alliances between environmentalists and corporations to create broad support for positions while individual nations have assisted with capital and resources to promote various self-interests. In the end it has been a matter of building so powerful network as possible, and present a hard hitting problem requiring a solution for success. Out of chaos, it has been born order. This thesis describes the process and the main actors and networks that have driven this.

  13. The performance of public corporate actors: Essays on effects of institutional and network embeddedness in supranational, national, and local collaborative contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Public corporate actors – governments, government bureaucracies, and nongovernmental organizations strongly involved in the delivery of public services – address key social problems in society. They permeate many dimensions of our personal lives. They impact our health care, education, and social security. Yet, instances of policy failure and organizational mismanagement are numerous, and the global economic and financial crisis places pressure on public corporate actors to deliver services m...

  14. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  15. Maneiras de pesquisar no cotidiano: contribuição da teoria do ator-rede Ways of researching everyday life: the actor-network theory contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald João Jacques Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da temática geral do XI Simpósio da ANPEPP"Maneiras de pesquisar no cotidiano: contribuições para a formação em pesquisa em Psicologia", e tendo em vista a participação do autor no GT "Cotidiano e Práticas Sociais" da ANPEPP, este texto busca descrever a prática de formação em pesquisa a partir da teoria do ator-rede. Após efetuar a recensão de um texto de Bruno Latour, um diálogo entre um professor e um aluno em que são expostas as principais características da prática de pesquisa no âmbito desta abordagem, o autor busca precisar o posicionamento epistemológico-metodológico da referida teoria assim como suas raízes fundadas na filosofia pragmática, descrevendo sucintamente algumas proposições de William James e John Dewey.Using the actor-network theory, this paper describes the practices of becoming educated in research, based on the general subject of the XI ANPPEP Symposium "Ways of searching in everyday life: contributions to the formation of research in Psychology", considering that the author was a participant in the ANPEPP work group "Everyday life and Social Practices". After summarizing a paper of Bruno Latour, a dialogue between a professor and a student in which the main characteristics of the research practice in this approach are outlined, the author exposes in a more accurate manner the epistemological and methodological positioning of the referred theory and its pragmatic philosophical roots, describing briefly some propositions of William James and John Dewey.

  16. Minimal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery algorithm in wireless sensor and actor networks%基于最小连通支配集移动的WSANs连接恢复算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 姚雷; 杜景林

    2014-01-01

    In the mission-critical application of WSANs, one or multiple actors failure might lead to partitioning the inter-actor networks, and thus autonomous detection and connectivity restoration were highly desirable to maintain inter-actor connectivity. In this paper, we presented a minimal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery algorithm MCDSR which proactively identified actors whether were cut-vertices or not to the network connectivity , and designated minimal CDS backup nodes. If the nodes suddenly failed, the minimal block backup nodes moved and initiated a recovery process until the network was reconnected. Through simulated experiments, the results showed that the algorithm was more effective than present algorithms in terms of total number of relocated nodes, total travel distance,cover reduction.%在无线传感器与执行器网络( wireless sensor-actor networks,简称WSANs)关键任务应用中,单个或多个节点的失效可能造成内执行器节点产生网络分隔,自动检测和快速恢复来保持内执行器网络的连接性显得非常重要。论文提出了一种基于最小连通支配集移动的连接性恢复算法( minmal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery,简称 MCDSR),该算法主动探测影响网络连通的割点,并为其指定最小的连通支配集。一旦检测到节点失效,备份的支配集初始化恢复进程直到网络连接恢复。并通过实验与现有的恢复算法进行比较,发现MCDSR算法在移动的节点数目、总的移动距离、覆盖度减少等方面有更好性能。

  17. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  18. The rising influence of urban actors

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.

  19. AN EVALUATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF ACTOR NETWORK THEORY IN UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITIES OF VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE IN POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Brewer; Aiobheann McVeigh; Jason von Meding

    2013-01-01

    The literature is replete with accounts of the struggle to effectively target and deploy postdisaster aid so as to achieve maximum benefit to recipients, both direct and indirect, over the short- and longer-term. Generally these stories balance success with lessons learned from failure, in order to inform practice in future recovery and reconstruction events. They are often derived from the heroic accounts of key actors in case studies, on the understandable basis that these carefully selecte...

  20. Hydrocarbon accumulation in network and its application in the continental rift basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in network was presented on basis of the overall analysis of the formation and evolution characteristics of the continental faulted basin and of the systemic re-search on the major controlling factors on the hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon accumu-lation in network can be defined as hydrocarbon accumulation in a three-dimensional network system which is constituted by the hydrocarbon migration passages under multiple dynamics,following the hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. The research shows that the hydrocarbon accumulation in network is composed of four elements,i.e.,hydrocarbon source (source rock kitchen),hydrocarbon accumulation terminal (trap),network pathway connecting source and terminal (transporting system),and network potential driving hydrocarbon migration in the network pathway (migration dynamics). Compared with other networks,hydrocarbon accumulation in network has three basic characteristics: the irreversible geological process of material and information flow in the network; the loss of material and information in the flow process in the network; the multiple dynamics in the flow process. Interac-tion of all the elements in the geological process can be called hydrocarbon accumulation in network. There are three basic models for hydrocarbon accumulation in network,that is,hydrocarbon accumu-lation in the network source area,hydrocarbon accumulation in the network pathway,and hydrocarbon accumulation in the network terminal. The key in the application of the hydrocarbon accumulation models in network in practice is to confirm the major accumulation stage and the function range of the four elements controlling the hydrocarbon firstly,to predict the profitable accumulation region by su-perposition of the favorable areas confirmed by four elements consequently,and to evaluate the oil-bearing property of the trap as well as confirm drilling targets. This paper takes the Dongying De-pression in the

  1. The ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods of the Changjiang River Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the latest statistical data of hydrology, a total of 21 floods took place over the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Basins from 1827 to 2012 and showed an obvious commensurable orderliness. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the summary of the ordered network structure of the Changjiang floods, supplement new information, further optimize networks, construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research. Predictions show that the future big deluges will probably occur over the Changjiang River Basin around 2013-2014, 2020-2021, 2030, 2036, 2051, and 2058. (orig.)

  2. The ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods of the Changjiang River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai; Zhu, Shu-Dan [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics

    2013-12-15

    According to the latest statistical data of hydrology, a total of 21 floods took place over the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Basins from 1827 to 2012 and showed an obvious commensurable orderliness. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the summary of the ordered network structure of the Changjiang floods, supplement new information, further optimize networks, construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research. Predictions show that the future big deluges will probably occur over the Changjiang River Basin around 2013-2014, 2020-2021, 2030, 2036, 2051, and 2058. (orig.)

  3. Explicit simulations of stream networks to guide hydrological modelling in ungauged basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff modelling in ungauged basins is still one of the greatest challenges in recent hydrological research. The lack of discharge data necessitates the establishment of new innovative approaches to guide hydrological modelling in ungauged basins. Besides the transfer of calibrated parameters from similar gauged catchments, the application of distributed data as a hydrological response in addition to discharge seems to be promising. A new approach for model and parameter evaluation based on explicit simulation of the spatial stream network was tested in four different catchments in Germany. In a first step, spatial explicit modelling of stream networks was performed using a simplified version of the process-based model Hill-Vi together with regional climate normals. The simulated networks were compared to mapped stream networks and their degree of spatial agreement was evaluated. Significant differences between good and poor simulations could be distinguished and the corresponding parameter sets relate well with the hydrogeological properties of the catchments. The optimized parameters were subsequently used to simulate daily discharge using an observed time series of precipitation and air temperature. The performance was evaluated against observed discharge and water balance. This approach shows some promising results but also some limitations. Although the model's parsimonious model structure should to be further improved regarding discharge recession and evapotranspiration, the performance was similar to the regionalisation methods. Stream network modelling, which has minimal data requirements, seems to be a reasonable alternative for model development and parameter evaluation in ungauged basins.

  4. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  5. Actors: From Audience to Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes actors' experiences of distance learning systems in a wide variety of cultural and organizational contexts. In line with the project of this special series of issues, results of research, much of which is longitudinal, allow us to suggest answers to the following questions: Who are the actors of distance…

  6. Improving a Radioisotope Monitoring Network for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Karstic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows the application of geomathematical tools for the design of a radioisotope monitoring network in order to characterize groundwater dynamics in a karstic basin, a very difficult task to acccomplish due to the complex physical, geographical, geologic and hydrogeological characteristics of karstic basins. The sampling frequency of the network has been optimized according to the analysis of the spectrum of variances. In order to evaluate this optimization, the geomathematical model is compared to the results of the mathematical model AQUIMPE. This model solves the flow equation of groundwater using the finite element method. The results validate the design in order to assess aquifer recharge, residence time of groundwater, vulnerability to pollution and groundwater-surface water interaction in this complex water resource. (author)

  7. Large-scale circulation patterns and related rainfall in the Amazon Basin: a neuronal networks approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo [LOCEAN - IPSL (IRD, CNRS, MNHN, UPMC), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universidad Agraria La Molina UNALM, Lima (Peru); Lengaigne, Matthieu; Janicot, Serge [LOCEAN - IPSL (IRD, CNRS, MNHN, UPMC), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ronchail, Josyane [LOCEAN - IPSL (IRD, CNRS, MNHN, UPMC), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universite Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2012-01-15

    This study describes the main circulation patterns (CP) in the Amazonian Basin over the 1975-2002 period and their relationship with rainfall variability. CPs in the Amazonian Basin have been computed for each season from the ERA-40 daily 850 hPa winds using an approach combining artificial neural network (Self Organizing Maps) and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification. A 6 to 8 cluster solutions (depending on the season considered) is shown to yield an integrated view of the complex regional circulation variability. For austral fall, winter and spring the temporal evolution between the different CPs shows a clear tendency to describe a cycle, with southern wind anomalies and their convergence with the trade winds progressing northward from the La Plata Basin to the Amazon Basin. This sequence is strongly related to eastward moving extra tropical perturbations and their incursion toward low latitude that modulate the geopotential and winds over South America and its adjoining oceans. During Austral summer, CPs are less spatially and temporally organized compared to other seasons, principally due to weaker extra tropical perturbations and more frequent shallow low situations. Each of these CPs is shown to be associated with coherent northward moving regional rainfall patterns (both in in situ data and ERA-40 reanalysis) and convective activity. However, our results reveals that precipitation variability is better reproduced by ERA-40 in the southern part of the Amazonian Basin than in the northern part, where rainfall variability is likely to be more constrained by local and subdaily processes (e.g. squall lines) that could be misrepresented in the reanalysis dataset. This analysis clearly illustrates the existing connections between the southern and northern part of the Amazonian Basin in terms of regional circulation/rainfall patterns. The identification of these CPs provide useful information to understand local rainfall variability and could hence be used to

  8. Large-scale circulation patterns and related rainfall in the Amazon Basin: a neuronal networks approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Ronchail, Josyane; Janicot, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the main circulation patterns (CP) in the Amazonian Basin over the 1975-2002 period and their relationship with rainfall variability. CPs in the Amazonian Basin have been computed for each season from the ERA-40 daily 850 hPa winds using an approach combining artificial neural network (Self Organizing Maps) and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification. A 6 to 8 cluster solutions (depending on the season considered) is shown to yield an integrated view of the complex regional circulation variability. For austral fall, winter and spring the temporal evolution between the different CPs shows a clear tendency to describe a cycle, with southern wind anomalies and their convergence with the trade winds progressing northward from the La Plata Basin to the Amazon Basin. This sequence is strongly related to eastward moving extra tropical perturbations and their incursion toward low latitude that modulate the geopotential and winds over South America and its adjoining oceans. During Austral summer, CPs are less spatially and temporally organized compared to other seasons, principally due to weaker extra tropical perturbations and more frequent shallow low situations. Each of these CPs is shown to be associated with coherent northward moving regional rainfall patterns (both in in situ data and ERA-40 reanalysis) and convective activity. However, our results reveals that precipitation variability is better reproduced by ERA-40 in the southern part of the Amazonian Basin than in the northern part, where rainfall variability is likely to be more constrained by local and subdaily processes (e.g. squall lines) that could be misrepresented in the reanalysis dataset. This analysis clearly illustrates the existing connections between the southern and northern part of the Amazonian Basin in terms of regional circulation/rainfall patterns. The identification of these CPs provide useful information to understand local rainfall variability and could hence be used to

  9. Global minimization of gold clusters by combining neural network potentials and the basin-hopping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Runhai; Xie, Yu; Jiang, De-En

    2015-09-01

    Neural network potentials trained by first-principles density functional theory total energies were applied to search for global minima of gold nanoclusters within the basin-hopping method. Using Au58 as an example, we found a new putative global minimum which has a core-shell structure of Au10@Au48 and C4 symmetry. This new structure of Au58 is 0.24 eV per formula more stable than the best previous model that has C1 symmetry. This work demonstrates that neural network potentials combined with the basin-hopping method could be very useful in global minimization for medium-sized metal clusters which might be computationally prohibitive for first principles density functional theory.Neural network potentials trained by first-principles density functional theory total energies were applied to search for global minima of gold nanoclusters within the basin-hopping method. Using Au58 as an example, we found a new putative global minimum which has a core-shell structure of Au10@Au48 and C4 symmetry. This new structure of Au58 is 0.24 eV per formula more stable than the best previous model that has C1 symmetry. This work demonstrates that neural network potentials combined with the basin-hopping method could be very useful in global minimization for medium-sized metal clusters which might be computationally prohibitive for first principles density functional theory. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03903g

  10. Social network analysis on mangrove ecosystem management of Welu Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thak Thongphubate

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of social network for support mangrove ecosystem management in terms of proposed policy was studied. The results show that most samples, live in Baan Si Lamtian and Baan Paaknam Welu. Majorities of samples are women in the age range of 51-60 years old and they are fishery and have own business, respectively. The social network characteristics are the center person of the network who is the mainstay of Baan Nagoong and close-by the person on a network cultivating farmers group of Baan Si Lamtian. Two main proposed policies are hastening to the control of encroach on forests, fishing gears uses and illegal germinate aquatic animals. In addition, information including coincide planning with fishermen who set the fish traps and specify Tambon Bangchan to be the special area for aquatics management were proposed by setting the measurement with community for farm control and cultivate plot which caused shallow in the basin.

  11. Vulnerability assessment to flux amplification in river basins: a dynamic network approach and impact decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term prediction of basin environmental response becomes highly uncertain using physically-based distributed models, particularly for the sedimentological response for sand and gravel, with time scales ranging from tens to thousands of years. Yet, such predictions are needed as changes in one part of a basin now might adversely affect other parts of the basin in many years to come. In this work we propose a simplified prediction framework which takes advantage of network topology, channel characteristics, and transport-process dynamics to perform a process-based scaling of the network width function to a time-response function (travel-time distribution). The framework is generalized in a way that can account for the transport dynamics of different fluxes (i.e., streamflow, sediment, nutrients, biological material, etc.) through a dynamically connected network of pathways representing various geomorphic states (i.e., hillslope, fluvial, pond/wetland, subsurface, pipe, etc.). The framework explores how river fluxes are structured by time delays on a dynamically connected network, and offers the possibility to identify hot spots or vulnerable areas/times of disturbance that can lead to synchronization and downstream amplification of the flux. We have developed the process-scaling formulation for transport of mud, sand, and gravel and applied the methodology to the Minnesota River Basin. We have identified two peaks in the sedimentological response (sedimentograph) for sand which we have attributed to specific areas of the basin and suggest that there is a resonant frequency of sediment supply where the disturbance of one area followed by the disturbance of another area after a certain period of time, results in amplification of the effects of sediment inputs which would be otherwise difficult to predict. Thus, identifying an important vulnerability of the Minnesota River Basin to spatial and temporal structuring of sediment inputs, aids in understanding how

  12. An actor manages: Actor training and managerial ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, BDV

    2014-01-01

    This article reads the development of psychologically based actor training against larger changes in the organisation of work in North America and Europe in the twentieth century. Konstantin Stanislavky's System and later adaptations including the American Method are wrapped into a larger ideology of individual self-management and discipline – mental, physical, and emotional – that accompanies the emergent managerial class of the post-war era. An actor is an ideal manager, and therefore prefi...

  13. Hacia un entrenamiento del actor

    OpenAIRE

    Urieta Lago, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación está basada en la intención de crear una guía de entrenamiento para el actor, que busca asumir un compromiso con su cuerpo, como instrumento para la creación escénica. El trabajo del actor-actriz está irremediablemente vinculado a su cuerpo, todo lo humano se enmarca en un cuerpo vivido, en el espacio y en el tiempo, no es algo neutral. Sabemos que cada actor-actriz, tiene una noción de su esquema corporal, entendiendo por esquema corporal la representación en imágenes de l...

  14. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance. PMID:23962125

  15. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  16. Explicit simulations of stream networks to guide hydrological modelling in ungauged basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff modelling in ungauged basins is still one of the greatest challenges in hydrological research. The lack of discharge data necessitates the establishment of new innovative approaches to guide hydrological modelling in ungauged basins. Besides the transfer of calibrated parameters from similar gauged catchments, the application of distributed data as a hydrological response in addition to discharge seems to be promising. A new approach to guide hydrological modelling based on explicit simulation of the spatial stream network was tested in four different catchments in Germany. In a first step we used a simplified version of the process-based model Hill-Vi together with regional climate normals to simulate stream networks. The calculation of gravity driven lateral subsurface and groundwater flow is used to identify patterns of stream cells, which were compared to reference stream networks and their degree of spatial agreement was evaluated. Significant differences between good and poor simulations could be distinguished and the corresponding parameter sets relate well with the hydrogeological properties of the catchments. The optimized parameters were subsequently used to simulate daily discharge using an observed time series of precipitation and air temperature. The performance was evaluated against observed discharge and water balance. This approach shows some promising results but also some limitations. Although the model's parsimonious model structure could be further improved regarding discharge recession and evapotranspiration, the performance was similar to regionalisation methods. Stream network modelling, which has minimal data requirements, seems to be a reasonable alternative for model development and parameter evaluation in ungauged basins.

  17. Spatial boundaries of Aerosol Robotic Network observations over the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Rudich, Y.; Koren, I.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of aerosol variability on a relatively high spatiotemporal scale is needed for better assessment of aerosol radiative effects and aerosol-climate interactions. We investigated the spatial boundaries of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations over the Mediterranean basin using a statistical approach. We used 13 years (2002-2014) of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 15 AERONET sites around the Mediterranean basin. The gridded correlation maps show moderate to high correlations (R > 0.5) around each AERONET site up to ~200-500 km radius depending on location. Such analyses provide information on the spatial domain in which the AERONET measurements can be reliably used per site. The statistical model provides a better daytime AOD product on finer temporal resolution with higher spatial coverage as compared to using AERONET/MODIS observations separately. The findings from this study can be useful for the assimilation-based model forecasting of aerosol properties.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of Governance Performance of Lake Basins: Towards Transformation to Adaptive and Integrative Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Emmanuel Cookey; Rotchanatch Darnsawasdi; Chatchai Ratanachai

    2016-01-01

    Governance is essential to lake basin management, but it is the most challenged and needs increased attention. Lake Basin Governance performance assessment is designed to measure the progress and impacts of policies, institutions and the roles of various actors in ensuring sustainability. It measures the performance of technical/operational, social/networks, and institutional arrangement that make up the socio-ecological system. Governance performance assessment becomes very necessary with ov...

  19. Sensitivity analysis of groundwater level in Jinci Spring Basin (China) based on artificial neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Shu, Longcang; Liu, Lihong; Yin, Dan; Wen, Jinmei

    2012-06-01

    Jinci Spring in Shanxi, north China, is a major local water source. It dried up in April 1994 due to groundwater overexploitation. The groundwater system is complex, involving many nonlinear and uncertain factors. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are statistical techniques to study parameter nonlinear relationships of groundwater systems. However, ANN models offer little explanatory insight into the mechanisms of prediction models. Sensitivity analysis can overcome this shortcoming. In this study, a back-propagation neural network model was built based on the relationship between groundwater level and its sensitivity factors in Jinci Spring Basin; these sensitivity factors included precipitation, river seepage, mining drainage, groundwater withdrawals and lateral discharge to the associated Quaternary aquifer. All the sensitivity factors were analyzed with Garson's algorithm based on the connection weights of the neural network model. The concept of "sensitivity range" was proposed to describe the value range of the input variables to which the output variables are most sensitive. The sensitivity ranges were analyzed by a local sensitivity approach. The results showed that coal mining drainage is the most sensitive anthropogenic factor, having a large effect on groundwater level of the Jinci Spring Basin.

  20. Resampling Gaged Networks to Provide Uncertainty Estimates for Daily Streamflow Predictions in Ungaged Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, W. H.; Over, T. M.; Vogel, R. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Kiang, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    In ungaged basins, predictions of daily streamflow are essential to responsible and effective management and design of water resources systems. Transfer-based methods are widely used for prediction in ungaged basins (PUB) within a gaged network. Such methods rely on the transfer of information from an index gage to an ungaged site. In what is known as the nearest-neighbor algorithm, the index gage is selected based on geospatial proximity. The predictions offered by any PUB method can be highly uncertain, and it is often difficult to characterize this uncertainty. In the development of predicted streamflow records, understanding the uncertainty of estimates would greatly improve water resources management in ungaged basins. It is proposed that by resampling the sites of the gaged network, with replacement, a set of equally-probable streamflow predictions can be produced for any ungaged site. For a particular day in the record, the percentiles of the distribution of the resampled, predicted streamflows can be used to estimate confidence intervals of the original daily streamflow predictions. This approach is explored in the Southeast United States with a nearest-neighbor application of non-linear spatial interpolation using flow duration curves (QPPQ), a common PUB method. Though some interval re-centering is required to ensure that the best-case prediction falls within the confidence intervals, it is shown that this technique provides a reasonable first-order approximation of prediction uncertainty. Still, the best estimated confidence intervals are shown to consistently under-estimate the nominal confidence. It is hypothesized that this interval contraction is a result of temporal and spatial correlation within the gaged network. Additionally, implications of prediction uncertainty are explored and alternative estimators are considered.

  1. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  2. Redes, atores e desenvolvimento rural: perspectivas na construção de uma abordagem relacional Networks, actors and rural development: perspectives in the construction of a relational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Job Schmitt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A construção de uma abordagem relacional, capaz de dar conta das complexas dinâmicas sociais que configuram o mundo rural contemporâneo, em sua diversidade, tem se constituído, sobretudo a partir da década de 80, como um desafio para as ciências sociais. Nessa direção, diferentes correntes interpretativas passaram a incorporar a noção de rede como ferramenta capaz de interligar atores, objetos, significados e práticas, no estudo dos processos de desenvolvimento rural. Este artigo busca explorar alguns dessas referências de análise, identificando elementos de convergência e pontos de descontinuidade entre diferentes perspectivas.The construction of a relational approach to the study of the complex social dynamics configuring the contemporary rural world stands, particularly after the 1980's, as a challenge for the social sciences. In this direction, different lines of interpretation incorporated the notion of network, as an analytical tool connecting actors, meanings, objects and practices, in the study of rural development processes. This article aims to explore some of these analytical frames of reference, identifying convergences and discontinuities among different perspectives.

  3. Actors in land and building cadastre procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovec, Jana

    2012-01-01

    In this graduation thesis I discuss the role of actors in land and building cadastre procedures. Individual surveying services are presented, as well as the role of actors in these individual surveying services. Individual actors are described in great detail, namely with referring to rules and regulations on the basis of which the actors are entering the land and building cadastre procedures. Further on, I offer a description of various manners on how to gain information on actors and also t...

  4. Integrative neural networks model for prediction of sediment rating curve parameters for ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atieh, M.; Mehltretter, S. L.; Gharabaghi, B.; Rudra, R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most uncertain modeling tasks in hydrology is the prediction of ungauged stream sediment load and concentration statistics. This study presents integrated artificial neural networks (ANN) models for prediction of sediment rating curve parameters (rating curve coefficient α and rating curve exponent β) for ungauged basins. The ANN models integrate a comprehensive list of input parameters to improve the accuracy achieved; the input parameters used include: soil, land use, topographic, climatic, and hydrometric data sets. The ANN models were trained on the randomly selected 2/3 of the dataset of 94 gauged streams in Ontario, Canada and validated on the remaining 1/3. The developed models have high correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.86 for α and β, respectively. The ANN model for the rating coefficient α is directly proportional to rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, and apportionment entropy disorder index, whereas it is inversely proportional to vegetation cover and mean annual snowfall. The ANN model for the rating exponent β is directly proportional to mean annual precipitation, the apportionment entropy disorder index, main channel slope, standard deviation of daily discharge, and inversely proportional to the fraction of basin area covered by wetlands and swamps. Sediment rating curves are essential tools for the calculation of sediment load, concentration-duration curve (CDC), and concentration-duration-frequency (CDF) analysis for more accurate assessment of water quality for ungauged basins.

  5. Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.

  6. Framing by Actors in the Human Rights Debate: the Kony 2012 Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Meriläinen, Niina; Vos, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Human rights actors form networks and debate in issue arenas to find solutions to violations. Framing can be used to create and increase issue salience as well as organisational importance, thus influencing power relations and the human rights debate. Not all the actors are equally powerful, meaning that the more dominant actors function as gatekeepers, controlling the debate and the subsequent decision-making process. The campaign Kony 2012 by Invisible Children (IC) is u...

  7. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Win-Gee Huang; Bor-Shouh Huang; Kou-Cheng Chen; Chun-Chi Liu; Chin-Ren Lin; Shu-Hjong Tsao; Yu-Chung Hsieh; and Chi-Hsuan Chen

    2008-01-01

    To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the inst...

  8. An Actor-Critic Algorithm for Sequence Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Brakel, Philemon; Xu, Kelvin; Goyal, Anirudh; Lowe, Ryan; Pineau, Joelle; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to training neural networks to generate sequences using actor-critic methods from reinforcement learning (RL). Current log-likelihood training methods are limited by the discrepancy between their training and testing modes, as models must generate tokens conditioned on their previous guesses rather than the ground-truth tokens. We address this problem by introducing a \\textit{critic} network that is trained to predict the value of an output token, given the policy of an...

  9. Exploring Arsenic danger awareness in the Polish Copper Basin via network simulation - preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Buda, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Information spread plays crucial role in risk management in case of environmental danger. The structure of local society may be well described by social network analysis. We have investigated the role of hubs within that concept. In case of danger, there are two different strategies of information management: 1) information spread that leads to awareness of the whole society 2) keeping the whole information in secret under control that leads to a partial social awareness, available to a small number of people only. In our model, the probability of information spread between two nodes is inverse proportional to connectivity of the next node because people who have a lot of connections are more immune. We have applied agent-based modelling on Barabasi Albert networks to explore various scenarios of information spread. We have considered recent arsenic environmental danger in G{\\l}og\\'ow and Legnica (Copper Basin) according to the official available data (2015 - 2016) from social network analysis point of view. ...

  10. Network Analysis for a Better Water Use Configuration in the Baiyangdian Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Mao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, an increasing shortage of water resources intensifies the contradiction among different water-using sectors in the social-economic-ecological complex system. To adjust water used configuration in a holistic framework, a water use system (WUS model was constructed with inclusive five water-using sectors including aquatic systems, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry and resident consumption. The Baiyangdian Basin in Northern China was used as a case area. Six years data from 2008 to 2013 were used to quantify the model. By introducing the ecological network analysis (EAN, we holistically assessed the WUS under different water use configuration. System organization, activities and development degree, etc. were used to character the prosperities of the water use system. Results indicate that the WUS encountered a lasting degradation in system organization (AMI index decreased in an annual rate of 0.6% and development degree though with an ascending system activities in the studies periods (with an annual growth rate of 11.3%. Scenario analysis results suggest several potential ways to achieve a better water use configuration in this basin, such as environmental and ecological restoration, water-saving technology and water recycling rate, etc. The current study may provide ways to optimize water use structure to balance the interests of different sectors both ecologically and economically.

  11. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  12. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged in...... our project’s agenda by going through the different stages of translation. The paper is finalized with reflections on the difficulties in engaging actors in a co-design process and transporting results into the existing framed context of design and architectural work....

  13. Privileged Emotion Managers: The Case of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowicz, David

    2008-01-01

    Theatre provides a unique set of conditions for the management of emotions. Drawing on participant observation from one repertory theater, three university productions, and interviews with stage actors, directors, and acting instructors, I conceptualize actors as privileged emotion managers. Actors access structural resources that enable their…

  14. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the installation and operation of the broadband downhole seismic network in the Taipei Basin. Some representative records from the Pingtung earthquake doublet in December 2006 are shown here. Ground displacement during the Pingtung earthquake doublet can be recovered from the velocity records without the baseline corrections that are required for the acceleration records. Our network offers excellent data for accurate and effective characterization of seismic motion in the study area. Seismic data from this network will be shared with other research institutions in Taiwan and abroad for further research.

  15. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature of the ...... actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  16. INDICADORES ESTRUCTURALES Y CONGLOMERADOS DE ACTORES EN LA RED SOCIAL DE UNA SUBCULTURA URBANA/STRUCTURAL INDICATORS AND CLUSTERS OF ACTORS IN THE SOCIAL NETWORK OF AN URBAN SUBCULTURE/ INDICADORES ESTRUTURAIS E CONGLOMERADOS DE ATORES NA REDE SOCIAL DE UMA SUBCULTURA URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernando Ávila-Toscano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura de socialización de una subcultura urbana con la medición de indicadores estructurales de su red social e identificación de subagrupaciones. Se empleó el instrumento Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ISSIS con 11 miembros de la subcultura roqueros. Se procesaron los datos mediante el análisis de redes sociales (ARS con el software Ucinet, para detectar conjuntos de actores con el procedimiento de conglomerados jerárquicos; y los gráficos de la red se crearon con NetDraw. Se identificaron niveles moderados de indicadores estructurales y las agrupaciones presentaron un número amplio de actores según el criterio de atracción por similaridad. Los subgrupos en la red fueron escasos, lo que muestra a la subcultura como una unidad social cuya integración se da por vinculaciones estrechas entre sus miembros.

  17. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Lucena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  18. On the Development Model of Tri-networks Integration---A Case Study of Shanghai Based on Actor-Network Theory%基于行动者-网络的三网融合发展模式研究--以上海市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳宇君

    2014-01-01

    我国三网融合于2010年进入实质性发展阶段,与之相关的技术问题、利益问题和规制问题等都备受关注,探索三网融合发展模式成为社会各界讨论的焦点。基于行动者-网络研究表明,上海市三网融合发展是混合外生与内生的发展模式---“过程由产业部门控制,决策由政府推动和产业部门选择”的模式。通过网络组构发现,在上海市三网融合过程中发生过“伪取代”,“势均力敌”的资源持有状态有助于融合各方力量加以发展,并亟待制度方面的“顶层设计”。同时,案例研究表明,行动者-网络理论成为三网融合研究范式,仍需要从内部与外部空间分割问题、内生与外生因素界定、网络大小问题、网络数量问题和政府权力问题等方面进一步探究。%2010 witnessed significant development of China ’s tri-networks integration.Since then, related technical issues, interests and regulations have drawn much attention from the public and the development mode of tri-networks integration has also become a central issue for discussion and debate among many circles .Based on actor-network theory, this study of tri-networks integration in Shanghai shows that the city has created a model that combines exogenous and endogenous development , that is,“process controlled by the industrial sec-tor, decision making led by government and selected by industry sectors ”.As is demonstrated in the network configuration, the“pseudo replacement” that occurs in Shanghai ’s tri-networks integration helps to create well balanced resources pools which foster the development of tri -networks integration.The case study also suggests that it's urgent to develop “top-level” designing in system and institutions .Besides, the actor-network theory, if it is to serve as a research paradigm for tri-networks integration, needs to be further developed and refined in order to better

  19. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present...... the institutional concept of the "field". Finally this paper introduces the concept of "social capital" (Bourdieu, 1983) and discusses whether it can be used to conceptualize the dynamic features of actor bonds in situations of discontinuity....

  20. Application of artificial neural networks in hydrological modeling: A case study of runoff simulation of a Himalayan glacier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A. M.; Narain, A.; Pandey, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of runoff from a Himalayan Glacier basin using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is presented. The performance of the ANN model is found to be superior to the Energy Balance Model and the Multiple Regression model. The RMS Error is used as the figure of merit for judging the performance of the three models, and the RMS Error for the ANN model is the latest of the three models. The ANN is faster in learning and exhibits excellent system generalization characteristics.

  1. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  2. Dissemination of Word of Mouth Based on SNA Centrality Modeling and Power of Actors - An Empirical Analysis of Internet Word of Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Combined with social network analysis (SNA), the actors¡¯ dissemination net of word of mouth is analyzed, and the network of "concern" and "being concerned" is described. With index of centrality measure, three aspects of the actors in the word-of-mouth network are discussed in terms of the degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. The dimensions of the power of actors are divided, and the sample data of word-of-mouth spreading is analyzed with hierarchical clustering. ...

  3. The Stability of Exchange Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; V.W. Buskens

    2007-01-01

    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what happens to both the network structure and actor payoffs whenmyopic actors change their links in order to maximize their payoffs. We investigate the networks that are stable, the networks that are effici...

  4. Bilinear Mixed-Effects Models for Affiliation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yanan; Calder, Catherine A.; Christopher R. Browning

    2014-01-01

    An affiliation network is a particular type of two-mode social network that consists of a set of `actors' and a set of `events' where ties indicate an actor's participation in an event. Although networks describe a variety of consequential social structures, statistical methods for studying affiliation networks are less well developed than methods for studying one-mode, or actor-actor, networks. One way to analyze affiliation networks is to consider one-mode network matrices that are derived ...

  5. Actor-Network Theory as I image it. Brief essay on traffic lights La ANT tal como yo la imagino. Breve ensayo sobre el cosmos semafórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Silva Rios

    2011-03-01

    ="hps">I decided to do my research in Barcelona only. Later on, for studying people crossing the street, I decided to consider traffic lights as a starting point. Then I undertook the task of preparing a field diary based on some of the notions of Actor-Network Theory as Bruno Latour puts them. I did not use Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  6. Memorias, subjetividades y actores sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marlene Sánchez Moncada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una síntesis temática a modo de balance sobre la producción desarrollada en cinco años de la Maestría en Estudios Sociales de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. De hecho, los estudiantes de la línea ''Memoria, identidades y actores sociales'' han adelantado sus respectivas investigaciones en torno a estas temáticas con sus correspondientes especificidades. En cuanto a las memorias, han trabajado indagaciones sobre ciencias sociales escolares y la configuración de memoria nacional, en las cuales se han acompañado procesos de construcción de memoria con organizaciones sociales, además de analizar procesos de construcción de memorias sobre el conflicto armado colombiano. Asimismo, se ha abordado una variedad de temas en el enfoque dado a los individuos con potencial de cambio y transformación social. Finalmente, en relación con las subjetividades se han explorado temas como: performatividad, identidades atribuidas, identidades autoatribuidas y la constitución de sujeto.

  7. Actors influencing sense-making of ICT adoption in SMEs : The case of Zenergy AB

    OpenAIRE

    Onicescu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Every company nowadays needs to use ICT artifacts to cope with the business development. The adoption and use of ICT involves different actors who make sense of ICT in relation to their work environment. This thesis focuses on the relationships between the actors involved in SME’s ICT adoption and their influence upon the process. Purpose          The purpose of this thesis is to explore the interactions between different actors in the SME’s network and analyze how they influence t...

  8. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... focused on textiles role in healing hospital environments, the co-design process analyzed is a process of designing textile products for these environments. During the co-design process we engaged architects, engineers and textile designers. The focus in this paper is specifically on the challenges...... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged in...

  9. Safe Vibrations of Spilling Basin Explosions at "Gotvand Olya Dam" Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandeh Amnieh, Hassan; Bahadori, Moein

    2014-12-01

    Ground vibration is an undesirable outcome of an explosion which can have destructive effects on the surrounding environment and structures. Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) is a determining factor in evaluation of the damage caused by an explosion. To predict the ground vibration caused by blasting at the Gotvand Olya Dam (GOD) spilling basin, thirty 3-component records (totally 90) from 19 blasts were obtained using 3 VIBROLOC seismographs. Minimum and the maximum distance from the center of the exploding block to the recording station were set to be 11 and 244 meters, respectively. To evaluate allowable safe vibration and determining the permissible explosive charge weight, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) was employed with Back Propagation (BP) and 3 hidden layers. The mean square error and the correlation coefficient of the network in this study were found to be 1.95 and 0.995, respectively, which compared to those obtained from the known empirical correlations, indicating substantially more accurate prediction. Considering the network high accuracy and precision in predicting vibrations caused by such blasting operations, the nearest distance from the center of the exploding block at this study was 11 m, and considering the standard allowable vibration of 120 mm/sec for heavy concrete structures, the maximum permissible explosive weight per delay was estimated to be 47.00 Kg. These results could be employed in subsequent safer blasting operation designs. Wibracje gruntu to niepożądany skutek prowadzenia prac strzałowych, które mogą negatywnie wpływać na otaczające środowisko oraz znajdujące się w sąsiedztwie budowle. Głównym wskaźnikiem używanym przy określaniu szkód spowodowanych przez wybuchy jest wskaźnik maksymalnej prędkości cząstek (PPV). Przy prognozowaniu wibracji terenu wskutek prac strzałowych prowadzonych na tamie Gotvand Olya i w zbiorniku zbadano zapisy 3-składnikowych prędkości ( w sumie 90 zapisów) z 13 wybuch

  10. Key Watersheds in the Southeast Coast I&M Network (SECN) - Custom Drainage Basin Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains custom drainage basin polygons that are composed of the various watersheds (HUC-10) or subwatersheds (HUC-12) that contain water features that...

  11. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  12. Journalism : new media, new actors - new ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Fidalgo, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The traditional field of journalism has been facing major challenges in recent years, either because new actors have entered that field (professional journalists actually lost the monopoly of searching, gathering, editing and diffusing news in the public sphere), or because the old actors are increasingly asked to play new roles. The social demand for more public participation in the process of handling news and information, added to the fabulous possibilities of communication brought by the ...

  13. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  14. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    ‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... governments. Despite the diversity of these actors and alliances, several commonalities arise: they are often based on hybrid transnationalism and diffuse notions of development responsibility; rather than being new per se, they are newly being studied as practices that are now coming to be understood...... as ‘development’; and they are limited in their ability to act as agents of development by their lack of accountability or pro-poor commitment. The articles in this collection point to images and representations as increasingly important in development ‘branding’ and suggest fruitful new ground for critical...

  15. Dynamic versus static neural network model for rainfall forecasting at Klang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El-Shafie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall is considered as one of the major components of the hydrological process; it takes significant part in evaluating drought and flooding events. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate model for rainfall forecasting. Recently, several data-driven modeling approaches have been investigated to perform such forecasting tasks as multi-layer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NN. In fact, the rainfall time series modeling involves an important temporal dimension. On the other hand, the classical MLP-NN is a static and has a memoryless network architecture that is effective for complex nonlinear static mapping. This research focuses on investigating the potential of introducing a neural network that could address the temporal relationships of the rainfall series.

    Two different static neural networks and one dynamic neural network, namely the multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and input delay neural network (IDNN, respectively, have been examined in this study. Those models had been developed for the two time horizons for monthly and weekly rainfall forecasting at Klang River, Malaysia. Data collected over 12 yr (1997–2008 on a weekly basis and 22 yr (1987–2008 on a monthly basis were used to develop and examine the performance of the proposed models. Comprehensive comparison analyses were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed static and dynamic neural networks. Results showed that the MLP-NN neural network model is able to follow trends of the actual rainfall, however, not very accurately. RBFNN model achieved better accuracy than the MLP-NN model. Moreover, the forecasting accuracy of the IDNN model was better than that of static network during both training and testing stages, which proves a consistent level of accuracy with seen and unseen data.

  16. Dynamic versus static neural network model for rainfall forecasting at Klang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El-Shafie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall is considered as one of the major component of the hydrological process, it takes significant part of evaluating drought and flooding events. Therefore, it is important to have accurate model for rainfall forecasting. Recently, several data-driven modeling approaches have been investigated to perform such forecasting task such as Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP-NN. In fact, the rainfall time series modeling involves an important temporal dimension. On the other hand, the classical MLP-NN is a static and memoryless network architecture that is effective for complex nonlinear static mapping. This research focuses on investigating the potential of introducing a neural network that could address the temporal relationships of the rainfall series.

    Two different static neural networks and one dynamic neural network namely; Multi-Layer Peceptron Neural network (MLP-NN, Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN and Input Delay Neural Network (IDNN, respectively, have been examined in this study. Those models had been developed for two time horizon in monthly and weekly rainfall basis forecasting at Klang River, Malaysia. Data collected over 12 yr (1997–2008 on weekly basis and 22 yr (1987–2008 for monthly basis were used to develop and examine the performance of the proposed models. Comprehensive comparison analyses were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed static and dynamic neural network. Results showed that MLP-NN neural network model able to follow the similar trend of the actual rainfall, yet it still relatively poor. RBFNN model achieved better accuracy over the MLP-NN model. Moreover, the forecasting accuracy of the IDNN model outperformed during training and testing stage which prove a consistent level of accuracy with seen and unseen data. Furthermore, the IDNN significantly enhance the forecasting accuracy if compared with the other static neural network model as they could memorize the

  17. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  18. Network Analysis for a Better Water Use Configuration in the Baiyangdian Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xufeng Mao; Donghai Yuan; Xiaoyan Wei; Qiong Chen; Chenling Yan; Liansheng He

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing shortage of water resources intensifies the contradiction among different water-using sectors in the social-economic-ecological complex system. To adjust water used configuration in a holistic framework, a water use system (WUS) model was constructed with inclusive five water-using sectors including aquatic systems, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry and resident consumption. The Baiyangdian Basin in Northern China was used as a case area. Six yea...

  19. An analysis of similarity of digital river networks with different resolutions in various river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magome, J.; Masutani, K.; Ishidaira, H.

    2011-12-01

    In order to apply hydrological models and establish computer aided hydrological discharge nowcast eventually forecast system for large regions like Asian continent or whole world, accuracy of digital river network is one of the key issue to produce useful information. In this study, we propose and apply a method which analyses the similarity of digital river networks with different spatial resolutions. We use the coordinates and upstream catchment areas at major confluent points in order to represent the features of river networks. Turning counter- clockwise around the river network from the estuary, we arrange confluent points into one string. The sets of the one-dimensional data obtained from river networks are compared by using DP matching. A set of river networks with different scales ranging from 90 m to 20 km grids were developed based on this scaling algorithm (Masutani et al., 2006) using 90m HydroSHEDS. We evaluated the developed dataset using the proposed method to small to large rivers in Asian Regions (including Mekong River, Yellow River. etc.). A possibility of utilizing the proposed method was successfully shown. The proposed method and the river network dataset developed can provide better hydrological simulation with different grid scales with little effect.

  1. Off-Policy Actor-Critic

    CERN Document Server

    Degris, Thomas; Sutton, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first actor-critic algorithm for off-policy reinforcement learning. Our algorithm is online and incremental, and its per-time-step complexity scales linearly with the number of learned weights. Previous work on actor-critic algorithms is limited to the on-policy setting and does not take advantage of the recent advances in off-policy gradient temporal-difference learning. Off-policy techniques, such as Greedy-GQ, enable a target policy to be learned while following and obtaining data from another (behavior) policy. For many problems, however, actor-critic methods are more practical than action value methods (like Greedy-GQ) because they explicitly represent the policy; consequently, the policy can be stochastic and utilize a large action space. In this paper, we illustrate how to practically combine the generality and learning potential of off-policy learning with the flexibility in action selection given by actor-critic methods. We derive an incremental, linear time and space complexi...

  2. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts...... perspectives share a number of commonalities and complement each other....

  3. Sobre o natural e o actor

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo, procura-se reflectir sobre o conceito de natural quando aplicado ao trabalho do actor. Parte-se de quatro relevantes textos da dramaturgia ocidental, a saber: Hamlet, de Shakespeare; Crítica da ‘Escola das mulheres’ e O improviso de Versalhes, de Molière; e O teatro cómico, de Goldoni.

  4. Institutional networks and adaptive water governance in the Klamath River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycentric networks of formal organizations and informal stakeholder groups, as opposed to centralized institutional hierarchies, can be critically important for strengthening the capacity of governance systems to adapt to unexpected social and biophysical change. Adaptive gover...

  5. Empowerment through participation? Collective mobilization and transnational women's movements as actors in the European sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    transnational European sphere. This paper analyses the role of transnational civil society actors as mediators of wellbeing for the ones active within the organisations and networks. The objective is to assess wellbeing as the ability to participate in political activities both in terms of who participates and...

  6. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  7. Flood avalanches in a semiarid basin with a dense reservoir network

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, Samuel J; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates flood avalanches in a dense reservoir network in the semiarid north-eastern Brazil. The population living in this area strongly depends on the availability of the water from this network. Water is stored during intense wet-season rainfall events and evaporates from the reservoir surface during the dry season. These seasonal changes are the driving forces behind the water dynamics in the network. The reservoir network and its connectivity properties during flood avalanches are investigated with a model called ResNetM, which simulates each reservoir explicitly. It runs on the basis of daily calculated water balances for each reservoir. A spilling reservoir contributes with water to the reservoir downstream, which can trigger avalanches affecting, in some cases, large fractions of the network. The main focus is on the study of the relation between the total amount of water stored and the largest observable cluster of connected reservoirs that overspill in the same day. It is shown that th...

  8. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  9. Pore network connectivity anisotropy in Jurassic argillite specimens from Eastern Paris Basin (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to scientifically test the feasibility of storage of high activity nuclear wastes, ANDRA, the French radioactive waste management agency, gave us the opportunity to study entirely preserved specimens of Jurassic clay-rich rocks from eastern Paris Basin. The collection was realised in the frame of a reconnaissance study that now leads to the building, under progress, of a -400 m-deep Laboratory, close to the village of Bure. The rocks under study consist in dark- to light-grey silty marls, or clay-stones, that were deposited during the Callovian and the beginning of the Oxfordian, called Cox (Callovo-Oxfordian) argilites. According to pyrolysis data of the organic fraction and to fluid inclusion studies, these argilites never reached 50 C in temperature nor have been buried deeper than 800 m, hence retain most of their original physical and chemical properties that were examined through microstructural and SEM observations. (authors)

  10. Reserve network planning for fishes in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin by systematic conservation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyi; Li, Fan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-03-01

    Although China has established more than 600 wetland nature reserves, conservation gaps still exist for many species, especially for freshwater fishes. Underlying this problem is the fact that top-level planning is missing in the construction of nature reserves. To promote the development of nature reserves for fishes, this study took the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin (MLYRB) as an example to carry out top-level reserve network planning for fishes using approaches of systematic conservation planning. Typical fish species living in freshwater habitats were defined and considered in the planning. Based on sample data collected from large quantities of literatures, continuous distribution patterns of 142 fishes were obtained with species distribution modeling and subsequent processing, and the distributions of another eleven species were artificially designated. With the distribution pattern of species, Marxan was used to carry out conservation planning. To obtain ideal solutions with representativeness, persistence, and efficiency, parameters were set with careful consideration regarding existing wetland reserves, human disturbances, hydrological connectivity, and representation targets of species. Marxan produced the selection frequency of planning units (PUs) and a best solution. Selection frequency indicates the relative protection importance of a PU. The best solution is a representative of ideal fish reserve networks. Both of the PUs with high selection frequency and those in the best solution have low proportions included in existing wetland nature reserves, suggesting that there are significant conservation gaps for fish species in MLYRB. The best solution could serve as a reference for establishing a fish reserve network in the MLYRB. There is great flexibility for replacing selected PUs in the solution, and such flexibility facilitates the implementation of the solution in reality in case of unexpected obstacles. Further, we suggested

  11. The moral problem of worse actors

    OpenAIRE

    Wisor, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil comp...

  12. Test Case Generation of Actor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Albiol, Elvira; Arenas Sánchez, Purificación; Gómez Zamalloa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Testing is a vital part of the software development process. It is even more so in the context of concurrent languages, since due to undesired task interleavings and to unexpected behaviours of the underlying task scheduler, errors can go easily undetected. Test case generation (TCG) is the process of automatically generating test inputs for interesting coverage criteria, which are then applied to the system under test. This paper presents a TCG framework for actor systems, which consists of...

  13. Towards feature selection in actor-critic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanimanesh, Khashayar; Roy, Nicholas; Tedrake, Russell Louis

    2009-01-01

    Choosing features for the critic in actor-critic algorithms with function approximation is known to be a challenge. Too few critic features can lead to degeneracy of the actor gradient, and too many features may lead to slower convergence of the learner. In this paper, we show that a wellstudied class of actor policies satisfy the known requirements for convergence when the actor features are selected carefully. We demonstrate that two popular representations for va...

  14. Application of the Actor-Critic Architecture to Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of a Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philip; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of the actor-critic architecture, with neural networks for the both the actor and the critic, as a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a planar arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. Finally, we devise methods for achieving both rapid learning and long-term stability. PMID:20689654

  15. Mean precipitation estimation, rain gauge network evaluation and quantification of the hydrologic balance in the River Quito basin in Choco, state of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the calculation of the average precipitation in the Quito River basin, state of Choco, Colombia, is presents through diverse techniques, among which are those suggested by Thiessen and those based on the isohyets analysis, in order to select the one appropriate to quantification of rainwater available to the basin. Also included is an estimation of the error with which the average precipitation in the zone studied is fraught when measured, by means of the methodology proposed by Gandin (1970) and Kagan (WMO, 1966), which at the same time allows to evaluate the representativeness of each one of the stations that make up the rain gauge network in the area. The study concludes with a calculation of the hydrologic balance for the Quito river basin based on the pilot procedure suggested in the UNESCO publication on the study of the South America hydrologic balance, from which the great contribution of rainfall to a greatly enhanced run-off may be appreciated

  16. An efficient algorithm to identify the optimal one-bit perturbation based on the basin-of-state size of Boolean networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingxiao; Shen, Liangzhong; Zan, Xiangzhen; Shang, Xuequn; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Boolean networks are widely used to model gene regulatory networks and to design therapeutic intervention strategies to affect the long-term behavior of systems. In this paper, we investigate the less-studied one-bit perturbation, which falls under the category of structural intervention. Previous works focused on finding the optimal one-bit perturbation to maximally alter the steady-state distribution (SSD) of undesirable states through matrix perturbation theory. However, the application of the SSD is limited to Boolean networks with about ten genes. In 2007, Xiao et al. proposed to search the optimal one-bit perturbation by altering the sizes of the basin of attractions (BOAs). However, their algorithm requires close observation of the state-transition diagram. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that efficiently determines the BOA size after a perturbation. Our idea is that, if we construct the basin of states for all states, then the size of the BOA of perturbed networks can be obtained just by updating the paths of the states whose transitions have been affected. Results from both synthetic and real biological networks show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the exhaustive SSD-based algorithm and can be applied to networks with about 25 genes. PMID:27196530

  17. Social networks in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    is constituted by the relationality of the actors, not by the actors themselves. In other words, no one acts in a vacuum but rather always under the influence of a wide range of surrounding and interconnected factors. Actors are actors because they are in a networked relationship. Thus, focusing on social...... in a network Consequently, by conceptualizing supervision using conceptual and analytical resources provided by ANT we can begin to understand supervision as an example of social life/as ordered network. Supervision may be considered a complex relational field of actor-networks where participants...... and practice have focused on conceptual frameworks and practical techniques of promoting reflection through conversation in general and questioning in particular. However, in recent years, supervision research has started to focus on the social and technological aspects of supervision. This calls...

  18. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  19. New ArcGIS tools developed for stream network extraction and basin delineations using Python and java script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Adel; Dietrich, Schröder; Abouelmagd, Abdou; Michael, Märker

    2016-09-01

    Damages caused by flash floods hazards are an increasing phenomenon, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Thus, the need to evaluate these areas based on their flash flood risk using maps and hydrological models is also becoming more important. For ungauged watersheds a tentative analysis can be carried out based on the geomorphometric characteristics of the terrain. To process regions with larger watersheds, where perhaps hundreds of watersheds have to be delineated, processed and classified, the overall process need to be automated. GIS packages such as ESRI's ArcGIS offer a number of sophisticated tools that help regarding such analysis. Yet there are still gaps and pitfalls that need to be considered if the tools are combined into a geoprocessing model to automate the complete assessment workflow. These gaps include issues such as i) assigning stream order according to Strahler theory, ii) calculating the threshold value for the stream network extraction, and iii) determining the pour points for each of the nodes of the Strahler ordered stream network. In this study a complete automated workflow based on ArcGIS Model Builder using standard tools will be introduced and discussed. Some additional tools have been implemented to complete the overall workflow. These tools have been programmed using Python and Java in the context of ArcObjects. The workflow has been applied to digital data from the southwestern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. An optimum threshold value has been selected to optimize drainage configuration by statistically comparing all of the extracted stream configuration results from DEM with the available reference data from topographic maps. The code has succeeded in estimating the correct ranking of specific stream orders in an automatic manner without additional manual steps. As a result, the code has proven to save time and efforts; hence it's considered a very useful tool for processing large catchment basins.

  20. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  1. Aerosol physical and optical properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Crete, from Aerosol Robotic Network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fotiadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the aerosol optical properties, namely aerosol extinction optical thickness (AOT, Angström parameter and size distribution over the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, using spectral measurements from the recently established FORTH (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas AERONET station in Crete, for the two-year period 2003–2004. The location of the FORTH-AERONET station offers a unique opportunity to monitor aerosols from different sources. Maximum values of AOT are found primarily in spring, which together with small values of the Angström parameter indicate dust transported from African deserts, whereas the minimum values of AOT occur in winter. In autumn, large AOT values observed at near-infrared wavelengths arise also from dust transport. In summer, large AOT values at ultraviolet (340 nm and visible wavelengths (500 nm, together with large values of the Angström parameter, are associated with transport of fine aerosols of urban/industrial and biomass burning origin. The Angström parameter values vary on a daily basis within the range 0.05–2.20, and on a monthly basis within the range 0.68–1.9. This behaviour, together with broad frequency distributions and back-trajectory analyses, indicates a great variety of aerosol types over the study region including dust, urban-industrial and biomass-burning pollution, and maritime, as well as mixed aerosol types. Large temporal variability is observed in AOT, Angström parameter, aerosol content and size. The fine and coarse aerosol modes persist throughout the year, with the coarse mode dominant except in summer. The highest values of AOT are related primarily to southeasterly winds, associated with coarse aerosols, and to a less extent to northwesterly winds associated with fine aerosols. The results of this study show that the FORTH AERONET station in Crete is well suited for studying the transport and mixing of different types of aerosols from a variety

  2. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresaliente...

  3. Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper

  4. Environmental Activism, Social Networks and the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, J.; Xie Lei

    2009-01-01

    Social networks and the internet both have a substantial individual effect on environmental activism in China. In this article, we speculate that social linking patterns between environmental actors, which often facilitate activism on the ground, may also exist in cyberspace in the form of an online network. The article addresses the following empirical questions. Does such an online network exist? If so, who are the constituent actors? Are these the same actors observed on the ground? In add...

  5. The sun also rises in Norway: Solar scientists as transition actors

    OpenAIRE

    Åm, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to transition studies through an empirical analysis of scientists at the Norwegian Research Center for Solar Cell Technology. From a policy perspective, this research center is a concrete undertaking within transitions politics. How do solar energy scientists make sense of this mission and what strategies do they adopt? The analysis adopts a bottom-up perspective focusing on the politics involved in actor-networks constructing and empowering sustainable innovations. I s...

  6. Innovation in Multi-Actor Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David

    2014-01-01

    innovative sustainable technological solutions and business models through partnerships. In this paper, an action research study is presented involving the early stage development of a commercial venture addressing waste problems in Vietnam involving CARE International and Danish companies in the waste......Access2innovation is an initiative based in Denmark that develops and tests innovative new ways to build and implement strategic partnerships between civil society, business and academia. The objective is to meet perceived market opportunities and challenges in developing countries by developing...... to success lie in providing actors with a sound base for decision-making as well as active bi- and multilateral negotiations. As a novel experiment, the study shows that access2innovation can provide a platform conducive for partnership-based innovation for development....

  7. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    third case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the......-human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective, the...... outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected) by...

  8. Games Real Actors Could Play: The Problem of Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, Fritz W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper continues the examination, begun in MPIFG Discussion Paper 89/9, of the validity of game-theoretic explanations in empirical social science research. Assuming that real actors with bounded rationality would be unable to cope with the explosive complexity of n-person games, discussion focuses first on the conditions under which corporate actors and coalitions, as well as collective and even aggregate actors can be legitimately treated as unitary players. In addition, the importance ...

  9. Games Real Actors Could Play: The Challenge of Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper continues the examination of the validity of game-theoretic explanations in empirical social science and policy research. Assuming that real actors with bounded rationality would be unable to cope with the explosive complexity of n-person games, discussion focuses on the conditions under which corporate actors and coalitions, as well as collective and even aggregate actors, may be legitimately treated as unitary players. In addition, the importance of functional differentiation and...

  10. Developing virtual actors inspired by real actors’ practice

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rogério E. da; Santos, Manuel Filipe; Iurgel, Ido

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous Digital Actors represent the next step in animating 3D characters. How to create such virtual actors remains an open question. This work presents and discusses an agent architecture derived from how real actors learn their art from acting schools. The knowledge base relies on a rule-based system where each rule encodes explicit knowledge into a classification vector which allows agents to suggest performances even for unforeseen situations, and to adjust their ...

  11. Scheduling of CAL actor networks based on dynamic code analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boutellier, Jani; Silven, Olli; Raulet, Mickaël

    2011-01-01

    International audience CAL is a dataflow oriented language for writing high-level specifications of signal processing applications. The language has recently been standardized and selected for the new MPEG Reconfigurable Video Coding standard. Application specifications written in CAL can be transformed into executable implementations through development tools. Unfortunately, the present tools provide no way to schedule the CAL entities efficiently at run-time. This paper proposes an autom...

  12. A history of regression: actors, networks, machines, and numbers

    OpenAIRE

    T J Barnes

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the history of correlation andregression analyses, both in the discipline of statistics generally and in human geography particularly, is examined. It is argued that correlation and regression analysis emerged from a particular social and cultural context, and that this context entered into the very nature of those techniques. The paper is divided into three sections. First, to counter the idea that mathematics and statistics are somehow outside the social, the arguments put for...

  13. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical...

  14. Agglomeration and networks in spatial economies

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Börje; Quigley, John M.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the parallel developments in the economics of agglomeration and the economics of networks. We explore the complementarities between the productivity benefits of agglomeration and those of network linkages, arguing that networks of actors dispersed over space may substitute for agglomerations of actors at a single point.

  15. Getting to Know Your Job-A Social Actor Perspective on Using Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Westelius

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop an empirically grounded understanding of how newcomers learn to do their work and the role information systems play in this learning. Actor network theory views technology as an important actor. Information systems are built on and embody knowledge of the work and how to perform it. The influence of this actor depends on the other actors` ability to "translate" the capability of the technology into their own work setting. From a social constructionist perspective, it could be expected that the understanding and knowledge of the work is the result of mutual development of images in the group. However, this article builds on research showing that people working closely together can still hold radically different conceptions of their work. Three distinct understandings of work that are associated with different levels of competence and with different demands on the administrative information system are found. These different understandings of the work have implications both for training and for the development of information systems.

  16. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  17. Private Actors on the Rise? The Role of Non-State Actors in Compliance with International Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Börzel, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    (Transnational) private actors have a significant role in ‘global governance’. But their influence varies significantly, both across time and issues. The major challenge for theorizing about non-state actors in world politics is not only to demonstrate that they matter but explain where, when, and how they matter. This paper takes issue with these challenges by looking at the role of private actors in compliance with international institutions. The first part of the paper clarifies the concep...

  18. Between authority and media actor. The municipality as a news actor on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Bock Segaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The article illuminates how local authorities as news actors fill their websites with content. This is done through a study of how active the local authorities are as news actors on the Internet, what kinds of electronic news dissemination they do in practice, and to what degree they experience dilemmas in electronic news dissemination. The analytic point of departure is the tension between a journalistic ideal of news mediation relates to democratic values and a strategic ideal of communication related to branding. Empirically the analysis is based on data from several Danish and Norwegian municipalities which are considered as particularly active on the Internet. Finally the article discusses municipal news mediation on the Internet in the light of the municipality as a public authority as well as a market actor, a service provider, and as a democratic actor. The question is in what way municipal news dissemination on the Internet is a democratic gain. The article shows that the work with news dissemination on the Internet to some degree is characterized by professionalization, centralization, and bureaucratization. The democratic gain of municipal news dissemination is an empirical question and related to the criteria of news selection (in practice. Furthermore the article shows that some municipalities have a more strategic focus while others have a more journalistic focus but one focus does not rule out the other.

  19. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  20. Optimal Selection of Number and Location of Meteo-Hydrological Monitoring Networks on Vu Gia – Thu Bon River Basin using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data play a particularly important role in hydrologic research because the climate and weather of an area exert a profound influence on most hydrologic processes. Meanwhile, hydrological data are critical for performing a range of purposes, including water resources assessment, impacts of climate change and flood forecasting and warning. It can be said that the prevention of disasters caused by floods and droughts would be impossible without rational forecasting technology based on an understanding of the rainfall-runoff phenomenon and statistical analysis of past hydrological data, which cannot be achieved without meteo-hydrological observations. The lack of adequate meteo-hydrological data affects the ability to model, predict and plan for catastrophic events such as floods and droughts which have obvious negative impacts on public health and socio-economic aspects. The accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of meteorological and hydrological parameters requires a dense network of instruments, which entails large installation and operational costs. It is thus necessary to optimize the number and location of meteo-hydrological stations. This paper presents a GIS-based approach to establishing an optimal meteo-hydrological station network on Vu Gia- Thu Bon river basin for developing an up-to-date real time flood warning system. Based on statistical analysis of the annual rainfall total data at 9 existing gauges in the study area from 1980 to 2013, it showed that the error of the existing network was about 7.47%. Considering 9 rain gauges as a standard representative of rainfall over the region, if the error decreases from 7.47% to 5%, the number of additional rain gauges should be 20. For adequate and economical network design, these additional rain gauges were spatially distributed between the different isohyetals after considering the relative distances between rain gauges, their accessibility, personnel required for

  1. Teaching, Learning, and Leading: Preparing Teachers as Educational Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy J.; Ryan, Ann Marie; Tocci, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Within the current federal, state, and local contexts of educational reform, teachers must be recognized as central actors in policy work, but rarely do we explicitly consider preparing teachers to become policy actors. Understanding these implications for teacher education, we investigate teacher candidates' learning of the complexity and…

  2. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  3. NGO - PRIVATE ACTORS AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International law, taken by globalization, helps emerge “private actors at an international level” by generating “a removal from territories of problems and solutions”. The question of NGO accessing international jurisdictions is situated at this intersection, which is a dangerous one for jurists. The ways of national laws intersect, in fact, with those of international law. More over, private international law, more specifically, the private judicial nature of NGOs that enter into contact with public international law, an intersection that will imprint a plural-disciplinary character that marks this study. Thus, we must follow this rocky road and try a private approach of a question disputed by public law, which is also a part of international law. The risks of maladroitness are numerous, but must be assumed according to their importance and of the rarity of clarification attempts. NGOs, legal persons from private law exercising their activities in international context contain, in fact, elements of foreign origin that result in specific problems of international law. And if “international law can not be the domain of perfect solutions” it can allow however the adoption of others which, that can seem less perfect to some, will possess the aptitude of “creating the laws of a state”. Thus, only by allying public international law to private law, the question of NGOs access to international jurisdictions can receive an answer.

  4. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of Governance Performance of Lake Basins: Towards Transformation to Adaptive and Integrative Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Emmanuel Cookey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance is essential to lake basin management, but it is the most challenged and needs increased attention. Lake Basin Governance performance assessment is designed to measure the progress and impacts of policies, institutions and the roles of various actors in ensuring sustainability. It measures the performance of technical/operational, social/networks, and institutional arrangement that make up the socio-ecological system. Governance performance assessment becomes very necessary with over-emphasis of institutions on resources utilization and exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to present a governance performance assessment framework specifically for lake basins. The Adaptive Integrated Lake Basin Management (AILBM framework is a diagnostic and prescriptive performance assessment tool with an outcome to produce an adaptive and integrative system with equity, inclusiveness, transparency, accountability and flexibility to problem-solving and resilience. A case study on water governance performance assessment of the Songkhla Lake Basin (SLB in Thailand is provided for illustration and application and indicated a poor performance rating on governance in the Basin, revealing gaps, defects, strengths and weaknesses in the current system, necessary to recommend future improvements.

  6. Segmentation and Classification of Human Actions and Actor Characteristics with 3d Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Etemad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have used 3D motion capture data with the aim of detecting and classifying specifichuman actions. In addition to recognition of basic action classes, actor styles and characteristics such asgender, age, and energy level have also been subject to classification. We have applied and compared threemain methods: nearest neighbour search, hidden Markov models, and artificial neural networks. Usingthese techniques, we have proposed exhaustive algorithms for detection of actions in a motion piece andsubsequently classifying the segmented actions and respective characteristics of the actors. We have testedthe methods for various sequences and compared the results for a comprehensive evaluation of each of theproposed techniques. Our findings can be largely used for general classification of human motion data formultimedia applications as well as sorting and classifying data sets of human motion data especially thoseacquired using visual marker-based motion capture systems such as the one employed in this research.

  7. New actors in environmental management: The case of the civil society in Ensenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nain Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment is a complex space where multiple interests converge, so the traditional government has been insufficient to respond to the new demands of the environmental management. In this sense, the theory governance suggests a bigger role for social actors in decision-making for a more effective resolution of environmental problems. This article focuses on the Civil Society Organizations (cso’s of Ensenada, due to its relevance in the public sphere and the ecological value of the area. Twenty two csos, its participants and the network of actors were characterized through a survey. It was found that three types of csos are focusing on the conservation agenda and urban sustainability.

  8. The Research and Application of BP Neural Networks in River-basin Water and Sediment Supply Forecasting%人工神经网络模型在流域水沙预报中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Quan-xi

    2001-01-01

    Based on the basic principles of BP artificial neural network model an d the fundamental law of water and sediment yield in a river basin, a BP neural network model is developed by using observed data, with rainfall conditions serv ing as affecting factors. The model has satisfactory performance of learning and generalization and can be also used to assess the influence of human activities on water and sediment yield in a river basin. The model is applied to compute t he runoff and sediment transmission at Xingshan, Bixi and Shunlixia stations. Co mparison between the results from the model and the observed data shows that the model is basically reasonable and reliable.

  9. EU-Hamas actors in a state of permanent liminality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on liminality within International Relations (IR) Theory by focusing on the actorness of the European Union (EU) and Hamas. The concept of liminality as a transitional process is applied to frame the situation of both the EU and Hamas as political actors in......-between socially established categories. This article explores how the liminal identity of these two actors impacts on the one hand on their relations with each Other and equally on the other hand on their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of...

  10. Actor-Q Based Active Perception Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Katsunari; Nishino, Tetsuo; Okabe, Yoichi

    2001-01-01

    An active perception learning system based on reinforcement learning is proposed. A novel reinforcement###architecture, called Actor-Q, is employed in which Q-###learning and Actor-Critic are combined. The system###decides its actions according to Q-values. One of the###actions is to move its sensor, and the others are to###make an answer of its recognition result, each of which###corresponds to each pattern. When the sensor motion###is selected, the sensor moves according to the actor's###ou...

  11. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  12. Design, implementation and hydrologic evaluation of a snow-measurement network using wireless sensors in the American River basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Marks, D. G.; Conklin, M. H.; Zhang, Z.; Glaser, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    American River Hydrologic Observatory in the Sierra Nevada of California, comprising of portions of the American River basin that receive significant snow, is the site for the deployment of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that provides distributed estimates of water balance and a full-basin, well-instrumented research platform. The WSN is a set of sensors integrated into a single instrument to make spatial measurements to capture the landscape variability, and provide both spatially distributed and representative values of snowcover and the energy that drives snowmelt across the basin. Each local WSN has 10 snow-depth, air-temperature and relative-humidity sensors placed in a ~1-km2 area, and is centered on existing snow-pillow, snow-course and meteorological-station. A subset of the nodes are equipped with 15-20 soil-moisture and soil-temperature sensors. The temporal resolution of all measurements are 15-minutes. Results indicate that the aggregate of all measurement nodes are representative of the landscape variability across the American River basin, as well as the three forks of the American River. Snow measurements across elevation gradients and at each local WSN show similar trends but different magnitudes. Across elevation gradients snow amounts can vary as much as 60%-80%, while variability across a 1-km2 10 measurement network range by as much as 60%. Additionally, spatially distributed sensors distinguish temperature and humidity differences across topographic and vegetation variables, which control variable snowmelt rates across the terrain. Snowmelt rates across a 1-km2 can ranged from 8 to 70 mm day-1. The Hydrologic data from the WSN is being used for research, and for modernizing forecasting and decision-support systems through spatially explicit modeling, and by enhancing existing physically and statistically based snowmelt and hydrologic models. Data are available through the American River Hydrologic Observatory (arho@ucmerced.edu) and real

  13. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  14. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm. PMID:22156998

  15. Whose Journey Is It? A Critic's Plea to Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)

  16. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by analyzing speeches and practices; those institutions' distinguishing forms of organization; the ways that diverse actors relate and the social forms acting on them. We investigated sport institutions with the purpose of tracking the senses and meaning that actors grant them, their organization and dynamics, the reasons for their behaviour, the principles and logics that shape them. We also analyzed the joints that link them to external macroinstitutions, their autonomy or dependency with regard to the latter, and their incidence on sport institutions' logics

  17. Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lacroix

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experience of engagement with armed non-state actors on the landmine ban may point the way to innovative approaches to preventing forced displacement and other abuses of human rights....

  18. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first......-match and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we...

  19. A Convergent Online Single Time Scale Actor Critic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Di Castro, D.; Meir, R.

    2009-01-01

    Actor-Critic based approaches were among the first to address reinforcement learning in a general setting. Recently, these algorithms have gained renewed interest due to their generality, good convergence properties, and possible biological relevance. In this paper, we introduce an online temporal difference based actor-critic algorithm which is proved to converge to a neighborhood of a local maximum of the average reward. Linear function approximation is used by the critic in order estimate ...

  20. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-01-01

    The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by...

  1. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Weber

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  2. La prueba PISA: una mirada alternativa desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Paredes Suzarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la proliferación de las evaluaciones estandarizadas, inscritas en lo que ha sido conceptualizado por la literatura como políticas de accountability o de rendición de cuentas, se ofrece por medio de este artículo una línea de pensamiento y discusión alternativa sobre la prueba PISA. Utilizando como enfoque la Teoría del Actor-Red (TAR de Bruno Latour, se presentan ejercicios de traslación epistémica de la prueba PISA desde un modelo de pensamiento positivista moderno, a uno materialista pragmático en el que se privilegia una descripción constructivista y analítica de los componentes que la constituyen. En base al seguimiento y análisis de noticias sobre la prueba PISA desplegadas en diarios electrónicos en Chile y Argentina, más la revisión de fuentes secundarias, se exponen algunas de las controversias suscitadas en torno a la evaluación y se discute sobre su posible impacto en nuestras percepciones sobre educación y calidad. También se problematiza el carácter neutral y objetivo de la prueba, y se levanta la pregunta acerca de su posible agencia en la cristalización de las relaciones de centro-periferia entre países que, en el marco del enfoque de la TAR, tiene sentido explorar. 

  3. Innovation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrweiler, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Individual Level) and social structures (Social-Organizational Level) and the interactions between these levels. At the concept level, new ideas are the nodes that are created and linked, kept open for further investigation or closed if solved by actors at the individual or organizational levels. At the individual level, the nodes are actors linked by shared worldviews (based on shared professional, educational, experiential backgrounds) who are the builders of the concept level. At the social-organizational level, the nodes...

  4. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  5. A Convergent Online Single Time Scale Actor Critic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, D

    2009-01-01

    Actor-Critic based approaches were among the first to address reinforcement learning in a general setting. Recently, these algorithms have gained renewed interest due to their generality, good convergence properties, and possible biological relevance. In this paper, we introduce an online temporal difference based actor-critic algorithm which is proved to converge to a neighborhood of a local maximum of the average reward. Linear function approximation is used by the critic in order estimate the value function, and the temporal difference signal, which is passed from the critic to the actor. The main distinguishing feature of the present convergence proof is that both the actor and the critic operate on a similar time scale, while in most current convergence proofs they are required to have very different time scales in order to converge. Moreover, the same temporal difference signal is used to update the parameters of both the actor and the critic. A limitation of the proposed approach, compared to results a...

  6. Intermediaries as Innovating Actors in the Transition to a Sustainable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Backhaus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In transitions of large sociotechnical systems, intermediary organisations can emerge as mediators in between several actor groups and facilitate communication and collaboration towards common goals. They can support the establishment of new actor networks and the articulation and alignment of interests to bring about desired changes. In this article, current efforts towards a more sustainable energy system serve as an exemplary context of intermediary work. The field under scrutiny, demand side management, aims to decrease energy consumption. Unfortunately, the role and work of intermediaries as implementers of demand side management projects often remains underappreciated.
    Research into the reasons of successes and failures of intermediary work and a theoretical corroboration for their practical work can help intermediaries to improve their programme designs and implementation strategies. The EC FP7-funded Changing Behaviour project aims to support intermediaries with strategic activities to improve demand side management programmes and bring about lasting behavioural changes. Paying more attention to context, stakeholders, monitoring, evaluation and learning enables the development of tailor-made, widely supported projects with higher chances of success.
    In addition to practical support for their work, intermediaries can benefit from stronger policy support. Understanding and appreciation of their work as contribution to policy implementation, e.g. towards energy saving targets, could motivate such support. A stable policy and financial environment with long-term implementation plans and funding schemes provides a fertile ground for intermediary activities. Active participation of policy actors in demand side management programmes can create networks sustaining longer-lasting change.

  7. Extracted Social Network Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between the resources of social networks by exploring the Web as big data based on a simple search engine. We have used set theory by utilizing the occurrence and co-occurrence for defining the singleton or doubleton spaces of event in a search engine model, and then provided them as representation of social actors and their relationship in clusters. Thus, there are behaviors of social actors and their relation based on Web.

  8. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  9. An adaptive actor-critic algorithm with multi-step simulated experiences for controlling nonholonomic mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    Syam, Rafiuddin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm of an adaptive actor-critic method with multi-step simulated experiences, as a kind of temporal difference (TD) method. In our approach, the TD-error is composed of two valuefunctions and m utility functions, where m denotes the number ofmulti-steps inwhich the experience should be simulated. The value-function is constructed from the critic formulated by a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), which has a simulated exp...

  10. Network regularizability

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    A network is regularizable if it is possible to assign weights to its edges so that all nodes have the same degree. We define a hierarchy of four network classes in terms of their regularization properties. For the classes of the hierarchy, we investigate structural conditions on both the network and the corresponding adjacency matrix that are necessary and sufficient for the inclusion of a network in the class. Moreover, we provide an algorithmic solution for the problem of positioning a network in the hierarchy. We argue that the regularization solution is useful to build an egalitarian, friction-free network in which all actors of the network has the same centrality (and power).

  11. Social movements and the construction of crisis actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the Europeanization of social movements following the European sovereign debt crisis. It develops a theoretical framework to measure degrees of social movement Europeanization, incorporating targets, participants, and issue frame dimensions of mobilization. Europeanization of...... social movements occurs when they collaborate with similar movements in other countries, claim a European identity, invoke Europe-wide solidarity, contest authorities beyond the state and ascribe responsibility for solving the crisis to European Union (EU). By targeting EU authorities, social movements...... may contribute to the construction of the EU as a crisis actor and through deliberative processes define the roles and identities of such actors....

  12. La red del Comercio Justo y sus principales actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisa Ceccon Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de una descripción concisa del fenómeno del comercio justo y su participación en el comercio mundial. Al mismo tiempo, examina el papel de los diferentes actores que participan en la red del comercio justo, desde los productores hasta los consumidores. Finalmente, evalúa las relaciones entre estos actores y los retos que enfrentan para perfeccionar el sistema y mejorar las condiciones de participación de los productores, elementos fundamentales de esta red.

  13. Survey on eInclusion actors in EU27

    OpenAIRE

    RISSOLA Gabriel; Garrido, María

    2013-01-01

    This report present the results of an online survey that collect relevant data from almost 3,000 organisations working on eInclusion in 27 European countries, which is the first attempt in Europe to collect primary data from those actors. This research constitutes a building block of a larger project ‘Measuring the Impact of eInclusion Actors on Digital Literacy, Skills and Inclusion goals of the Digital Agenda for Europe’ (MIREIA) , a policy-oriented research project which aims to better und...

  14. Comprehensive precipitation evaluation of TRMM 3B42 with dense rain gauge networks in a mid-latitude basin, northeast, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yancong; Jin, Changjie; Wang, Anzhi; Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Yuan, Fenghui; Xu, Leilei

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge on understanding quality of The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 V7 dataset over mid-high latitudes regions is limited, which restricts its potential application in climate and hydrology fields. This study focuses on giving a detailed evaluation of the accuracy of 3B42 with observation data obtained from a high density rain gauge network over the Hun-Tai Basin in Liaoning Province, northeast China during 1998-2006. Several accuracy statistics are used to evaluate it quantitatively in terms of error of precipitation amount and ability in detecting the occurrence of precipitation events. Comparative results for three timescales (daily, monthly, and annual scale) at the basin scale show that 3B42 is more suitable for analyzing precipitation at large timescale, especially monthly scale (strong correlation of 0.93) due to the use of monthly rain gauge observation for bias correction in producing 3B42. Yet, 3B42 generally overestimates precipitation at all three timescales, especially the most serious degree of overestimation at daily scale with the absolute bias of 123.94 % and light to moderate rain events (1-20 mm). Moreover, the performance is influenced by topography, and 3B42 has a larger error of precipitation amount but has a better detection of the occurrence of precipitation events over high-altitude region than those over low-altitude region. Also, accuracy of 3B42 decreases with precipitation intensity, it suggests that 3B42 is incapable of capturing heavy precipitation events with desirable accuracy for the study on extreme precipitation events. In following works, overestimation characteristic should be weaken by improving satellite-based precipitation estimations algorithms and developing more effective bias correction techniques, it is important for streamflow simulations using 3B42 as forcing data over ungauged regions.

  15. Civilising globalism: Transnational norm-building networks. A research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Mückenberger, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Decentralised, self-organised cross-border activities are increasingly shaping global policymaking. While state actors have lost ground, policy and economic networks have emerged as key actors, transforming international relations as well as national spheres. Academic discourse is following their activity, often focusing on 'advocacy networks' and on the role of transnational actors within the transformation of the world economy and world polity. In contrast to these research activities, the ...

  16. Discrete Opinion Dynamics on Online Social Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the dynamics of binary opinions {+1, −1} on online social networks consisting of heterogeneous actors. In our model, actors update their opinions under the interplay of social influence and self- affirmation, which leads to rich dynamical behaviors on online social networks. We find that the opinion leading to the consensus features an advantage of the initially weighted fraction based on actors' strength over the other, instead of the population. For the role of specific actors, the consensus converges towards the opinion that a small fraction of high-strength actors hold, and individual diversity of self-affirmation slows down the ordering process of consensus. These indicate that high-strength actors play an essential role in opinion formation with strong social influence as well as high persistence. Further investigations show that the initial fraction of high-strength actors to dominate the evolution depends on the heterogeneity of the strength distribution, and less high-strength actors are needed in the case of a smaller exponent of power-law distribution of actors' strength. Our study provides deep insights into the role of social influence and self-affirmation on opinion formation on online social networks. (general)

  17. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    and financial stimulus are essential if Vermont hopes to increase strategic energy planning alignment and spur whole-scale energy system change. Study 2 examined local energy actors to assess their ability to develop and sustain energy action on the local level. A survey of 120 municipalities collected statewide baseline data covering the structures, processes, and activities of local energy actors. The analysis examined the role that various forms of capacity play in local energy activity. The results show that towns with higher incomes are more likely to have local energy actors and towns with higher populations have higher aggregate energy activity levels. Structurally, energy actors that had both an energy coordinator and an energy committee were more active, and municipal committees were more active than independent committees. Access to a budget and volunteer engagement were both associated with higher activity levels. The network of local energy actors in Vermont consists of committed and knowledgeable volunteers. Yet, the capacity of these local energy actors to implement sustainable energy change is limited due to resource constraints of time and money. In most cases, the scope of municipal energy planning strategy is modest. Prioritization of strategy and action at the central and local levels, along with increased interaction and coordination, is necessary to increase the regional compatibility and pace of energy system transformation.

  18. New Actors in Health Financing: Implications for a Donor Darling

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Drechsler; Felix Zimmermann

    2007-01-01

    With concern about how to finance the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) widespread, recent donor pledges to raise aid volumes are welcome. However, aid alone will not suffice – bringing in new actors and sources of development finance will be essential. In many developing countries, this is already happening, creating new opportunities and challenges for their governments and donors....

  19. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perception

  20. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach…

  1. Changes without changes: the Puebla's Alto Atoyac sub-basin case in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans; Casiano, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Since the year 2000, actions at the three governmental levels have taken place to improve water quality in Mexico’s Puebla Alto Atoyac sub-basin. This paper reports a situation in which several policy actors have been striving for water quality improvement in that polluted sub-basin. However, when t

  2. Comparative analysis of collaboration networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the word network as the collaboration network based on the novel by M. Bulgakov 'Master and Margarita', the synonym network of the Russian language as well as the Russian movie actor network. We have constructed one-mode projections of these networks, defined degree distributions for them and have calculated main characteristics. In the paper a generation algorithm of collaboration networks has been offered which allows one to generate networks statistically equivalent to the studied ones. It lets us reveal a structural correlation between word network, synonym network and movie actor network. We show that the degree distributions of all analyzable networks are described by the distribution of q-type.

  3. Network global navigation satellite system surveys to harmonize American and Canadian datum for the Lake Champlain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Rydlund, Paul H.; Martin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Historically high flood levels were observed during flooding in Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River from late April through May 2011. Flooding was caused by record spring precipitation and snowmelt from the third highest cumulative snowfall year on record, which included a warm, saturated late spring snowpack. Flood stage was exceeded for a total of 67 days from April 13 to June 19, 2011. During this flooding, shoreline erosion and lake flood inundation were exacerbated by wind-driven waves associated with local fetch and lake-wide seiche effects. In May 2011, a new water-surface-elevation record was set for Lake Champlain. Peak lake-level water-surface elevations varied at the three U.S. Geological Survey lake-level gages on Lake Champlain in 2011. The May 2011 peak water-surface elevations for Lake Champlain ranged from 103.20 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 at the northern end of Lake Champlain (at its outlet into the Richelieu River at Rouses Point, New York) to 103.57 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 at the southern end of the Lake in Whitehall, New York. The water-surface elevations for the Richelieu River in Canada are referenced to a different vertical datum than are those in Lake Champlain in the United States, which causes difficulty in assessing real-time flood water-surface elevations and comparing of flood peaks in the Lake Champlain Basin in the United States and Canada.

  4. VR/IS Lab Virtual Actor research overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawver, D.M.; Stansfield, S.

    1995-06-22

    This overview presents current research at Sandia National Laboratories in the Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation Lab. Into an existing distributed VR environment which we have been developing, and which provides shared immersion for multiple users, we are adding virtual actor support. The virtual actor support we are adding to this environment is intended to provide semi-autonomous actors, with oversight and high-level guiding control by a director/user, and to allow the overall action to be driven by a scenario. We present an overview of the environment into which our virtual actors will be added in Section 3, and discuss the direction of the Virtual Actor research itself in Section 4. We will briefly review related work in Section 2. First however we need to place the research in the context of what motivates it. The motivation for our construction of this environment, and the line of research associated with it, is based on a long-term program of providing support, through simulation, for situational training, by which we mean a type of training in which students learn to handle multiple situations or scenarios. In these situations, the student may encounter events ranging from the routine occurance to the rare emergency. Indeed, the appeal of such training systems is that they could allow the student to experience and develop effective responses for situations they would otherwise have no opportunity to practice, until they happened to encounter an actual occurance. Examples of the type of students for this kind of training would be security forces or emergency response forces. An example of the type of training scenario we would like to support is given in Section 4.2.

  5. Effects of missing data in social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kossinets, Gueorgi

    2003-01-01

    We perform sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of missing data on the structural properties of social networks. The social network is conceived of as being generated by a bipartite graph, in which actors are linked together via multiple interaction contexts or affiliations. We discuss three principal missing data mechanisms: network boundary specification (non-inclusion of actors or affiliations), survey non-response, and censoring by vertex degree (fixed choice design), examining their...

  6. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan

    2015-04-01

    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system. PMID:25730830

  7. Hybrid optimal design of the eco-hydrological wireless sensor network in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Li, Xin; Jin, Rui; Ge, Yong; Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jianghao

    2014-01-01

    The eco-hydrological wireless sensor network (EHWSN) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in China is designed to capture the spatial and temporal variability and to estimate the ground truth for validating the remote sensing productions. However, there is no available prior information about a target variable. To meet both requirements, a hybrid model-based sampling method without any spatial autocorrelation assumptions is developed to optimize the distribution of EHWSN nodes based on geostatistics. This hybrid model incorporates two sub-criteria: one for the variogram modeling to represent the variability, another for improving the spatial prediction to evaluate remote sensing productions. The reasonability of the optimized EHWSN is validated from representativeness, the variogram modeling and the spatial accuracy through using 15 types of simulation fields generated with the unconditional geostatistical stochastic simulation. The sampling design shows good representativeness; variograms estimated by samples have less than 3% mean error relative to true variograms. Then, fields at multiple scales are predicted. As the scale increases, estimated fields have higher similarities to simulation fields at block sizes exceeding 240 m. The validations prove that this hybrid sampling method is effective for both objectives when we do not know the characteristics of an optimized variables. PMID:25317762

  8. Probabilistic Forecasting of Drought Events Using Markov Chain- and Bayesian Network-Based Models: A Case Study of an Andean Regulated River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avilés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of water resources in mountain areas can distort normal water application patterns with among other effects, a negative impact on water supply and river ecosystems. Knowing the probability of droughts might help to optimize a priori the planning and management of the water resources in general and of the Andean watersheds in particular. This study compares Markov chain- (MC and Bayesian network- (BN based models in drought forecasting using a recently developed drought index with respect to their capability to characterize different drought severity states. The copula functions were used to solve the BNs and the ranked probability skill score (RPSS to evaluate the performance of the models. Monthly rainfall and streamflow data of the Chulco River basin, located in Southern Ecuador, were used to assess the performance of both approaches. Global evaluation results revealed that the MC-based models predict better wet and dry periods, and BN-based models generate slightly more accurately forecasts of the most severe droughts. However, evaluation of monthly results reveals that, for each month of the hydrological year, either the MC- or BN-based model provides better forecasts. The presented approach could be of assistance to water managers to ensure that timely decision-making on drought response is undertaken.

  9. The legislative actor in the Nobel era: Quo Vadis EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Xavier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a political union, as well as an economic union of Europe, beyond free circulation of persons, goods and services, has always been included in the ideals of the building of Europe. However, its de jure formalization only occurs on November 1, 1993, when the Treaty of Maastricht is in force and a new political and strategic actor is in place: the European Union (EU. Since then, literature has "defined" the European Union in order to clearly establish what this UPO - Unidentified Political Object (an expression by Jacques Delors in the 1990s - is or what it can be. One of the ideas which has been a focus of discussion is that of "legislative actor" (Manners, 2001; 2002, which claims that the European Union has progressed towards normativity, both internally as well as externally, to its close neighbors and its relations with the rest of the world. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on Europe's quality or condition to impose rules. We will begin by systematizing a series of achievements which, according to Manners, lead to the triangle democracy, Human Rights and good governance in the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon on December 13, 2007 and its entering in full force on December 1, 2009. However, this paper does not disregard the fact that the concept "legislative actor" has been (reworked and perfected by its author and other scholars due to criticism and empirical studies and has thus been altered, enhanced and argued against. Therefore, some concepts will be studied whose arguments will allow us to question the internal and external dimension of the actor European Union. We will also explore the symbolic power of the Union in the development of tools and capacity to be acknowledged as an actor able to face current threats and challenges but whose profile may not be different from other actors in international relations. Finally, we will discuss the impact of the EU having been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 on

  10. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc. motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include

  11. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25312944

  12. Assessment of drainage network extractions in a low-relief area of the Cuvelai Basin (Namibia) from multiple sources: LiDAR, topographic maps, and digital aerial orthophotographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persendt, F. C.; Gomez, C.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate delineation of drainage networks (DNs) is crucial for hydrological or hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. This task presents challenging aspects in complex lowland terrains with subtle relief and particularly for data poor-areas like the Cuvelai river basin (CRB), Namibia, where the present study takes place. In the CRB standard methods of drainage network extraction from low resolution gridded digital elevation models (DEMs) are unsuitable, hence airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) solutions have been utilized. However, LiDAR also presents challenges to large areal applications, especially with a surface roughness exceeding the capacity of numerous algorithms. Indeed, LiDAR-based DEMs (2 and 50 m resolutions) need to be hydrologically corrected and smoothed to enable the extraction of scale-relevant geomorphologic features such as DNs. In the present contribution, channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs, heads-up digitized channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The 'maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8)' GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Different progressive flow accumulation threshold values (12) were used to delineate channels with these methods. Validation was performed between the field-mapped channels, the modelled channels and those derived from multiple sources. Additionally, spatial and quantitative analyses were performed on geomorphologic parameters and indices. The results have shown that hydrologically corrected LiDAR DEMs offer useful details for identifying low order stream segments in headwaters, while blue lines derived from the national hydrography datasets for watersheds, located in elevated and low-lying areas of the study

  13. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    , socio-technical systems, governance in the water sector and, although limitedly, in the explanation of aspects related to consumption and energy use. Building on the framework given by the review, the paper presents a case study to provide a real-life example of how intermediaries can favor the more......This paper deals with energy consumption in the residential sector and with the implementation of measures to reduce it. While most research dealing with energy consumption has targeted factors and drivers at the individual user level, more recent works have highlighted collective aspects of...... (energy) consumption, both to explain the resilience of consumption patterns and to identify leverage points for the reduction of energy use. One understudied aspect of this discussion is the way “intermediary” actors – those actors who are neither policy makers, nor users, nor energy providers...

  14. Semantics for Communicating Actors with Interdependent Real-Time Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Models of embedded systems with communicating actors and deadlines offer abstraction and encapsulation of related functionality, but their behavior is complex. Verification is therefore difficult and requires a combination of simulation, model checking and testing tools. In order to rely on the...... results, these tools must use consistent semantics for the model. Yet, a monolithic semantic model is just as complex as the entity it describes. In order to circumvent this issue, we define a three level semantics giving independent definitions of the functionality of actors, the temporal properties of...... independent specialized verification tools. The verification task for timed, hybrid systems can thus be divided into the continuous, discrete, and timing domains with automated translation to specialized tools, and this promises better scalability than simulation or model checking of one complex model....

  15. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  16. Importance of Actors and Agency in Sustainability Transitions: A Systematic Exploration of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Britt Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of actors and agency in the literature on sustainability transitions. We reviewed 386 journal articles on transition management and sustainability transitions listed in Scopus from 1995 to 2014. We investigate the thesis that actors have been neglected in this literature in favor of more abstract system concepts. Results show that this thesis cannot be confirmed on a general level. Rather, we find a variety of different approaches, depending on the systemic level, for clustering actors and agency as niche, regime, and landscape actors; the societal realm; different levels of governance; and intermediaries. We also differentiate between supporting and opposing actors. We find that actor roles in transitions are erratic, since their roles can change over the course of time, and that actors can belong to different categories. We conclude by providing recommendations for a comprehensive typology of actors in sustainability transitions.

  17. The Grenelle de l'Environnement - actors, discourses, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes an abstract of a collective publication which aimed at assessing the effects of the French environmental policy 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', its methodological originality and its consequences in terms of environmental public policies. The authors propose a sociological analysis of the about thousand five hundred involved actors, a thorough analysis of discourses, and an inventory of effects in three specific fields

  18. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural development, poverty alleviation, natural resource management, health promotion o...

  19. Cluster analysis of phytoplankton data collected from the National Stream Quality Accounting Network in the Tennessee River basin, 1974-81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.; Wangsgard, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program, Numerical Taxonomy System of Multivariate Statistical Programs (NTSYS), was used with interfacing software to perform cluster analyses of phytoplankton data stored in the biological files of the U.S. Geological Survey. The NTSYS software performs various types of statistical analyses and is capable of handling a large matrix of data. Cluster analyses were done on phytoplankton data collected from 1974 to 1981 at four national Stream Quality Accounting Network stations in the Tennessee River basin. Analysis of the changes in clusters of phytoplankton genera indicated possible changes in the water quality of the French Broad River near Knoxville, Tennessee. At this station, the most common diatom groups indicated a shift in dominant forms with some of the less common diatoms being replaced by green and blue-green algae. There was a reduction in genera variability between 1974-77 and 1979-81 sampling periods. Statistical analysis of chloride and dissolved solids confirmed that concentrations of these substances were smaller in 1974-77 than in 1979-81. At Pickwick Landing Dam, the furthest downstream station used in the study, there was an increase in the number of genera of ' rare ' organisms with time. The appearance of two groups of green and blue-green algae indicated that an increase in temperature or nutrient concentrations occurred from 1974 to 1981, but this could not be confirmed using available water quality data. Associations of genera forming the phytoplankton communities at three stations on the Tennessee River were found to be seasonal. Nodal analysis of combined data from all four stations used in the study did not identify any seasonal or temporal patterns during 1974-81. Cluster analysis using the NYSYS programs was effective in reducing the large phytoplankton data set to a manageable size and provided considerable insight into the structure of phytoplankton communities in the Tennessee River basin. Problems encountered using

  20. Biomass markets. Growth strategy and challenges for French actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors

  1. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  2. Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia:

    OpenAIRE

    Erjavec, Karmen; Hafner-Fink, Mitja; Uhan, Samo; Zajc, Jožica

    2013-01-01

    This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a) trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b) trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The ...

  3. Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Karmen Erjavec; Jožica Zajc; Mitja Hafner Fink; Samo Uhan

    2013-01-01

    This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a) trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b) trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The ...

  4. Sensor Networks, Dataloggers, and Other Handy Gadgets Using Open-Source Electronics for the Christina River Basin CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    The search for biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" that control ecosystem-level processes requires a rethinking of how we observe the environment. Extensive multi-sensor/measurement arrays are required to realize 2D, 3D, or 4D maps of environmental properties with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to find and understand hot spots and hot moments. To date, the cost of the data logging and communication infrastructure has been a major limitation to large-scale sensor deployment, especially for near-real-time (NRT) wireless networks. A low-cost, user-friendly alternative is needed so that resources can be prioritized toward sensor hardware rather than data acquisition and communication hardware. A flexible development platform would also allow for easy creation of other useful devices in addition to the already apparent need for economical dataloggers. The recent proliferation of open-source electronics platforms offers an opportunity for environmental observatories to deploy sensors at large scales by reducing data logging and communications costs by more than an order of magnitude. Leading the open-source electronics revolution is the Arduino project, designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible to hobbyists and professionals alike. A large user community has developed and shared hundreds of practical applications for projects that interface with a variety of sensors and use embedded logic to control external hardware. Likewise, dozens of companies and individuals sell low-cost Arduino-compatible boards that can connect together in a modular framework, allowing the user to quickly create devices for a wide range of applications. Based on these open-source technologies and products, we are designing and building a variety of circuit devices for use in our research watersheds. One Arduino-based device is a multi-channel datalogger that can be used with a variety of analog and digital sensors, such as

  5. Multi-storey calcrete profiles developed during the initial stages of the configuration of the Ebro Basin's exorrheic fluvial network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Alfonso; Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Sancho, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    pisolithic horizons within the Tor 2 profile indicates several stages of stabilisation during profile formation. These sequences are an indication of the sedimentation, soil formation and reworking processes operating on the soil surface. The alternation of these processes is interpreted as the result of climate-vegetation changes. The channel-fills of Tor 2 indicate erosion and reworking of the hard laminar calcrete horizon. Both Tor 1 and Tor 2 are multi-storey profiles reflecting the complex sedimentation-erosion-pedogenesis relationships at the final stages of the development of its corresponding fluvial terrace. The study of these calcretes shows that these supposedly abandoned terraces continue to be active even though the fluvial network is entrenched. Both the pedofacies relationships and the complexity shown by Tor 1 and Tor 2 reflect the complex and unstable geomorphic setting in which these profiles developed. After the establishment of the exorrheic network, less complex calcrete profiles were produced in the lower terraces.

  6. A Low-cost System for Generating Near-realistic Virtual Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mahmoud; Hussain, Khaled F.; Ibrahim, Hosny M.; Omar, Nagwa M.

    2015-06-01

    Generating virtual actors is one of the most challenging fields in computer graphics. The reconstruction of a realistic virtual actor has been paid attention by the academic research and the film industry to generate human-like virtual actors. Many movies were acted by human-like virtual actors, where the audience cannot distinguish between real and virtual actors. The synthesis of realistic virtual actors is considered a complex process. Many techniques are used to generate a realistic virtual actor; however they usually require expensive hardware equipment. In this paper, a low-cost system that generates near-realistic virtual actors is presented. The facial features of the real actor are blended with a virtual head that is attached to the actor's body. Comparing with other techniques that generate virtual actors, the proposed system is considered a low-cost system that requires only one camera that records the scene without using any expensive hardware equipment. The results of our system show that the system generates good near-realistic virtual actors that can be used on many applications.

  7. Who Needs What? Some Thoughts on the Possibility of Using Psychology in Actor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Contends that the aim of professional actor training is to reveal and develop an actor's individuality. Proposes that the responsibility of drama teachers is to lead training in such away that students feel accepted, understood, and respected. Proposes that psychodrama is the most appropriate method for student and professional actors' personal…

  8. A Kind of Adaptive Fuzzy Actor-Critic Learning%一种自适应模糊Actor-Critic学习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 程玉虎; 易建强

    2006-01-01

    提出一种基于模糊RBF网络的自适应模糊Actor-Critic学习.采用一个模糊RBF神经网络同时逼近Actor的动作函数和Critic的值函数,解决状态空间泛化中易出现的"维数灾"问题.模糊RBF网络能够根据环境状态和被控对象特性的变化进行网络结构和参数的自适应学习,使得网络结构更加紧凑,整个模糊Actor-Critic学习具有泛化性能好、控制结构简单和学习效率高的特点.Mountain Car的仿真结果验证了所提方法的有效性.

  9. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  10. Perception of the situation in the Arctic by key actors and the possibility of conflict escalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chrášťanský

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the perception of the situation in the Arctic by key actors. The authors reach the conclusion that the situation in the Arctic is characterized by deepening cooperation. Peaceful development is furthermore supported by a complex network of institutionalized relations and the fact that all territorial disputes so far have been resolved peacefully. The most important question about the near future will thus rest in the distribution of competences between the involved institutions and states. This will eventually lead to the convergence of the interests of the Arctic five who wish to maintain their dominant position in the region. If conflicts escalate, they would most likely only result in limited confrontations and not in a grave crisis, much less war.

  11. Performance evaluation of a simulated data-flow computer with low-resolution actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiot, J. L.; Ercegovac, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Basic problems related to the exploitation of parallelism in a program include sequencing of the instructions and communication of the data. It is pointed out that the data-flow approach offers an elegant solution to the sequencing problem, since all data dependencies are automatically handled and only instructions with ready input sets are activated. It is shown that a change in the level of subcomputations (actors) affects communications costs. The concept of variable resolution is discussed, and the testbed environment is examined. Attention is given to the architecture of the processing elements, the communication network, and the simulators. A description of the analytical model is also provided. Simulation and results are discussed, taking into account test programs and allocation, the variation of the number of processing elements, the variation of the resolution in directed acyclic graphs, performance in processing loops, and array handling.

  12. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; de Fries, Louise Skovlund

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social...

  13. Pensando el “Plan Ceibal” desde la perspectiva de la Acción Pública y la Teoría del Actor-Red

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Ramos, Mónica Elena Da; López Gallego, Laura

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo, pretendemos analizar y discutir el Plan Ceibal, desde la perspectiva de la Acción Pública y la Teoría del Actor-Red. Consideramos que el Plan Ceibal, implementado en el Uruguay a partir del 2007, ilustra el concepto de acción pública, ya que en él participan una multiplicidad de actores gubernamentales y no gubernamentales, a la vez que componentes humanos y no humanos. En este sentido, la Teoría del Actor- Red (TAR) aporta elementos para reflexionar en torno a la apropiació...

  14. Comparison of NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products with constraints from high quality and density of raingauge networks in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Wang, X.

    2006-05-01

    NEXRAD's Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) product replaced the Stage III product started in October 2003 at the West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC) where includes most of the Texas and New Mexico. The MPE is an integrated product of rain gauge, NEXRAD, and satellite (GOES) precipitation estimates. The main objective of MPE is to reduce both areal-mean bias error and local bias error. The overall improved quality of MPE over Stage 3 is evident at the WGRFC. However, so far, there is no quantitative evaluation in a relative long period (one year or more) of a large area. In this study, high quality and density of 50 raingauge networks (6 minutes temporal resolution) in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas are used to evaluate both the Stage III (years 2001 and 2002) and MPE (year 2004) products. In this study, we propose two types of comparison (1) directly compare collocated radar cell and gauge of all rainfall events and (2) only compare collocated radar cell and gauge of homogeneous/uniform rainfall events. To find uniform rainfall events, 6-mintutes raingauge rainfall were used to calculate the correlation coefficient (CC) and coefficient of variation (CV) of a hour among one central gauge and its surrounding gauges (>= 4). For a particular rainfall hour, when CV is 0.5, or CV is <0.1, the rainfall event of this hour is thus selected as a uniform or homogeneous rainfall event. Our preliminary results of CC from all rainfall events and homogeneous rainfall events for year 2004 (MPE) are 0.79 and 0.96, respectively. This indicates an overall good quality of MPE product in comparison with raingauge rainfall, especially for the homogeneous rainfall events. Work is in progress.

  15. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  16. CREMA-D: Crowd-sourced Emotional Multimodal Actors Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Houwei; Cooper, David G.; Keutmann, Michael K; Gur, Ruben C.; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    People convey their emotional state in their face and voice. We present an audio-visual data set uniquely suited for the study of multi-modal emotion expression and perception. The data set consists of facial and vocal emotional expressions in sentences spoken in a range of basic emotional states (happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, and neutral). 7,442 clips of 91 actors with diverse ethnic backgrounds were rated by multiple raters in three modalities: audio, visual, and audio-visual. Categoric...

  17. Summary on main policies, funding mechanisms, actors and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressler, Florian; Weiss, Lucas; Åkerman, Jonas;

    This document summarizes the output of WP 3 on policies, funding mechanisms, actors and trends relating the four thematic groups. Each thematic group examines one goal of the White Paper on Transport, published by the European Commission in 2011. The purpose of this document is to provide input f...... further work carried out in the project, especially the road-mapping exercises and the strategic outlook carried out in WP 6. The inputs for this document include information from a literature review and direct consultation with stakeholders....

  18. Construal level and free will beliefs shape perceptions of actors' proximal and distal intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Two components of lay observers' calculus of moral judgment are proximal intent (the actor's mind is focused on performing the action) and distal intent (the actor's mind is focused on the broader goal). What causes observers to prioritize one form of intent over the other? The authors observed whether construal level (Studies 1-2) and beliefs about free will (Studies 3-4) would influence participants' sensitivity to the actor's proximal vs. distal intent. In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's proximal and distal intent were independently manipulated. In Study 1, when only distal intent was present in the actor's mind, participants rated the psychologically distant actor more responsible than the psychologically near actor. In Study 2, when only distal intent was in the actor's mind, participants with a chronic high level of action identification rated the actor more responsible than did those with a low level of action identification. In both studies, when only proximal intent was in the actor's mind, construal level did not predict judgments of responsibility. In Study 3, when only proximal intent was present in the actor's mind, the more participants believed in free will, the more they rated the actor responsible. When only distal intent was in the actor's mind, free will belief did not influence ratings of responsibility. In Study 4, the same pattern emerged when free will/determinism beliefs were manipulated and the actor performed a positive (life-saving) act. The authors discuss how these results shed new light on the literatures on moral reasoning and psycho-legal theory. PMID:26106352

  19. Cluster analysis of weighted bipartite networks: a new copula-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo; Trapin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In this work we are interested in identifying clusters of "positional equivalent" actors, i.e. actors who play a similar role in a system. In particular, we analyze weighted bipartite networks that describes the relationships between actors on one side and features or traits on the other, together with the intensity level to which actors show their features. The main contribution of our work is twofold. First, we develop a methodological approach that takes into account the underlying multivariate dependence among groups of actors. The idea is that positions in a network could be defined on the basis of the similar intensity levels that the actors exhibit in expressing some features, instead of just considering relationships that actors hold with each others. Second, we propose a new clustering procedure that exploits the potentiality of copula functions, a mathematical instrument for the modelization of the stochastic dependence structure. Our clustering algorithm can be applied both to binary and real-value...

  20. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  1. IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORK STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lira Meirelles; Thais Cereda Ravasi; Fabio Teixeira Arten; João Paulo Lara de Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to understand the relationship between the position of the central actor and the performance of a network, checking the influence of the central actor's performance over other actors. Among the specific objectives, we sought to describe the transactional content, the nature of the connections and the structural characteristics of the network. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with the help of software UCINET 6.0 and Excel. The results suggest tha...

  2. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  3. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  4. What about the "actor's formant" in actresses' voices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Suely; De Biase, Noemi Grigolleto; Madureira, Sandra

    2012-05-01

    Spectrographic analysis of male actors' voices showed a cluster, the "actor's formant" (AF), which is related to the perception of good and projected voice quality. To date, similar phenomena have not been described in the voices of actresses. Therefore, the objective of the current investigation was to compare actresses' and nonactresses' voices through acoustic analysis to verify the existence of the "AF" cluster or the strategies used to produce the performing voice. Thirty actresses and 30 nonactresses volunteered as subjects in the present study. All subjects read a 40-second text at both habitual and loud levels. Praat (v.5.1) was then used to analyze equivalent sound pressure level (Leq), speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), and in the long-term average spectrum window, the difference between the amplitude level of the fundamental frequency and first formant (L1-L0), the spectral tilt (alpha ratio), and the amplitude and frequency of the "AF" region. Significant differences between the groups, in both levels, were observed for SFF and L1-L0, with actresses presenting lower values. There were no significant differences between groups for Leq or alpha ratio at either level. There was no evidence of an "AF" cluster in the actresses' voices. Voice projection for this group of actresses seemed to be mainly a result of a laryngeal setting instead of vocal tract resonances. PMID:21376530

  5. Identidad, escritura, performance: Marco Paolini, actor y autor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marco Paolini es uno de los más representativos actores y autores del llamado "teatro di narrazione". El presente artículo pretende acercarse a algunos aspectos centrales de su poética en tanto actor y escritor, tales como los complejos y articulados procesos a través de los cuales llega a un (más o menos definitivo texto escrito; la fuerte relación que establece entre él y su público, a quien Paolini siempre se dirige consciente y explícitamente con gags y "bromas" en ocasiones tomados de la tradición del teatro popular italiano; o el "lenguaje del cuerpo" que Paolini pone en práctica en el escenario y en las páginas de sus libros publicados, en el que (de un modo personal mezcla el italiano, dialectos venecianos y ecos de poetas y escritores de la tradición literaria italiana.

  6. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  7. Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA. This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP, in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.

  8. Visions of the Future - the Changing Role of Actors in Data-Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, L.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    ? This gives rise to the question of what tools are required to locate and pursue the correct course in a networked world. One tool from the area of innovation management is the scenario technique. This poster will outline visions of the future as possible developments of the scientific world in 2020 (or later). The scenarios presented will show possible developments - both positive and negative. It is up then to the actors themselves to define their own position in this context, to rethink it and consider steps that can achieve a positive development for the future.

  9. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Barraqué

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  10. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  11. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-04-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity. PMID:23592970

  12. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Frémaux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD learning of Doya (2000 to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  13. The Dynamic Consequences of Cooperation and Competition in Small-World Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Rosales, Iván Y.; Liebovitch, Larry S.; Guzmán-Vargas, Lev

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the social dynamics among cooperative and competitive actors interacting on a complex network that has a small-world topology. In this model, the state of each actor depends on its previous state in time, its inertia to change, and the influence of its neighboring actors. Using numerical simulations, we determine how the distribution of final states of the actors and measures of the distances between the values of the actors at local and global levels, depend on the numb...

  14. Endurability and profitability analysis of collaborative networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatemi, Hassan; Sinderen, van Marten; Wieringa, Roel; Razo-Zapata, Ivan S.

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative network is a network consisting of a variety of autonomous actors (e.g. enterprises, organizations and people) that collaborate to better achieve common or compatible goals. A collaborative network starts with a contract and then the collaboration partners conduct business as describ

  15. Usage of Social Media by Political Actors: An Analysis on the Usage of Twitter by Leaders of Political Parties in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Hanifi; Karaduman, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of social media applications is becoming increasingly important in the public sphere. Politicians, who are the actors of representation and decision-making in the public sphere, recognized these applications and they have begun to use social media applications for the political participation of public and find out the demands of them. Nowadays, many politicians actively use social networks both in Turkey and around the world, thus, they are able to reach more people and radi...

  16. The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation: a comparison of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental actors

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerink, S.V.; Stiller, S.J.; Carina, E.; Keskitalo, K; Scholten, P.; Smits, R.; Lamoen, F van

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political–administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental...

  17. Temporal Logic Motion Control using Actor-Critic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xu Chu; Lahijanian, Morteza; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Belta, Calin A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of deploying a robot from a specification given as a temporal logic statement about some properties satisfied by the regions of a large, partitioned environment. We assume that the robot has noisy sensors and actuators and model its motion through the regions of the environment as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). The robot control problem becomes finding the control policy maximizing the probability of satisfying the temporal logic task on the MDP. For a large environment, obtaining transition probabilities for each state-action pair, as well as solving the necessary optimization problem for the optimal policy are usually not computationally feasible. To address these issues, we propose an approximate dynamic programming framework based on a least-square temporal difference learning method of the actor-critic type. This framework operates on sample paths of the robot and optimizes a randomized control policy with respect to a small set of parameters. The transition proba...

  18. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  19. The actors of the photovoltaic sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the 192 actors in the French photovoltaic sector, they are classified into 9 categories: 1) the solar plant owner, 2) the developer: he sets projects and his role stops when the project is ready to be sold to an investor, 3) the design office: it leads technical studies and manages the construction works), 4) the installer: he fits the solar panels, 5) the operator of the solar plant, 6) the wholesaler of equipment, 7) the manufacturer of solar panels and photovoltaic systems, 8) the provider or manufacturer of components and materials for the photovoltaic industry, and 9) the provider of specialized services such as insurance, staff training, the follow-up of legal issues... For each company, a brief historical account, the range of activities, the strength of manpower and the turnover are reported. (A.C.)

  20. MULTIMODAL REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL ACTORS IN THE DISCOURSE OF BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Maria Machado SOARES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, contemplating a theoretical dialogue between SystemicFunctional Theory (SFL (Halliday, 1994, 2004, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA (Fairclough, 1992, 2006, 2012 and Multimodality (Kress, van Leeuwen, 2006 van Leeuwen, 2008, Brands (Gobe, 2010, ALLEN; SIMMONS, 2005 and Sustainability (DIAS, 2009, 2011, aims to investigate the relationships established between visual and discursive event participants a hybrid text speech (advertising and information. Theories have specific and complementary methodologies adopted to delineate the pathways analysis with qualitative approach. Research shows that social actors, visually represented in the texts in advertising or informational texts, are mitigated by the power of institutions, revealing not only as artifice communicative, but also ideological to meet sustainable prerogatives.

  1. The Importance of Actor Cleavages in Negotiating the European Constitutional Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Hosli, Madeleine O.; Arnold, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to explore government preferences, cleavages, and pat-terns of coalition-formation among a variety of actors in the bargaining process on the European Constitution, across the range of twenty-five European Union (EU) member states. The study focuses on preferences concerning socio-economic policy-making and explores whether divisions can be discerned between preferences held by actors according to locations on the left-right policy scale, actors in older as compared to newer E...

  2. Islamic actors' support for democracy and European integration: A case for power-seeking?

    OpenAIRE

    Elbasani, Arolda; Saatçioğlu, Beken

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates when and how Islamic political actors support democracy, and in particular, the EU's democratic criteria subsumed under membership conditionality. The research focuses on the main Islamic organizations in two Muslim-majority, EU applicant states, Turkey and Albania. The analysis suggests that Islamic actors endorsed democratic rules based on a rationalist logic, which combines interest-driven and ideational concerns. The weak Albanian actors have shown unconditional su...

  3. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage their resourc...

  4. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    The International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, was held at Wageningen from September 24th to 28th. The conference was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the

  5. La disciplina entre las disposiciones legales y los actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Palacios Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción del funcionamiento de la disciplina escolar en una institución educativa de secundaria en Colombia. Tiene como objetivo explicar el origen del conflicto disciplinario, las situaciones que lo generan, la forma como la institución trata de lograr y mantener la disciplina, las explicaciones que cada uno de los actores da a las situaciones conflictivas y la manera como son vividas por ellos. El diseño metodológico de la investigación combinó una encuesta, entrevistas y el análisis de documentos de la institución educativa. El análisis de los datos se hace a la luz de planteamientos sociológicos que reconocen la enorme importancia que ejercen las estructuras sociales sobre la forma de pensar y actuar de los individuos, pero también resaltan la gran capacidad de los actores sociales para amoldarse a dichas estructuras y a través de sus ideas y acciones darle una dinámica propia al tipo de relaciones que establecen entre individuos en sus entornos de vida más inmediatos. Se pudo concluir que sobre la disciplina escolar no hay unidad de criterio entre los docentes, los directivos y los estudiantes, ni en su definición, ni en su importancia, ni en los medios para conseguirla; dichas diferencias producen tensiones y desacuerdos entre los miembros de la comunidad educativa.

  6. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  7. Operationalizing social safeguards in REDD+: actors, interests and ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    “REDD+” is a mechanism created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Reducing {carbon} Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation and forest enhancement. In addition, REDD+ “safeguards” are intended to protect non-carbon forest values. While REDD+ countries are formally requested to provide information on safeguards, there is as yet no agreement on the relative priority of carbon versus non-carbon values, and the appropriate level of safeguard standardization. This, we argue, has allowed REDD+ to function as a “boundary object” spanning disparate priorities. Meanwhile, the contestation of these priorities has been displaced from intergovernmental processes to the various organizations involved in operationalizing REDD+ activities. This article applies a set of organizational, substantive and conceptual typologies to compare differences in the balance of actors, interests and ideas across these organizations. It finds that multi-lateral funding programs have drawn heavily on existing safeguards for international aid, while private certification schemes have specialized in different niche priorities at the project level. In regards to the substance of safeguard requirements, the involvement of donors and investors appears correlated with a stronger emphasis on carbon and risk mitigation while greater NGO involvement and the decoupling of safeguards design from REDD+ funding appear correlated with greater emphasis on social rights and benefits. These findings have several critical implications for future REDD+ activities. Firstly, the choice of organizations involved in defining, funding and verifying safeguard activities, and the balance of actors in their governing structures, are likely to influence the relative emphasis on non-carbon values. Secondly, a diversity of approaches to disbursing REDD+ incentives may be necessary to maintain widespread support for REDD+. Thirdly, it remains to be seen whether REDD

  8. Ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods in the Changjiang River Basin%长江流域大洪水有序网络结构及其预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门可佩

    2014-01-01

    根据1827年以来的统计资料进行分析,长江流域大洪水展示出极为显著的有序性。运用翁文波信息预测理论,构建长江大洪水二维平面和三维立体信息有序网络结构并进行综合分析和预测,结果表明:2014、2020、2030、2036、2051与2058年前后的汛期,长江流域将有可能发生大洪水。%According to the latest statistical data of hydrology,a total of 21 floods took place in the Changjiang Riv-er Basin from 1827 to now,which showed a very obvious orderliness.Based on the information forecasting theory and ordered network analysis,we construct the 2D-and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research.Pre-diction results show that the future big deluges will probably occur in the Changjiang River Basin around 2014, 2020,2030,2036,2051 and 2058.

  9. The role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control of a sagittal arm with a pair of muscles using actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V; Parnianpour, M; Lucas, C

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we consider the role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control using an actor-critic reinforcement learning method. The model we use is a single link system actuated by a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals. Various physiological sensor information such as proprioception, spindle sensors, and Golgi tendon organs have been integrated to achieve an oscillatory movement with variable amplitude and frequency, while achieving a stable movement with minimum metabolic cost and coactivation. The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning method with an Actor-Critic architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS). The Actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the Critic is a model of the cerebellum. The Critic is trained by the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) method. The Critic will train the Actor by supervisory learning based on previous experiences. The reinforcement signal in SARSA is evaluated based on available alternatives concerning the concept of multisensor data fusion. The effectiveness and the biological plausibility of the present model are demonstrated by several simulations. The system showed excellent tracking capability when we integrated the available sensor information. Addition of a penalty for activation of muscles resulted in much lower muscle coactivation while keeping the movement stable. PMID:15671597

  10. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analizes the challenges faced by environmental governance of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important protected natural areas in Mexico. The study focuses on social actors involved, their interests, strategies, relative power and actions. The information obtained shows that the main problem faced by environmental governance actions comes from the various social actors.

  11. Measures and mechanisms for process monitoring in evolving business networks

    OpenAIRE

    Comuzzi, M.; Vonk, J.; Grefen, P.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on monitoring of cross-organizational processes, executed within business networks, considers monitoring only in the network formation phase, since network establishment determines what can be monitored during process execution. In particular, the impact of evolution in such networks on monitoring is not considered. When a business network evolves, e.g. contracts are introduced, updated, or dropped, or actors join or leave the network, the monitoring requirements of the network...

  12. Dyadic Patterns in Multiple Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoic, Antonio Rivero

    Seven dyadic configuration classes for the analysis of multiple networks are introduced in this paper. Each configuration is a relational bundle pattern resulting from the mixture of the direction and the types of tie between a pair of actors. Then a bundle census is performed to an empirical...... network made of three kinds of relations, and the algorithm used for the bundle class detection is presented with a generalization of networks up to r types of tie....

  13. Dyadic Patterns in Multiple Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoic, Antonio Rivero

    2011-01-01

    Seven dyadic configuration classes for the analysis of multiple networks are introduced in this paper. Each configuration is a relational bundle pattern resulting from the mixture of the direction and the types of tie between a pair of actors. Then a bundle census is performed to an empirical...... network made of three kinds of relations, and the algorithm used for the bundle class detection is presented with a generalization of networks up to r types of tie....

  14. Environmental education for sustainable management of the basins of the rivers Pirapó, Paranapanema III and Parapanema IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, A T; Kovalski, M L; Regina, V B; Riva, P B; Hidalgo, M R; Galvão, C B; Takahashi, B T

    2015-12-01

    The growing concern about the quantity and quality of water has led managers and researchers from various countries to concentrate efforts in the study, planning and management of watersheds, considered appropriate units for the rational and sustainable management of water resources. This experience report presents results of the Program for Communication, Environmental Education and Social Mobilization, which is part of the project "Monitoring Network of the basins of the rivers Pirapó, Paranapanema III and Paranapanema IV - analysis and monitoring of the hydrological behavior", developed by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and graduate students of the State University of Maringá (Paraná, Brazil). The goals of the program were: a) To develop continuing education for teachers of basic education, active in state schools located in the basins studied; b) To raise awareness and to promote training of various local social actors; c) To produce educational and promotional materials for teachers and general community, respectively. The methodology was the action research, on the basis of collaborative work between university researchers and participants of the program. The results evidence that teachers and representatives of different social groups had a limited view of issues related to water resources of their region. Courses, workshops and itinerant exhibitions, beyond teaching aids and promotional material prepared by the group of researchers and graduate students contributed to broaden the view of social actors about watersheds to which they are part, from the perspective of an active, critical and responsible participation focused on sustainable use and management of water resources. PMID:26815942

  15. Quantum social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J; Portillo, Jose R

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a physical approach to social networks (SNs) in which each actor is characterized by a yes-no test on a physical system. This is used to measure whether the interactions originating a SN obey pre-existing properties, as in a classical social network (CSN). As an example of SNs beyond CSNs, we introduce quantum social networks (QSNs) as those in which actor $i$ is characterized by a test of whether or not the system is in a quantum state $|\\psi_i>$. We show that QSNs outperform CSNs for a certain task and some graphs. We identify the simplest of these graphs and show that graphs in which QSNs outperform CSNs are increasingly frequent as the number of vertices increases. We also discuss more general SNs and identify the simplest graphs in which QSNs cannot be outperformed.

  16. Confidence, Actors' Beliefs and Transparency: the Case of ANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the predominant position of nuclear power in France, one could think that nuclear in France has always benefited from a high consensus within the French opinion. The emerging of nuclear and its development through years in France, might seem to have taken place in a rather singular climate of good social acceptability, if compared with other countries. Yet, now that the question has to be raised concerning the management of long-life radioactive waste, things are complicated. A strong contest accompanies each choice of a site that could be dedicated to stocking those very sensitive wastes. Actually, only one site has been found and accepted by local political authorities. A laboratory has been created by ANDRA, with the scope to study the opportunity to stock long-life radioactive waste. The decision should take place in 2006 and, since many years, is at the origin of a strong controversy between actors in favour or against the project. How to explain that? Why in a country where everything has been done for the nuclear development, is it so difficult to find a place to manage the residues of such an activity? It is even amazing to see that, on this specific topic, controversy is even stronger in France than in Sweden, although the Swedish opinion is by far less nuclear-friendly than the French one. The present paper focuses on one aspect of the strategy followed by ANDRA in order to achieve its mission: the essential aspect of the social acceptability of its activities. The comprehension of the difficulties met by ANDRA is not possible without taking into account the history of French nuclear and the catastrophic lack of democracy that characterised it. Among the results from an inquiry done by CREIDD for ANDRA in 2002, it indeed emerged that ANDRA was most of all perceived as an entity belonging to a global 'nuclear sphere'. Although rather young, ANDRA therefore has to carry with it the 'weigh of history' of the whole 'sphere', and its social

  17. Commercial Actors and the Governing of Education: The Case of Academy School Sponsors in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which commercial actors are operating in state education by focusing on the case study of England's academies policy. First of all the discussion outlines the development of academies over time and the way in which the policy has provided opportunities for private actors to become involved in the state…

  18. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  19. Sociología del desarrollo: una perspectiva centrada en el actor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    This is a translation of : Development sociology : actor perspectives / London [etc.] : Routledge, 2001. - 294 p. ISBN 0415235359 Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, this book focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and soci

  20. West Side Silence: Producing "West Side Story" with Deaf and Hearing Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Details a collaborative production of "West Side Story" with hearing actors from MacMurray College and deaf actors from the Illinois School for the Deaf. Explores some of the practical dilemmas encountered as the distinctions between the Deaf and hearing communities were negotiated. Explains that the show explored the ways in which sign language…

  1. Influence of Diaspora and Civil Society Actors on the Internationalisation of MNEs in Emerging Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Elo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNE) are viewed as proactive global economic actors that enter new and emerging markets with an intentional strategy, building on their inherent resources and firm-specific advantages. However, there are numerous actors involved at market entry-level who may constitute...

  2. La prostitución, una mirada desde sus actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Montoya Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge de la investigación Aspectos sociales y familiares que conllevan al ejercicio de la prostitución a 14 jóvenes de la ciudad de Medellín, a partir de sus relatos de vida, que en su proceso de generación de información implementó entre otras estrategias, una serie de talleres con población –hombres y mujeres– en ejercicio de la prostitución y con el equipo profesional que les brinda atención psicosocial, como parte del desarrollo del diseño metodológico planteado para la generación de información. Con esta publicación se pretende reflexionar sobre las diferentes concepciones y significados que se le ha dado a la palabra prostitución, estigmatizada no solo desde el imaginario social, sino también desde la religión. Se retoman para ello algunas posturas disciplinares y especialmente las voces de los actores que participaron como fuentes originales en el proceso de investigación; por ende, se realizará un breve recorrido que recoja las connotaciones más comunes de las personas que ejercen cotidianamente la prostitución.

  3. Can Tics be Performed Convincingly by an Actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten R. Müller-Vahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the German movie “Vincent will Meer” a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette’s syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. Methods. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. Results. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n=26 were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n=110 (P=0.020. Conclusions. Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not “abnormal” but “physiological” movements that are only misplaced both in time and context.

  4. The Immatsiak network of groundwater wells in a small catchment basin in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northern Quebec, Canada: A unique opportunity for monitoring the impacts of climate change on groundwater (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.; Therrien, R.; Ouellet, M.; Bart, J.

    2013-12-01

    During a summer drilling campaign in 2012, a network of nine groundwater monitoring wells was installed in a small catchment basin in a zone of discontinuous permafrost near the Inuit community of Umiujaq in Northern Quebec, Canada. This network, named Immatsiak, is part of a provincial network of groundwater monitoring wells to monitor the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. It provides a unique opportunity to study cold region groundwater dynamics in permafrost environments and to assess the impacts of permafrost degradation on groundwater quality and availability as a potential source of drinking water. Using the borehole logs from the drilling campaign and other information from previous investigations, an interpretative cryo-hydrogeological cross-section of the catchment basin was produced which identified the Quaternary deposit thickness and extent, the depth to bedrock, the location of permafrost, one superficial aquifer located in a sand deposit, and another deep aquifer in fluvio-glacial sediments and till. In the summer of 2013, data were recovered from water level and barometric loggers which were installed in the wells in August 2012. Although the wells were drilled in unfrozen zones, the groundwater temperature is very low, near 0.4 °C, with an annual variability of a few tenths of a degree Celsius at a depth of 35 m. The hydraulic head in the wells varied as much as 6 m over the last year. Pumping tests performed in the wells showed a very high hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer. Groundwater in the wells and surface water in small thermokarst lakes and at the catchment outlet were sampled for geochemical analysis (inorganic parameters, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H), and radioactive isotopes of carbon (δ14C), hydrogen (tritium δ3H) and helium (δ3He)) to assess groundwater quality and origin. Preliminary results show that the signature of melt water from permafrost thawing is observed in the

  5. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

  6. Actor Roles in an Urban Living Lab: What Can We Learn from Suurpelto, Finland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soile Juujärvi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to involve citizens in city development to make urban areas more suitable to their needs and prevent social problems. City centres and neighbourhoods have increasingly been serving as regional living labs, which are ideal platforms to explore the needs of users as residents and citizens. This article examines the characteristics and success factors of urban living labs based on a case study of Suurpelto, Finland. Urban living lab activity is characterized by a practice-based innovation process with diffuse and heterogeneous knowledge production that aims to address urban problems of varying complexity. User involvement is critical for co-creating value, but equally important is collaboration between other living lab actors: enablers, providers, and utilizers. Enabler-driven labs can be successful in creating common goals but they need providers, such as development organizations, to boost development. Proactive networking, experimentation as a bottom-up process, using student innovators as resources, as well as commitment and longevity in development work are success factors for urban living labs.

  7. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

  8. Starategic Stakeholder Analysis in Project Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nassaj Ghayeshghoorshagh, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Current technics of project stakeholder management are analyzing a dyadic relation and engagement with stakeholders based on their individual attributes. However in real world you can hardly find isolated relations. Based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) any change in one relation has ramifications on others. Therefore it can be said that the interaction of different actors and specially the project manager with the other actors need to be considered more. Those who implement project stakeho...

  9. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  10. Vinna Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, J.; Franců, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Tomanová-Petrová, P.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 223-241 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Quantifying sources of elemental carbon over the Guanzhong Basin of China: A consistent network of measurements and WRF-Chem modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; He, Qingyang; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Liu, Suixin; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Huang, Rujin; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a year-long WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Chemical) model simulation of elemental carbon (EC) aerosol and compared the modeling results to the surface EC measurements in the Guanzhong (GZ) Basin of China. The main goals of this study were to quantify the individual contributions of different EC sources to EC pollution, and to find the major cause of the EC pollution in this region. The EC measurements were simultaneously conducted at 10 urban, rural, and background sites over the GZ Basin from May 2013 to April 2014, and provided a good base against which to evaluate model simulation. The model evaluation showed that the calculated annual mean EC concentration was 5.1 μgC m(-3), which was consistent with the observed value of 5.3 μgC m(-3). Moreover, the model result also reproduced the magnitude of measured EC in all seasons (regression slope = 0.98-1.03), as well as the spatial and temporal variations (r = 0.55-0.78). We conducted several sensitivity studies to quantify the individual contributions of EC sources to EC pollution. The sensitivity simulations showed that the local and outside sources contributed about 60% and 40% to the annual mean EC concentration, respectively, implying that local sources were the major EC pollution contributors in the GZ Basin. Among the local sources, residential sources contributed the most, followed by industry and transportation sources. A further analysis suggested that a 50% reduction of industry or transportation emissions only caused a 6% decrease in the annual mean EC concentration, while a 50% reduction of residential emissions reduced the winter surface EC concentration by up to 25%. In respect to the serious air pollution problems (including EC pollution) in the GZ Basin, our findings can provide an insightful view on local air pollution control strategies. PMID:27064614

  12. Safety culture and networks of influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Carlos Henrique V.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Vieira Neto, Antonio S., E-mail: carloshvp@usp.br, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br, E-mail: asvneto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper analyzes the social networks that influence the formation and maintenance of the safety culture within the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP). From the mapping and analysis of social networks, actors with a significant degree of influence were identified. Later using a questionnaire, the beliefs of the population sample were mapped. Thus, the importance of key actors in the network analysis could be confirmed statistically. Therefore, based on the mentioned methods we could demonstrate our hypothesis, that there are some social networks that are important in the formation of safety culture, as well as the fact that the influence of some distinguished actors plays an essential role in this amalgam. (author)

  13. Safety culture and networks of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the social networks that influence the formation and maintenance of the safety culture within the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP). From the mapping and analysis of social networks, actors with a significant degree of influence were identified. Later using a questionnaire, the beliefs of the population sample were mapped. Thus, the importance of key actors in the network analysis could be confirmed statistically. Therefore, based on the mentioned methods we could demonstrate our hypothesis, that there are some social networks that are important in the formation of safety culture, as well as the fact that the influence of some distinguished actors plays an essential role in this amalgam. (author)

  14. The Freddi Staurs of Social Networking - A Legal Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kosta, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    One of the most remarkable cultural phenomena that blossomed in the Web 2.0 era are the social networking sites, such as Facebook, MySpace, Friendster, Bebo, Netlog or LinkedIn. The introduction of new communication channels facilitates interactive information sharing and collaboration between various actors over social networking sites. These actors, i.e. the providers and the users, do not always fit in the traditional communications models. In this paper we are going to examine how the new...

  15. Monitoring Greenhouse using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit.K.Nikhade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in science and technology havebeen ledto facilitate monitoring the environment,collecting data, processing the sensed data,threshold-decision making process and lastlyperforming of suitable actions by using ofdistributed wireless sensor networks and actornetworks. Wireless sensor actor networks (WSANis a combination of at least one coordinator nodewith sensors and actor nodes that communicatewirelessly to perform somespecifiedtasks ofsensing, monitoring and actuation.This papersummarizes an idea that can be carriedouttoprovide an efficient control mechanism ofmicroclimateinto greenhouses through theimplementation of aninfrastructure of WirelessSensors Network to control environmentalparameters.

  16. A novel adaptive PID controller based on Actor-Critic learning%基于执行器-评价器学习的自适应PID控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学松; 杨宜民

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the lack of the self-tuning for PID parameters in typical PID(T-PID) controllers, a self tuning PID control strategy using Actor-Critic learning(AC-PID) is proposed. Actor-Critic learning is used to tune PID parameters of the controller in an adaptive way. The policy function of Actor and the value function of Critic are approximated by a simple radial basis function neural network. The system error, the first and the second-order differences of system error are employed as inputs to the radial basis function network. The mapping from the system states to PID parameters is realized by the Actor, and the temporal difference(TD) error is evaluated by the Critic. Based on the structure of Actor-Critic learning and TD error performance index, the block diagram of the controller is developed. Two simulation results show that the proposed controller is efficient and perfectly adaptable with fast responses, providing better performances than the typical PID controller.%针对传统PID控制器无法在线自整定参数的不足,提出了一种基于执行器一评估器(Actor-Critic,AC)学习的自适应PID控制器结构与学习算法.该控制器利用AC学习实现PID参数的自适应整定,采用一个径向基函数网络同时对Actor的策略函数和Critic的值函数进行逼近.径向基函数网络的输入为系统误差、误差的一次差分和二次差分,Actor实现系统状态到PID参数的映射,Critic则对Actor的输出进行评判并且生成时序差分(temporaldifference,TD)误差信号.基于AC学习的体系结构和TD误差性能指标,给出了控制器设计的步骤流程图.两个仿真实验表明:与传统的PID控制器相比,基于AC学习的PID控制器在响应速度和自适应能力方面要优于传统PID控制器.

  17. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26357411

  18. Network Experiences Lead to the Adaption of a Firm’s Network Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Kühne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks become increasingly important as external sources of innovation for firms. Through networks firms get incontact with different actors with whom they can exchange information and collaborate. A firm’s ability to be asuccessful network actor depends on its network competence. This term can be defined as having the necessaryknowledge, skills and qualifications for networking as well as using them effectively. In this paper we investigate thelink between a firm’s network competence and the benefits resulting from it in a two‐way direction. First, thenetwork competence of the firm facilitates the adoption of information from other network actors which may leadto innovation success. Second the perceived network benefits shall in their turn influence the network competenceof the firm. Consequently, firms will adapt their network strategy corresponding their experiences. The objective ofthis paper is to investigate the dynamics of networking and its influence on the firm’s network competence. For thisexploratory research 3 Belgian networks are examined. In‐depth interviews are used in combination with semistructuredinterview guides to conduct the research. Our results indicate that some firms perceive benefits fromtheir network efforts, for others it is more a burden. Furthermore, in some of our cases we found that positiveexperiences with clear benefits motivate the firm to enhance its network competence. This is illustrated by the factthat collaborations are more frequently initiated, trust is more easily build, firms are more open to communicateinformation and the confidentiality threshold is overcome.

  19. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusák, Michal

    2016-04-01

    The Ethiopian Highland is good example of high plateau landscape formed by combination of tectonic uplift and episodic volcanism (Kazmin, 1975; Pik et al., 2003; Gani et al., 2009). Deeply incised gorges indicate active fluvial erosion which leads to instabilities of over-steepened slopes. In this study we focus on Jemma River basin which is a left tributary of Abay - Blue Nile to assess the influence of neotectonics on the evolution of its river and valley network. Tectonic lineaments, shape of valley networks, direction of river courses and intensity of fluvial erosion were compared in six subregions which were delineate beforehand by means of morphometric analysis. The influence of tectonics on the valley network is low in the older deep and wide canyons and in the and on the high plateau covered with Tertiary lava flows while younger upper part of the canyons it is high. Furthermore, the coincidence of the valley network with the tectonic lineaments differs in the subregions. The fluvial erosion along the main tectonic zones (NE-SW) direction made the way for backward erosion possible to reach far distant areas in E for the fluvial erosion. This tectonic zone also separates older areas in the W from the youngest landscape evolution subregions in the E, next to the Rift Valley. We studied the functions that can automatically extract lineaments in programs ArcGIS 10.1 and PCI Geomatica. The values of input parameters and their influence of the final shape and number of lineaments. A map of automated extracted lineaments was created and compared with 1) the tectonic faults by Geology Survey of Ethiopia (1996); and 2) the lineaments based on visual interpretation of by the author. The comparation of lineaments by automated visualization in GIS and visual interpretation of lineaments by the author proves that both sets of lineaments are in the same azimuth (NE-SW) - the same direction as the orientation of the rift. But it the mapping of lineaments by automated

  20. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Riley, Shawn J

    2013-08-01

    An important requisite for improving risk communication practice related to contentious environmental issues is having a better theoretical understanding of how risk perceptions function in real-world social systems. Our study applied Scherer and Cho's social network contagion theory of risk perception (SNCTRP) to cormorant management (a contentious environmental management issue) in the Great Lakes Basin to: (1) assess contagion effects on cormorant-related risk perceptions and individual factors believed to influence those perceptions and (2) explore the extent of social contagion in a full network (consisting of interactions between and among experts and laypeople) and three "isolated" models separating different types of interactions from the full network (i.e., expert-to-expert, layperson-to-layperson, and expert-to-layperson). We conducted interviews and administered questionnaires with experts (e.g., natural resource professionals) and laypeople (e.g., recreational and commercial anglers, business owners, bird enthusiasts) engaged in cormorant management in northern Lake Huron (n = 115). Our findings generally support the SNCTRP; however, the scope and scale of social contagion varied considerably based on the variables (e.g., individual risk perception factors), actors (i.e., experts or laypeople), and interactions of interest. Contagion effects were identified more frequently, and were stronger, in the models containing interactions between experts and laypeople than in those models containing only interactions among experts or laypeople. PMID:23231537

  1. Multi-Agent Based Simulation of Organizational Routines on Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dehua Gao; Xiuquan Deng; Qiuhong Zhao; Hong Zhou; Bing Bai

    2015-01-01

    Organizational routines are collective phenomena involving multiple individual actors. They are crucial in helping to understand how organizations behave and change in a certain period. In this paper, by regarding the individual habits of multiple actors involved as fundamental building blocks, we consider organizational routines from an ‘emergence-based’ perspective. We emphasise the impacts of connections or network topologies among individual actors in the formation of organizational r...

  2. Actor-Critic Algorithm Based on Tile Coding and Model Learning%基于Tile Coding编码和模型学习的Actor-Critic算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉净; 朱文文; 伏玉琛; 刘全

    2014-01-01

    Actor-Critic是一类具有较好性能及收敛保证的强化学习方法,然而,Agent在学习和改进策略的过程中并没有对环境的动态性进行学习,导致Actor-Critic方法的性能受到一定限制.此外,Actor-Critic方法中需要近似地表示策略以及值函数,其中状态和动作的编码方法以及参数对Actor-Critic方法有重要的影响.Tile Coding编码具有简单易用、计算时间复杂度较低等优点,因此,将Tile Coding编码与基于模型的Actor-Critic方法结合,并将所得算法应用于强化学习仿真实验.实验结果表明,所得算法具有较好的性能.

  3. Actors or Spectators? Vulnerability and Critical Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Philippopoulos‐Mihalopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether we as humans should remain spectators of the great theatre of ecological disaster or become actors is a false dichotomy. In this chapter, I argue that both are needed, since the critical distance of spectatorship does not annul the need for immersion in the ecological continuum. A tool in the realisation of this is the concept of vulnerability, which is here conceptualised as a space of ‘the middle’ (as opposed, emphatically, to ‘the centre’ and offers an opportunity to think away from the sterile debate on eco/anthropocentricity and from such limiting hierarchies as animal/human, human/environmental, natural/artificial. This new, vulnerable position of the middle allows the reconfiguration of ecological processes, and more specifically, the position of environmental law in relation to them. Environmental law now finds itself amidst a new, moving, ‘open ecology’ of social, biological and ecological processes. This is a new, radical conceptualisation of what I have called ‘critical environmental law’, based upon an epistemology of observation and an ontology of being part of this open ecology. Environmental law, in this light, is simultaneously reformulated as being an invitation to disciplinary and ontological openness and yet a call to remain immanent within existing legal structures. This finds expression in four critical environmental positions that set the stage for the further elaboration of a critical environmental law. La cuestión de si nosotros, como seres humanos, debemos seguir siendo espectadores del gran teatro de la catástrofe ecológica o convertirnos en actores es una dicotomía falsa. En este artículo se sostiene que ambos son necesarios, ya que la distancia crítica del espectador no anula la necesidad de una inmersión en el continuum ecológico. Una herramienta para la realización de esto es el concepto de vulnerabilidad, que aquí se concibe como un espacio 'intermedio' (en oposici

  4. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  5. International Political Actorness of the EU: the Dichotomy of Agent and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnatyuk Nikolay Nikolaevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theories of international relations, regional integration and comparative politics have significant difficulties with the classification of the EU as an actor of international politics. At the same time the EU international activities challenge not only the idea of superior role of the state in international relations but also the structure of international system. The article states that conceptualization of international actors should not contrast two levels of analyses – the internal condition of actor and the structure of international system, but treat them as being neutral. Based on suggestions of pluralistic approach, the article argues that primary burden of progress in the classification of the EU as an actor of international politics is due to one way interpretation of “structure and agents problem”. In this regard the constructivist idea of treating actor and structure as mutually constructive may be a useful starting point. Unlike attempts to consider the international activities of the EU as “state like” entity, this approach allows taking into account the EU integrative nature, which is characterized by the presence of individual features of the traditional international actors. Therefore, the concept of international actorness as an alternative to state-centered approaches may offer a theoretical and methodological framework for the understanding of different elements and building-blocks of the “EU as an international actor”. Interaction of variables of internal and external levels composes a harmonized system for evaluating the EU international activity.

  6. Adaptive Networks: the Governance for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Nooteboom (Sibout)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this book, I reconstruct how policy makers, working together in what I term adaptive networks, have enabled a breakthrough in thinking about sustainable mobility in certain policy circles. I define the conduct of leading actors in these adaptive networks as sustainable change manag

  7. Towards Business Process Management in networked ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grondelle, Jeroen; Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Managing and supporting the collaboration between different actors is key in any organizational context, whether of a hierarchical or a networked nature. In the networked context of ecosystems of service providers and other stakeholders, BPM is faced with different challenges than in a conventional

  8. The Path From Passivity Toward Entrepreneurship: Public Sector Actors in Brownfield Regeneration Processes in Central Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrescu, F.; Martinat, S.; Klusa ek, P.; Bartke, S.

    2014-01-01

    Europeanization research dealing with the environmental transition in Eastern Europe has focused on the roles of state actors in adopting European regulations. Less well understood are the framings and roles of public administration actors when European Union regulations do not prescribe specific institutional changes. This article offers a micro perspective on the framings and roles of such actors in several cases of brownfield regeneration. Actors can play a proactive role, thereby fosterin...

  9. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social and...... policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs), and...... stochastic actor-oriented models. We focus most attention on ERGMs by providing an illustrative example of a model for a strategic information network within a local government. We draw inferences about the structural role played by individuals recognized as key innovators and conclude that such an approach...

  10. Performance anxiety in actors: symptoms, explanations and an Indian approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Dinkgräfe, Daniel; Nair, Sreenath; Proctor, Deborah Claire

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous examples of renowned performers across the arts (actors and musicians) and in sports, which become news items in the media due to their performance anxiety (also called stage fright in English, or Lampenfieber in German). Given the number of celebrity actors suffering from stage fright, the number of those actors who do not make the news headlines in relation to their stage fright but nevertheless suffer from it must be even higher. In t his essay we provide an up to da...

  11. Figuring out Actors in Text Streams: Using Collocations to establish Incremental Mind-maps

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenberger, T.; Oez, S.; Tahirovic, E.; Schommer, C.

    2008-01-01

    The recognition, involvement, and description of main actors influences the story line of the whole text. This is of higher importance as the text per se represents a flow of words and expressions that once it is read it is lost. In this respect, the understanding of a text and moreover on how the actor exactly behaves is not only a major concern: as human beings try to store a given input on short-term memory while associating diverse aspects and actors with incidents, the following approach...

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF ACTORS IN THE MAKING OF THE BUDGET REVENUE OF REGIONAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research on the analysis of the policy making of the budget revenues and shopping area of Makassar city fiscal year 2009. One part of this research use approach to the actors and the relationships between actors in policy making. Within the framework of the system of policy making of Budget income and Expenditure area (Budgets Makassar city, this research is the description of the analysis of the local government and actors People’s Representative Council District Makassar city as policy makers in making Grant Makassar city

  13. Hacia una redefinición de los movimientos sociales: macro-actores proxémicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendiola, Ignacio

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a conceptualization of social movements that is not limited to the set of theories developed in the academic scope of new social movements; on the contrary, a different theoretical scenery will be suggested in order to throw a new analytic gaze on the social practices reproduced by the, so called, new social movements. This gaze will be built on three distinct but interrelated premises. Firstly, it will be stressed the paradoxical dimension of identitarian practices and, consequently, the impossibility to define a social reality according to a single dimension. Secondly, paradoxical dimension will be taken to the scope of social movements in order to propose a definition of social movements that takes into account a constitutive paradox where a proxemic sociality and actor-network theory are put in relation. Lastly, the unfolding of such paradox is analyzed looking at its ironic style.

  14. Network-based business process management: embedding business logic in communications networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pau, Louis-François; Vervest, Peter

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced Business Process Management (BPM) tools enable the decomposition of previously integrated and often ill-defined processes into re-usable process modules. These process modules can subsequently be distributed on the Internet over a variety of many different actors, each with their own specialization and economies-of-scale. The economic benefits of process specialization can be huge. However, how should such actors in a business network find, select, and control, the best p...

  15. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analize...

  16. Risk-aware design of value and coordnination networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatemi, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative network is a network consisting of a set of autonomous actors (e.g. enterprises, organizations and people) that collaborate to achieve common or compatible goals. In a collaborative network each enterprise contributes with its own specific products or services to satisfy the consumer

  17. Interaction, Relationships And Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Benson-Rea, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents four case studies which have been selected to represent different insights into the strategic evaluation of relationships within one industry. From an analysis of how each of the case study firms has formed its networks of relationships, within its overall approach to industry strategy, we discuss how the interactions are evaluated, with a particular emergent focus on social or actor bonds. The strategy literature models strategy formation processes and content. The networ...

  18. Building blocks of the basin stability of power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heetae; Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2016-06-01

    Given a power grid and a transmission (coupling) strength, basin stability is a measure of synchronization stability for individual nodes. Earlier studies have focused on the basin stability's dependence of the position of the nodes in the network for single values of transmission strength. Basin stability grows from zero to one as transmission strength increases, but often in a complex, nonmonotonous way. In this study, we investigate the entire functional form of the basin stability's dependence on transmission strength. To be able to perform a systematic analysis, we restrict ourselves to small networks. We scan all isomorphically distinct networks with an equal number of power producers and consumers of six nodes or less. We find that the shapes of the basin stability fall into a few, rather well-defined classes, that could be characterized by the number of edges and the betweenness of the nodes, whereas other network positional quantities matter less.

  19. Building blocks of the basin stability of power grids

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Heetae; Holme, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Given a power grid and a transmission (coupling) strength, basin stability is a measure of synchronization stability for individual nodes. Earlier studies have focused on the basin stability's dependence of the position of the nodes in the network for single values of transmission strength. Basin stability grows from zero to one as transmission strength increases, but often in a complex, non-monotonous way. In this study, we investigate the entire functional form of basin stability's dependence on transmission strength. To be able to perform a systematic analysis, we restrict ourselves to small networks. We scan all isomorphically distinct networks with an equal number of power producers and consumers of six nodes or less. We find that the shapes of the basin stability falls into a few, rather well-defined classes, that could be characterized by the number of edges and the betweenness of the nodes, whereas other network positional quantities matters less.

  20. The actor-critic algorithm as multi-time-scale stochastic approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Konda, Vijaymohan R

    1997-01-01

    The actor-critic algorithm of Barto and others for simulation-based optimization of Markov decision processes is cast as a two time Scale stochastic approximation. Convergence analysis, approximation issues and an example are studied.

  1. Two-factor theory, the actor-critic model, and conditioned avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Tiago V

    2010-02-01

    Two-factor theory (Mowrer, 1947, 1951, 1956) remains one of the most influential theories of avoidance, but it is at odds with empirical findings that demonstrate sustained avoidance responding in situations in which the theory predicts that the response should extinguish. This article shows that the well-known actor-critic model seamlessly addresses the problems with two-factor theory, while simultaneously being consistent with the core ideas that underlie that theory. More specifically, the article shows that (1) the actor-critic model bears striking similarities to two-factor theory and explains all of the empirical phenomena that two-factor theory explains, in much the same way, and (2) there are subtle but important differences between the actor-critic model and two-factor theory, which result in the actor-critic model predicting the persistence of avoidance responses that is found empirically. PMID:20065349

  2. A Batch, Off-Policy, Actor-Critic Algorithm for Optimizing the Average Reward

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, S A; Deng, Y.; Laber, E. B.; Maei, H. R.; Sutton, R. S.; Witkiewitz, K.

    2016-01-01

    We develop an off-policy actor-critic algorithm for learning an optimal policy from a training set composed of data from multiple individuals. This algorithm is developed with a view towards its use in mobile health.

  3. Renewable energy sources. Non-traditional actors on the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five of Sweden's technical attaches have investigated the non-traditional actors activity within the field of renewable energy sources. Countries studied are USA, Japan, France, Germany and Great Britain

  4. Vocal range and intensity in actors: a studio versus stage comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Kate A; Titze, Ingo R; Svec, Jan G; Popolo, Peter S; Logan, Gary

    2005-03-01

    A voice range profile (VRP) was obtained from each of eight professional actors and compared with two speech range profiles (SRPs). One speech profile was obtained during the dramatic reading of a scene in the laboratory and the other during a performance on stage in a professional theater. The objective was to determine the pitch and loudness ranges used by the actors in speech relative to the VRP. The principal question of interest was whether the actors stayed within the center of the VRP, or whether they tended to drift toward the boundaries of intensity and frequency. A second question was whether the performance within the laboratory accurately reflects that of a stage performance. The results suggest that some subjects tend to exceed the center of the VRP during the stage performance. It is hypothesized that these actors may stress their vocal mechanism during performance and are more likely candidates for vocal injury. PMID:15766852

  5. Dynamic Knowledge Capitalization through Annotation among Economic Intelligence Actors in a Collaborative Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Okunoye, Olusoji; Odumuyiwa, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The shift from industrial economy to knowledge economy in today's world has revolutionalized strategic planning in organizations as well as their problem solving approaches. The point of focus today is knowledge and service production with more emphasis been laid on knowledge capital. Many organizations are investing on tools that facilitate knowledge sharing among their employees and they are as well promoting and encouraging collaboration among their staff in order to build the organization's knowledge capital with the ultimate goal of creating a lasting competitive advantage for their organizations. One of the current leading approaches used for solving organization's decision problem is the Economic Intelligence (EI) approach which involves interactions among various actors called EI actors. These actors collaborate to ensure the overall success of the decision problem solving process. In the course of the collaboration, the actors express knowledge which could be capitalized for future reuse. In this pap...

  6. El entrenamiento como base de la formación actoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Araque Osorio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The text presents a reflection on the actor’s training and its implications, virtues and contributions to the professional formation of actors. It starts from the experience that the author has assimilated as teacher and director, but mainly as an active actor, that appeals to his body as a work tool. From this perspective, the relationships between exercise, system and rehearsal are analyzed. Performance is not an esoteric and mystic act propitiated by the gods, it is a work that requires preparation, dedication and conscious inquiry. The actor or the actress that are unable to train in solitude, cannot contribute to a group, perhaps, this should be done without losing the perspective that theater is a collective act, in which communication plays an important role. For this reason, is fundamental to know how it is expressed, how it is signified and how a communication is begun between the actor and the spectator.

  7. Modeling and training emotional talking faces of virtual actors in synthetic movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Savant; Yan, Hong

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of a virtual actor system composed of several subsystems designed to automate some of these animation tasks. Our emphasis is on the facial animation of virtual actors. The paper specifically details the situations processor component of the framework, which is a major building block in the automatic virtual actor system. An expert system using a fuzzy knowledge-based control system is used to realize the automated system. Fuzzy linguistic rules are used to train virtual actors to know the appropriate emotions and gestures to use in different situations of a synthetic movie, the higher level parameters of which are provided by human directors. Theories of emotion, personality, dialogue, and acting, as well as empirical evidence is incorporated into our framework and knowledge bases to produce promising results.

  8. Connecting Social Actors in Developing Integrated Tourism Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Marija Colarič-Jakše

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Our base of the research was the social capital and its impact on the recognition of the opportunities to innovate the tourism products by invigorating the innovative culture of tourism structures in Slovenia and stimulating the collective cooperation of the tourism stakeholders on the global market. Purpose: Our goal is to make clear the role of the civil society, private enterprises, and organizationsfrom public sector and small entrepreneurs in the creating of social capital, which is the base for the innovation of joint tourism products. Our aim was to identify the factors that stimulate the collaborative networking. Method: We investigated the cooperation networking between the tourism stakeholders with qualitative method of analysis. We conducted eight non structured interviews with tourism stakeholders and thirteen semi-structured interviews with the managers from various tourism organizations. Results: The results show that the right organization of consortium activities has the real impact on the creating of new tourism products. The results also show that the collaborative networking in the form of consortium supports the innovative processes and enables the marketing of the integral tourism products. Organization: The successful networking bases on the means of activation of the social capital, which enables the inclusion of the right stakeholders in the process of creation, translation, and implementing of the innovative ideas in the innovation process. Tourism structures in this process create various consortia form of collaboration and support in the process of acquisition of resources in the process of connecting the know-how, and in the process of the implementation of the same know-how to build the innovative tourism products. Society: Collaborative networking creates innovative culture of the tourism structures and the other structures in the society. The outcomes of the research show that Slovenian

  9. The Role of Global Actors in the Liberalization of Indonesian Economy through its Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir MS; Rehman AK; Akhtar T

    2016-01-01

    In contrast, the political ideology governing on Indonesia seemed to be isolated from any required economic reform. This paper investigates the dynamic role of global actors after liberalization of Indonesian Economy. However, these global actors such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Trade Organization (WTO), a group of twenty largest economies called as G 20 and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) play an important role in developed and under developed count...

  10. The European Union as a Security Actor: Moving Beyond the Second Pillar

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Zwolski

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested in this article that there is a discrepancy between, on the one hand, literature that focuses on the European Union (EU) as a security actor and, on the other, contemporary security studies literature. This difference concerns the fact that the literature on the EU as a security actor treats security in a narrower sense than how it is approached in the literature on security studies. Over the past few decades, security studies literature has begun to fully acknowledge that the...

  11. Recursivity and Self-Referentiality of Economic Theories and Their Implications for Bounded Rational Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Waffenschmidt, Marco; Sandri, Serena

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at the analysis of the possible self-referential effects of economic theories and models on its own subject and of the mechanisms through which bounded rational actors perceive the self-referential nature of economic theories and might absorb their prescriptions. Thus, the focus of the present study will be on the effects of economic theories on the behaviour of the analyzed economic actors. The analysis of the possible causal role of theories on bounded rational economic beha...

  12. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  13. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-01-01

    Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in offic...

  14. The actors and privatization of sanitation services in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document offers an analysis about possibilities to implement a concession system in the recollection and disposal of non-hazardous trash collection service in Ciudad Juarez. The recognition of view points from different actors in the timeframe, applying a survey to home heads and interviews to opinion leaders, as actors key in city´s production, let us to identify a high politized item that keep off efficient and transparent public participation.

  15. A survey of actor-critic reinforcement learning: standard and natural policy gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Grondman, Ivo; Busoniu, Lucian; Lopes, Gabriel; Babuska, Robert

    2012-01-01

    International audience Policy gradient based actor-critic algorithms are amongst the most popular algorithms in the reinforcement learning framework. Their advantage of being able to do policy search using low-variance gradient estimates has made them useful in several real-life applications, such as robotics, power control and finance. Although general surveys on reinforcement learning techniques already exist, no survey is specifically dedicated to actor-critic algorithms in particular. ...

  16. The Risks of Multimedia Methods: Effects of Actor's Race and Gender on Preferences for Health States

    OpenAIRE

    Lenert, Leslie A.; Ziegler, Jennifer; Lee, Tina; Unfred, Christine; Mahmoud, Ramy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: While the use of multimedia methods in medical education and decision support can facilitate learning, it also has certain hazards. One potential hazard is the inadvertent triggering of racial and gender bias by the appearance of actors or patients in presentations. The authors hypothesized that race and gender affect preferences. To explore this issue they studied the effects of actors' race and gender on preference ratings for health states that include symptoms of schizoph...

  17. Accountability of States and Non-state Actors under the International Law of Child Soldiering

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The thesis examines the accountability of state and non-state actors under international law of child soldiering. It argues that states and non-state actors as such must be made accountable for breaching their obligation under the prohibition of the conscription and enlistment of children under the age of fifteen years old or using them to participate actively in hostilities. The argument is based on the Security Council resolutions on children and armed conflict and the 2001 International La...

  18. Opening up the innovation system framework towards new actors and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Warnke, Philine; Koschatzky, Knut; Dönitz, Ewa; Zenker, Andrea; Stahlecker, Thomas; Som, Oliver; Cuhls, Kerstin; Güth, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper revisits the established framework of the national and regional innovation system (NIS/RIS) in the light of recent insights from innovation research in order to increase its capacity for generating meaningful insights for policy makers and other actors wishing to influence innovation capacity of nations, regions or sectors. We review six research strands that challenge the classical NIS/RIS framework by pointing to a wider range of actors, institutions and innovation modes relevant ...

  19. Interacting state and non-state actors in hybrid settings of public service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Public services are increasingly delivered through hybrid settings of state and non-state actors. A key characteristic of such settings is the interaction between these actors. Different interactions may have different impacts on the outcomes of the particular settings. Yet to date, this key characteristic has received limited attention in scholarship. This article addresses this knowledge gap by presenting an exploratory comparative case study of two very similar hybrid settings that differ ...

  20. Local actors facing environmental issues : Lessons from a bottom-up approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maurel, Marie-Claude

    2009-01-01

    This chapter, analyzing the implementation of “local sustainable development” in the LEADER programs, questions the environmental contents of local communities development plans. To what extent the sustainability paradigm is shared by local actors and is connected to a genuine new awareness? In the first part, the paper develops the conceptual framework of the implementation of new public policies for local development in New Member States. In the second one, the way in which local actors hav...

  1. 10 Finnish business actors' perceptions of their Chinese business partners and key personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Lisa Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    The market impacts caused by globalization and the internationalization of companies are requiring the ability to operate in demanding, diverse and changing business environments but also requiring the consideration of differing cultural norms. This study will explore the perceptions of a number of Finnish business actors who have worked and conducted business with Chinese business actors and personnel. The empirical part of this thesis is based on a qualitative study as a research a...

  2. Can Donors and Non-State Actors Undermine Citizens' Legitimating Beliefs ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the conditions under which donor and non-state actor service provision is likely to undermine or strengthen citizens' legitimating beliefs. On the one hand, citizens may be less likely to support their government with quasi-voluntary compliance when they credit non-state actors or donors for service provision. On the other hand, the provision of goods and services by d...

  3. Policies in the making: an anlysis of actors influencing Swedish ethanol politics

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Stina

    2010-01-01

    The thesis takes its point of departure in ethanol politics. More specifically in the Swedish government’s position regarding ethanol politics and what actors that are possibly influencing this position. The research question examined is; How, and to what extent, have different actors managed to influence the Swedish government’s position on ethanol? To answer the research question a social constructivist theory is used focusing on how the use of different kinds of ideas might influence th...

  4. INTERORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKING IMPACT TO INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Šakalytė; Ilona Bartuševičienė

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – to distinguish main inter-organizational networking characteristics and emphasize impact to innovation within the company and between related actors. Network formation is one of the essential factors to effective business performance and fostering competitiveness. The emergency of growing competition and influence of globalization leads companies to effectively use inner-sources and capabilities in order to be ahead of competitors. Design/methodology/approach – scientific litera...

  5. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolleck, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  6. : University and new technologies : change and strategies of the actors

    OpenAIRE

    Ollivier, Bruno

    1997-01-01

    The arrival in information society means for the academic world the encounter with tools, that are revolutionizing both the access to information and the means of communication. Standards are unifying and new possibilities are developed. The memory now available makes it possible to record or transmit texts, which can be processed and analysed, with new methods. With the development of networks, people can now not only receive messages but also communicate worldwide. Some characteristics of t...

  7. Characteristics of pornography film actors: self-report versus perceptions of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James D; Hayworth, Michelle; Adams, Lea T; Mitchell, Sharon; Hart, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The assumed characteristics of individuals in the adult entertainment industry have been used to advocate positions for and against pornography. Although prior studies have investigated perceptions of porn actors, no data on the actual characteristics of this group exist. The present study compared the self-reports of 105 male and 177 female porn actors to the perceptions of 399 college students on childhood sexual abuse (CSA), self-esteem, work and non-work sexual behaviors, and safe sex issues. College students were asked to identify the characteristics associated with either a male or female porn star. College students provided underestimates for both female and male porn actors on self-esteem, age of first intercourse, lifetime number of partners outside of work, ideal experience in a romantic partner, concerns regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), enjoyment of sex, and condom use during a first time sexual encounter, but overestimated earnings. Additional differences among male porn stars included an underestimate of the number of partners at work. For female porn stars, college students underestimated their enjoyment of work, the probability of catching an STD, and having unprotected sex. Although there were no significant differences on perceived rates of childhood abuse of porn actors, the incidence of CSA among the porn actor participants were within the ranges of the general population. The majority of college student stereotypes were not supported regarding the perceptions of porn actors. These findings were discussed within the context of attributing unfounded characteristics of individuals to an entire industry. PMID:23179237

  8. PROGNOSTICAL COMPETENCE OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS-ACTORS: TO THE ISSUE OF THE CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Tsalko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on the basis of the notions of competence, forecasting, prognostical competence the author’s definition of future actors-teachers’ prognostical competence is developed. Under prognostic competence of future actors-teachers we understand a special competence that allows the subject, engaged in professional activities as a performer of roles in the theater (movies, TV, as well as performing teaching activities in the field of arts, to receive the necessary anticipatory information about the phenomenon under investigation (on performing roles in the theatre, films, and television, on the learning process and actors-teachers training. Components of prognostical competence as a type of competencies (cognitive, instrumental and operational and motivational-value are singled out. The feature of the future actor-teacher’s professional activities in the context of prognostical competence is viewed. It is the simultaneous solving the artistic-creative, organizational and teaching-upbringing problems.Purpose. The purpose of the paper is the definition of prognostical competence of future teachers-actors.Methodology. In the research the methods of theoretical level are used: comparison, analysis and synthesis, generalization, concretization; analytical methods; idealization and modeling.Result. The result of the research is the development of the author’s concept of «prognostical competence of the future teachers-actors».Practical implications. Application of the results: The results may be applied to the work of teachers-actors’ trainers as well as the researchers in Pedagogy.

  9. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for April, May, and June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2007-08-08

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring near the K Basins during April, May, and June 2007. Conditions remained similar to those reported in the previous quarter’s report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of shielding water from either basin to the ground. During the current quarter, the first results from two new wells installed between KE Basin and the river became available. Groundwater conditions at each new well are reasonably consistent with adjacent wells and expectations, with the exception of anomalously high chromium concentrations at one of the new wells. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified for FY 2008 to take advantage of new wells recently installed near KW Basin as part of a pump-and-treat system for chromium contamination, and also the new wells recently installed between the KE Basin and the river, which augment long-term monitoring capability in that area.

  10. Neuromuscular control of the point to point and oscillatory movements of a sagittal arm with the actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, Vahid; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Lucas, Caro

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we have used a single link system with a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals to achieve both point to point and oscillatory movements with variable amplitude and frequency.The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. The major physiological characteristics of this system are simultaneous activation of a pair of nonlinear muscle-like-actuators for control purposes, existence of nonlinear spindle-like sensors and Golgi tendon organ-like sensor, actions of gravity and external loading. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops.A reinforcement learning method with an actor-critic (AC) architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS), is used to track a desired trajectory. The actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the critic is a model of the cerebellum. The critic is trained by state-action-reward-state-action (SARSA) method. The critic will train the actor by supervisory learning based on the prior experiences. Simulation studies of oscillatory movements based on the proposed algorithm demonstrate excellent tracking capability and after 280 epochs the RMS error for position and velocity profiles were 0.02, 0.04 rad and rad/s, respectively. PMID:16154874

  11. Networks and network resources in technological innovation systems : Towards a conceptual framework for system building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musiolik, J.; Markard, J.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that formal networks can play a crucial role in the formation of technological innovation systems (TIS). Firms and other actors collaborate in formal networks not only to generate new knowledge but also to strategically create and shape supportive system resources such as

  12. What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brazil flux network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Rocha, da H.R.; Hutyra, L.R.; Araujo, de A.C.; Borma, L.S.; Christoffersen, B.; Cabral, O.M.R.; Camargo, de P.B.; Cardoso, F.L.; Lola da Costa, A.C.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Kruijt, B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity, and the effects thereon of variations in climate and land-use, by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in A

  13. Will the Real Weibo Please Stand Up? Chinese Online Contention and Actor-Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Poell; J. de Kloet; G. Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Social media platforms have become key participants in Chinese political contention. Global media eagerly report on cases involving social media, often celebrating them as signs of political change. This article analyzes the involvement of Sina Weibo in two instances of political contention: one con

  14. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documente...

  15. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaruiya, G. W.; J. Scheffran

    2016-01-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralised 12 hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been docu...

  16. From Classroom Learning to E-learning: An Actor-Network Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hustad, Eli; Arntzen, Aurilla Aurelie Bechina

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of a learning management system (LMS) to support education of Norwegian athletic judges. The association that represents these judges (FDU) is the highest authority as regards authorization and control of sport judgers, and their operation is mainly based upon voluntary work. The athletic sport is getting increasingly popular, and there is a need to recruit more judges to be able to carry out athletics meetings. By offering courses online, the FDU hopes ...

  17. Friendship selection and friends' influence. Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whos

  18. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whos

  19. Friendship selection and friends' influence. Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whose attributes are positively associated tend to become and stay friends. For influence processes, we hypothesize that adolescents tend to adjust their attributes to their friends' attributes. We ana...

  20. Interpassive Agency: Engaging Actor-Network-Theory's View on the Agency of Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Oenen (Gijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstract:With increasing frequency, questions about 'what things do' and 'evocative objects' pop up in philosophy and theoretical sociology. They direct our attention to an important phenomenon: the agency of objects. In this article, I contrast Bruno Latour's, and ANT's, view on the agency, or

  1. Transitions across place and space – Spatial transitions in an Actor Network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerndrup, Søren; Mosgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    a simple one dimensional framework based on geographical distance overlooking the social, economic and institutional dimensions. (Latour 2005, Boshma 2005, Knoben 2008) Therefore the aim of this paper is to combine the transitions framework with a relational geographic perspective influenced by the...

  2. Prioritize activists in Iran information accounting system based on the actor's network theory (ANT)

    OpenAIRE

    DEHKORDI, Bahareh Banitalebi; ROODPOSHTI, Fraydoon Rahnamay; NIKOMARAM, Hashem; TALEBNIA, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Nowadays it is safe to say that every management decision has the financial implications in the following and due to this the management needs financial information to take any decision. The task of preparing this information and processing them on financial issues is due to the informational accounting systems.The issue that why managers accept a series of accounting information and use them, or on the contrary, don't accept it and don't use it, is the most important information is...

  3. Tracing Cultural Memory:Holiday snapshots at sites of memory in an actor-network perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by e...

  4. Socially Overlaid Networks as Key Actors in Green Energy Businesses in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Minna; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2011-01-01

    For about two decades, sustainability discourse has been operating as a public discourse, stressing reformist and imaginary features of sustainable development (Dryzek, 1997; WCED, 1987). This discourse has its political ‘wing’, emphasising societal orientations for renewal of production and consumption towards sustainability at large (CEC, 1997, 1999; COM, 2001; European Parliament, 2002). Indeed, European food system seems to call for developmental measures, as one fifth to circa half of al...

  5. Consequences of Strategic Choices within an e-Procurement Implementation Process -From an Actor Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte; Thomsen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many companies have changed their IT strategy from developing systems in-house to implementing integrated software solutions. Along with the implementation of large Management Information Systems (MIS) such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, several strategic choices...... implementing an e-Procurement system - more specifically, an Enterprise Buyer Professional (EBP) module in SAP R/3 for commercial purchasing. These strategic choices are (1) outsourcing the electronic catalogue of the EBP system to an electronic market place, (2) constituting a change management group for the...... have to be made in order to ensure the success of the implementation in terms of the technical aspects, the business model and the organisation. This article deals with three strategic choices made by the management in the case company, a large European medical company, regarding the process of...

  6. Technologies for Learning? An Actor-Network Theory Critique of "Affordances" in Research on Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steve; Parchoma, Gale

    2011-01-01

    How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? What is the value of the concept of "affordances"? And how does research articulating this concept act to position mobile devices as "technologies for learning"? This literature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of published research on mobile…

  7. 基于核方法的连续动作Actor-Critic学习%Kernel-Based Continuous-Action Actor-Critic Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴国; 高阳; 范顺国; 俞亚君

    2014-01-01

    In reinforcement learning, the learning algorithms frequently have to deal with both continuous state and continuous action spaces to control accurately. In this paper, the great capacity of kernel method for handling continuous state space problems and the advantage of actor-critic method in dealing with continuous action space problems are combined. Kernel-based continuous-action actor-critic learning ( KCACL ) is proposed grounded on the combination. In KCACL, the actor updates each action probability based on reward-inaction, and the critic updates the state value function according to online selective kernel-based temporal difference( OSKTD) learning. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.%强化学习算法通常要处理连续状态及连续动作空间问题以实现精确控制。就此文中结合Actor-Critic方法在处理连续动作空间的优点及核方法在处理连续状态空间的优势,提出一种基于核方法的连续动作Actor-Critic学习算法( KCACL)。该算法中,Actor根据奖赏不作为原则更新动作概率,Critic采用基于核方法的在线选择时间差分算法学习状态值函数。对比实验验证该算法的有效性。

  8. Conflict Networks: Collapsing the Global into the Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Srnicek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a dual and simultaneous shift in conflict trends. With the end of the Cold War and superpower support, conflicts have become increasingly intrastate and increasingly localized, dependent for their sustenance upon local assistance and national resources. Yet this localization of conflict has coincided with the increasingly international aspect of conflicts, with humanitarian intervention and UN peacekeeping becoming ever more prevalent. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding these shifting relations between the global and the local. This is accomplished through an analysis of actor-network theory and its rejoinders to reductionist understandings of conflict. Rather than reducing the eruption of violence down to greed, grievance, or ancient hatred, actor-network theory aims to examine conflict networks and their specific composition of local, material, and global actors. Three aspects of these networks are highlighted in particular: the personal networks of local individuals, the material actors, and theconflict network as a system. With these clarified the final section turns to an analysis of some of the primary modalities through which global actors relate and embed themselves within local networks.

  9. Competition between global and local online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaj-Kolja Kleineberg; Marián Boguñá

    2016-01-01

    The overwhelming success of online social networks, the key actors in the Web 2.0 cosmos, has reshaped human interactions globally. To help understand the fundamental mechanisms which determine the fate of online social networks at the system level, we describe the digital world as a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity in network fitnesses on the competition between an international network, such as Facebook, and local services. The h...

  10. Coauthorship and Thematic Networks in AAEP Annual Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the coauthorship production of the AAEP Annual Meeting since 1964. We use social network analysis for creating coauthorship networks and given that any paper must be tagged with two JEL codes, we use this information for also structuring a thematic network. Then we calculate network metrics and find main actors and clusters for coauthors and topics. We distinguish a gender gap in the sample. Thematic networks show a cluster of codes and the analysis of the cluster shows the preemin...

  11. Collaborative Trust Networks in Engineering Design Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Simon Reay; Maier, Anja; Caldwell, Nicholas;

    2011-01-01

    ); applying the Change Prediction Method (CPM) tool. It posits the idea of the ‘Networks-in-Being’ with varying individual and collective characteristics. [Social] networks are considered to facilitate information exchange between actors. At the same time, networks failing to provide trusted-information can...... hinder effective communication and collaboration. Different combinations of trust may therefore improve or impair the likelihood of information flow, transfer and subsequent action (cause and effect). This paper investigates how analysing different types of network-structures-in-being can support......Within organisations, decision makers have to rely on collaboration with other actors from different disciplines working within highly dynamic and distributed associated networks of varying size and scales. This paper develops control and influence networks within Design Structure Matrices (DSM...

  12. 黄淮海地区跨流域湿地生态系统保护网络体系优化%Optimization of conservation network system for inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓龙; 李晓文; 张明祥; 杨殿林; 张黎娜; 张贵龙

    2012-01-01

    By using systematic conservation planning ( SCP) method, and taking catchment as planning unit, an optimization of conservation network system for the inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region was conducted, with a comprehensive consideration of 3-dimensional (lateral, longitudinal and vertical) connectivity and Inter-basin Water Transfer Project and by the methods of irreplaceability analysis and gap identification. The efficacy of the optimized conservation network system was evaluated, as compared with the existing conservation network system. According to the principles of irreplaceability and connectivity, the wetland conservation gaps could be divided into two types, i. e. , be conserved in priority and in general. After the optimization, the conservation status of the inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region had an overall improvement. The conserved percentage of the wetland types was from about 20% up to 46. 8% , and, for each wetland type, its conserved level increased to some extent, almost above 40% . Both in the near future and in the long term, more attention should be paid to the conservation of lake wetland. In addition, the integration of ecosystem service function and biodiversity and the combination of protection with restoration would be the main task for the wetland ecosystem conservation planning in the future.%运用系统保护规划方法,以集水区为保护规划单元,综合考虑三维(3D)连接性(横向、纵向、垂向)和跨流域调水工程,通过不可替代性分析和保护空缺识别,对黄淮海地区跨流域湿地生态系统保护网络体系优化进行研究,并通过与已有保护体系对比,评估了优化体系的效用.结果表明:依据不可替代性大小和连接性原则,湿地保护空缺可分为优先保护空缺和一般保护空缺;黄淮海地区湿地生态系统保护体系经过优化后,湿地保护状况整体上有较大改观,其中所有湿地类

  13. What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; da Rocha, Humberto R.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; da Araujo, Alessandro C.; Borma, Laura S.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Cabral, Osvaldo M.R.; de Camargo, Plinio B.; Cardoso, Fernando L.; da Costa, Antonio C. Lola; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Michael L. Goulden; Kruijt, Bart; Maia, Jair M.F.; Malhi, Yadvinder S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity, and the effects thereon of variations in climate and land-use, by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the 'Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We found that degree of water limitation, as indicated by the seasonality of the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (Bowen ratio) predicts seasonal patterns of photosynthesis. ...

  14. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli;

    2013-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive introduces the principle of integrated river basin management, incorporating both the idea of spatial fit between ecosystems and social systems and a requirement to integrate water management across scales and sectors. In designing their implementation setups......, member states must therefore address both the roles of different institutional actors and the interplay among institutions. In this paper, we will explore strengths and weaknesses of different institutional arrangements for integrated water management through a comparative analysis of River Basin...... Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local...

  15. Visualization of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  16. Endurability and profitability analysis of collaborative networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi, Hassan; Sinderen, van, Marten; Wieringa, Roel; Razo-Zapata, Ivan S.

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative network is a network consisting of a variety of autonomous actors (e.g. enterprises, organizations and people) that collaborate to better achieve common or compatible goals. A collaborative network starts with a contract and then the collaboration partners conduct business as described in the contract. Before engaging in such a collaboration, partners need to reach an agreement regarding their responsibilities in the collaboration and develop a shared understanding regarding t...

  17. Risk management in construction project networks

    OpenAIRE

    Klemetti, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Project risk management has been intensively discussed in recent years. Projects are becoming shared efforts of multiple parties – construction industry is a good example of an area, where the project outcome is delivered in an extremely complex actor network. Still, research on how the project risk management should be adopted to the network environment is scarce. This study's objective is to identify the risks that are caused by the network structure and the ways to manage risks in the co-o...

  18. Internationalization of health care services : Networking aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Hreinsson, Julius; Woldearegay, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    Principles of business management are increasingly being used to analyze health care systems. Conceptualizing health care as business networks offers the possibility to apply the ARA model of Actors, Resources and Activities to understand the functioning of the system. We have used this model to study the phenomenon of networking in cross-border care using Uppsala University Hospital as a research case. The aim of the study was to understand actor’s perceptions of networking activities and ho...

  19. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies. PMID:25313087

  20. The Rights of Private Economic Actors Under the World Trade Organization Agreements in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nothing in the Uruguay Round mentions directly about rights of private economic actors. It seems that the relationship to private economic actors (or may be individual does not exist within the WTO Agreements, because as a general rule, private parties are not legal subjects of the international legal order. However, this article will prevail upon this situation, by looking closer at the essence of the WTO Agreements to discern the rights of private economic actors that derive from the WTO. The main question of this article is to what extent then Indonesia is dealing with the rights of private economic actors under the WTO Agreements? The background of this questionis because four years after ratifying the WTO Agreements, Indonesia has been facing what is arguably the most serious multidimensional crisis in 1997, some difficult situations have arisen from the crisis; therefore, the society hesitated to accept the open world trading system. The society seemed look askance to the implementation of the WTO Agreements. But Indonesian Government took major step to reduce the skepticism of society toward liberalization, by readjusting its national laws conform to the WTO Agreements with the intention to support the rights of national economic actors under the WTO Agreements in order to achieve total benefits of the WTO rules.

  1. The role of institutions as actors influencing Uganda’s cassava sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mutyaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aim at mapping out a detailed framework that reveals the proportionate flow of cassava and its products along the value chain (VC. Furthermore, we aim at establishing the role of institutions and the linkages between institutions and other VC actors that influence the cassava VC in Uganda. We use both primary and secondary data obtained from four regions in Uganda. Results show that farmers, processors, transporters, traders, consumers and institutions are the major actors. There are four categories of institutions, viz, government, non-government, community based organisations and international agencies. Roles performed by institutions include: development and enforcement of policies, Research and Development (R&D, capacity building, and creation of market access linkages for cassava and its products. Findings reveal that there is no clear nexus and no coordination among farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters and consumers. However, institutions are well coordinated and play various roles along the VC to influence the dynamics of actors. Policy-wise it is important to establish strong private-public partnerships to bridge the impaired linkages between the actors (farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters, and consumers and institutions. Strong partnerships are envisaged to reduce the associated transaction costs amongst the actors.

  2. 'Special' non-human actors in the 'inclusive' early childhood classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Karen; Millei, Zsuzsa; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    2015-01-01

    these objects effect on all who is present in the classroom, we ask the following questions: What do these non-human actors do in the ‘inclusive’ classroom and with what effects? How do non-human actors reproduce/produce the ‘normal’, impossible/possible ways to be and act, thus control educators and......It is well established in research that early childhood classrooms are one of the most controlled environments during the human life course. When control is discussed, the enactment of regulatory frameworks and various discourses are analysed but less focus is paid on the materialities of...... classrooms. In this article, we pay attention to ‘special’ non-human actors present in an ‘inclusive’ early childhood classroom. These ‘special’ non-human actors are so named as they operate in the classroom as objects specific for the child with a diagnosis. The ‘special’ non-human actors, in the specific...

  3. La figura del consum’actor justo francés: ¿consumidor y ciudadano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parodi∗

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El neologismo consum’actor (consumidor-actor es utilizado en diferentes espacios sociales para dirigirse a los consumidores susceptibles de ejercer una forma de compromiso través del consumo. El artículo muestra cómo la figura del consum’actor cumple una función de tipo ideal en la promoción del consumo de productos del comercio justo para el caso de promotores y consumidores franceses entrevistados en el marco de una investigación sociológica. Observando el mecanismo de recalificación del consumidor en consum’actor analizamos cómo se fabrica una argumentación tendiente a politizar ese acto de compra, interrogando la lógica de acción de los promotores. La reflexividad de los consumidores justos sobre las prácticas asociadas con el consum’actor permitió conocer los límites en la apropiación de esta figura. La porosidad de campos (mercado, consumo, política movilizados en la argumentación para su caracterización explica la distancia entre aquella función y los límites de su apropiación como figura social del compromiso ciudadano

  4. A modular neural-network model of the basal ganglia's role in learning and selecting motor behaviours.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    This work presents a modular neural-network model (based on reinforcement learning actor-critic methods) that tries to capture some of the most relevant known aspects of the role that basal ganglia play in learning and selecting motor behavior related to different goals. The model uses a mixture of experts network for the critic and a hierarchical network with two levels for the actor. Some simulations with the model show that basal ganglia select "chunks" of behavior whose "details" are spec...

  5. Quantum social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a physical approach to social networks (SNs) in which each actor is characterized by a yes–no test on a physical system. This allows us to consider SNs beyond those originated by interactions based on pre-existing properties, as in a classical SN (CSN). As an example of SNs beyond CSNs, we introduce quantum SNs (QSNs) in which actor i is characterized by a test of whether or not the system is in a quantum state |ψi〉. We show that QSNs outperform CSNs for a certain task and some graphs. We identify the simplest of these graphs and show that graphs in which QSNs outperform CSNs are increasingly frequent as the number of vertices increases. We also discuss more general SNs and identify the simplest graphs in which QSNs cannot be outperformed. (paper)

  6. Bone resorption: an actor of dental and periodontal development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANKTg and Opg−∕− mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development. PMID:26594180

  7. Multiple Refuge Bat Inventory: Great Basin & Great Northern LCC

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was a cooperative project between the Upper Columbia Basin Network (UCBN) of the National Park Service I&M Program, USFWS Region 1 I&M Program (R1...

  8. Essays on Political Actors and Attitudes: Do They Constitute Distributed Reflexivity? Part 2: A Dynamical Typology of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Martin; Srbljinović, Armano

    2013-01-01

    What is the relationship between the logic that guides political attitudes of constituencies and the logic of political actors, whose legitimacy is rooted in electoral choice of the constituencies? Classical approaches, such as the median voter theorem, view political actors as passively mirroring voters’ preferences. An alternative approach, that we suggested in the first part of this series of essays, assumes that how constituencies see the competences of political actors, is crucial, in th...

  9. Effect of Acting Experience on Emotion Expression and Recognition in Voice: Non-Actors Provide Better Stimuli than Expected

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Grass, Annika; Drolet, Matthis; Fischer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Both in the performative arts and in emotion research, professional actors are assumed to be capable of delivering emotions comparable to spontaneous emotional expressions. This study examines the effects of acting training on vocal emotion depiction and recognition. We predicted that professional actors express emotions in a more realistic fashion than non-professional actors. However, professional acting training may lead to a particular speech pattern; this might account for vocal expressi...

  10. An irresponsible biography of the actor Laurence Harvey: motion pictures, white wine, older women & long thin cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Brannon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Pocket edition of Laurence Harvey's "irresponsible" biography by Matthew Brannon. From the back cover of the book : Call yourself an actor ? You're not even a bad actor. You can't act at all, you fucking stupid hopeless sniveling little cunt-faced cunty fucking shit-faced arse-hole ... LAURENCE OLIVIER to Laurence Havery from Robert Stephen's "Knight errant : memoirs of a vagabond actor", Hodder and Stoughton, 1995.".

  11. Visual saliency maps for studies of behavior of patients with neurodegenerative diseases: Observer's versus Actor's points of view

    OpenAIRE

    Boujut, Hugo; Buso, Vincent; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Gaëstel, Yann; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in finding the relation between the visual saliency maps of the viewer of visual content and the actors (person executing the actions) in the context of studies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. From results of eye-trackers worn by the actors and used when recording observers, and on the basis of hand-eye interactions from motor control studies we established a time shift between actor's and viewer's saliency maps. This time shift corresponds to the ...

  12. Managing the duality of IHRM: unravelling the strategy and perceptions of key actors in South Korean MNCs

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, C.; Bozkurt, O.; Sparrow, P R

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to extend our understanding of the duality between global integration and local responsiveness in multinational corporations (MNCs) by exploring the perceptions of corporate HR actors regarding the intra-organisational factors that alter the balance between these pressures. It examines the perceptions and actions of key actors in the context of two Korean MNCs. The study shows the importance attributed to a range of socio-procedural factors by corporate actors and which, th...

  13. IMDB network revisited: unveiling fractal and modular properties from a typical small-world network

    CERN Document Server

    Gallos, Lazaros K; Andrade, José S; Makse, Hernan A

    2013-01-01

    We study a subset of the movie collaboration network, imdb.com, where only adult movies are included. We show that there are many benefits in using such a network, which can serve as a prototype for studying social interactions. We find that the strength of links, i.e., how many times two actors have collaborated with each other, is an important factor that can significantly influence the network topology. We see that when we link all actors in the same movie with each other, the network becomes small-world, lacking a proper modular structure. On the other hand, by imposing a threshold on the minimum number of links two actors should have to be in our studied subset, the network topology becomes naturally fractal. This occurs due to a large number of meaningless links, namely, links connecting actors that did not actually interact. We focus our analysis on the fractal and modular properties of this resulting network, and show that the renormalization group analysis can characterize the self-similar structure ...

  14. Multi-scale factors controlling the pattern of floodplain width at a network scale: The case of the Rhône basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Piégay, Hervé

    2013-10-01

    In this study the floodplain width (FW) was assessed for the entire Rhône catchment river network (32,160 km long) to highlight controlling factors. The FW data, which is measured every kilometre on a digital elevation model (DTM), is aggregated into spatial homogenous segments using a Pettitt break detection test, resulting in aggregated geographical objects (AGO). Based on these AGOs, an analysis of the variability of the floodplain width was performed. The general pattern for the Rhône network shows a downstream increase in FW related to the concept of river continuum. This general pattern explains ca. 30% of the variation in FW. Deviations from this general trend are, however, large. Values for floodplain widths are normalized for catchment scale to study deviations that do not depend on scale effects. Based on a conceptual model, the main environmental parameters influencing FW were identified. These parameters include lithology and different parameters that influence the river profile, such as base level changes and tectonics, sediment load and discharge. An analysis of catchment-wide patterns shows that the main variations on the scaling effect are caused by lithology. Superposed on this general scaling pattern, disturbed by lithological variations, are the variations in floodplain width caused by disturbances in the geomorphic system, which influence floodplain slope, sediment, and water discharge and which include inherited landscapes. Although large data sets become increasingly available and the applied methodology reduces data noise, data availability and quality still hampers studies at a larger scale. Nevertheless, such information sources are becoming crucial because they are more and more accessible and diverse, and the analysis is now easier with the increasing capacities of GIS technologies. As a result, they are becoming very complementary to field studies to understand geomorphic processes at wider spatial and longer temporal scales. In a

  15. Estudio descriptivo de actores en el programa Mi Compu.MX en el estado de Sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Glasserman, Leonardo; Carrillo Rosas, Adriana Irene

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de esta ponencia es presentar los resultados de un proyecto de investigación en su primera etapa, el cual tiene como objetivo indagar a los actores que participan en el programa federal Mi Compu.MX con respecto al desarrollo de competencias digitales, al uso de recursos educativos abiertos y a la ejecución del programa Mi Compu.MX. La pregunta de investigación fue: ¿Cuál ha sido el impacto de Mi Compu.MX en los diferentes actores que participan en el programa? Se siguió una metod...

  16. Educación Física y deportes: las instituciones deportivas y sus actores

    OpenAIRE

    Ron, Osvaldo Omar

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo aquí expuesto intenta presentar, a modo de síntesis, las características generales y algunas conclusiones del proyecto de investigación "La educación física y los deportes: las instituciones deportivas en la perspectiva de los actores", desarrollado desde el año 2003 hasta el año 2005. Desde él se buscó, a partir de la recuperación de la voz de los actores de las instituciones deportivas -padres, dirigentes, entrenadores y profesores, practicantes y jugadores-, como también desde e...

  17. The Revival of Non-Traditional State Actors' Interests in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    credit ratings make external finance available for African governments. This article examines how non-traditional state actors affect the possibility of African governments setting and funding their own development priorities. It argues that while the current situation may increase the policy autonomy......Africa’s external relations are currently undergoing major changes. Non-traditional state actors like China and India are reviving their ties with African economies and thereby affecting power relations between African states and traditional partners. Meanwhile, high commodity prices and improved...

  18. International non-governmental actors in HIV/AIDS prevention in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Shi; WU

    2005-01-01

    International non-governmental organizations were among the first international actors that responded to the emergence of AIDS crisis in China. Since 1994, the number of international non-governmental organizations and charitable foundations working in AIDS related issue areas in China has grown steadily and substantially. Despite their organizational differences, most of these non-governmental actors present the characteristics of independent mission, localized practice and diverse working focus. Even though they are constrained by financial and other factors compared with multilateral and bilateral official assistance agencies, they have still played a unique role in fighting against AIDS in China as technical experts, public educators, and civil society supporters.

  19. Ontology-Based Role Association Networks for Visualizing Trends in Political Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Christiansen, Henning; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Online resources, large data repositories and streaming social network messagesembed plenitudes of interesting knowledge, often of associative nature. A specific communicative context, such as the political debate in a given country, has groupings of actors, with changing attitudes and stancestow......Online resources, large data repositories and streaming social network messagesembed plenitudes of interesting knowledge, often of associative nature. A specific communicative context, such as the political debate in a given country, has groupings of actors, with changing attitudes and...

  20. Co-market Orientation in Networks: Evidence from the Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Silkoset, Ragnhild

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest in this research is, firstly, the investigation of how specialized actors in co-producing networks coordinate with the purpose to perform a co-market orientation, and, secondly, whether co-market orientation among the actors affects the products offered in such networks. The use of collective action to explain co-market orientation enables us to grasp the problem through using a well-established theory to explain the questions in focus. Further, to invest...

  1. Modeling Temporal Variation in Social Network: An Evolutionary Web Graph Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Susanta; Bagchi, Aditya

    A social network is a social structure between actors (individuals, organization or other social entities) and indicates the ways in which they are connected through various social relationships like friendships, kinships, professional, academic etc. Usually, a social network represents a social community, like a club and its members or a city and its citizens etc. or a research group communicating over Internet. In seventies Leinhardt [1] first proposed the idea of representing a social community by a digraph. Later, this idea became popular among other research workers like, network designers, web-service application developers and e-learning modelers. It gave rise to a rapid proliferation of research work in the area of social network analysis. Some of the notable structural properties of a social network are connectedness between actors, reachability between a source and a target actor, reciprocity or pair-wise connection between actors with bi-directional links, centrality of actors or the important actors having high degree or more connections and finally the division of actors into sub-structures or cliques or strongly-connected components. The cycles present in a social network may even be nested [2, 3]. The formal definition of these structural properties will be provided in Sect. 8.2.1. The division of actors into cliques or sub-groups can be a very important factor for understanding a social structure, particularly the degree of cohesiveness in a community. The number, size, and connections among the sub-groups in a network are useful in understanding how the network, as a whole, is likely to behave.

  2. Strategic Management for SMEs and Networking Intelligence as a facilitator for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Burrescia, Kristin; Pousette-Falk, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The need to manage an unpredictability and to defuse uncertainties in the market is of great interest for SMEs, especially since many actors are forced to interact almost instantly upon inception. The strategic management of SMEs, within a networking context and through their internationalization process, is the primary focus of this research paper. Building on discoveries from the clean tech industry and facilitators surrounding those actors, the knowledge of firm´s network embeddedness and ...

  3. Social Capital In Networks Of Software SME's: A Relationship Value Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, M.; Svahn, S

    2005-01-01

    Utilizing theories on social capital, business networks and relationship value, we explore the aspects that provide value in relationships with different actors in the software industry. IVe take the focal perspective of a software vendor and classify its relationships with actors into three distinctive types bv the function in their valuecreating network. The study is guided bv the premise that some relationships related to supply, distribution or supporting the business are more important t...

  4. Unravelling the politics of urban food transitions. A governance approach on Alternative Food Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Manganelli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents the analytical framework, research set-up and initial empirical operationalization of an early stage PhD research (Month 12) on the governance of Alternative Food Networks. Alternative Food Networks are alternative modes of organizing actors, resources and processes of the food chain, linking more closely food production with consumption. Civil society actors, such as activists, citizens’ groups, cooperatives, or several types of grass-root organizati...

  5. The Development of Network Relations of MNC Subsidiaries: How Internal MNC and External (Local) Relations Evolve

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Managing relations is a complex task for internationalizing firms and their subsidiaries: MNC subsidiaries are not only part of the MNC network but they also develop relations with network actors in their local environment.This paper investigates conceptually how MNC subsidiaries established through generic expansion build relations within the MNC and with external market and non-market actors as they evolve through stages of start-up, growth and maturity.The paper develops propositions, grou...

  6. El reactor nuclear colombiano y la agencia de actores no humanos en los estudios sociales de la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Andrés León Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Basándose en su trabajo de grado de historiador sobre los primeros años del programa nuclear colombiano, el autor explora la relevancia del concepto de actor no humano originario de las teorías de actores-red. Se muestra cómo el análisis de la consolidación del Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares debe incluir un objeto inanimado, el reactor nuclear, como actor social fundamental. PALABRAS CLAVES. actores no humanos, comunidad científica, energía nuclear

  7. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures of the...

  8. Networks in the news media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Peter

    When news reporters connect people in a single news story or in a series of coherent news stories they essentially construct networks in the news media. Networks through which social actors are aligned symbolically in written, visible or audible form. These socio-symbolic networks not only copy...... more formal types of social networks, but also complement or even substitute social networking elsewhere, and as such this particular type of social network offers people both inside and outside the news room new potentials - and problems. This article describe the basic vision of networks in the news...... media and discuss the importance of this analytical framework when it comes to understanding prevailing forms and norms in contemporary journalism....

  9. Managing the interface - An approach through the complexity of the collaborative process of design, integration and realization: a transactional model of the interface actor and dynamics of exchange spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In large projects such as particle accelerators or detectors, interfaces and boundaries reveal themselves to be both critical and underestimated. The technical manager, an actor among others, finds himself placed at network nodes where he must set up exchanges spaces in order to generate collaborative behaviours. Starting with case studies from the field of CERN, the thesis follows three principles based on the dia-logical, the hologramic and the self-eco-organization principles, as expanded in the writings on complexity. It puts forward an original methodological matrix construction leading to a transactional model of the interface actor. The collaborative exchanges spaces builds itself as a place for the dynamic transformation of the interface actor into a boundary actor. Intermediate objects, created during the design / integration process, are simultaneously transformed into boundary objects. They are instrumental in the realization of the product: this takes place in the framework of the project which has been determined through a recursive process. The interest generated by such a global and combined approach of this dynamic process leads to the proposal of a 'hyper-compass', with the aim of providing the means for the technical manager to orient his 'acting ↔ thinking'. (author)

  10. An examination of a reciprocal relationship between network governance and network structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2011-01-01

    the overall structural relations between the actors in the network. These streams of research do contain references to each other but they mainly rely on a static conception of the relationship between network structure and the applied network governance. Based on a case study of a loosely coupled......In the present article, we examine the network structure and governance of inter-organisational innovation networks over time. Network governance refers to the issue of how to manage and coordinate the relational activities and processes in the network while research on network structure deals with...... Danish inter-organisational innovation network, the proposition is that a reciprocal relationship between network governance and network structure can be identified. Such a reciprocal relationship involves theoretical and practical implications for how to govern an inter-organisational network....

  11. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  12. Development of a Network-Based Information Infrastructure for Fisheries and Hydropower Information in the Columbia River Basin : Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program.

  13. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  14. Modeling acquaintance networks based on balance theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Vida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An acquaintance network is a social structure made up of a set of actors and the ties between them. These ties change dynamically as a consequence of incessant interactions between the actors. In this paper we introduce a social network model called the Interaction-Based (IB model that involves well-known sociological principles. The connections between the actors and the strength of the connections are influenced by the continuous positive and negative interactions between the actors and, vice versa, the future interactions are more likely to happen between the actors that are connected with stronger ties. The model is also inspired by the social behavior of animal species, particularly that of ants in their colony. A model evaluation showed that the IB model turned out to be sparse. The model has a small diameter and an average path length that grows in proportion to the logarithm of the number of vertices. The clustering coefficient is relatively high, and its value stabilizes in larger networks. The degree distributions are slightly right-skewed. In the mature phase of the IB model, i.e., when the number of edges does not change significantly, most of the network properties do not change significantly either. The IB model was found to be the best of all the compared models in simulating the e-mail URV (University Rovira i Virgili of Tarragona network because the properties of the IB model more closely matched those of the e-mail URV network than the other models

  15. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Paul B; Norup, Anne; Caracuel, Alfonso;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction...

  16. The relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summarizing the reasons for the fall of the Roman empire one has found about 210 significant ones. Without too much comparison the Roman empire and the EU natural gas market have similarities in connections between political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market. The area has consisted of several independent markets with different solutions that from 1988 has been tried integrated in an inner energy market. Several governmental and private actors have interest in this sector and both inhabitants and businesses are affected by alterations in a national natural gas market. This process is not yet finished. The thesis gives a broad description of the topic by including as many as possible of the EU member states. The topic is large and complex and the author has had to make a choice which parts to emphasize. There are chapters on the theoretical basis, the natural gas industry, what factors may explain the relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the national natural gas market in each EU member and how does the EU Commission goals regarding free competition in the energy market affect the relationship between the political authorities and commercial actors in the national natural gas market

  17. Early Social Fear in Relation to Play with an Unfamiliar Peer: Actor and Partner Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of…

  18. Effects Of Principal Actor Time Structuring On Goal Attainment In Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessell, John C.; Bush, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Subjects were 84 university and high school students. Data was obtained from responses to a behavioral goal questionnaire and the Truax Relationship Inventory. Structuring of group counseling through the use of principal actor time did not result in differential goal attainment between clients of structured or unstructured groups. Neither was any…

  19. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  20. Learning to Act/Acting to Learn: Children as Actors, Critics, and Characters in Classroom Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Shelby Anne

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the experiences of 17 "remedial" readers as they interpreted and performed texts through classroom theater. Discusses results of a study aimed at analyzing patterns of children's text interpretation. Details the students' evolving conception of themselves as actors and interpreters of texts. (HB)

  1. Road pricing policy process: the interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    OpenAIRE

    Ardıç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public in road pricing policy processes to understand the success or failure of the introduction of road pricing policies.

  2. Why Do Policy Frames Change? Actor-Idea Coevolution in Debates over Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensland, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One shortcoming in the literature on policy framing has been the absence of analytic models through which to explicate change. This paper advances research in this area in three related ways. First, it links policy frames to the actors who employ them. Second, based upon this linkage it proposes two complementary approaches for examining…

  3. Interactive Theater Experience with 3D Live Captured Actors and Spatial Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter introduces a new reality interactive theater that combines the 3D Live human capturing system, spatial sound, augmented reality, human-oriented interaction, and ambient intelligence technologies. Actors/Dancers at different places remotely are captured by the 3D Live system and transmitted to the theater place in real time and rendered in 3D form and real size, thus they can play/dance with the local actors/dancers and virtual characters at the same place in real time. Audience interaction is allowed and handled by an Ambient Intelligence (AI) agent to generate new actions for virtual characters and send meaningful interactions to real actors. The spatial sound system provides the real 3D sound and at the same time generates special sound effects such as controlling the sound direction that only allows people in a certain direction to heard it. All these features combined together bring a totally new theater experience to both actors/dancers and audiences, and extend the grammar of the traditional theater.

  4. Students' Inventory of Social Actors Concerned by the Controversy Surrounding Cellular Telephones: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The present article scrutinizes the manner with which a group of three postsecondary students (in Quebec, Canada) describe the social actors concerned by the controversy surrounding cellular telephones. The study was conducted on the basis of an ethnographic approach. Participant observation was performed by the researcher for 3 hours during each…

  5. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  6. Workplace bullying as sensemaking: An analysis of target and actor perspectives on initial hostile interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Ellwood, C.; Zaemdaar, S.; Mudrák, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 136-157. ISSN 1475-9551 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P146; GA ČR GA14-02098S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : workplace bullying * workplace hostility * sensemaking * target * actor * collective biography * stories Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2014

  7. Coordination between Governance Actors in Universities: The Role of Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in a public university. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and analyze policy documents as governance tools that allow departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the board, and the management at different university levels. A central finding is that the…

  8. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  9. Scientific Journals of Universities of Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela: Actors and Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was carried out to identify the roles of actors associated with the publication of scientific journals in Chilean, Colombian, and Venezuelan universities. Twenty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with journal editors, university authorities, and other experts. The categories of analysis included university…

  10. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  11. Social health insurance without corporate actors: changes in self-regulation in Germany, Poland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors. PMID:23608097

  12. In competitive interaction displays of red increase actors' competitive approach and perceivers' withdrawal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. ten Velden; M. Baas; S. Shalvi; P.T.Y. Preenen; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2012-01-01

    Colors carry meaningful psychological signals. We hypothesized that the color red serves as a powerful cue in competition, affecting both actors and perceivers. Using simplified poker games we investigated the psychological meaning of color in competitive interaction, by examining how the color of c

  13. Trustful Relations : a Perspective on Trust in Actor Relations in Forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egestad, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    This work has proposed, exemplified and discussed an existential perspective on trust in actor relations in forestry. The background that has caused the inquiry into social relations is the changes that are taking place in forestry to

  14. Mastering the struggle. Gender, actors and agrarian change in a Mexican Ejido.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, D.

    1992-01-01

    Actors and the Socio-Political and Symbolic OrderIn this thesis I have shown how women and men, all part of a small ejido in Western Mexico, are actively engaged in struggling to manage the social constraints and conditions they encounter. We have seen that coping with the process o

  15. Non-State Actors in Global Governance. Three Faces of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The political power of non-state actors (NSAs) remains a contested issue, as the continuing debates between neo-realists and transnationalists within the Study of International Relations (SIR) show. This paper builds on as well as tries to transcend this debate. Its objective is to bring more 'unity

  16. Road pricing policy process: the interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardıç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public i

  17. Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance and Perceptions of Group Climate: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining group members' attachment styles and group climate perceptions in the context of the attachment styles and group climate perceptions of the other group members. In the current study, the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine the relationships among (a) a group member's attachment…

  18. Following the actors and avatars of massively multi-user online role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2007-01-01

    In the massively multi-user online role-playing games of e.g. EverQuest I & II and the World of Warcraft, millions of actors inhabit and create new places and spaces for communication and social interaction (Castranova 2001, Gee, 2003, Goffman 1974/86, Jensen 2006a, Qvortrup 2001, 2002). Some...... of the advanced features of these worlds enable the actors to construct and create one or more presentations and constructions of the ‘self’, and with that the social identities and roles of the game (Gee 2003, Goffman 1959, Schroeder 2002). Serving this purpose, a gallery of pre-designed classes of avatars......, or characters, are part of the games, ready at hand when entering the worlds, offering the actors a ‘template’ by which to configure and shape their gallery of avatars. In order to personalize the pre-designed ‘templates’, and classes, the actors continuously have to solve a variety of individual quests as well...

  19. Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2014-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration.…

  20. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  1. Developing Integrated Rural Tourism: Actor Practices in the English/Welsh Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gunjan; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines community attitudes and distinctive practices that shape local responses to integrated rural tourism (IRT) development in the lagging rural region of the English/Welsh border area. The focus is on how actors acquire attributes as a result of their relations with others and how these assumed identities are performed in, by and…

  2. Sustainable Transformations of Water Supply Regimes. The Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Central Northern Namibia.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, an interdisciplinary modelling approach for water resources management and its application is presented that is able to deal with socio-technical systems that are characterised by a multiplicity of variables, interdependencies, and actors. The case study area is the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, which is located in central northern Namibia. Approximately 850,000 people or 40 % of the Namibian population live in this area, which comprises only about 14 % of the country’s area. The regi...

  3. Gender, Friendship Networks, and Delinquency: A Dynamic Network Approach**

    OpenAIRE

    Haynie, Dana L.; Doogan, Nathan J.; Soller, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have examined selection and influence processes in shaping delinquency similarity among friends, but little is known about the role of gender in moderating these relationships. Our objective is to examine differences between adolescent boys and girls regarding delinquency-based selection and influence processes. Using longitudinal network data from adolescents attending two large schools in AddHealth (N = 1,857) and stochastic actor-oriented models, we evaluate whether girls are i...

  4. Quality Assurance for Hydrometric Network Data as a Basis for Integrated Sali Basin Management and Social Vulnerability to Floods on Tucuman, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Estela

    Within the climate change context, the recently released reports of the IPCC reconfirmed the expectation that flood risks will increase since frequency and intensity of precipitation events are very likely to increase. In addition, human settlements, Sali river modifications and land use changes are responsible for increasing flood risks as well. Floods may cause enormous havoc to society and need to be prevented. In contrast to the other driving forces, the problem of climate change cannot be dealt with locally and climate change mitigation measures are confronted with time lag effects. Therefore, additional to mitigation policy, adaptation policy needs to be implemented, ‘aiming to adjust natural or human systems in response to actual or expected effects which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities'. Hydrological network data is increasingly demanded by hydrologist, engineers, decision makers and the general public. The hydrological information system offers a broad range of standardized quality assurance procedures of fulfill these requirements. The social impact experience is determined by people's characteristics like social vulnerability and exposure, and by flood characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the social constellation of the flood risk area. In our case study, we have identified the location of the most vulnerable people (Chicligasta Department), evaluated the evolution of social vulnerability inside and outside the flood area over time, we have evaluated the projections of flood characteristics like inundated area and inundation depth. And in the end, we have made a preliminary estimation on the social impacts that may be expected in these areas. This is carried out by combining social vulnerability maps and flood maps and by developing scenarios for future projections. The main conclusions are that social vulnerability varies between districts and in time, that correlations exist between inundation area and social

  5. Social networks and small businesses performance in West African border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuépié, Mathias; Tenikue, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using data collected about 358 small-scale traders in five border markets, we show that social network can simultaneously be a resource which positively contributes to labor market outcomes and a social...... traditional religious leaders has a negative effect on economic performance. Our work has two implications: first, collecting data on social networks remains challenging due to endogeneity. Second, network-enhancing policies should aim at improving both the internal connectivity of economic actors at the...... burden that leads to a negative economic impact. Testing the effect of social networks between small traders and three categories of actors, we find that the most well-connected actors are also the most successful in terms of monthly profit. The effects of social networks are, however, dependent on the...

  6. Social network analysis via multi-state reliability and conditional influence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper incorporates multi-state reliability measures into the assessment of a social network in which influence is treated as a multi-state commodity that flows through the network. The reliability of the network is defined as the probability that at least a certain level of influence reaches an intended target. We consider an individual's influence level as a function of the influence levels received from preceding actors in the network. We define several communication functions which describe the level of influence a particular actor will pass along to other actors within the network. Illustrative examples are presented, and the network reliability under the various communication influence levels is computed using exhaustive enumeration for a small example and Monte Carlo simulation for larger, more realistic sized examples.

  7. Marital Relationship Quality and Couples' Cognitive Stimulation Practices toward Their Infants: Actor and Partner Effects of White and Hispanic Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Wilhelm, Mari S.; Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores actor and partner effects on mothers' and fathers' cognitive stimulation within an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). This model allows us to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' practices are impacted not only by their own experiences but also by their partners' experiences. The APIM treats the couple as the…

  8. From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle and Beyond: The Influence of Policy Actors in the Federal Higher Education Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natow, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    The federal higher education rulemaking process develops policies that can profoundly affect college students, higher education institutions, and other actors in the higher education policy community. But little has been researched about the influence that different types of actors have on higher education rulemaking. By analyzing interviews with…

  9. Teachers as Language-Policy Actors: Contending with the Erasure of Lesser-Used Languages in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kara

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic study of the Voro-language revitalization in Estonia, this article explores the way teachers function as policy actors in the broader context of the school. As policy actors, the language teachers' appropriation of regional-language policy helps simultaneously to reproduce and challenge existing ideologies in the…

  10. Actores sin sistema y sistemas sin actores: apuntes para una lectura de la epistemología social desde el pensamiento de la complejidad

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Aguado Terrón

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda una revisión genealógica de las implicaciones epistemológicas del pensamiento sobre lo social, planteando su articulación a partir de la dicotomía entre actores y sistemas, por una parte, y entre intra-determinación y extra-determinación de los sujetos sociales, por otra. La inclusión de las capacidades cognitivas de los sujetos en la teoría social plantea, además de un debate teórico en torno a la complementariedad individuo/colectividad, un problema epistemológic...

  11. An examination of a reciprocal relationship between network governance and network structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Goduscheit, René Chester

    structural relations between the actors in the network. These streams of research do contain references to each other but mostly rely on a static conception of the relationship between network structure and the applied network governance. The paper is based on a primarily qualitative case study of a loosely......The present article examines the network structure and governance of inter-organisational innovation networks. Network governance refers to the issue of how to manage and coordinate the relational activities and processes in the network while research on network structure deals with the overall...... coupled Danish inter-organisational innovation network. The proposition is that a reciprocal relation between network governance and network structure can be identified....

  12. Who Are the Influentials? A Cross-State Social Network Analysis of the Reading Policy Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengli; Miskel, Cecil G.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed policy actors' influence on state reading policy and compared the structure of reading policy networks across eight states. Data for the study came from structured interviews and archival documents and were analyzed using social network analysis methods. This study found that state reading policy networks were heterogeneous in…

  13. Virtual learning networks for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    de Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development is a participatory, multi-actor process. In this process, learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and integrate a diversity of perspectives and types of knowledge and expertise in order to arrive at innovative, jointly supported solutions. Virtual learning networks can support these processes in at least two important ways. In higher education, virtual mobility networks can provide effective learning environments for the development of the competen...

  14. The European Commission as Network Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Recent transformations in the European Union have been putting significant pressure on the management function of the European Commission. Examining its brokerage position in policy networks, this article asks what kind of role does the Commission have in the political interactions in Brussels...... reports of the Commission's demise are much exaggerated, because it continues playing a leading role in managing interaction between multiple actors at different levels of governance. The empirical results show that the Commission is a resilient central network broker....

  15. Vocal projection in actors: the long-term average spectral features that distinguish comfortable acting voice from voicing with maximal projection in male actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinczower, Rachel; Oates, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    This study explored whether acoustic and perceptual features could distinguish comfortable from maximally projected acting voice. Thirteen professional male actors performed a passage from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar twice. The first delivery used their comfortably projected voices, whereas the second used maximal projection. Acoustic measures, expert ratings, and self-ratings of projection and voice quality were investigated. Long-term average spectra (LTAS) and sound pressure level (SPL) analyses were conducted. Perceptual variables included projection, breathiness, roughness, and strain. When comparing the intensity difference between the higher (2-4 kHz) and lower (0-2 kHz) regions of the spectrum in voice samples from the maximal projected condition, LTAS analyses demonstrated increased acoustic energy in the higher part of the spectrum. This LTAS pattern was not as evident in the comfortable projected condition. These findings offered some preliminary support for the existence of an actor's formant (prominent peak in the upper part of the spectrum) during maximal projection. PMID:16102670

  16. A climate game based on a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Hasselmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    In November 2002 a special exhibition on climate issues opened in the German Museum for Science and Techniques ('Deutsches Museum') in Munich. Within this exposition we present an interactive game in which visitors control future climate policy by adopting the role of either the government, a CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of a global company or a typical private household of an industrialized country. The players endeavor to maintain a sustainable climate in the future (global goal) while pursuing their own individual welfare goals. Task of the exhibition visitor is to combine the personal interests of the actor he is adopting with the global goal. The individual goal of government is maintain economic growth while avoiding conflicts due to inter-regional or societal inequalities. The CEO seeks to maximize total profits (business earnings). The goal of households is to maximize wages and interest earnings. The evolution of the economic system and climate is governed by the decisions of the actors. Government sets economic side conditions in terms of carbon taxes, subsidies for R&D or market infusion support for climate-friendly technologies, and transfers development aid to less advanced regions. The CEOs decide how much to invest in a number of alternative investment options and in which region. Households influences the economy by their purchasing and savings decisions. The model considers four regions, three real actors (mentioned above) and two different goods (climate-adverse and a climate-friendly). We introduce four different kinds of energy (coal, oil/gas, nuclear, renewable). A World Bank handles money flows. At different points in time the actors can cooperate with other actors in order to reach the global goal Stochastic elements regarding future technology and future climate are included. A touch-screen monitor with user friendly interface is used to present animations and videos. An animated climate scientist uses a climate simulator to compute future

  17. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    explores four different strategies for dealing with network relations; the research oriented strategy, the incubator strategy, the industrial partnering strategy, and the policy-oriented strategy. The research-oriented strategy is narrowly focusing on how a biotechnology firm transforms their scientific...... of bringing the technologies from an experimental stage at a research lab to be able handle industrial processes and full-scale production. Last but not least the policy oriented strategy focus on problem of having products approved by the public authorities.Theoretically the article draws upon network...... theories and a dynamic view of network relations. That is done in order to capture the nature of the relationships between different types of actors, but also in order to emphasize the informal nature of some of these relationships.The article has a dual purpose; 1) From a corporate point of view...

  18. Powerless Spectators, Coping Actors, and Adaptive Co-managers: a Synthesis of the Role of Communities in Ecosystem Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cundill

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide a synthesis of the papers in the Special Issue, the Communities Ecosystems and Livelihoods component of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, and other recent publications on the adaptive capacity of communities and their role in ecosystem management. Communities adapt because they face enormous challenges due to policies, conflicts, demographic factors, ecological change, and changes in their livelihood options, but the appropriateness of their responses varies. Based on our synthesis, three broad categories of adaptive communities are identified. "Powerless spectator" communities have a low adaptive capacity and weak capacity to govern, do not have financial or technological options, and lack natural resources, skills, institutions, and networks. "Coping actor" communities have the capacity to adapt, but are not managing social–ecological systems. They lack the capacity for governance because of lack of leadership, of vision, and of motivation, and their responses are typically short term. "Adaptive manager" communities have both adaptive capacity and governance capacity to sustain and internalize this adaptation. They invest in the long-term management of ecosystem services. Such communities are not only aware of the threats, but also take appropriate action for long-term sustainability. Adaptive co-management becomes possible through leadership and vision, the formation of knowledge networks, the existence or development of polycentric institutions, the establishment and maintenance of links between culture and management, the existence of enabling policies, and high levels of motivation in all role players. Adaptive co-managers are empowered, but empowerment is a consequence of the capacity for governance and the capacity to adapt, rather than a starting point. Communities that are able to enhance their adaptive capacity can deal with challenges such as conflicts, make difficult trade-offs between their short- and long

  19. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  20. Digital Cities in the making: exploring perceptions of space, agency of actors and heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asne Kvale Handlykken

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper is an attempt to explore how we imagine, sense and experience spaces in digital cities by a study of the hybrid relations between digital media, users' bodies, architecture and the city. Digital and physical spaces of the city are intertwined, the city and urban places and things become sentient, embedded with sensors and digital infrastructure, challenging traditional notions of space, and how we perceive and experience urban space.  Crucial issues to explore are how interactions and agency operating amongst actors in these spaces; between sentient non-human actors, places and people?  How are spaces of interaction embedded in the city, what characterizes these spaces, can they be explored as heterotopias (Foucault? These processes are a mutual shaping of society and technology, where the role of the imaginary, of mental representations and creation are being transformed.